The city of Escanaba, Michigan, U. S. A., "the iron port of the world". A history of its growth, with a description of its industries, resources, commercial position, climate and topography ... By Walter R. Nursey, based upon personal investigation, and upon state and civic records, and facts from other official sources.
Nursey, Walter R., 1847-1927.

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Page  [unnumbered] MICHlGfAN STATE L0RA~l% mref F 574.E8N9 1890 C.1 The cit of E I~ 111iiU i B iii 1111111III II/U 2 0000 000 882 429 JAN 98 E L JAN 1988 Mti1OGMQA

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Page  [unnumbered] A. *.1. BUTTS, ToTf DEALER IN_ _ Office and Yard Near C. & N.-W. Passenger Depot. A Full Assortment, Consisting of Rough and Dressed Lumber,* SHINCrLES, *<SASH, DOORS MOULDINGS.X At the Lowest Prices. EsA;matts Furnished on Shorat**Notict.

Page  [unnumbered] He Who Tooteth Not His Own Horn, the Same for Him Shall Not be Tooted, IS THE MOTTO FRAMED UPON THE WALL. SEDm I-mEEKLY. IS ALWAYS UP TO THE TIMES. Ten, Twelve and Sixteen Pages. Ind Only $1,50 Per AnnUrr i? Co17EctioI is o0e o tl c $ozt Gonrplete JOB PRINTING OFFICES T 1, IN THE UPPER PENINSULA. BOOK BINDING I eatly and Proyptly Doge. Yoxurs or 0? siness,

Page  [unnumbered] The Cochrane Roller Iills Company, f Stephenson Avenue, Escanaba, Mich. SFUNDRYMEN, MACHINISTS, -<MAKERS OF CHILLED ROLLS-e For Grain, Rubber, Paper, Iron, Copper, Brass and All Metal Rolling. SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF The Cochrane One Belt Drive Continuous Train of Rolls Whereby any number of Pairs of Rolls, from 8 to 40, are all embraced in one continuous frame, and are all driven from one end by one belt of from 4 inches to 12 inches in width. MINING MACHINERY: CHILL CASTINGS: SKIPS, CAGES, HOISTING DRUMS, CAR, TRUCK AND SKIP WHEELS, CORNISH PUMPS, BICYCLE AND CAST IRON ARM SHEAVES, CAR CRUSHER PLATES AND OLLS AXLES, ETC. STAMPS, DIES, ETC. We have the largest and most thoroughly equipped plant in Michigan or Wisconsin north of Milwaukee. Estimates Made. Correspondence Solicited. VALANCEY C. FULLER PRESIDENT. FRANK H. VAN CLEVE, TREASURER. HIRAM H. BARR, VICE-PRESIDENT, FRANK H. BREWSTER, SECRETARY.

Page  [unnumbered] ep. F. LEflRY *DEALER )N Fine Upholstered Furniture. Picture Flame Maker and All Kinds of Cabinet Woik UNDERTAKING A SPECIALTY. () SEWING MACHINES IN STOCK. JONH G. ZANE, *Civil Ey givEr an~d $urveyor. DEALER IN FARIMING*TIMBER LANDS,OCITY PROPERTY! Township Diagrams, City Plats and General Map Work. @ QECTIONS Accurately Sub-divided. Townships Platted and Timber Examinations Carefully Made. Taxes Paid and Rents Collected for Nonresident Property Owners. Correspondence Solicited. CITY ENGINEER. ESCANABA, MICH.

Page  [unnumbered] 2578 Ll0 P. M. PETERSON, Artistic HouseiOffice Furniture PIAN8O, OcR.G3ANS, (arpeto, T1ugs, Pkcttir r FramitS, Easels, DRAPERIES AND POLES. UN IDE I7RfTAK~II NO- A SBOE IAiL/LTY. P. M. PETERSON, -4- DEALERIN rOG 06IESP OISOvislp, 606E Y, Glassware, Notions, Etc.

Page  [unnumbered] 2Jol=EN F~INNE AN: DRUGGIST AND APQTHECARY Toilet Articles and Stationery. 022 LUDINGTON STREET. *<FRANK H. ATKINS> DEALER IN TkALE A3ND FAN3f GREIiES, Crockcry ard qlassware, Fine Lamps and Art Goods a SpecialIt. 402 and 404 Ludington Street, Escanaba, Michigan. J. iVE. LEBE)AfJ, Office in Hessel Block, Second Floor, with J. G Zane. GENERAL CONTRACTOR AND BUILDER. Office and Store Fittings, and General Jobbing Promptly Attended To. POSTOFFI6E BOX 9 61. E*S6 JShTJB7{, fl21,2.

Page  [unnumbered] J. W. SYMONS. J. S. CARDER. TOM CARDER, JR. J. P. SYMONS. T Escanaba Marbl1 and Granite ko. EVERY DESCRIPTION OF Monumental 0 Building Work In all Varieties of Marble, Giranite and Stone. 917 Wells Avenue. c-Box 7. I. H. OWEN, PRESIDENT, P. H. VAN CLEVE, SECRETARY, CAPT. GEO. BARTLEY, SUPT. Chicago. Escanaba. Escanaba. Escanaba Towing Wrecking Co. ESCANABA, MICH. Tugs, Lighters, Steam Pumps, Hawsers, Hydraulic Jacks and Driving Apparatus Always Ready. TUG MONARCH, ENGINE COMPOUND, CYLINDER 16 AND 30 INCHES DIAMETER, 30 INCH STROKE. STEAM PRESSURE ALLOWED, 125 POUNDS. TUG DELLA, CYLINDER 20 BY 22. STEAM PRESSURE ALLOWED,.105 POUNDS. TUG OWEN, CYLINDER 20 BY 20. *STEAM PRESSURE ALLOWED, 104 POUNDS. Centrifugal Pumps, Seuen and Fourteen Inch Suction. Bittngr & Schmmr 1,....L.WHOLESALE AND RETAIL...l. qRpeE1RIS SiT P OVISIo 1S NO. 609 LUDINGTON STREET, ESCANABA.

Page  [unnumbered] NORTHUP & NORTHUP, REAL ESTATE AND INSURANCE 6- AGENTS FOR THE--. S. H. Selden Addition. Choice Lots in all Parts of the City of Escanaba at and on Easy Terms. Low Prices RISKS AND POLICIES, FIRE AND LIFE, Issued on account of the Leading Insurance Companies of the World. A. Fl. ReLPFI, DEALER IN S~YAIPJLE AJNTD* FA~NKQY GE~CE]FES, Produce aLad Provisions, FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC FRUITS IN SEASON. CIGARS, TOBACCOS AND SMOKERS' ARTICLES. Mail Orders Given Prompt Attention. 509 Ludington Street, Escanaba, Miichigan.

Page  [unnumbered] SB. D. WINEEGA.R, "< - --DEALER IN-- --- * ~ C;irfN it,~ Ff. ~ Commission Merchant. Marine and Hotel Trade a Specialty. Packing House Foot of Tilden Avenue. Escanaba, Michigan. Burrws Tra)sportation Gonrpay, CAPT. C. E. BURNS, MANAGER. ~Steamers Lotus and North Star-. Make close connection with trains of the "Soo Line" at Gladstone, calling daily during season at Maywood, Hunter's Point, Rapid River and all points on Bay de Noquet for the accommodation of Tourists and Sportsmen. ESCANABA, - - MICHIGAN. F. Rock & Company WILL PROMPTLY DELIVER LIME, BRICK, HAIR, CEMENT, STONE, ETC. C. C. Stephenson, Resident Partner.

Page  [unnumbered] S~ / MAKES A SPECIALTY L bifc SizeG Crayjot R`~AND S` e OIL PORTRAITS. D. A. BROTHONRTON, Buys and Sells Timber and Farming Lands, Suburban Property and City Lots. CORRRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. OFFICE, MASONIC BLOCK. H. J. DEROUIN, < DEALER IN >FINE CLOTHING, GENTS' FURNISHINGS,> DRY GOODS, HATS, CAPS, BOOTS AND SHOES. No. 611 Ludington Street, Escanaba, Michigarn.

Page  [unnumbered] A T- H _ ' Soo-South Shore Lines, ARE THE SHORTEST TO THE Great Northwest, Lower Michigan, Canada, New York, And All Points East.:SOLID THROUGH TRAINS> And Sleeping and Dining Cars Attached. For Tickets and Particulars ask nearest railroad Agent. or write G. B. HIBBARD, GENERAL PASSENGER AGENT, Minneapolis, Minn.

Page  [unnumbered] Qp. n I IESSE L, Successor to Hes.el & Hentschel F-`-ý ý ýIGEALER, II# -- - Freshl and Salt Meats, Fish, Poultry, Butter, Eggs, Etc. Main Store, 507 Ludington Stteet, Escanaba. o ED. ElI(5i SO014, 0 DBALER IN DRY GOODS, CARPETS, CLOTHING, LADIES' AND GENT'S FURNISHINGS, Ludington Street, S:: Escanaba, Michigan. E. V E. 8T.J. A. OQC T.. -y8 -- NEALER -N +STAPLE AND FANCY GROCERIES5 Crockery, Glassware, Gent's Furnishings, Etc. CORNER OF HALE AND GEORGIA STREETS, ESCANABA, MICHIGAN.

Page  [unnumbered] OGREENHOOT BROTHERS,+ * DSAL'ERS rIN m IDRY GOODS, CLOTHING, BOOTS, SHOES, IATS, CAPS, ETC. 308 Ludington Street, Escanaba, Oscar Lo~bbe's Studio. The Leading and only GroUnd Floor GallerJ in City. Photography in all its branches executed in the most finished and satisfactory manner. Direct photographs in all sizes from smallest locket size to 18x22 inches. Particular attention given to enlargements, which we finish any size in Water color, Crayon, India ink, Oil or Pastel. CHILDREN'S PICTURES A SPECIALTY. Largest and cheapest assortment of picture frames in the city always on hand. Mark the address, 707 Ludington street. J. JEPSQONT. MANUFACTURER OF All Kinds of Soft Drinks, Including Pop, Mountain Beer, Soda Water, Seltzer, Sarsaparilla, Etc. FACTORY, ON MARY STREET.

Page  [unnumbered] THE PEOPLE'S MONEY-SAVING STORE. Black & Bell, DEALERS IN * DRY GOODS JAND MEN'S FURNISF1INGS,0 One Door East of Masonic Block. Escanaba, - Michigan. S. Y%,. ILSO, +++~BARBER, ~+ Formerly of Tremont House, Chicago, 307 Ludington Street, - Es6anaba, MVlich. J. B. DUiFO!RT, Proprietor of the Dufort House, CO1oiae Wi~es, biquors at d CigarS. Corner Ludington and Campbell Streets, Escanaba, Michigan. GIRVAN BROTHERS, Contractors and Builders, Estimates for Public or Private Buildings Furnished. a Office in Masonic Bloek,Second Floor Escanaba, Mich,

Page  [unnumbered] J. F. OLIVER, DEALER IN Anthr acitu, Bituminous and Bl~ossberg ESCA NAB A, - I CII I 0- A N. A. ýX/uAu4m "IN Special Tiriler and 6GTraphic Corresponden1. Sixteen years Experience of the Indians of the Northwestern States and the Great West of Canada. Personal Reminiscences, Descriptive writing on Indian Manners and Customs, in Peace and War. Wild Sports in Montana, Saskatchewan, Keewatin, and British Columbia. With Canoe and Snow Shoe, Pack-Horse and Dog-Train, Rod and Rifle, from HHud1 -son Bay to the Pacific Slope. Address, Escanaba. -b a

Page  [unnumbered] ESCANABA BUSINESS DIRECTORY, The names of firms and individuals appearing on this list, are those of of representative Business men of Escanaba. ATTORNEYS AND J. P.'S. Marsil, Geo. Carey, J. F. Rolph A. H. Clancy, J. H. Scandia Supply Co. Gallup, Geo. St. Jacques, E. M. Mead and Jennings. Sullivan, J. E. John Power. JEWELER. Royce and Waite. Walker, W. F. Whlite, T. B. Glaser, E. -J. P. JOBBERS AND AGENTS. Johnson, Jno. A. -J. P. Moe, Jno. BARBEROliver, J. F. Wi BARBEoR. Rubens and Jirtle. Wilson, S.V. Rock and Co., C. Stephenson. BOOTS AND SHOES. LIQUORS. Peterson, G. F. LIUORS. Sterlin, R. R. McKenna, L. D. Sterling, R. R. Dufor+ J H BUTCHERSDufort J. B. BUTCHERS. MANUFACTURERS. Breitenbach and Company. MANUFACTURERS. Bittner Bros. and Company. Butts, A. H. Hessel, Q. R. Cochrane Roller Mills. Hessel, Q.Escanaba Brewing Company. CONTRACTORS. Marble Works, Tom. Carder, Girvan Bros. Manager. Harris, F.E. Jepson, J. Lindley, B. C. I. Stephenson Co. LeBeau J. M. nC. Provo, Columbus J. MILINER. Swan, C. G. Mrs. J. Provo. Vilmer, L. NEWSPAPERS. Whybrew, George The Calumet. DRUGGISTS. PHOTOGRAPHERS. Finnegan, John Lokke, Oscar Mead, J. N. Van Sickle, A. DRY GOODS. PHYSICIAN. Black and Bell. Gelzer, T. L. Derouin, H. J. REALTY AND INSURANCE. Erickson, Ed. Brotherton, D. A. Greenhoot Bros. Burns, G. T. ENGRAVERS. Merriam F. J. and Co. Marr and Richards,Milwaukee Northup and Northup. Royce E. P. FISH. Zane, J. G. Winegar. B. D. STEAMBOAT COMPANIES. FURNITURE. Burns Transportation Co. Peterson, P. M. Towing and Wrecking Co. Cleary, P. F. TAILORS AND CLOTHIERS. GROCERS. Ephraim and Morrell. Atkins, F. H. Rathfon Bros. Bittner and Schemmel. Erickson and Bissell. TOBACCONIST. Linden, 0. V. Walker, J. A.

Page  [unnumbered] +LIST OF ILLUST[;IOIS.+ The artistic, colored cover, the map of the City of Escanaba, and all of the Illustrations in this Pamphlet, are from the Engraving establishment of Messrs. Harr & Richards, of Milwaukee, Wis., and are either Woodcuts, Direct Process plates, or Photo-Engravings. Bird's eye view of Escanaba, From' Photograph by 0, Lokke. Lumber Schooner, From Photograph by G. Me. West. Escanaba in 1866, From Photograph furnished by Mrs. English. Escanaba Public School, From Photograph by 0. Lokke. Government Lighthouse, From Photograph by 0. Lokke. St. Stephen's Episcopal Church,: From Photograph by 0. Lokke. Hon. E. P. Royce, From Photograph by A. Van Sickle. Ludington Street, From Photograph by 0. Lokke. Ore Boats in Ice. From Photograph by 0. Lokke. Water Works.... From Photograph by 0. Lokke. Ford River Road,.: From Photograph by J. Gunderson. Water Works, From Photograph by G. M. West. Finnegan Brick Block,: From Photograph by W. Cochrane. Delta County Court House, From Photograph by 0. Lokke. Hon. P. M. Peterson, From Photograph by 0. Lokke. I. Stephenson Co.'s Saw Mill: From Photograph by 0. Lokke. Ore Carriers at Dock, From Photograph by 0. Lokke. St. Joseph's Catholic Church, From Photograph by 0. Lokke. Logging Scene, From Photograph by G. M. West. Running the Rapids,: From Photograph by Geo. T. Burns. Ore Docks from Wharf,: From Photograph by A. Van Sickle. Cochrane Roller Mills,:: From Photograph by A. Van Sickle. Residence of V. E. Fuller, From Photograph by A. Van Sickle. Presbyterian Church, From Photograph by 0. Lokke. Mackinaw Boat, From Photograph by G. M. West. Hunter's Camp, in the Pines, From Photograph by G. M. West. Beach Scene, Michigan Av., From Photograph by Miss Caddie Oliver. Methodist Episcopal Church, From Photograph by 0. Lokke. A Bunch of Maywood Beauties, From Photograph by G. M. West. ERRATA-On page 23, the date of arrival of Mr. F. H. Harris and of opening of first school should read 1866. On page 24, last line, 1848 should read 1884.

Page  [unnumbered] U ~ H.I ~ d c. ~ pB CD C) ~ 1 9 H > 0 14-2 gU 10 m H' H 0 H- H' OO > I,I I 0 0 m (s iI rn cor z * v: >) 'I H'~ ~ o.~,~L

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Page  [unnumbered] '1SM NI1OO-1 '3nfNAV S-113M--3SnOH foo wAOtj 'OV'aVNVOS3 =O1 M31A 3A3 SOWHIS

Page  1 MAP OF THE -Rect.Roc. hicago & North-Western IýAILWAY SYSTIvIM. Uintonagon offon uc-h1LAnse Char NDWerm e WatGoers;c TIFoster Cs&' Tau us M Dryv*,Nk O)N, Onota 2ý' 13:. ~tABA & Wtrren reelPO W

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Page  3 -0 7 7;!' -> THE- N *(9ITY OFES 0 ANABA A iKI IOIHIGCTA lN, UT. S. A., THE IRON PORT OF THE WORL). A HISTORY OF ITS GROWTH, WITH A DESCRIPTION OF ITS INDUSTRIES, RESOURCES, COMMERCIAL POSITION, CLIMATE AND TOPOGRAPHY. REPLETE WITH INFORMATION FOR THE CAPITALIST, MANUFACTURER, ARTIZAN, AGRICULTURALIST, TOURIST AND SPORTSMAN. K H lh JA 16 ~Tt I,. Waltcr B, anUrspota Based Upon Personal Investigation, and Upon State and Civic Records, and Facts from Other Offilcial Sources. W ith'Maps and Illus ratons 91 PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY LEW. A. CATES, OF THE CALUMET," ESCANABA, MICH., 1890,

Page  4 4,(~ INTRODUCTORY. CHAPTER 1. THE PAST: From Primitive Flat Rock to Adult Escanaba. S IL THE TROu PORT OF THE WORLD: Civil and Religious Development, Streets, Buildings and Real Estate. 66 III. ESCANABA'S RESOURCES: The Mine and the Forest. S IV. LAND AND WATER: Trade and Commerce, the Railway and the Steamboat. S V. INDUSTRIES: Existent and Possible. 6 VI. THE TOURIST AND SPORTSMAN: Dreamland. Rod and Gun. VALEDICTORY.

Page  5 INTTRODUJCTORY. HIS pamphlet presents, as indicated by its title page, a brief review of the products and resources of a city and its adjacent territory, which, though famed, in its way, yet awaits a just and world-wide recognition. It has been prepared at the request of some of the more far-sighted of its citizens, and has been underStaken, in order that its true commercial status as a center of economic importance, might be made apparent to the members of the great family of capital and labor, which lie beyond its gates; those members who are ever on the alert to profit by information imparted by a recital of facts, when the facts are supported by proof, easily susceptible of complete verification. Whilst some reluctance was at first exhibited in agreeing to advertise, in the manner adopted, the inducements that Escanaba is in a position to offer to the investor, in search of a field for occupation, more upon the meritorious ground, that the least suspicion of a "booming" movement-tho' obviously unnecessary-was strictly to be avoided, it was yet agreed that some counteraction was called for to level a local Chinese wall, which in the shape of encouraging dead silence as to the value of the physical topography of the city, had been maintained by a wing of its residents, who from perhaps selfishly pardonable, but certainly very illiberal motives, had exhibited their hostility to the introduction of any far reaching agency, calculated to bring Escanaba's claims into greater public prominence. It was argued that with the advent of men and money, the cow of their prosperity which had shed its cream to such good purpose, as shown in the rapid rise of their own fortunes, would-and in this particular they unwittingly erred-soon go dry, and the prospect of an alleged diminution of a high rate of profit, which they declared threatened them if competition was invited, was resented. Obstructions such as these, however, like rocks in a swift flowing stream, only served to make the tide of local public opinion more clamorous in its determinationto be heard. The scruples of these citizens were disregarded, and the conviction which possessed the minds of more active business men, that in the legitimate expansion of trade, though certain interests might in some cases suffer, the general good would be promoted-prompted the presentment of the practical truths, now offered for the earnest consideration of the dispassionate business man. Though rust is a prominent metallurgical feature of the great northwest peninsula of Michigan, its adoption as an attribute by the present generation of Escanabans, is not amongst the possibilities. The parable of the wicked servant who hid his lord's money in the earth, instead of placing it at interest with his banker, though it may find a speaking illustration in the ostrich-like peculiarities of some of Escanaba's representative men, is not, however, applicable to the more progressive of her citizens, who regard a straightforward statement of the trade articles they may 3033

Page  6 have for barter, and an honest list of the raw materials with which nature has so lav-- ishly endowed their home, as the only true way to accomplish commercial salvation,, and are ready to rest their case in this instance upon the vast latent wealth of iron? and timber, which lies at the-very threshold of their town, and which invites with muteimpatience a visit from the furnace and the crucible, the planer and the' lathe. The object of this unpretentious, publication, furthermores is. not for the purpose of advertising local individuals-who, however eminently worthy in their way, are not. of extraordinary interest to the stranger-it is rather for the purpose of arresting the attention of the capitalist who studying the moving currents oftrade-those currents,, by the way, which the past decades have shown, are surely moving concurrently with the center of population westward, which center has, moved from. 32 miles east of Baltimore; to 8&miles west of Cincinnati, or 457 miles in. the last hundred years-will. be governed in his decisions of business facts, stated in a. business way, and be led into a closer investigation of the verities as now recited, There has been no attempt made, nor has it been found necessary to color, or enlarge upon the actual condition of things for the geographical and physical posi-- tion of Escanaba is so literally singular, it being in point of the volume of its shipments, the'-largest "Iron Port of the, World," not excepting that of Bilbao, in Spain,. the great Cantabrian ore depot in the North Atlantic-that nothing remains to be: gained by the.attempted instituting of parallels, where none can exist, While Escanaba stands alone then, the mistress of the iron. trade of both hemispheres, with adjacent and fabulous stores of partially developed riches., her individual economic condition is one of comparative poverty. Notwithstanding the fact that she will, it is estimated, have shipped ere the close of this season of navigation nearly four millions of tons of iron ore, taxing the joint capacity of about 3,,000 vessels, not a pound of pig iron does she produce within her limits, and as if this fact alone was not a sufficient commentary on the degree of business discernment of eastern smelting experts, about 38 per cent. of this crude material which is permitted to find its way to the ports on Lakes Michigan, Huron and Erie, there to be rendered into industrial metal, is actually unprofitable freight, a tithe of the rates of transportation on which for one season alone, if capitalized, would represent a sum of sufficient magnitude to pay for the cost of equipment and management of a dozen furnaces at Escanaba for years to come. It is not expected that works established at vast expense in the eastern states can be induced to transfer their business north, but it is urged that men possessed of sufficient experience and available capital can find here a field for profitable investment, in the manufacture of the raw products on the spot. The total output of iron ore lastyear for the state of Michigan reached 5,829,828 tons; of this enormous quantity, only 198,745 tons of pig iron was smelted in the state, 43,638 tons of this being produced in the city of Detroit. Neither does the supply of fuel constitute a drawback, for quite available and within easy access of Escanaba, huge tracts of hardwood as yet undisturbed by the axeman, present inexhaustible material for the purest charcoal, in the manufacture of which, an industry

Page  7 ,of great magnitude could be prosecuted, and as with charcoal iron, the supply is limited and the demand constant, owing to its superior quality which causes it to be indispensable for certain purposes, no fear need be entertained as to its ever becoming -a glut on the American market. Indeed, intelligent iron founders testify that owing to its greater strength,it can be used to better advantage than can either Scotch or English pig iron, and whilst in the last ten years the world's production of pig iron has advanced at the rate of one million long tons a year-in 158S it reached 23,194,501 tons requiring about 54,000,000 tons of ore-and whilst the United States consumed of the manufactured product some 12,650,000 tons, of which latter this past year 176,727 tons were imported, together with 652,0-32 tons of ore-the fact that the growing demand for the king of metals is in excess of the supply, is plainly apparent. Statistics, however, in connection with the iron trade, and prepared after considerable research, will be found in the body of the pamphlet. I might here, however,.add this: for the year ending June 30th, 18b9, the United States imported of the manufacture of iron and steel-ore omitted--a total value of $42,377,793, upon which the consumer paid his share of $16,416,642 duty. Is not this a striking illustration of the inducements visible for yet greater activity in the developing of the hidden treasures of the iron fields, the chief of which are comprised in the immeasure'able ranges which constitute the actual backbone of this city. The markets of the country are not fully supplied, for notwithstanding last year's enormous production, it was, as shown, notably insufficient for the requirements of the trade. Escanaba, situated at the very base of these operations, now calls for the admission of increased capital to exploit yet further amongst the fields of hematite and magnetite, which encompass its boundaries, and invites the experienced business experimentalist to visit the scene, and judge for himself of the value of its natural resources, and the scope it presents for the profitable pursuit of any branch of industry, of which wood and iron constitute the chief factors. The possibilities of this northern peninsula may well be declared illimitable, and with the buried wave of mineral wealth, which like the coal seams of Pennsylvania, lies sandwiched in at an accesible distance from the earth's surface-a dormant plane of incalculable value-it is little wonder that Escanaba, the gateway of irondom, seeks attention on the reasonable ground of its pride of place. In order to appreciate the enormous shipping facilities necessary to carry the output of ore, docked at Escanaba, this following graphic fact may be of some service where figures fail to convey a true relative estimate. The total tonnage of the ocean and lake merchant marine of the United States of all kinds, canal boats included, -but exclusive of barges whose capacity is 334,000 tons-amounts to 3,973,192, which is just about the estimate of the total shipments of tons of ore from Escanaba during the present season. In other words it would take the whole of the 22,438 vessels representing the fleet of America's merchant marine to move this summer's crop of ore shipped from Escanaba, and allowing two hundred feet as the length of each boat, would if the ships were placed in line, stem to stern and touching, represent a

Page  8 "tow" of 840 miles long, more than enough to form a continuous pontoon, via the great lakes, from the Minnesota port of Duluth, at the extreme Northwest of Superior, to Cleveland Ohio, on the extreme east of Lake Erie. The number of vessels permanently enrolled in the customs districts of the Ndrthern Lakes, actually exceeds those similarly enrolled in New York harbor, by 746; and the total tonnage of all classes of vessels exceeds that of the entire state of New York by 14,465 tons, being 912,271, or considerably more than one-third of the total tonnage of all the Atlantic and Gulf coast ports combined; the tonnage of Escanaba itself being second only in the United States, to that of the metropolitan port of New York city. I refer the sceptic to the Treasury Department's Navigation Report for the last fiscal year. The value of this ore thus shipped, would be at the lake point of shipment about $14,000,000, and in its transportation to other lake ports the earnings of the shippers should at least reach $3,500,000 more. The percentage of profit on these huge transactions are referred to on another page. Forty per cent. of this however is paid out on cargo which is as I have already stated unproductive to the manufacturer, but for which he pays the same freight rates as upon the profitable material. These facts are potent. They speak for themselves. They compose a startling commercial text, and as such they are submitted to the analytical test of the enquiring man of business. In addition to the substantial attraction presented by Escanaba to the capitalist contemplating the establishment of blast furnaces, and the burning of charcoal, there are other industries, relatively as profitable but requiring less capital, to the embarkment in which the attention of the manufacturer is also directed. Indeed any industry where iron and wood combined or separate, form the staple components,-should prove in experienced hands a paying business venture. Extensive tracts of magnificent hardwoods such as maple and black birch, superior to walnut, and susceptible of the most delicate finish, and of easy access by rail within a few hours of the harbor, plead for the erection of furniture factories, and together with elm, basswood, pine, and exceptionally fine cedar, offer abundant material for the construction of agricultural implements. An extensive foundry and machine shop already exists, and has been in successful operation for nearly two years-I refer to the celebrated Cochrane Roller Mills company, a description of whose works appears elswhere in detail-and which offers a great opportunity in the way of co-operation, to the man, who wise in his generation, may be led by this array of cogent reasons, to establish himself in Escanaba. Reasonable existing facilities also indicate a profit to be derived from the production of woodenware, for the raw material is present in plethoric amplitude. To the ship-builder every natural and artificial inducement is presented, whilst to the manufacturer of railway cars,-flat and ore cars in particular,-a lucrative opening stares him in the face. Lumbering operations are already, and have been or years, carried on extensively, the individual yearly output of the saw mills adjoining the city, ranging respectively from 15,000,000 to 30,000,000 feet, and not

Page  9 withstanding the cry over Michigan's depleted pineries, the annual product shows no sign of complete exhaustion, and as the various railways now extending their tentacles of steel into the streamless forests, hitherto closed to the drivers and the loggers, reach the vast scattered areas of timber land known to exist, fresh limits will be brought within practical reach of the axe-man and the gang-saw. Indeed you might exhaust the calendar of economic industries, and yet fail to exhaust the scope for the monied artificer, which the woods, the waters and the earth, in lavish endowment, seem to have marshalled, with a human knowledge of the value of their united concrete qualities, for the express purpose of challenging those, who engage in the profitable application of the practice of mechanics. But so it is, and if the thoughtful eastern man of business will set himself to the task of studying out the pros and cons of the advantages, claimed by one of the future great manufacturing centres of the North West, the verdict of his mature deliberations will be the writer's compensation. And here it may not be amiss to state that the compiler of this pamphlet has been subject to no dictation, is acting under no instructions, but as an absolutely free agent, with powers of observation cultivated by an experience of a wide range of region, and a careful study of the economic forces, simply submits the results of his investigations, supplemented by the evidence of indisputable authorities. Whether the invitation extended this day is accepted or not, no earthly power can long resist the constant expression of public opinion, which already has become visibly affected over the reiterated statements concerning the industrial future of northern Michigan. Endowed with natural resources, little as yet realized by those even who should know them best, it stands knocking at the rim of the eastern circle of commerce, praying for admittance, that the true story of its latent and half dormant greatness, may be related on the floor of the parliament of trade, and as the key of knowledge turns back the bar, and discloses to the open gaze of mercantile cupidity, its wondrous wealth of mine and forest, hitherto but half revealed, there will be a fight.for place in the ranks of capital; and those who neglected by reason of incredulity, in the past, to regard its standing bid for recognition, will never forgive, what the future will enable them to pronounce as wilful blindness, or the fact that they had not long since directed their footsteps to Escanaba, and linked their fortunes with those more wise ones, who, having viewed the land of rugged promise, "came to stay." Great as is the magnitude of the commerce that floats upon these unsalted seas, which lave the storm protected docks of Escanaba, it is but the advance ripple of the tidal wave, which shall come when the resources of the states tributary to its waters are fully developed. And not alone is Escanaba dependent upon her waterways for the transport of her produc2s. As early as 1864 the first railroad connecting the iron port with Negaunee in the north, was constructed by the old Peninsula company, and discharged the same year the first cargo of ferriferous ore upon dock "No. One," just then completed. Later this line was absorbed by and consolidated with the NorthWestern road, which subsequently joining hands with the Chicago system in 1872, was extended to the junction at Green Bay, Wisconsin, from which time up to the

Page  10 present, the Chicago & North-Western have practically controlled, unopposed, the railway traffic of the place. Drawn into no unnecessary expenditure, and forced by want of competition into no unwarranted expansion of trade, the fact that in the yards of Escanaba are laid 32 miles of double rails, facilitating the arrival and departure of 208 trains per day, over a single outside track, with a rolling stock of ore cars in constant use numbering 5,500, and taxing the services of 110 locomotives to haul from points up to 185 miles distant-should be the most convincing of proofs, if further were wanting, that the incomprehensible trade of the place has in no way been overstated. The volume of Escanaba's trade however is growing so rapidly that, existing facilities are not equal to the demand. Recognizing this the St. Paul, Minneapolis and Sault St. Marie line, has already tapped Gladstone, a shipping point seven miles up the bay, and with another depot at North Escanaba, is now making, it is understood, a bid for a share of the iron trade, by a branch line to connect the "ranges" wiih a system of docks. The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul road, have but just succeeded, in acquiring by purchase, the old Milwaukee & Northern as a part of their system, which gives them the entre of the iron-fields, and close connection with Escanaba's water front. The Duluth, South Shore& Atlantic is as I write, surveying a line to tap Little Bay de Noc, and is alive to the necessity for an entre into the charmed circle of Escanaba's magnetic sphere, whilst as if determined to make the quintette complete, the Schlesinger company, with its initial point at Iron Mountain, has done its best to grid-iron Delta county, has secured an entrance within the city's limits, and an extensive water frontage, where to the music of the pile drivers, and within rifle shot of the city court house, an enormous ore dock is protruding its solid front 1,700 feet into the blue waters of Michigan. Escanaba to-day has an accredited population of 8,000 souls; that this will be quadrupled within the next lustrum, seems not an impracticable prophecy. Destined as she assuredly is, to ursurp the position of Duluth, as the great bulk breaking emporium, in the interchange of substantial trade courtesys between railroad and steamship, she will gradually concentrate within her borders, the lake termini of the lines south of Superior, and become the receiving house for all western products, now shipped via. St. Paul to the great lakes, by the cheapest route to the seaboard. Then she will receive contributions from Northern Michigan, Northern Wisconsin, Montana, and Southern Minnesota and Dakota, which products from some of the quarters named, have hitherto found their way to Duluth. That this is within the bounds of practical possibilities, is quite apparent by a study of the topography of the country, which will attest that the assumption is taken on tenable grounds. Already, and quite indicative of what we may expect, iron ore from the mines of Negaunee and Ishpeming-which are respectively about forty-eight and fifty-one miles nearer to Marquette by rail, than to Escanaba, and which last year, and this season until recently, were shipped from the former port-are now exclusively docked at the latter. Where time is rigidly the paramount essence of the contract, where the carriage of freight is concerned, shippers cannot afford to risk the delay, always more or less consequent

Page  11 on canal navigation, as witness the recent several days stoppage of traffic, owing to laccident, at the Sault Ste. Marie locks, and when about thirty cents difference in rates on ore, by water to the lower lakes, exists in favor of Escanaba'as against Marquette, and as the open season at the former port is some ten days earlier and later than the Lake Superior harbors, owing to the ice in the St. Marie river, no, vast amount of prescience is necessary, to safely hazard the prophecy that Duluth, subject to the same relative drawbacks which handicap Marquette, can hardly hope to retain the position she once occupied, as the great lake entrepot of the Northwestern states, when Escanaba menaces her with time saving competition. SSuch then, in outline, are the main features upon which Escanaba rests its claim to the commercial consideration of the continent, the presentment of which claims, should serve as a key to the further study of its inherent capabilities, which are submitted in the following pages, and dedicated to its interests, under the justifiable title of "The Iron Port of the World." WALTER R. NURSEY. Escanaba, December 1st, 1890. LUMBER SCHOONER LEAVING THE HARBOR.

Page  12 ~:WNS-Ell ~lip........ LIMESTONE CLIFFS, LITTLE BAY DE NOQUET.

Page  13 /CHAPTER 1. THE PAST: FROM PRIMITIVE FLAT ROCK TO ADULT ESCANABA, 1DDEN in the protecting embrace of a deep es- - tuary of Lake Mlichigan, which is entered by a S-2 _ broad channel of unobstructed water, but concealed from the eye of the traveller by the projecting headland of yellow sand, over which,;7, ^waving pines and gleaming maples mount an ~^ ^.arborescent guard, lies-with its wide expanse of unequalled anchorage, the land locked port of Escanaba; consisting of the, northern portion of Little Bay de Noquet, which in itself, a small deep pocket fed by many streams, is a reservoir for greater Green Bay, which flowing southward, with waters separated from the larger inland sea, by Wisconsin's ambitious peninsula, loses its identity in far away lake Winnebago, and joins the flood that lends the charm of lacustrine beauty, to the distant city of Fond du Lac. Here at Escanaba, this liquid footstool, presents with its sheltering promontories which flank it on either side-a harbor of refuge, capable of accommodating the combined navies of the world. From six to eight fathoms of blue water wash its golden beaches, and vessels carrying cargoes of three thousand five hundred tons, can bury their steel stems, on the yielding sand, at the shore end of its huge docks, and yet, notwithstanding their enormous displacement, fail to touch bottom. We are all of us more or less rusty students of geography, and reference to a worlds atlas, and a moments study of its divisions of parallels, may be necessary to disclose the exact hiding place of this, the greatest Iron port, in existence. At the intersection of the 87th degree of west longtitude, with the parallel of latitude indicated by 45 C 44 north-by rail 326 miles north of Chicago, 337 miles east of Minneapolis and 166 miles west of Sault Ste Marie-stands the nucleus, of one of the great future manufacturing centers of the western hemisphere, and as such it exacts attention. Identified with the earliest records of those early discoveries of a new land, the peninsula of which Escanaba forms a famous integral part, demands more than passing notice from an historical point of view; for it was hereabouts that La Salle and Hennepin, and notably Father Marest, long subsequent to the establish

Page  14 14. ment of the Sault Ste. Marie Mission in 1.668, wrote that ' the country was rich as " Mexico, in mines of untold wealth, with however no one to work them." Let us lift the curtain, if only for a second, that shuts out the past, and read at a glance the records of the ages. From that very, very ancient prehistoric period-with its modern catalogue of unpronounceable zoics,-when the earth could boast of little form, but a good deal of void, and the black pall of a perpetual night, brooded over the submerged latitudes of un-named Michigan,-from then on, all through the varying geological epochs, which followed in protracted and grim succession, leaving final legacies in visible coniferous forests, and in invisible bowels of iron--the great peninsular which stretches to-day, an impregnable sea-wall, to bound the south set tides of Superior, lay a silent, and to the civilized nations of the outside World, an unknown land; and it was not until the penetrating spirit of adventure, and cupidity, which culminated in the discoveries of much quoted Columbus, ably seconded by such men as Cartier, Champlain and Nicollet, succeeded in turn by the evangelizing missions of the " good ESCANABA IN 1866. Marquette,"-that the limestone buttresses of the Noquet nation, awoke in echo to the humanzing tread of the white man, who whilst revealing to the savages the truths, of his gospel, preached to the scientist and to the man of commerce, a practical sermon based on the testimony of the rocks. In 1668 Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit priest of old France, full of restless piety, and undaunted as an explorer, invaded the territory of the Otchipwes at the head waters of Lake Huron. Here he established himself as chief of a religious Mission, developing the work instituted by Le Caron, and whilst spreading his evangel to the red-man, did not neglect to exploit those shores, so rich in metallurgic: wealth washed by the turbulent waves of mighty Lac des Illinois; and thoughof course it is to the chain of circumstances which later on led, perhaps tardily, to the partial colonizing of the unbroken wastes of wilderness which crowned the western shore line of Lake Michigan, hurried to less incompleteness by the incidents, consequent upon the surrender of the country to the United States in 1796-that the land has achieved its present degree of notoriety-it must not be forgotten that to the unremitting inquis

Page  15 15. itiveness of the venerable missionary, the northern portion of this state, owes the debt due to its primal and practical discovery. With the succeeding century, and the rapidly accumulating decades of the present, explorations and settlement, have been been prosecuted, if not to the extent, which to our modern spirit of exaction, seems commensurate with our acquired knowledge of the inherent capabilities of the land, yet of sufficient magnitude, could we arouse the ghosts of the departed discoverers-to rivet them with amazement. Could Pere Marquette be permitted to-day, to sweep with old time vision the surface of Green Bay, he would see instead of the frail birch bark, in which he was wont to trust his life, his records, and his specimens, in the boisterous tides of Michillimacinac, hundreds of floating warehouses of wood and steel, propelled by wind and steam, passSing.daily in review, and bearing away to the swart furnaces of the busy east, mammoth cargos of that precious metal, whose value, Marest declared in the spirit of prophecy, equalled the buried treasure of Mexico, and whose current annual output at this port alone, is now estimated at 3,800,060 tons! The actual settlement of Michigan, however, for the purpose of colonization and civil government, dates from the founding of Detroit by La Motte Cadillac, on the 24th of July, 1701. On September the 8th, 1760, the French surrendered Michigan, together with Canada to Great Britain, which surrender was ratified by the Treaty of Paris, February 10,1763-and Michigan continued under English rule until after the American revolution. Michigan formally passed into the possession of the United States on the 1st July, 1796, and became a part of the Northwest Territory. At this period-as the context of this) chapter endeavors to make understandable-all of Michigan, away north from Mackinac (please pronounce this Mackinaw) was an unbroken wilderness. The colonization and development of the peninsula, has however been mostly due to the influences of the railway, chief of all such factors, and to which Escanaba's practical creation is the outcome. In the narrow limits of such a publication as this, brief scope is presented for aught else, than a mere sketch of its early history and succeeding stages of settlement, and I must be content-where the natural temptation is to describe at length the story of its expanding fortunes-to confine myself to a narrative of the more salient features of its civil chronology. Previous to the present century, there is no record of any settler establishing himself, within the boundaries of what is now known as Delta County, and which embraces the country immediately surrounding the present town site of Escanaba; indeed it is claimed that until subsequent to the year 1800, no Indian village even was located here, and beyond occasional visits from roving bands of marauders, and French coureurs des bois, the place was invested in primeval solitude. Amongstthe aboriginals however it was held in high esteem as a prolific fishing ground, and was periodically the rendezvous of Otchipwe, and later on of occasional white fishermen, who according to Andreas, plied their avocation in the protected waters adjacent to Sand Point, as early as the year 1812, but it was not till 1830 if we may believe the published testimony of other witnesses, and viva voce evidence, that any whiteman

Page  16 16. permanently settled in the neighborhood of the present city, and this was at 'lat Rock at the mouth of Escanaba river, which stream empties into the bay some four miles to the northward. It was upon the banks of this picturesque river, that the first industry taxing the application of machinery was established, and the services of a saw-mill, driven by water power, enlisted, to convert the solid trunks of gigantic white pines, into the manufactured article of commerce. Of the traditions of those early days, though offering interesting material for volumes, with their glamour of Indian romance, and adventure inseparable from pioneer experiences, and with the ever fresh charm that surrounds the chronicles of one's forefathers, this narrative is not intended to deal,-but rather to demonstrate the fact, as evidenced, by the wealth of the older residents, that as money producing factors, the natural resources of the place stand without rival.!One of the earliest white settlers of whom there is any trace was Louis A. Roberts, an Indian trader who squatted on the river referred to,-near to where the saw mill stood-in 1838. ESCANABA PUBLIC SCHOOL. This mill, shortly after, passed into the hands of the Smith Brothers, who abandoned the old site in 1844, and moved nearer to the rivers mouth, and erected a more modern saw-mill, and upon the site subsequently occupied by the great Ludington corporation. In 1840 William R. Burt commenced the survey of the Upper Peninsula, co-temporary with the Geological survey then in progress, which was commenced in 1831 by Mr. Hopghton. The extinguishment of the, Indian titles was effected in 1842, the tribes consisting principally of Chippewas, Menominees, and some Saxon Foxes. According to the last available returns (1884) there was a total Indian population of 6,900 in the entire state of Michigan. Out of the necessities which existed in a country where the omnipresence of Iron, rendered the ordinary compass useles, Mr. Burt evolved the solar instrument, which soon superseded in the service of the surveys, the unreliable magnetic needle. Mr. Burt was an unalterable believer in the great mineral possibilities of the country, and the commercial future of its then most promising location. With one exception his pre

Page  17 17. dictions have been verified. He always insisted that the city of Marquette would be for all time the premier shipping port of the Peninsula. The idea of Escanaba springing into prominence he would never allow. Fate, based however on unassailable trade facts, decreed otherwise. Marquette's shipping business is not only languishing but declining, and to-day,-I have diagrammacally illustrated this elsewhere-is but one-half of that of Escanaba's, whose business on the other hand is as rapidly increasing in a converse ratio. In the fall of 1844 two more pioneers were added to the list of the Flat Rock contingent, in the persons of Darius Clark, and Silas Billings, the former of whom, with the LIouis A. Roberts previously mentioned, took up a claim on the White Fish river at the head of the Bay, in 1846, and operated a water-mill there. This same year the Flat Rock property was acquired by Jefferson Sinclair and Daniel Wells of Milwaukee, who in turn five years later transferred their interest to the L. Ludington and company, composed of Nelson and Harrison Ludington, Jefferson Sinclair and Daniel Wells, and it was with this last corporation that the present Stephenson interest, first represented by I. Stephenson became identified with the great business of lumbering tributary to Escanaba. So as will be seen the spot continued to attract growing attention. To the south and west,/ also of Escanaba, seven miles distant, the facilities offered by the Ford River, a stream emptying into Green Bay, tempted other men, Messrs. Billings, Richards and Bliss established a small mill there in 1845, upon the unpretentious foundations of all of which immature industries, have arisen the vast concerns whose respective outputs now range from 25 to 35 million feet of pine annually. In 1843 Delta county was first mapped out by the hydrographers, and its boundaries registered, but owing to the extreme sparseness of its population it was attached to Mackinac county for judicial and all other executive purposes. It received its name, so it is stated by local authorities, from its resemblance to the celebrated estuary of the river Nile. The similitude however is an alleged one only, and has no foundation in fact. Meanwhile Sand Point, the Escanaba of those primitive days, continued to bow its chrome green crest of stately pines, before the invigorating breezes, of tempestuous Michigan. The windy summers solstice, with its baptism of virile ozone, imparted aggressive vigor to these monarchs of the forest, all glistening in the drench hurled at them, by the resonant breakers, that thundered at their.base, and dumb tb the lumbermans sentence, borne on the echo of the woodmans axe from naked Flat Rock, and umbrageous Ford River. To one who has never experienced the sunlit solemnity of a true pine forest, or listened to the weird and plaintive melody that seems to possess, together with an indescribable fragrance-the trembling spikelike leaves, but a faint idea, can be formed of the glories of the wilderness of fir, which still clothes the sandy slopes, and hides the rocky ore beds, of the northern peninsula. The law of demand-that underlying principle which governs every human action, whether of sentiment or business-recognized however in the case of Sand Point, no especial canon of exemption. Flat Rock wanted saw logs. So about the year 1852 Messrs. Sinclair and Ludington, sent in their first gang of workmen, to

Page  18 18. operate on hitherto sacred Escanaba, and to the ring of the axe, the crisp splinter of flying chips, and the crash of falling timber, the creation of a new city dawned. But one house only was built at the time, a log affair on the bay shore opposite to the present Ludington Hotel, where it remained in solitary magnificence, until 1863, when railway construction and the building of the first great ore dock, necessitated the erection of three other dwellings; these were the lumber camp boarding "shack," kept by Hart, the ore dock boarding house kept by Robert Connelly, and the Railway Company's headquarters, run by one Ellis. Previous to this however it must be understood that the place had been visited by a few explorers and surveyors, and out of those few Eli P. Royce, a hale man yet, was one of the number, who, captured by the beauties and prospects of the place, could not resist its potent attractions, and nine years after his first visit, which was in[1854, when he was engaged in a survey of the country, and when other than the old log hut mentioned, at that time deserted, there was no human life or habitation-he succumbed to the temptation, which he has had little cause to regret, and permanently took up his abode in Escanaba. This was in 1863, when the city consisted of the three boarding houses named. Mr. Royce may therefore be regarded as the patriarch of the Iron Port of the World. He is at the time of writing, senior member of the law firm ofi Royce & Waite. In 1862 the transfer of the property upon which now stands the city of Escanaba, took place. Sections 19, 20, 30 and 31 were bought from the Ludington company by N. Ludington, D. Wells, Jr., Perry H. Smith and Geo. L. Dunlap. What the consideration was, available records do not determine, but henceforth the bounds as noted, became the new town plat. Previous to this, in 1858, Mr. Oliver reached here from New Brunswick, and entered the employ of the Stephenson company. Mr. Royce's second coming, seemed to carry with it the infection of the fever of settlement; in 1863 he surveyed and platted the town,whose situation can be described in brief, as part of Township 89, Range 22 west, on the west shore of Little Bay de Noquet, and its confluence with the northern waters of Green Bay; the township itself having been surveyed many years previously. Prior to the influx of the early settlers in 1864-5 and 6, Mr. Charles E. Brotherton, surveyor and explorer, had thoroughly tramped the country that lay between Marquette and Menominee, being engaged in the survey of lands in the last named range as early as 1853; in 1854 he examined the lands for 70 miles up the Escanaba, and in 1857 for 30 miles up the Ford river, and previous to 1865, when he became land examiner for the Chicago and North-Western railway company, and since as a resident of Escanaba, has been a valuable exponent of the varied richness, of its resources. #In 1764 the branch line of this road was completed to Negaunee, and the settlement and building up of the place marched onward hand in hand. During this and the following years, Messrs. Finnegan, McFall and Perrin arrived; Mr. J. F. Oliver, Judge Emil Glazer and Mr. C. C. Royce filing an appearance about the same time. With the establishment of the railway terminus came many employes of the road, several of whol remained, and have since risen to fill responsible positions. Martin L. Dunn, the first white

Page  19 19. child born in Escanaba, filed an appearance in 1863, and was presented with a town lot in acknowledgment of his condescension. In 1864 Mr. James O'Brien, storekeeper of the Chicago & North-Western Railway Company, joined the band of selfimposed exiles. In 1866, the Atkinson Brothers opened the first regular store in Escanaba. It was also in 1866 that Simon Greenhoot, an Austrian hustler, arrived upon the scene, and established himself in business, in a very humble way. In the vernacular of the country, he was not long in "getting there." A short apprenticeship sufficed his purpose. It was not long before he acquired the ways of the country, together with a considerable share of its redundant cash. He dealt in staples, German socks, and lumbermen's Macinaws, and being joined by his brother Soloman in 1870, rapidly expanded his fortune. Eleven years since he built the Greenhoot brick block, and in 1886, established the Delta County Bank. His recent death necessitated the closing of the bank, and the surviving brothers attend exclusively to the dry goods business of the firm. Mr. Greenhoot was a sample of the result of Escanaba's opportunities, embraced. J. N. Hiller, in 1864, erected the first family residence upon the site of the pressent freight yards, and later in the same year the Ludington hotel, the Tilden house, and Oliver house, were built in the order named; and with one or two others, _- including a primitive postofice, constituted the lodging capacity of Escanaba, some ten or a dozen houses in all being completed in the course of the year. In 1865 the number of houses has been variously stated by old settlers to have been less than fifty, sheltering a population of some three to four hundred souls, TH E LIGHT HOUSE. the most of whom were employed either on the railway, or in the construction of the enormous ore dock. The first service in the interests of the Protestant church was held in 1864, when an itinerant Episcopal clergyman, whose cognomen the writer, after much diligent search, has been unable to ascertain, conducted prayers in John Forster's boarding house. During the summer of this same year, Father Dale preached from a pulpit of sand, to a Roman Catholic congregation gathered on the lake shore. Father Keenan is however credited with having held the first Catholic service in the Railway company's boarding house in 1863; and so the great truths of christianity continued to be expounded, in this then remote hamlet, notwithstanding the absorbing interests created by railway construction, and the ethnologic fact, that as regarded its nationalities, and its creeds, Sand Point was a miniaatire Babel. No such catastrophe as that which overtook the city of thle plains, visitled its semi-prototype of the forest. The work being prosecuted within its limits, was concentrated to the industrial development of the land, and though English,

Page  20 French, Scandinavian, and Italian speaking people, formed a polyglot, if harmonious population, the building up of the beautiful village went bravely on. Communication with the outer world hitherto dependent upon stage and steamboat to Green Bay, on the south, and to lake Superior south shore points, in the north, was in the case of the latter, established by rail in 1865, when the branch line of the Chicago & NorthWestern railway. was completed to Negaunee, and the first iron ore from dock "No, one" was shipped, and with the completion of these two necessary links to make perfect the claim of commercial advancement, the trade of Escanaba was at once placed upon an assured footing. The shipments of ore aggregating that season 31,072 tons. brought by rail from the range, and deposited in the hungry pockets of the great docks inaugurated a new era in trade, manifested by the rapid expansion of the ore output, which in 1888 had reached a total of 2,107,129, and in 1889 of 3,003,632 tons. It will be interesting, certainly to those who knew the town in its lettuce days, to give a key to the buildings, as depicted in the illustration of Escanaba in 1866, and which has been taken from a copy of a crude photograph supplied by an old resident. The view is Ludington street looking west, and shows the buildings in existence, at the south side of that thoroughfare. At that time, the north side opposite was bounded by space. 6'The first, and largest building was a saloon, kept by Mr. Frank Murray, the corner house on Tilden avenue, the site of W. J. Wallace's present hardware store. Number two, was also a saloon, run by William Radoliff, afterwards sheriff. There was likewise a saloon kept by Tom. Welch. Four wasshall I write it?-also a saloon; five was-well, ardent spirits were dispensed within its precincts, but the business was in a measure qualified, by the fact that a restaurant was attached.) "Nigger Handy," ran the ranche. To demonstrate that trade had some hold upon the community, number six was a shoemaker's shop, whilst number seven, in order doubtless to counteract any evil influence, the leather industry might have upon the tastes of the citizens,-offered spirituous liquors, wholesale, to the up street pedestrian, and so balanced, the natural disappointment, evoked by a "break in the alley." John Morissey piloted this life-boat. Number eight, with more modern pretentions, held out the added inducement of meat as well drink, and board and lodging, and was known to the wayward Flat-rocker, as the Escanaba house, of which hostelry Henry Mier was proprietor. To remove any misapprehension, which might, -of course unreasonably-exist in the mind of the traveler, as to the prevailing line of trade, pursued by the simple inhabitants of Sand Point, Mr. E. P. Lott and his son tailed the procession with a butcher shop. The freight and passenger boats running between the village and Green Bay, and connecting with the trains from Chicago, and later on, with advancing railway construction north, at Menominee-were handsomly equipped, and did a roaring business, the accommodation they offered being partially provided in the winter months by a stage line which was maintained, between the points named, until 1872 when through railway connection was established. The winter line of route, partly fol-- lowed the wagon road, which skirted the shore line, or traversed the intervening bays upon the frozen surface.

Page  21 21. In 1867 a light house was erected at the extreme end of the sandy peninsula which creates, and protects with its natural breakwater, the placid harbor of Escanaba. The first keeper being a Mrs. Terry, who at the time of the destruction of the building by fire in 1886 perished in the flames. Nothing being left of the tower, save the spiral iron staircase. The lens was in the basement, and escaped injury. The present keeper Lewis Rose, succeeded to the duties. The light is a fixed red one, and from its altitude of thirty-nine feet is visible at a distance of thirteen miles. Attracted by the occasional news of the growing business of the place, which gradually reached northward, men and women drifted hither, benefitting the town with an experience gained in older places, together with their intermittent industry, and their negative belief in its future. Men of every rank and many races, some with a little means, many with nothing at all, and none with much, comprised-outside of the sprinkling of railway and government officials-the now steadily increasing population, and not a few of the present wealthiest citizens, rose, through no other instrumentality, than by that of ordinary business instincts rightly directed,from obscure walks of life, to positive affluence. It has been the boast of more than one prominent resident, that it was the schooling of the shovel, or the lesson taught by the peddlers pack, that constituted his millionaires primer. With those whose bumps of acqusitiveness were actively developed, money flowed in. The lumbermen in the adjacent shanties, the miners deep in the mysteries of mother earth, the navvies, the railway employes, the ore-car workers, and-the trimmers in the great ships, all had to be fed and clothed. The necessaries of life retailed at high figures, and there were those who preferred to administer to the physical wants of this busy army of pacific occupation, by the exercise of their trading wits, than to exercise their thews by the sweat conceived of the pickaxe. Patient, polite, persistent; ever ready to drive a bargain when to their own advantage, these perapetetic peddlers, if whilst emptying their packs, they filled their pockets, they also-it must not be overlooked-so far as the isolated pioneer was concerned, filled a "long felt,want." And if accidentally the "sox" were not all they were represented, and time satisfied the purchaser of "pants," that shoddy still stalked through the land, he submitted to the absence of alternatives without a "kick," congratulating himself any way upon the powerful fact, that so far as the great question of shanty-boots was at issue, the sulphuric acid dodge, amongst the knights of the grip he patronized, if not an occult, still remained in the Delta, an unpractised art. Beyond the circumstance that a certain number of the human race, were toiling along under the summer swelter of the docks, or winter's frigid shadows of the pines, in comparative exile from their fellows, and had to be supplied with food and raiment-there was little to indicate in the outward appearance of Escanaba at this time, that it was the centre of a lucrative domestic trade. Thousands of dollars are stated to have been taken in during a single night over the rough board counter, of the trader's "shack," and the story is told of one of the leading citizens, that upon the departure, on one occasion, of a large gang for the woods, his sales of shantymen's outfits, continued without a let-up all night long. The money came in as fast, as if he was selling packets of prize candy. His

Page  22 only cash depository was a shake-down bunk alongside, upon which he threw as fast as handled, the receipts of custom; and when he finally shut up shop and turned in, worn out with his exertions as money-changer, his mattress, he declares, consisted of a mass of gold eagles, with his pillow-case bulbous with trade dollars. This is a true story. It can be readily understood that as this, state of things-the money begetting process-grew to be endemic, it was not to the interest of the' merchant to have. the fact made public. The habit of secrecy in regard to the extent of his trade, and his cold fear of competition, acquired in the early days, still clings to many of the old time business men of to-day, who graduated in a crass school of commerce. Convictions of this description however are relics of fossilism, or worse, and as such must yield, anyway in practice, to the broader code of prevailing commercial ethics. Nor was trade, as we have already seen, confined exclusively to the dispensing of necessary staples. Montana "red-eye," and various other brands of corn-juice, regulated as to the quality of their snap, by judicious admixture of crude condiments, imparted to the burly bushwhacker, a vigor, foreign to the health-giving essence shed by the balsam woods. His orgies, and his wassails, are things to be remembered. Whisky and money circulated freely. The balance of trade, was not however always strictly regarded, by the enterprising vender; for whereas, the "devil of a bird overnight," circulated his good specie more liberally, with each round up of mountain beer, or fiery Bourbon, the arch dispenser regulated the sliding scale of the quality of his stuffi to suit the degree of obfuscation, apparent in his guest. And so it was, that publican and sinner, in those good old days, wrestled with time and chance, as theyhave done, are yet doing, and will continue to do, under similar conditions, in every corner of the world, with the inevitable result as shown in Escanaba's experience, that the publican invariably came out of the unequal contest, top dog. As the sixties came, lingered and departed, in uneventful succession, the ranks of these early Michigan Argonauts slowly swelled, with the occasional advent of some restless eastern man, seeking new territory for the exercise of his wits. Close to its borders, Wisconsin acknowledged the justice of the peninsula's claim, and sent its quota of emigrants. No large access of immigration however, at any one time, marked an era in its urban history. The mines and forests, docks and railways, absorbed the majority of what may be called the floating population, and it of course necessarily, was not centralized in the village. The addition tothe trade directory of residents, was an accretion in one sense only, for the occupiers of new stores were in many instances, recruits from the ranks of the 1ay laborers, who had saved enough out of wages, to purchase an outfit, and who by degrees, through high prices, and strict study of the laws of supply and demand, expanded their custom and their premises, and became in course of time shining lights in the category of Sand Point commerce. A few "new chums" however reached the scene, with the determination to embark in some business or trade; but this corporal's guard of gentle and simple, whether they were Wisconsin "badgers" or Michigan "wolverines," did not consent to linger, on the flanks of the pine forests, for the mere good of their health. The healing virtues, which exuded with the resin from juniper and balm of Gilead, was good

Page  23 2&<enough in its way, and a merciful panacea for the nasal tortured southerner-they -however did not come to test the efficacy of its Bethesda powers; they came to this hub of the iron diggings, in search of the almighty dollar, and with no known ex-,ception have they failed in the object of their mission. In 1864, Mr. I-iram A. Barr, in the employ of the railway company, reached Escanaba, and engaged in the building of the docks, whose construction mark a period -indeed the period-in the history of the city, as every event, both prior and subsequent to that event, has a consequential bearing upon its completion. The date of its building was an industrial pentecost, and as such, emphasizes a red-letter day in the calendar of Green Bay chronology. "Before-or after-the first dock was built," is a phrase amongst citizens; a principal meridian as it were, on which to "hang" all temporal calculations. Mr. F. E. Harris, another pioneer, reached the settlement in 1766, followed by Mr. J. K. Stack and Mr. Columbus J. Provo, Mr. W. B. Linsley, the present divisional superintendent of the C. & N.-W. railway, arriving a year later. ST. STEPHEN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The view elsewhere presented of the village in 1866 is from an old photograph-the only sketch of the place at that date, extant-and kindly lent by Mrs. George English, wife of another pioneer. It was not until 1866, that Escanaba was deemed sufficiently populated to admit of its being incorporated as a village, and which event constitutes, what may be termed the second period, in the history of the place. From thence on to the close of that current decade, its population never exceded 1,200 persons, but it was even sometime subsequent to its incorporation as a city, in 1883, that any marked increase to its population, or expansion of its trade, became practically noticeable. Meanwhile a leaven of new comers dropped in, and embryo industries developed, and social organizations-healthy indications of moral culture-were forced into existence, by the demand of an increasing class of residents, cognizant of the advantages of the unifying of interests. In -66, the first school was opened by Miss Dunbar, and in September following a school board was formed, and a winter school opened, the

Page  24 24. first school tax imposed, being a levy of $160 to provide for salaries of the teachers. The accommodation offered by temporary quarters, was not sufficient, and in 1868 a special building was erected, which in its turn, only served the purpose for a while, as in 1871 it was found necessary to again enlarge the structure, at a cost of several thousand dollars; and this enlargement process was continued until 1880, when the total number of children of school age had so multiplied, that a new building was found to be necessary, and the present fine edifice, was completed at an outlay of $30,000. This, again later on-as the citizens were not slow to obey the injunctions as to marital responsibilities, imposed by the highest authority-was found to be unequal for the accommodation of Escanaba's redundant quivers, and ward schools, and in the case of the Roman Catholic portion of the community-separate schools, were shortly forced into existence. But I am anticipating and departing from my synchronous order of events, which should govern this narration.. In 1867 the first fire company was organized, a hook and bucket brigade, preparatory to the organization of Fire Company No. 1 in 1873. In 1876 Delta Lodge No. 185 A. F. & A. M. was opened, the first Worshipful Master being Gilman Chase. In 1868 Escanaba Lodge No. 118 I. O. O. F. was organized with Dr. Curtis Bellows as Noble Grand. About this time a member of the "fourth estate," arrived to size up the situation. Assuming the universally accepted proposition, to be the correct one, that newspapers, are the only practical mediums, by which any locality can hope to divert outside notice to its schedule of advantages,-we have not to go far to seek the cause of Escanaba's peninsular notoriety. In December 1869 the pioneer journalist of the Delta, appeared in the person of Mr. E. P. Lott, who launched The Tribune, to supply the increasing demand for periodical news. Later on it passed into the hands of Mr. J. A. Crozer, who in 1870 made a transfer of his interest to Mr. C. D. Jewell, who sold out to Mr. Jas. F. Atkinson, who likewise surrendered his proprietorship to Messrs. Van Duzer and Longley, who in 1879 became the purchasers, and re-christened their six-column quarto venture, the Iron Port. Under this latter name it still flourishes with republican vigor, subject to the sole control of Colonel Van Duzer, its present chief. The experience of pioneer journalism in this most peaceable spot, bears no comparsion with the sanguinary troubles, that are wont to embarrass the fighting editors, of frontier publications. It has been found editorially quite unnecessary to strap a gatling on one's shoulders, or carry a cutlass between one's teeth, or bristle generally with visible weapons. The axeman chastened by his contact with the piney-woods, has a soul above a derringer, whilst the ore-man, confident in his ability, when necessary, to punch a hole through a bar of pig of iron, has no need for the bowie. The first flour and feed, and hardware stores were built, and the first meat stall opened in 1865. Of the incidents connected with the history of the village and its visitation by, and temporal collapse through the far reaching influence of the great commercial panic, which possessed as a nightmare the entire land, in 1873, and of the process by which, through and out of its incorporation it blossomed into a city, in 1883, with a population in 1848 of 4,335 souls--but few records are extant, and fewer still, obtain

Page  25 25. able. An understood, but unexpressed desire to make it appear of less importance than it really was, seemed to be the ruling object of its citizens, and to the stranger who reached an estimate of its trade, by a study of ordinarily available methods, little idea could be formed of the value of its business, or the financial standing of its commercial men. In the city of to-day, adult Escanaba demonstrates that she is gradually falling into line, and adopting the more live and modern methods pursued to advantage by towns, in closer contact with the greater centres of commerce. She has seen the stage supplanted by the railway, the slow sailing ship of antique design, disappear before the modern, swift steel steamboat; she has reached the period of newspapers, paved streets, sewers, electric lights, theatres and gaols, telegraphs, skating rinks, churches and saloons, socials, and boards of aldermen, which have eventuated despite fictitious aid. Other departures, and institutions, inseparable from progress and good government will follow. Such in brief is an outline sketch of the discovery and history of primitive Sand Point, up to adult Escanaba. Its further commercial growth, its industrial advancement, its marvelous resources, and boundless possibilities, will form the subject matter of the ensuing chapters. HON. ELI P. ROYCE.

Page  26 CHAPTER IL S TTE PRESENT.-THE IRON PORT OF THE WMMLJ'M SCANABA is guilty of no empty boast, when it proclaims Sitself the "Iron Port of the World." To Bilbao, a city of 50,000. souls, the most important, shipping point of the Iberian peninsula in Spain, has so far !:ý been conceded, by recognized authorities, and upon alleged. right, its claim to supremacy in this particular. As corrections are always in order,, I herewith submit the following facts for the compilers of the next edition of MulhalL Upon reference to the Spanish trade publication, Estadistica Minera, page 15, it; will be seen, that the output of Iron Ore from the mines in the district of Biscay, and shipped from the port of Bilbao in 1880, with a population at that time of 25,000, amounted to 2,638,627 tons. Reference to the official returns for the state of Michigan, show that for the, same year, the then village of Escanaba, with a population only of 2,546, shipped of Iron Ore, the product of the Marquette, Menominee, and Gogebic mines, 1,242,100 tons, so that even at that time on a per capita basis, Escanaba dompletely distanced her competitor; for whereas the Spanish port shipped only to the extent of about 100 tons, for each one of its inhabitants, the premier ore port of America shipped at the rate of about 500 tons for each one of hers. A comparison however at the end of the next past decade, presents a still more extraordinary contrast. Bilbao-the Age of Steel is my authority-in 1889 had doubled its population; Escanaba in the same period having quadrupled hers. The comparison though does not rest here, for whilst with a population of 50,000, Bilbao shipped 3,000,000 tons, Escanaba with only, 8,000 inhabitants shipped 3,003,632 tons. If present indications and past records, can be regarded as any criterion, Bilbao may be:re, garded as altogether out of the running. Escanaba's output for the present seasonseven months as against Spain's twelve-will reach about 3,800,000 tons. It will be0 interesting to know the total of Bilbao's shipments, for this similar period. Theses'. facts should effectually verify the well considered statement, that Escanaba is in truth the Iron Port of the World. Having landed you in the city of Escanaba in the year of grace 1890, it may not be amiss to refer to some territorial matters of interest. Escanaba-which translated from the Chippewa, means Flat-Rock-is the judicial seat of Delta county, and is one of the eighty-four counties into which the state is divided. The total assessed value of all real and personal estate in Michigan for the year 1886, was $850,000,000, ranking her tenth, amongst the 46 states and Territories of the Union., She has a total area of 58,915 square miles, or more than that of Greece, Switzerland, and Denmark combined. Of this, 1,485 square miles is water surface. At the last

Page  27 L!DIJQGT)9 STREET LOOKJNG EAST, TQVVW4ARDS THý E3Y,

Page  28 I I ii: I. I ~~--; ~II:k i i

Page  29 29 census she had 1,853,658 of a population, one quarter of which was foreign born, leading all other states with her 148,866 British-American residents. Half a million souls can safely be added to this, in an estimate of her population of to-day. She leads in her output of Iron ore, and her production of copper is second only to that of Montana, out ranking all the world, including Chili. She has a total coast line exceeding 1,600 miles, and largely in excess of any other state in the Union, and with her wonderful crop of the smaller fruits, and grapes, challenges even the state of Delaware. In Delta county last season, 65 bushels of apples were gathered from five trees. She has every economical element of wealth, and will yet tread upon the heels of Masschusetts-owing to her singular physical location-as a manufacturing state. Come then and be introduced to the most extraordinary city in the state of Michigan. In shape Escanaba is an isosceles triangle; its base crossing the peninsula of ---- ~ ORE BOATS BREAKING THROUGH ICE IN THE SPRING. Sand Point about two miles from its apex, which base is about two miles across. Formerly clothed with a forest of pine, it still presents in places a wooded appearance. Indeed a portion of it yet, is a heavy thicket of second growth, with a quota of poplars, silver and Lombardy, partially shading some of its broad boulevards-notably on Wells avenue-and which attain full-grown proportions, round about the old Tilden house. Here mingling with birch, spruce, fir and pine, along the self-planted shades of Michigan avenue-the great ocean, drive of the future-they offer a melange of arborescent enchantment, hard to beat. ' The view-of Ludington street, which faces the commencement of this chapter, does that highway an injustice, but it is the best that could be obtained. The new brick blocks of which there are many, are so scattered and interspersed with old wooden buildings, that no general view of the street, would convey any idea of the handsome appearance of it in places. To introduce views of the various business

Page  30 30. blocks is entirely out of the question. As indicative of the extreme conservatism of ideas implanted in the minds of some of its citizens, point blank refusal was given to a request for permission to insert a sketch of one of the costliest buildings in Escanaba. If flanking walls, a moat, a drawbridge and portcullis, could bar outside approach to the city, and a drop curtain could be pinned to the sky overhead, from the light house to Flat Rock, from Flat Rock to Portage creek, and from Portage creek, to the light house, and effectually conceal the spot from the foreign traders gaze, a veritable roar of satisfaction would ascend from some of the old bourgeoisie. As a wealthy and respected merchant, said to me, when appealed to for certain information which he refused to impart, embellishing his reasons with some mild peninsula objurgations, "We don't want no outside traders; we're doin' first class. What"-in the name of all the great departed--"do we want strangers pokin' around here for, why they'd be walkin' off with the hull shootin' match!" And perhaps he was right. At the time of writing it contains 21,453 yards of graded streets, all running parallel, or at right angles with Ludington, which extends from the harbor at a slight inVIEW ON THE FORD RIVER ROAD. cline, to the westward. Sites for wholesale warehouses cannot be expected to be retained on this street, which is fast filling up with retail stores, some of which are of a character in design and construction, difficult to surpass in cities of ten times Escanabas magnitude. Wells avenue running parallel with Ludington,is a magnificent thoroughfare. It is beautified by growing shade trees, and with its grand level floor of sand, and gravel, with all the solidity of concrete, presents a great promenade for vehicle and horseman. From its west end close to the light house, to its terminus at the gates of the general c3metery, it is 2,200 yards in length. The following, other than those already named, are the streets as at present graded and gravelled, and with plank walks on either side: Hale street 2,026, Ayer street 2,280, Jacob street 1,774, Tweedie street 1,580, Thomas street 2,280, Michigan Avenue 1,013, Ogden Avenue 1,774, Tilden Avenue 760, Dousman street 1,068, Harrison Avenue 1,014, Wolcott street 1,268, Campbell street 1,774, Elmore street 2,026, Georgia street 2,026, Charlotte street 3,900, Mary

Page  31 31. street 2,260, Fannie street 3,786, Sarah street 760, Sinclair street 760, sundry streets 3,700. Street Commissioner Moe, is authority for the statement, that fully five miles of new walks have been constructed, the summer just ended. Grading and gravelling alone this year, will exceed an outlay of $18,000. The building of the main sewers, is just completed. Six thousand, three hundred feet of pipe has been laid this year, at a contract cost of $20,000, and a system of sewage established, which will answer all initial purposes. The soil on which the city stands is of such a porous nature, that the liquid sewage hitherto discharged, has been absorbed, and has percolated to such a depth, as to hitherto alone prevent, the outbreak of those epidemics usually born of defective drainage. Ludington street so soon as work on the sewers is completed, is to be cedar block paved for 3,500 feet, at an expenditure of $30,000. This street was originally built upon, without any regard for what would be its level when up to proper grade, and buildings have been wont to be constructed, with complete unconcern, as to whether their chimney tops would appear above the sidewalks, or not. Previous to the recent application of blocks and jack-screws, sidewalks ran alongside house fronts after the manner of an elevated railway. The ordinary Escanaban however with as many living chances as Jerome's cat, has-and in some instances, notwithstanding the lingering demands of progressive euchre, and midnight assignations-managed to escape the terrors of these trottoirs. A new order of things however is being rapidly established under the supervision of Mr. Zane city engineer. In addition to the streets already mentioned as graded, the old public road, running north, between the Chicago & North-Western Railway passenger depot, and the Cochrane Foundry, to Flat Rock mills, is already graded throughout for four miles (its entire length), making a magnificent highway out to, and beyond the mammoth saw mills operated by the I. Stephenson Company. This road passes through North Escanaba, where the tap of the hammer and the zip of the saw, pervades the pines from morning till night, as dwelling houses, boardinghouses, and hotels are rapidly springing into existence, alongside, the new ore-docks, now in course of construction by the Schlesinger Railway Company. Neither do these figures of mileage include the famed Ford River road, which stretches away to the south, following, through an arboretum of evergreen forest, the trend of the shore line of Green Bay for seven miles, to the confluence of that stream with the waters of the great lake. The water-works of the city of Escanaba, are the most extensive in the Northwest portion of the state, having a pumping capacity of 2,000.000 gallons every twelve hours. The pumping house is on the beach of Sand Point close to the light house, and obtains its supply from the unpolluted waters of the lake. The forcing motor is supplied by two compound Worthington pumps, with a pressure of 125 lbs, and can send a stream to a height of 100 feet from six separate hydrants, direct from the bay pipe end, some 2,500 feet distant. The diameter of the lake pipes is about 14 inches. The ordinary consumption of water in the summer months by amphibious Escanabans, is ten or eleven million gallons every four weeks, the average consumption however being about 300,000 gallons daily. There are 84 hy

Page  32 32. drants in all, and some twelve miles of mains are laid throughout the city. The yearly rentals for water service range from four to twelve dollars. The fire brigade as at present constituted consists of 28 enrolled volunteers, with a paid chief in the person of Mr. James Tolan. Though the city owns two steamers, they are neither in use nor are they intended to be used, for since the water works were completed, it has been found that the pressure maintained, is sufficient for every purpose. In each of the four wards is a resident district company, with 600 feet of hose, and with a complement of seven men. It is the intention upon upon the completion of the City Hall, adjoining which a central fire hall is to be erected, to organize a paid brigade. The engines will then be sold and horses purchased for the trucks. A yearly rental of $3,500 is paid by the city to the company, for all water required. The public lighting of the streets is furnished by the Escanaba Electric Light Company-H. W. Nichols Superintendent-who supply twenty Brush Arc lights for street purposes, at a cost of $7.50 per month, and 25 additional for commercial purposes. Besides these, some 700 incandescent lights, are supplied the ordinary citizens, and over fourteen miles of wire is in use. The police of the place consist of a constable for each ward, and a marshal, the latter is detailed for day duty solely, the four constables coming on at night and disappearing at sunrise. The judicial dis- trict, is No. 25, comprising the counties of Marquette, Menominee Delta and Iron. The Circuit Court is presided over by Judge Stone. There are four Justices of the Peace in i the city, Mr. Royce, Mr. Johnson, and Mr. Stonhouse, besides Mr. Glaser, who has the exclusive adjusting of matters of Probate, and b_ tries about seventyfive per cent. of the 200 yearly infractions of the peace. Mr. Glaserwas WATER WORK PUMPING STATION. elected Judge in 1872, and has been retained in office by the people for five consecutive terms. The county jail is under the wardenship of Sheriff McCarthy. The city jail is in charge of Mrs. White. Escanaba's calendar of crime is remarkably light, and when its mixture of races is taken into consideration, its freedom from offences of a serious nature is astonishing. Escanaba is fortunate in her Hospital. This though subject to the control of the county, by whom it is mainly supported, is practically under the management of the Sisters of St. Francis, who board and nurse the patients. The staff as at present constituted consists of nine nurses. The medical attendant is Dr. J. H. Tracy. It has accommodation for sixty patients. Besides the paying patients, and the county fund, its maintenance is also assisted by the sale of annual tickets at five dollars, which entitles the holder to free admittance for treatment at any time. It is a commodious wooden structure picturesquely situated and thoroughly equipped. The sailors admitted, are paid for by the United States Government. An average of 300 patients

Page  33 33. have been treated, during each of the last few years. To the unflagging devotion of the Sisters, and the experienced ministrations of Dr. Tracy, is due the high repute in which it is held. Mr. T. J. Tracy is the Superintendent. Neither are the destitute neglected, for a House of Refuge for the afflicted poor, offers a haven of refuge for the human being physically unfitted for work. An industrial farm is in connection, where the convalescents have an opportunity to develop lost muscle. There are no idlers in Escanaba, excepting those, from choice. The postal accommodation is hardly such as the city has a right to expect, and Mr. Caspar C. Stephenson, the Postmaster, has his ingenuity taxed, to meet the demand for lock boxes. Mr. Royce was the first Postmaster in 1864 when the office was on the site of Mr. Stack's present wholesale store. Mr. Barr succeeded to the position in 1876. Mr. Stephenson was appointed in August 1889. The following papers and parcels were handled during the seven days ending Monday May 12 1890. Letters and postal cards, 7,267; postage, $148.03. Papers and parcels, 1,687; postage, $8.07; or a grand total for one calendar year, of 377,884 letters, 87,724 papers, etc., having an aggregate weight of 21,632 pounds, and requiring postage stamps to the value of $8,112; being in proportion to population, of over one dollar per head for postage, and at the rate of about fifty letters for each one of its inhabitants; and this without taking into consideration the thousands of letters mailed on the outgoing trains. The newspaper interests are well represented. In addition to the Iron Port, The Semi-Weekly Calumet, a Republican organ, is in advance of the van. The Calumet was first published on January 29,1888, by Mr. C. E. Mason, of Gladstone, with Mr. Lew. A. Cates as editor and manager. In April following, the latter purchased the plant. No better evidence of its facilities are required than the pamphlet you are reading, which was issued direct as you see it, from The Calumet's job department. The Mirror, politically published in the interests of the Democratic party, was originally established in 1885. In December, 1886, it passed into the hands of its present management. It has a well equipped printing office, and is under the editorial control of Mr. Phil. J. McKenna. The school census of 1885, showed the total of all persons of school age was 1,180. The number of persons of school age to-day is, according to Professor Kirk Spoor, 2,026, showing an increase of 50 per cent. in the short space of five years. The city is divided into four wards for school purposes, and has three school buildings, one of which is the High school, built in 1882 at a cost of $30,000. A view of this structure appears on page 16. There is a free circulating library of 1,200 books in connection with the High school, open to the pupils and public, and books can be retained for two weeks. The fund for this purpose, being the proceeds of court fines. Besides the three public schools, the Roman Catholics have a separate school of their own, as have also the German Lutherans, neither of which however are supported out of the common school fund. The school trustees are eight in number. Attendance at school is compulsory, but the law in this respect is not enforced. The school age is from five to twenty, the books showing an enrollment of 801, with a daily atten

Page  34 34. dance of 500, half of whom are girls. Exclusive of the talented principal, Mr. Spoor, there are twelve female teachers, who are selected by the trustees, conditionally upon their having the necessary qualifications. Few of the pupils remain long enough to reach the highest grade, the temptations of good wages and the plethora of work of all kinds, offering allurements too potent to resist, and none, according to Mr. Spoor, so far, have passed out, to enter any of the state colleges. The expenditure last year, which equalled the revenue amounted to $10,547.21. With a school system intelligently conceived, and faithfully administered, with the agency of the denominational institutions referred to, it is manifest that Escanaba offers unusual facilities, for the education of the children of all, who may be induced to make this city their home. The growth in religious affairs has been no less remarkable, than the development in educational matters. Evolved from that pioneer meeting of Episcopalians within the rude shelter of John Forster's boarding house in 1864, stands to-day the church of St. Stephens. On Nov. 19th, 1887, the Rev. J. Gorton Miller held his first service in Royce's Hall. Oliver Hall was utilized later on, and continuously until the arrival in January 1878 of Rev. Edward Seymour, under whose rectorship the FINNEGAN BRICK BLOCK. parish was dedicated to St. Stephen. Mr. J. B. Morrell then held the position of secretary and Mr. F. E. Harris was treasurer. The Rev. J. H. Eichbaum who followed, made way in June 1887 for the Rev. C. A. French, who upon his resignation in October 1889, left an untenanted pulpit, the congregation being saved from dissolution, through the lay efforts of Mr. H. M. Noble who conducted services, until the advent of the Rev. F. F. W. Greene in March 1890, formerly in charge of the church at Sault Ste. Marie, Algoma; Mr. Greene though but a short time in residence, has succeeded by his earnestness and pulpit eloquence, to reach the hearts of others than the members proper of his own congregation. St. Stephen's church, which was built in 1884, whilst an unpretentious building, as will be seen on reference to the view on page 23, it so far answers all the requirements of as yet but a sparse congregation. The Right Rev. Dr. Davis, of Detroit, is Bishop of the Diocese. In continuance of the missions of Fathers Dale and Keenan, Father Duroche was assigned to the parish of St. Joseph in 1865, the first house of worship being constructed during his spiritual charge. In 1868 he was succeeded in his cure, by Father Lagner, who was instrumental in build

Page  35 35. ing the present church, erected in 1873 at a cost of about $20,000. In 1881 the Rev. A. Theodore Majerus became pastor, and was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph Neiblingin the winter of 1882. In the summer of 1883, the Rev. Eugene Butterman took charge of the parish, but made way in 1889 for Father Lings the present Franciscan priest in residence. There are at this time two Catholic churches in Escanaba, that of St. Joseph's for the English speaking residents, a handsome brick structure, and the French church of St. Ann's, built in 1888, whose not unattractive interior is marred by the garish flood of purple, yellow and green, 9which streams through its curtained windows. The Rev. Father Martel is cure. In 1887 an addition was made to St. Joseph's and during the fall of this year a new school building has been erected within the church grounds. The property is upon the corner of Campbell and Elmore streets, and consists of half a block. The congregation is composed principally of Irish, and some Germans. It has a seating capacity for 800, Father Lings estimates his congregation at 400 heads of families. St. Ann's church was especially designed for the accommodation of the French catholics, a large number of the congregation being composed of French Canadians. The total church membership consisting of 350 families. Bishop Vertin is head of the diocese, and resides at MarSquette. The great indifference on the part of some of the clergy as well as some of the laity, in the matter of imparting information, must stand the excuse for lack of allusion to various matters of special interest which would otherwise have been placed on record. In 1866 the Rev. G. W. Lloyde of New Jersey woke the church elders of the Presbyterian persuasion, and held services at the residence of Mr. S.H. Selden. In 1868 the first church building was completed. In 1869 Mr. Pierson succeeded to the incumbency, and upon his death, in 1872, was followed by Mr. Garner, who was supplanted by the Rev. Messrs. Iddings and Emerson, and subsequently in 1880 by the same Mr. Garner who was the recipient of a second invitation. In the year 1885 the Rev. C. H. Tyndall became pastor of the church, which post he occupied until the summer of 1889. Its pulpit is at present filled by the Rev. Owen Jones, a Welshman and a preacher of ability, and has a congregation of one hundred and forty members. During all the years of its career, the church has steadily increased in influence and is free from debt. It has a Sunday school membership of over 150. There is a Christian Endeavor society in connection, a Ladies' Aid society, and Prayer meetings are held weekly. It has also a Missionary society, and a Bible class. The present elders of the church are Messrs. S. H. Selden, D. W. Morgan and F. D. Clark. During this era the disciples of Wesley, had not remained idle. In 1870 the Rev. R. R. Richards, of Marquette, preached the first sermon before an organized congregation of the Methodist church; the first church building was erected in 1873, by the Rev. T. H. Parksville, but was destroyed by fire in 1878. In 1881 the new church and parsonage were completed at an outlay of $5,000. The congregation which now consists, of some 200 church members, is in charge of the Rev. J. Whitney, who is already imparting new life into the parish. The debt remaining on the church consequent upon the erection of a new edifice, destroyed as elsewhere stated

Page  36 36. by fire, was cancelled-owing to the efforts of Mr. C. C. Turner-during the present year, and steps are about to be taken for the building of a new parsonage. Neither are the Scandinavians, who form a prominent element in the civic population, one whit behind in their evidence of a living church. In 1888 the Norwegian- Danish Lutheran church, of Escanaba, was organized with a membership of twenty-three, and the Rev. G. A. Sovde pastor. In the fall of the present year the new church, on the corner of Wells avenue and Norris street was built, and with that untiring energy, so characteristic of their race, they are making for themselves a reputation in spiritual as well as temporal affairs. Their new national society, Nordstjernan, (the North Star) though only instituted in 1888, now numbers 130 members. Extremes meet; let us turn from the consideration of its care for the cure of its souls, to the consideration of the business aspect of its people and its streets. Ludington street which is nearly a mile in length, by one hundred feet in width, will when the block-paving is completed next spring be one of the finest business avenues in the state of Michigan. Looking down from the western up town end towards the water, or reversing the position, the view presented is a striking one. Where but a few short years ago, sombre arches of pines cast their gloomy shadows, on birch-bark tepee, and on forest run-ways, haunted only by the red-deer, wolf and bear, now stretches a thoroughfare flanked in places by magnificent blocks of red brick, the pavements infront of which are flagged with Ohio stone. These blocks of brick and stone, three stories high, two of which-those of Rathfon-Sterling, and Glavin, just completed-cost over $20,000 each, are but an earnest of what will shortly follow. Fifty years ago Chicago, with its present 1,050,000 inhabitants was but half the size of the Escanaba of to-day. Twenty-five years ago, Milwaukee was considerably smaller than is the present Iron Port of the World. Escanaba has but just entered upon the race for supremacy. No great gift of prophecy is needed, to predict, the measure of her commercial growth in the next decade-Chicago and Milwaukee are both keeping a watchful eye upon her every movement, knowing that in her sudden rise into importance, many of their vested interests are menaced, if her aspirations are not moulded to their own benefit. Escanaba's start as an ordinary center of business, practically dates back five years only, whilst her active development, if the rise in the values of her realty may be accepted as a proof, commenced only in 1887. Five years ago the Hessel estate, within the city limits, sold for $250; when placed on the market a few weeks since, seventeen acres of this sold for $19,800. Three years ago Ludington street property, then bought for $500, has been sold during this summer for $3,500. Speaking generally, city property may be said to have increased in value 100 per cent. during the last three years, and the rise has been a healthy, and a gradual one, and will so continue until true relative values are reached. The civic destinies of this great little city are in the keeping of a Mayor, and a Board of eight Aldermen, who whilst they are not always an undivided house, and are wont at time to be animated by a spirit of playfulness, not dissimilar to that, which possessed Bret Harte's Calaveras county councillors, they are yet no worse, and many respects, much better than many metropolitan, and more ambitious assem

Page  37 blies. Anyway under their regime, and greatly to their credit, the lax system hitherto prevailing in the disbursements of municipal funds, has undergone the test of crucial change with manifest advantage, and the growing need for public improvements has been handsomely recognized. This state of things is largely due to the honest persistence of the present Mayor, Mr. P. M. Peterson, a leading merchant, sixteen years a resident of the town. Possessed of superior ability, Mr. Peterson's wholesome reign as chief magistrate, has done much to establish an order of chings, nore in keeping with the spirit of the times. The members of the Board of Aldermen, all of whom are representative business men, are as follows: First Ward, F. H. Brotherton, E. Erickson; Second Ward, M. E. Main, S. Rathfon; Third Ward, Jas, Lyons, O. Cleary; Fourth Ward, John Sullivan, P. F. Cleary. City Treasure;, John Gross; Cit O erk John J. Sourwine; City Engineer, J. G. Zane; City ealth Officer Dr. T. L. Gelzer. The civic year commences with April. The first Mayor of the town was Dr. J. H. Tracy,-Escanaba's best known physician,-this was in 1883. Mr. J. K. Stack filled the office for three years, and Mr. E. P. Royce for one year. Owing to the non-existence of a Board of trade, or Business Men's Association, and the extreme disinclination on the part of individual merchants to disclose any trade facts, or figures, it has been a difficult matter to obtain any data upon which to base an estimate of Escanaba's yearly business. In view of the fact that there are over two hundred persons engaged in some branch or other of retail trade, it may safely however be estimated at about $3,000,000. The pay list of the 3,000 skilled and unskilled workmen, connected with this portion of the Railway division, amounts to about $175,000 a month. Some of 1,200 of these men make Escanaba their home. The sum paid out on this account, is exclusive of the thousands of dollars monthly disbursed to the shanty men, the saw mill men, sailols and others; the most of which, together with a large percentage of the earnings of outside officials, and clerks, mechanics and farmers, and of the storekeeper himself, passes into the hands of the retailer. When it is known that the weight of the total amount of general merchandise received for the merchants of Escanaba, handled by the Chicago & Northwestern Railway company alone reached, for the nine months ending September 1890, 70,000 tons,-increasing in volume from ten million pounds weight in January, to twentytwo millions in September,-a partial idea may be formed of the yearly volume of the city's retail trade. Added to this must be taken into consideration the victualling of ships, which is fast becoming an important specialty. The wholesale trade may be said to consist solely of lumber. Of this staple some hundred and fifteen million feet have been shipped during the season,--exclusive of hemlock and cedar-and to which, if the shipments of Iron ore are added, Escanaba's export trade for the current year will reach in value over $25,000,000! Escanaba can be cited as a taxless city. No taxes other than the school rate has been levied, until the sewer construction this year called for a special appropriation. The city revenue for the last fiscal year was about 32,000; owing to various unforseen causes this total fund was over expended some $8,000. It might be mentioned that the liquor tax alone (which amounted to $30,000 last year) practically pays the entire cost of civic gov

Page  38 ernment. The price of a liquor license is 8500. The assessable property within the four wards of the city of Escanaba, is reported by the Assessors, to be as equalized, $1,021,847. The total assessment of Delta county including Escanaba, is $3,176,126. It may be well to add that there are 29,352 acres of government swamp lands, and 9,783 acres of school lands in the county, and 163 Indians who are not assessable. Unmistakable evidence of Escanaba's material progress is demonstrated in the amount of building now going on within her limits. Over 200 private houses have been built during the year, from magnificent residences costing from fifteen to thirty thousands, of dollars, to the unpretentious cottage of the artizan, and valued at $200,000, and still no suspicion of a boom, for the tenement capacity of the place has been unequal to the demand, for laborers and mechanics cannot obtain cottages for their families, andl with a population of 8,000, there are 1,000 men now seeking shelter in hotels, THE DELTA COUNTY COURT HOUSE. notwithstanding that Mr. Butts, a resident lumber merchant, states that thoughhe has only been in business as a retail dealer since 15th of April he has sold over 2,000,000 feet of lumber for local purposes. House property pays 15 per cent. interest on account of land and buildings. Though the increase in population is now relatively rapid there is work for every one, land for building is in demand, wages are high, and for small enterprises capital is abundant. In a ringing article on the opportunities presented by Escanaba, which appeared in a recent number of The Calumet, Mr. Cates summed up the situation in the following terse truths: "What we want is the capitalist of means and energy; the stirring manufacturer to utilize our wonderful natural advantages; skilled mechanics; careful and industrious business men; and wide awake young men, who are not unwilling or afraid to work." The comparative high prices of commodities which prevail to-day may partly,

Page  39 ebut not altogether be accounted for by a lack of competition in freights. This however is a state of things inseparable from the history of all young places. With a growing population and increased facilities for fransport, and legitimate trade expansion, this will correct itself. To balance this, it must not be forgotten, that wages are better here than elsewhere. Trade "compensation" will however soon level up all these prevailing conditions. The growth of Escanaba, from the date of its donning village responsibilities until it assumed civic cares, was quite distinctly of an accidental character; its tentative career was not entered upon until five years since. About that time it became,evident that its physical resources were of that enduring nature, the existence of which must compel the creation of a manufacturing city. Strangers dropped in, saw, and were impressed. Some citizens however were slow to encourage the prospective competitor in the race. Trade was thriving and money was pouring in. Why open the gates and expose the treasure? The almighty laws of nature however brook no constraint. The open field of opportunity lay invitingly spread out, before the gaze of the man, who was ready to interpret aright the significant signs of the times, and the exposed resources of Escanaba's tributary territory, which clearly indicated it as the seat of a centralizing trade, opened the golden pages of its book, no longer to be ranked in the list of prohibited publications. With the dawn of industrial life and expansion of trade, city and suburban property naturally advanced in values, and have steadily increased in appraisement, regulated solely by the extent of the prevailing demand. The call for lodging accommodation, introduced the artizan to the property owner, and rapid transfers of building lots took place, and land adjacent to the business center-the outcome of a developing trade, resultant upon an increasing population-steadily rose in valuation. Building lots situated on the back streets, which but two short years since were purchased for $500, are now selling for improvement purposes at $1,100. And these sales are not made for speculative ends so far, but to bona fide residents, seeking homes. To find a house to rent is, at present, almost an impossibility, and to find a residence for sale, within the city limits is next to impossible. The prices of realty at the present time, as quoted in the annexed table may be accepted as substantially correct: Highest retail business property, corner lots, Ludington street,..............................$175 per foot frontage. Ordinary first-class business property. Ludington street,.................................. $125 Best wholesale business property, Charlotte and Thomas streets, and Stephenson avenue,....$ 50 Best residence property, Michigan avenue, Ogden avenue, Harrison avenue, Dousman street, and south of Wells avenue, lots 50x140,.................,...................$ 25 Ordinary residence property,............................................................. i "$ 10 " Mechanics residence property, say ten blocks from business center, lots 50x125,...........$ 3 to $7 " Acres from within 12 blocks of business center, to two miles,........................$. 75 to $300 per acre. Terms of payment are from one-quarter to one-third cash, annual payments extending over two and three years, with interest at the rate of seven per cent. per annum. The side streets vary in width from seventy to eighty feet. The titles to all lands are unquestionably good, being in most cases direct from the government to the original purchaser, by whom they were first acquired, by payment in good gold or silver. Fire insurance rates, run from one to six per cent. upon business property, and seventy-five cents per hundred dollars, on isolated and residental buildings.

Page  40 40. The only way to arrive at a just conclusion, as to the values of property, in any city,, is to institute a comparison of prices with those that obtain in the average town,, influenced, and subject to, similar conditions in regard to population and situation. Whilst the former qualification on which to base an estimate is not hard, in the case of Escanaba to obtain, the latter, for some obvious reasons is an impossibility. However, assuming her physical condition, to be similar in all respects to those of the ordi-- nary city, it will be seen that the values as quoted, are away within the figures, permissible under her present trade status, and subject to material advance, with the rapid increase in her population and-her business. Stores rent from $500 to $1,000 per year, according to location, and cottages of one story, at $10 a month, all the way up to 630 for larger houses. Notwithstanding these figures, and despite the fact of over 200 houses having been built within the year, dwellings continue to be in demand, and this circumstance would seem to indicate, that cottages built ready for occupation in certain quarters of the city, would prove a profitable investment for capital. A generous proportion of first-class farming lands lie within easy reach of the city-the country is not all rook, neither is the farmer compelled to plant his seed with a shot-gun--and are for purchase within three miles of the town at from five to ten dollars per acre. b'rom the mineral explorer, and pine cruiser, much has been learned of the richness of the soil of the interior. The splendid stretches of agricultural land, with their dense growth of huckleberry trees, and rich with a gravely loam; and in the midst of dense forests the scattered clearings of the settler, with evidences of thrift, establishes their claim to fertility, already extended to the homesteads adjacent to Escanaba. Magnificent farms and prosperous settlements abound throughout the peninsula, those of course that are situated on the southern slope of kneeling lands, which bend towards Bay de Noquet, being the most desirable; and being embraced as they are, by a temperature whose annual mean is above 62 o Fahrenheit, cannot resist the temptation of reproduction. The oats raised by the farmers appear in prolific crop, and in many cases splendid wheat is also grown. Grass and potatoes are however the staple and most remunerative products. All garden stuff thrives luxuriously and reaches an astonishing size, whilst Indian corn, and tomatoes, ripen in sheltered positions. The rain fall is abundant, and droughts almost unknown. The prevailing belief that pine only grows in sandy sterile soil should be dismissed. The most valuable pine is scattered through the hardwood tracts, while the earth though a light loam, is of a remarkably fertile character. The Michigan state government employs no local agents, but all information can be had upon application to the land office at Lansing the State Capitol. The total area of all classes of Michigan's state lands amounted in December 1888, to 612,454 acres. There are 12,987 acres of improved farms in Delta county, and 20,521 acres of unimproved land in farms, making a total of 33,508 acres. There are 344 farms in the county, averaging 97.41 acres. Title to government lands may be acquired, either by settlement under the homestead law, or by purchase. A homestead of 160 acres (or less) of contiguous lands can be obtained by filing an application for the land selected, for actual settlement and cultivation.

Page  41 41.i______ The fees are $14 for 160 acres, $7 for 80 acres, and $6 for forty acres. After five years residence, and before expiration of seven years, the settler must prove residence and improvement, and in payment of further fee of $4 on 160 acres, $2 for 80 acres, and $1 for 40 acres, the government will issue the patent, and the land will become his property in fee. The Chicago & North-Western company still own some 500,000 acres of land in the Upper Peninsula, some of the choicest of which for agricultural purposes, lie within Delta county, and within ten or fifteen miles of the city, and are for sale from $2 to $7 an acre. These prices are for hardwood lands; pine, hemlock and cedar tracts are valued on the basis of their stumpage. The terms to the purchaser for these lands are one-fifth down, the remainder in five equal annual installments at six per cent. Mr. F. H. Van Cleve, a gentleman of many years' residence, and identified with every legitimate local enterprise, as promoter or director, is the Land Commissioner for the company, with headquarters at Esuanaba. In North Escanaba, which is practically a portion of the main city, building is being prosecuted with extraordinary vigor, and what but a few short months sinceit is contiguous to the Cochrane company's addition, and abuts the east side of the highway which runs to Flat Rock mills-was a wilderness of young fir trees, has now its broad avenues and streets, upon which are being built, as fast as men and horses can convey the material, hotels, stores and dwelling houses. It was only thrown open to the purchaser in July, and twenty thousand dollars have already been expended in frame buildings. And this is not the result of fevered speculation, but the outcome of necessity, rendered urgent by the fact, that the terminus and huge new ore dock of the Escanaba, Iron Mountain & Western railway company are in course of construction. That portion south of the railway which is on the city of Escanaba side, laid out in building lots, has already been mostly sold; the property the other side of the track is now platted, and as it is equally desirable, should command a ready sale. Acreage property is in great demand, and government land outside of the city limits even, has been homesteaded, in order to obtain its possession for suburban purposes. The real estate interests of Escanaba are chiefly in the hands of firms, who, as a rule, are custodians only, but in some instances, owners of the properties they represent. Any one desirous of obtaining further information, such as it is not within the functions of this book, to publish, can be assured of strictly reliable particulars, by correspondence with Messrs. F. J. Merriam & Co., Northup & Northup, J. G. Zane, or D. A. Brotherton, who operate exclusively in Realty; from the members of the legal profession, or indeed, from any of the leading business men of the city, whose names will be found in the advertising pages of this pamphlet. The map showing the town plat of Escanaba, prepared especially for this publication, can be accepted as absolutely correct in every particular. Upon the whole, one must be disposed to admit, weighing the evidences which force consideration, that the prices of real estate in Escanaba, are now much below the level of those of other cities of equal size, and that there is a margin for a legitimate increase may be ac

Page  42 42. cepted as a quite reasonable proposition. To quote the opinion of an Ashland, Wisconsin, editor, who certainly would not be disposed to err on the side of over-laudation, "values are rigid, and there is no suspicion of inflation, nor has there been an attempt made, to invade the region of speculative gambling." Upon the Pacific coast of remote Washington territory and Oregon, in towns whose population barely exceeds that of Escanaba, prices of business property-T speak by the book-have ranged with no abatement, from two to six hundred dollars per foot, and in no particular do they command the unequalled commercial advantages, or possess the fund of inexhaustible natural resource as is presented by Michigan's Iron Port. But it is not after all, the natural upward tendency of Escanaba's real estate per se, that is solely worthy the consideration of the far-sighted investor, it is rather the fact--pregnant with extraordinary possibilities-that this city guards the avenues of approach, to those treasures of mother earth, which skirt her borders, and of the entre to which, she holds the only master key. To conduct you into these Titan strongholds, through the fragrant intervening wilderness of wealth producing timber, demands however the exclusive scope of a separate chapter. HON. P. M. PETERSON.

Page  43 ;r, i-- II r I %, ~j/ri rr/. h

Page  44 NAL 1i VAilv ýA iW Xvdvd ob N kadIk i

Page  45 CHAPTER III. ECONOMIC RESOURCES-THE MINE AND THE FOREST. HE chief aim sought in the compilation of this pamphlet, is to present no inference or statement of fact, not warranted by evidence. The sources however from which the facts as embodied have been obtained,-outside of personal investigations -are given elsewhere. Before plunging direct into the mysterious realities of the irondom of to-day, one word as to subzoic traditions. Long before Pere Marquette was an entity, or even the consideration of his creation a possibility, and long previous to the great flood-Noah's flood-there existed if we are to believe the assertions of scientists, a race of Mound Builders, some of whom from very western Asia-or that part of it, where longitudes almost cease to exist-fugitives from Babel-invaded this peninsular. Here they fought for right of way, with the now extinct mastodon, a four legged bandit, eighty-five feet high and who if still in existence, would doubtless be utilized by the ingenious Flat Rocker as a pine-cruiser. The Mound Builders were the earliest mining Argonants of all, for within the recesses of their ancient tumuli, the first French explorers found ladders, levers, chisels and hammer-heads, in the open veins of abandoned mines. All written record however of their doings is lost. Tho' the pages of history were sodden with the deluge, the implements of their calling still exist. Neither was the art lost with the manual, for this autumn of 1890 thousands of rust-stained prototypes still labor in the same subterranean cellars of ore, which now hem wonderful Escanaba in a girdle of steel. In 1721, not Anno Mundi, but Anno Domini, random explorers following in the footsteps of the Jesuit fathers verified the reports circulated by the old christian propagandists, and declared that the records of the country published previous to 1700, in no way exaggerated the importance of the displayed mineral wealth. In 1770 a company was at last organized in England, and operations were commenced on the branches of the Ontanagon river. Little but intermittent exploring was then done by the government, until the systematic explorations of Dr. Houghton, the first state Geologist of Michigan, were undertaken in 1831. With his death in 1845, the unpublished results of his researches perished with him. In 1844 United States surveyors under Mr. Burt reported the existence of iron ore in large quantities, in the neighborhood of Negaunee. In 1845 an association was formed by southern peninsula men for the "purpose of exploring the mineral region of the south shore of Lake Superior for copper, silver and gold." Originally styled the Jackson Mining Company, it was with due regard for its ostensible service, subsequently changed to the Jackson Iron company. In 1847 a forge was built on the Carp river near Marquette, and the first iron from Lake

Page  46 46. Superior ore was smelted on the spot on the tenth day of February 1848. The daily output of ore at that time was three tons. In 1849 the Cleveland mine near Ishpeming was opened. In 1850 a few tons of ore were shipped to Pennsylvania, and the bar iron product proving of excellent quality, seventy tons of Jackson mine ore was manufactured into pig-iron at Sharon in the same state, and the attention of the ironmasters, there and in Ohio, was at last forcibly drawn to the new field of supply. Up to 1854 it is estimated that only 75,083 gross tons of ore were shipped from all the iron mines of Michigan, the output for which year is placed at 3,000 gross tons. The following figures will show the rapid rate of development of ore during the succeeding decades, giving the total output for each named year. 1864 total shipments from 5 Michigan Mines 247,059 gross tons. 1874 " " " 21 " " 399,934 " 1884 " " " 47 " " 2,225,146 " 1889 " " " 70 " " 5,829,828 " " Making an aggregate, including production of all previous years of 43,824,957 long tons. Of these 70 mines in all, that of the Lake Superior Iron Company heads the list with a total output of 4,669,006 tons for 31 years; the next relatively largest being the Chapin mine with an output of 2,494,210 tons in ten years, but for any given year the Norrie mine leads with a product of 674,290 tons in 1889; its gross total in five years reaching 1,442,692 tons. This year its entire output for the season will exceed 1,000,000 tons! The total output of the Iron mines of Michigan for the present year is estimated by Mr. Chas. D. Lawton, State Commissioner of Mines, at 10,000,000 tons of ore. Five ranges contribute to Michigan's product, viz-the Marquette, the Menominee and the Gogebic, and shipments of this output are made at the following five harbors, Marquette, Ashland and Two Iarbors on Lake Superior, and St. Ignace, Gladstone and Escanaba on Lake Michigan. The port of Escanaba ships more ore than all the other five ports combined. Before entering upon the question of local facts connected with this enormous output, let us briefly study the general features of the iron trade, and later the direct bearing this trade has upon the future of Escanaba. The area of country comprised in the three ranges tributary to Escanaba, contains in the district of Marquette some 150,000 acres, spread over a territory about 35 miles long by 7 miles wide. The Menominee, which in itself consists of three subdivisions, includes (1) the country lying between Waucedah, a station on the North-Western railroad and the Menominee river, embracing 25,000 acres; (2) Crystal Falls portion 20,000 acres, and (3) Iron River district 10,000 acres; 55,000 acres in all. In the Gogebic and Penokee belt are 20,000 acres. This latter range is approximately 50 miles long, and from one half to two thirds of a mile in width. Of these lands it is hardly possible to acquire any by purchase. The usual practice now, is to permit exploration, subject to "option," which gives the right to erect camps, use timber, and sink shafts and test-pits, wherever desired, conditionally upon the employment of a given number of men, with option of lease after a certain amount of ore has been developed. This lease carries the tax of a royalty, of from 25 to 50

Page  47 47. cents per ton, on all ore mined, with the proviso that the lessee shall pay royalty on 10,000 ton of ore per annum, whether the amount is mined or not. The woods are full of explorers and an immense sum is annually paid out on explorations, the results of which are usually kept a profound secret. Indeed to this day the country "largely remains a veritable incognita, even to persons as adjacent to the scene as Sag'inaw or Muskegon. That the mining of iron ore, is an industry in its veriest infancy, notwithstanding the enormous annual output, is a fact fully recognized. Twenty years since many persons were of the opinion that this layer of ferruginous compound would shortly "play out." Further explorations have however established the fact, that the supply of ore is inexhaustible. Pessimists have declared that the ORE CARRIERS AT NO. 4 DOCK. minerals of England were at the point of exhaustion. Sir James Kittson and Sir Lowthian Bell, president and past president of the British Iron and Steel Institute, have shown that even at the present high rate of consumption, there is enough for the next 600 years. England's consumption of iron at the present time is 290 pounds per head of her population. In Michigan the Chapin mine alone, has according to recent survey, sufficient ore at the present rate of production to last thirty years. Its annual output is from six to eight hundred thousand tons. At the town of Iron Mountain where this mine is situated, the total annual output from five mines there, is over one million tons. The monthly wages of employes and miners amounts to about $170,000. The nearest working mine to the city of Escanaba is the Vulcan, 35

Page  48 S 48. miles distant. Two miles outside the town the "needle" will not however work, owing to local magnetic attraction. The whole country though in one sense traversed by explorers, will take years before its thorough exploration is complete. Not a season passes but new properties are developed, and purchased by syndicates, who embark upon a working scale, undreamed of but a few short years since. The coal mines of Belgium 3,500 feet deep, have always been quoted as the deepest in the world. The shafts of the copper mines of Michigan are in some cases over 4,000 feet, from mouth to bottom. In some of the iron mines 160 tons of ore has been hoisted, and carried one third of a mile, and discharged, within an hour. The Chapin mine which changed hands for a $2,000,000 consideration last year, employs 2,000 men. The syndicate-of which Ferdinand Schlesinger is head-and which purchased the Chapin, acquired at the same time six smaller mines at an outlay of $1,750,000. Every year the iron producing ranges are enlarged in area by the discovery of fresh ore beds. The crude methods in vogue comparatively but a few years since, have now been superceded by every conceivable appliance, calculated to augment the output whilst reducing the cost. The miners in the republic of Honduras used to carry the water from the shaft in leather bags, up notched poles, and take 12 days to raise 100,000 gallons. With improved machinery forty times that amount can be pumped out in 24 hours. The ores of Honduras had to be transported overland by mules, whose feet had to be hardened in hot lime juice to resist the burning rocks. Two hundred pounds was considered a good pack load. From Escanaba's iron ranges 40,000 tons can be shipped and carried by land and water over 600 miles in less than three days! In Michigan of to-day a shaft 16x6, has been sunk 660 feet through the rock in nine months time, at a cost of less than $41 per foot. Mines are in operation with a yielding capacity-I should say an actual output-of 1,000,000 tons of ore per annum. Magnetic separators for the segregation of the rock and ore, are in daily use. The sinking of shafts has been accomplished, by actually freezing the earth the entire depth of the necessary excavation. Machinery has been driven by compressed air, manufactured by Menominee river water power, and forced through a 24 inch pipe over three miles in length, and has served as the sole motor for the Chapin and Ludington mines. In a word it is almost impossible to imagine a more complete demonstration of the conquest of mind over matter, and marches of inventive genius, than is exhibited in the mines of northern Michigan. In such an outline sketch as this it is hopeless however to give aught but a bare skeleton of facts. Perhaps a better idea can be formed of the magnitude of the mining industries, when it is estimated that $128,000,000 have been paid out to shareholders since the properties in this peninsula were first wrought. In 1889 the copper mines alone paid $2,970,000 in dividends. Statistics however of this description are hard to obtain. Michigan iron ores are of extraordinary richness. Sixty-two and nine tenths per cent. of metal is given by the state geologist as the average. In many instances the ore containing as much as 69 per cent. of metallic iron with only.009 per cent. of phosphorous. The value of ore is based on the percentage of phosphorous it contains. The presence of phosphorous detracts from the

Page  49 49. quality of iron. Indeed if it exists to a greater degree than one tenth of one per cent. the ore is not up to Bessemer standard, and it is for this reason that Lake Superior products, outrank the ores of Alabama, and indeed the minerals of all Southern states. It is a very great rarity in the South, to find any ore suitable for the manufacture of pig iron which can be converted into Bessemer, and the Chattanooga Tradesman is authority for this statement. Hence not only are the ores shipped from Escanaba unequalled as to quantity, but they are as rich as those of Sweden, and the purest in the world. As the relation which iron ore bears to the prosperity of Escanaba, is of such an intimate nature, no excuse is necessary for extending these remarks, to the relation that the manufacture of the product bears to the raw material. Modern science is the science of steel. From the electric despatch which overthrows dynastys, to the metal brads in your boots; from the baby's safety pin, to the Krupp gun; from the blade which drips in conquest over your landlady's beefsteak, to the blade which propels the cruisers of destruction; from the locomotive which waltzes off with the amazed bride, or bears the argosys of wealth from remote spheres-to the flexible corsets which embrace the best women in the world-all are of steel. In its multifarious uses steel can be compared on grounds of adaptability to an elephant's trunk. Chicago, according to its own papers, is about to build the greatest series of steel palaces the sun ever shone on, which will be viewed by twenty millions of people who will have journeyed thither on steel rails, behind steel locomotives. And so on ad infinitum. Hence if the production of iron is enormous, it will inevitably be met by a corresponding increase in consumption. The extraordinary interest in the manufacture of steel is probably no better demonstrated, than in the recent visit of hundreds of representatives of the iron industries of England and Germany, to the shores of America, for the especial purpose of inspecting the Michigan iron mines. The world's production of iron ore in 1889 was some 54,000,000 tons. Of this the Lake Superior district produced one-eighth, three quarters of which was shipped from the port of Escanaba. It is difficult to find words to convey the immensity of Escanaba's trade. Perhaps the following figures will convey a better idea of its volume. The Dominion of Canada in 1888 is reported to have consumed of exported manufactures of iron and steel $11,771,000. Of this the United States supplied her with $4,743,000, this latter amount roughly estimated, represented probably, nearly 200,000 tons of pig-iron, of a value of $2,300,000 and calling for nearly 500,000 tons of ore, an amount, which based on the record of best daily shipments, has been carried from the docks at Escanaba in 12 days. The equivalent of the total yearly production of iron ore in Canada, has been shipped from the Escanaba docks in two days! Yet it would take a solid train of 800 miles in length, each car loaded with 20 tons, to remove the total quantity of ore carried by boat from the port of Escanaba this season. The question naturally arises, how long is this gigantic trade in ore going to continue. The best answer to this, rests in the fact, that whilst the production of pig-iron in the United States for the year 1889 was 9,579,000 tons, her consumption however was about 10,000,000 tons, for she imported pig to the value of $2,887,884,

Page  50 50. besides importing ore valued at $1,507,658, whilst of all manufactured articles of iron and steel, she purchased in other countries a stock, appraised by her own customs at $39,114,681, being about one-seventeenth of the value of the whole of her imported merchandise. Now whilst it is true that she also exported of her own iron manufactures, to the extent of $21,156,109 (within $100,000 of the value of her imported tin) this in no sense offsets, or balances the trade, for whilst the demand for certain of her steel manufactures is certainly not diminishing, her demand for native ore is largely developing. The duty paid upon these imported articles crude, and manufactured, amounted as stated in another chapter, to nearly $17,000,000 last year, which fact carries its own lesson to the consumer. Under these circumstances it does not appear likely that the manufacture of iron will languish, or that the consumption of ore will not continue to be maintained at an increasing ratio. The average price of all pig-iron in the countries from whence imported was a little over $16, and of railway irons, part steel, $24, exclusive of all transportation charges and duty-.....!............... -- - -- --- ------ -__--11.-1-------_ST. JOSEPH'S CATHOLIC CHURCH. that is, the values, as per invoice. The relative prices of the manufactured product compared with the raw material are enormous. Even in the casting of metal pipes the price of pig-iron is doubled. Grates and ranges are worth from three to five times the price of iron, and a locomotive nine times thatof the crude article. A bar of iron worth five dollars if converted into horse shoes, would be worth W10; if into needles $350; if into pen knife blades $3,285; and if into the balance springs of watches, $250,000. The metal used in the manufacture of fish hooks costs $1,680 a ton, the hooks themselves selling for $75,000. Oh! yes, there's money in iron, which the various mine owners in Escanaba's kingdom are daily proving to their substantial satisfaction, and at whatever particular stage iron stone may be handled, to those who handle it accrues a handsome profit. The ore shipped from the port of Escanaba during the season of 1890, converted into pig-iron would almost equal the annual production of pig-iron in all France; would be nearly twice as much as that of Belgium; twice that of Austria and Hungary combined; nearly three times as much as that of Russia; nearly four times as much as that of Sweden; more than eight times.that of Spain; and would be twelve times greater than that of all other countries of the world, ex

Page  51 61. cepting of course that of Great Britain, and Germany, and regardless of the remainder of the product manufactured in the United States. These are startling figures, but based upon the latest available official trade returns (1888) of the countries referred to, can be accepted as correct. Escanaba's asserted supremacy it willbe seen is not an idle boast. A further study of the iron and steel trade reveals the suggestive fact, that the United States and Great Britian having about one-fourteenth of the population of the globe, have supplied 62 per cent. of the world's product of pig-iron and 65 1-2 per cent. of the world's product of steel. Whilst Escanaba prides herself upon the fact that she is the Iron Hub of the world, she might so far as the manufacture of pig-iron is concerned, be as remote as is Tasmania from Michigan's ranges, instead of being as she is, the very bulls-eye of the base of supply. She is calling, calling for men of capital, intelligence and energy, to start her furnaces, and set the timid cogwheels of her sleeping industries in motion. Who will be the first to obey her commercial summons? Will you? A Pittsburgh paper is authority for the statement that in one year of 25 days per month, the wages paid out to the 37,350 men employed in the blast furnaces, rolling mills, and other iron manufactories in that city, amount to $23,487,500. If it pays Pittsburgh to convey ore a thousand miles with 40 per cent. of its bulk unprofitable, and engage in its manufacture at an enormous profit, what is there to hinder its manufacture at Escanaba from being doubly profitable? Charcoal can be had here in inexhaustible quantities at from 5 to 7 1-2 cents a bushel, or coal at $2.50 to $3 a ton, and no waste of 40 per cent. on unproductive material. It has been predicted that in less than fifty years the present per capita consumption of iron in the world will be 50 pounds, and that the requirements of the United States and Canada alone will be 20,000,000 tons yearly. The consumption in the United States for 1888 was 300 lbs. per head of the population. The pages of this pamphlet could be flooded with interesting statistics of the iron-trade, but enough has been written on the subject to establish the fact, that Escanaba is designed by nature for a manufacturing metropolis, and that she offers exceptional facilities for the conversion of the raw material into the manufactured article of commerce. Before proceeding to the question of the actual cost and profit attached to the manufacture of iron, let me emphasize the relative position which Escanaba occupies in regard to all of the iron ore shipping ports on Lakes Superior or Michigan. With eastern men in particular, Marquette has always been regarded as synonymous with the trade of this peninsula. As this is an age when every pot is assumed to be quite capable of standing on its own bottom, it is legitimate gazetteering to correct erroneous impressions, in regard to any points supposed to be in competition for the same trade. Reference to the diagram which appears on the following page will,disclose Marquette's true position., JLN 151891 ' t -- 1* -^ --^ V^-u^ ^<

Page  52 DIAGRAA NAJLrIC TAiBLE, Showing the comparative quantities in Tons of Iron Ore shipped in one season from the undermentioned Iron Ore Ports, situated respectively on Lake Michigan, the Bay of Biscay, and Lake Superior. SCALE: ONE MILLION TONS TO TWO INCHES. 1.-Port of Escanaba, Lake Michigan, 3,800,000 tons. 2.-*Port of Bilbao, Spain, Bay of Biscay, 3,000,000 tons. 3.-Port of Ashland, Lake Superior, Wisconsin, 2,100,000 tons. 4.-Port of Marquette, Lake Superior, Michigan, 1,350,000 tons. 5.-Port of Two Harbors, Lake Superior, Minnesota, 860,000 tons. 6.-Port of Gladstone, Lake Michigan, 80,000 tons. 7.-Port of St. Ignace, Straits of Mackinac, Lake Michigan, 16,000 tons. *For twelve months, 1889. In every other case the output is estimated for the seven months, ended 30th November 1890, but based on the official returns, which give the total shipments from the several-ports up to November 19th, inclusive. On this date Marquette had shipped 1,312,363 tons only. Her last shipment of 1689 tons was forwarded on the 22nd, her season's gross total showing a decrease of 58,982 tons from last year!

Page  53 53. The prime factor which tends to concentrate commerce and develop industries is cheap transportation. Economy in freights all other conditions being half equal, absolutely controls trade. Freight the world over, averages about $40 for every $500 worth of merchandise carried. The imports of all nations during twenty years previous to the world's census of 1880, amounted to 12 per cent. more than the exports; which proves the statement. The cost however of freight on ore from point of lake shipment to destination, is from two-fifths to three-quarters of its value at the mines mouth. There are no discriminating freight rates, hence the transportation cost of lower grade ores, reaches in some cases the total of their value at the pit, which of course under present conditions, bars them from a market. Let us see how this works, as a matter of profit, to the smelter establishing himself at Escanaba, taking for test a high grade ore, with an initial advantage of 35 per cent. over other ores, to the eastern manufacturer. Lake Superior ores at the pit mouth range all the way from $2 for 60 per cent. hematite, to $4.50 for best hard ore, delivered at lower lake ports at an additional cost of at the least $1.60 for transportation, and a loss of profit, of from 30 to 50 per cent. owing to freight charges on that amount of unproductive raw material. Freight rates between Escanaba and lower lake ports, as compared with those from Marquette and Superior ports, are from 20 to 35 cents per ton in favor of Escanaba. These figures are not thrown together haphazard, but are based on the experience of practical furnace men, who have been connected for years with the smelting industries of Michigan, and are submitted as an "average estimate," out of the numerous examples furnished me by VIr. Stegmiller, Mr. English and Mr. J. H. Harris. Estimate of cost of producing one ton of Bessemer Charcoal Iron, with a modern plant and appliances at Escanaba: ITEMS OF COST. Ore 1, 1-3 tons at $5.......... $ 6.66 Charcoal, 80 bushels at 7 cents......... 5.60 Limestone Flux, - - - - - - -.25 L ab o r, -............ 1.50 M anagem ent,............50 Ten per cent. on above for Incidentals,....... 1.45 Cost of one ton of Iron....... $15.96 A 60 per cent. non-Bessemer ore will cost about $2.70 per ton at Escanaba. The difference in the value of ores, and in the ten per cent. will make a total of $2.53 per ton in favor of the lower grade ore. To this must be added freight charges on pig-iron to, say Cleveland, seventy-five cents, and from thence to Pittsburgh one dollar, making in all $17.71 for Bessemer, and $15.12 for the lower grade. Charcoal pig in Pittsburgh is worth all the way from $23 to $30 a ton. A furnace with a capacity of 50 tons per diem, and equipped with every modern appliance, and kilns for burning its own charcoal, with dockage, and necessary lands, could be established at Escanaba in first-class style, including $25,000 working capital, for $100,000. In order to earn ten per cent. on this amount, an average of 40 tons a

Page  54 54. day or 14,400 tons a year, would require a profit only of seventy cents per ton of pig-iron produced. The cost of production as against market values, shows however a difference of from five to ten dollars. Taking the low average profit to be $4.00 per ton clear of all expenses and interest, there should remain to the smelter at the end of the season $57,600 net gain! A sum sufficient to keep him out of the poorhouse, and a further sum if applied as a sinking fund, sufficient to release the capital invested, within two years. A gentleman, whose name I am not at liberty to mention, cleared $100,000 last season out of his interest in a Michigan blast furnace. One other example will suffice. I append the items of cost of production at the Jackson Iron Company's'furnace situated at Fayette, Michigan, on Big Bay de Noquet, as given by Mr. McCorquodale, the Superintendent of the company in 1885. The difference, as compared with the previous estimate submitted, is accounted for first, by the then higher rate of general expense, and the fact that the ore used, was brought from Negaunee 62 miles by rail to Escanaba, and thence re-shipped by boat to Fayette a distance of 35 miles by water. The Jackson Furnace is the pioneer smelter of the Northern Peninsula. JACKSON IRON COMPANY, ITEMS OF COST. Ore 1 1-2 tons 62 per cent. - - - - - - $ 7.75 Charcoal 112 bushels, - - - 7.90 Limestone, - - - - - - - -.25 Labor and Office Expenses, - - - - - - 1.67 Cost of one Ton of Iron, - - - - - - $ 17.57 There are some people who insist, and their judgment is entitled to consideration, that there is more money to be made in smelting low grade ores, and their conversion into anthracite iron; but notwithstanding the fact that coal in large quantities could be laid down in Escanaba at $2.50 a ton, there seems to be no substantial inducement to advance in favor of anthracite pig, other than the tempting one of cheap fuel. Coal however reduced to coke loses 45 per cent. of its bulk. A ton of iron requires about 3,300 lbs. of coke; it requires much more flux than does the product of charcoal; costs the same amount of capital and labor to handle; and with low grade ores, would relatively cost, laid down at Escanaba, an increase in freight alone of thirty per cent. Add to this the fact that its market value is less by, from three to four dollars per ton, than is charcoal iron, and the tempting text of cheap fuel would seem to be a delusion. It is well to mention also that the production of anthracite pig is steadily decreasing. For the first half of 1888 there was a falling off, from the corresponding half year previous, of 144,482 tons, or more than one-seventh of the total product, whereas the manufacture of charcoal iron is steadily enlarging, having increased at the rate of 12 per cent. in the same period. Charcoal furnaces make more pig for a given capacity than coke or anthracite. In Sweden, as well as in the United States, charcoal furnaces of 1,000 to 3,000 cubic feet capacity, produce 50 to 70 tons weekly per 100 feet, the large English coke blast furnaces of 15,000 to 20,000 cubic feet, and upwards, usually producing only 15 to 30 tons weekly per 1,000

Page  55 55. feet. Superior coke iron, I find quoted at Pittsburgh at $19.50 per ton. The question however of the exact cost of production of either kind is a difficult one to solve. Furnace men seldom divulge the real secret, and items of cost can of course be only approximately reached. Conditions also are so variable, that results are seldom siemilar in any two furnaces; and prices of course fluctuate. One thing however is certain, and that is, that if pig can be produced in remote eastern centers, and sold, reshipped, and resold in the northwest--bearing two freights-at an immense profit, it is apparent that its manufacture at Escanaba-the base of all the crude suppliesshould prove a commercial bonanza. That blast furnaces will be established here, is a natural trade sequence, the only question to be -decided now is, who will take the initiative. Will you? At stations on the line of the Canadian Pacific in Ontario, malleable iron works in operation, purchase Michigan charcoal iron to advantage, after paying freight, and $4 duty, at from $30 to $40 a ton. The pig-iron requirement of Canada is about 275,000 tons annually. The amount of pig-iron produced last year was 21,799 tons LOGGING SCENE ON THE ESCANABA RIVER. only. The Chicago Steel works, 280 miles from Escanaba by water, have an annual capacity of a million tons of steel rails, and can use as much more in structural iron. A twenty story building is about to be constructed there, 265 feet high, whose super. structure will be all steel. Markets? Why we are surrounded with them. Carwheels made at the Cochrane foundry at Escanaba, of Michigan iron, have been shipped to the celebrated Lowmore furnaces in West Virginia, and pronounced by purchasing experts to be superior in quality to any other. Lake Superior metal after subjection to the most crucial of tests, is admitted to lead the product of all other countries, where chill-work is indispensable. With this array of facts, can any one doubt the pre-eminent advantages which Escanaba this day offers to the manufacturer, who is experienced in the conversion of the raw material, into the pig-iron of trade. Having devoted all the space permissible to the consideration of Escanaba's greatest staple, let me turn your attention before closing this chapter, to the next

Page  56 56. most important product, which exists in her rank growth of standing timber, forming the wilderness of forest which covers the thousands of square miles of her shadowed highlands. The richness of Michigan's timber is unsurpassed, and Escanaba is environed with its best varieties consisting of pine, oak, maple, beech, ash, walnut, cherry and whitewood, hickory and elm, whilst cedar, hemlock, basswood and tamarack flourish in extravagant abundance. Its best lumber supplies the markets of Chicago, Buffalo and New York, and the growing demands of the prairie states, It is only about fifty years since, that the lumbering industry was established at Flat Rock, and the date of its local inception, is about co-temporary with the erection of the first saw mills in either peninsula. Correspondence with the Secretary of State at Lansing through the Representative for Delta county, failed-I regret to say-to elicit any documents or facts on state trade statistics. Reference to these would doubtless have resulted in the embodiment in this pamphlet of information, of peculiar interest to the outsider. The total product of lumber in the state of Michigan in 1881 was estimated at 3,919,500,000 feet! ' Sawed lumber alone. In 1889 the output of the mills may be placed at double that figure. A glance at the topography of the country surrounding Escanaba, will at once explain the attraction it possesses for the lumberman. The whole district is furrowed with lakes, streams and rivulets, which have borne upon their foaming breasts the myriads of pine logs from the sombre forests which flank their contracted courses. The chief of the rivers which flow into the Little Bay de Noquet are the Escanaba, Ford, White Fish, Days, Rapid and Tacoosh, draining an area of several thousand square miles. The Escanaba which is 115 miles in length rises some 15 miles from the south shore of Superior, and in its headlong rush to Michigan descends from an elevation of 1060 feet. The Ford river is about the same length, whilst the White Fish with a drainage area of 450 miles is fifty miles long. The greatest elevation on this water shed is near Lake Michigamme 1250 feet above Lake. Michigan. These rivers are filled with the din of tumultuous waters, and present endless vistas of savage beauty in their rugged escarpments, and thundering cataracts. Lavishly endowed by nature with waving standards of wooden wealth, and liquid tramways, it is little wonder that the Ludingtons and the Stephensons were attracted by the challenge of the pines, and stirred the echoes of Escanaba's cliffs with the civilising clip of the axe and the buzz of the band saw. Whilst some were tunelling their way, an army of human moles, towards metallic independence, another legion of resolute humanity in untiring imitation of the beaver, were leaving a broad swathe of fallen timber through the untrodden pine lands, and in lowering the standards of the green coniferous woods, were rapidly elevating their own. Whereas Mr. Royce as has been shown, can be regarded as the father of Escanaba, so can Mr. I. Stephenson in like manner be regarded as the existing representative of the first lumber interests established on Bay de Noc. In the very early days of 1844 Isaac Stephenson reached the scene from New Brunswick and obtained employment with Jefferson Sinclair. In 1848 when Sault Ste. Marie was the first land office in the northern peninsula, and when the lands-which previous to January 1847 had been held under government leases, then declared by

Page  57 57. the President to be "without authority of law"-were offered for sale to those persons, who trusting in the faith of the government, had devoted their labor and capital, in exploring the country and developing its mineral wealth." Isaac Stephenson visited the place and purchased the first lot of lands placed upon the market. Gold or its equivalent was the only medium of exchange then, and the equivalent was represented in scrip, soldiers' land warrants, issued to the army of 1812. Some 2,000,000 acres of land in the then Territories of Louisiana, Illinois and Michigan each, were set apart for this purpose. The surveyors entrusted with the work reported there were no lands in Michigan "fit for cultivation!" The whole of the 6,000,000 acres was then located in the other two territories. Twenty miles by two miles square however were bought by Messrs. Sinclair & Wells as a timber limit on the banks of the Escanaba. In 1854 Jefferson Sinclair surrendered his interests to the Ludingtons, who had also extensive ranges in the Menominee river district at Marinette, at which date Stephenson became a partner, and has since continued to retain c-ntrolling interesit in the affairs of this great corporation. The land referred to was purchased at ten shillings an acre. The mills and the logging camps at the Flat Rock and Ford Rivers were the the A lma Mater of the men who have since climbed into prominence as the "lumber kings" of Michigan, and it was in the odorous pine lands, that these riparian athletes learned their first rough lessons on the sorting boom, and the drive, and from which school of milling, such men as Holmes, /' Carney and the Stephenson brothers;, Isaac, Samuel and Robert graduated. The head office of the present Stephenson company, incorporated in 1888, is in Chicago, but the producing trade of the firm is of course all centered at Escanaba, the properties S at these two points being valued at $600,000. In order to meet the increasing demand, the existing water mill was supplemented by a steam mill in 1887, this was completely destroyed by fire in 1890. Its re-erection is now in progress. The joint mills have a capacity of 100,000 feet per day of ten hours, the lath mill has a capacity of 20,000 daily, and 50,000 shingles can be turned out per diem. Every foot of the stock is dried in the yards before shipping. The yearly output is about 20,000,000 feet. The firm employs some 125 men. The present limits extend over an area of 35,000 acres, white pine is the principal growth there being but little Norway pine in the country. The rustling secretary, treasurer and resident manager of the business, Mr. George T. Burns, estimates that the life of their forests, at the present rate of cutting will not exceed twelve years. When it is considered that six billions of feet of sawed lumber alone have passed through the mills of Michigan in one year, the gradual disappearance of the pine tree may not be such an impossible fact to realize. This product if placed on railway cars of a capacity of 10,000 feet and each covering thirty-three feet of track, would load a solid train of 3,600 miles in length. A cube of pine seven feet deep by eight feet wide extending from Northern Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico. The estimated consumption of timber in the United States per each inhabitant is about fifty-eight cubic feet per year. Timber, like gold, is almost the only article which has not declined greatly in value during the last decade. The people of Escanaba rightly think that with such an incomparable team as

Page  58 58. is presented in their Iron and their Timber, they can offer, an "unrivalled combination." The strength of their representation, is literally, best demonstrated in the strength of their staples. A rod of Delta pine one foot long and one inch square, after it has seasoned in the yards at Flat Rock will stand a strain of 134 pounds without breaking; a bar of Chapin iron of the same dimensions requires a weight of 5,700 pounds to break it. The manufacture of either offers the same relative profit, based on the comparative standard of its manufacturing value. You are invited to come and test by industrial enterprise the reliability of these statements. You have been shown the value of these products, spare aminute more and follow me into the woods. It is winter. A gonfalon of steel gray sky hangs over the lofty crests of the forest. Soft, white snow-flakes are dropping aimlessly down from these cloudy bastions above, which occasionally break, revealing bright expanses of blue, across which webs of frosted atoms mingling with snow-flakes, drift, and web it diaphanously. The needles of the pines no longer interchange confidences, but bent branches mute with the white weight of accumulated storms, hang their porphyry tassels, submissive to winters cold cerements, and as the winds sweep over the stiffened tree tops, the low murmurs of last summer are silenced in the ominous rasping of the frozen branches. The lumberman is a sanguinary compound, he waits until the still life of the forest slumbers, and his foot fall will be muffled in the yielding snow, and then axe in hand and blood in his eye, he inaugurates his annualslaughter of the innocents. Camps are pitched in snug quarters, and the mackinaw coated shantyman varies his spells of rest, with the innocent pastime of "seven up," or an occasional hand at "draw." The timber is felled near to the banks of streams or the tracks of the logging railroads, or skidded to the point of river transportation, where it awaits the arrival of the turbulent spring freshet, which bears it away on its turbid tides, through gloomy arbours of wilderness, by bright beaver meadows or over thundering cataracts, or placid lake, until it finds a temporary haven from tough usage, in the sweet waters which ripple at Flat Rock, where with thousands of its fellows, it drys its brown back awaiting the inquisition of the mill, which later on discharges it into the world of Escanaba's commerce, where in the busy haunts of industry-after the shame of its nakedness is overcome-it learns the lesson of its own importance, and becomes impregnated with the mysterious realities of the hurly-burly of trade, which reach it ere long in its closer contact with all sorts and conditions of men. But Mr. Burn's company, though the premier establishment, is not by any means the only milling industry tributary to Escanaba. Messrs. Gardner & Wood, of Chicago with the latter gentleman as local manager, have a mill at Hunter's Point, seven miles up the bay. This mill has a daily capacity of 75,000 feet, and a yearly output of 13,000,000 feet of lumber, and 15,000,000 feet of logs. The total value of output is estimated at $225,000, all of which is shipped to Tonawanda, Buffalo and Erie by boat. Many million feet of logs belonging to this firm are towed to the mills at Sturgeon Bay, and as far south as Saginaw. A raft of six million feet was towed from the Escanaba river to the latter harbor this season. At Gladstone Messrs. Davis & Mason, have a mill of large capacity, and at Metropolitan, a station on the Chicago

Page  59 59. & North-Western Railway, forty-five miles from Escanaba, are mills whose output for the period ending October last, based on the shipments by rail, and weighed at Escanaba, amounted to 2,550 cars of sawn stuff, thirty-two cars of squaretimber, and close to five million feet of pine logs. Messrs. Eddy & Glynn also have a steam saw mill with a capacity of 40,000 feet daily. The total output for the Escanaba district comprising Flat Rock, Ford River, Hunter's Point, Gladstone, Masonville and the Metropolitan Lumber Company may be estimated in round numbers at 115,000,000 feet annually. It requires an Inspector in the person of Mr. O. B. Fuller and ten assistants, to keep track of this enormous harvest. It is estimated that in this, and in the Menominee district jointly, 158,000 acres are annually cleared of pine, and speaking approximately, 200 acres should produce a million feet of lumber. If the next generation should witness the depletion of Michigan's pine woods, and the exodus of the lumberman to the everglades of Georgia, it will not be witness RUNNING THE RAPIDS ON THE ESCANABA. to the extinction of its forests. According to recent returns there are some 600,000,000 cords of standing hardwood in the state, besides 6,000,000,000 feet of hemlock lumber, 50,000,000 of white and yellow cedar and tamarack, and 7,000,000 cords of bark. It is stated by those in a position to know, that the product of the various hardwoods of Michigan will when developed not fall far short in value, of the gross earnings of the present pine wood trade. Anyway the time, so far as Escanaba is concerned, has arrived, when she can offer to the charcoal burner, and the wood worker, an unrivalled field for the pursuit of their industry. The Mine and the Forest are reiterating the summons of the apostle, when he begged the passive witnesses from afar to "come over and help us." To-day the same invitation, if in a less exalted cause, is extended to the shrewd capitalist, the persevering mechanic, and industrious laborer. The country is fairly stewing in its own richness of resource. Who will come with the ladle of active industry, and grow rich on the skimmings of this great crucible of wealth?

Page  60 CHAPTER IV. LAND AND WATER--TRADE AND COMMERCE.-THE RAILWAY AND THE STEAMBOAT. VERLAND travel in the United States, via the tens of thousands of miles of her steel pathways, which have woven a metallic maze across the continent, has reached such proportions, as to almost create disbelief in official facts, when a study is made of the. comparative railway statistics of the world. In 1814 George Stephenson alarmed all England with his first locomotive which traveled at the reckless speed of six miles an hour. IIn 1829 the Rocket, in the same north country, which broke all previous records, won a $2,500 prize for attaining a rate of thirty miles an hour. This was considered to be flying in the face of providence. In 1869 the first Pacific railway spanned this continent. From an initial burst of six miles an hour, a speed of seventy miles has been developed, and the few miles of tramways which were laid round about England's Sheffield in 1776, and promptly destroyed by the colliers, find, hugely reflected images to-day, in the 156,000 miles of railroad lines, which traverse, with yet pregnant commercial possibilities, the broad expanses of America's fruitful bosom. Of the 375,329 miles of railroads in the whole world, the United States contains nearly one half. Its total exceeds that of Great Britain and Ireland, Germany, France, Russia, Austria, Hungary, Spain, Sweden, Greece, Canada, -and Australia combined, and of all these various lines of railway in each of these countries, which jointly contribute their share of the world's freight, there is not one, nor a combination of many, that carries over the same relative distance, the enormous output of iron ore, which the Peninsula division of the Chicago & North-Western railway annually deposits in the pockets of the docks at Escanaba. There are a few things of "factual" interest which deserve to be pasted in one's hat. Add this to the category. The first railroad in the upper peninsula was built in 1858--the Bay de Noquet and Marquette road, and forty miles completed in 1865, at a cost of $1,500,000. This same year the line of the Chicago & North-Western was finished between Negaunee and Escanaba, and the first train load of ore was brought in by rail. A one thousandenth, of the total locomotives of the whole world, are employed in the Escanaba division of the Chicago & North-Western railway, at the present time in hauling the annual crop of iron ore. No mighty amount of foresight was necessary a quarter of a century since, to predict a vast transportation business from the iron regions to lake water; but as such opportunities are usually confined to a, lucky few, it is not surprising, that this overland company of ore carriers, have controlled unopposed a very mint of profit, or that until quite recently, the knowledge of this fact, has dawned upon other corporations, stirred with the same spirit of acquisition. That the pioneer line of road,-if it has grown fat on freight-has been of uncalcu

Page  61 VIEW OF THE ORE DOCKS FROM MERCHANTS' WHARF.

Page  62

Page  63 63. able service to the mine-owner, the lake shipper, the smelter, and to the representative, however humble, of every cognate industry-is not to be denied; but that the time has arrived when the story of Escanaba's inheritance must be published, and competition invited, is none the less certain. During the next twelve months there will be in the Delta county, an appreciable number of miles of road added to the 30,000, given as the United States increase, in the last four years; and to the twenty nine billions of dollars, (a German statistican is my authority) said to be invested in the world's railways, Escanaba proposes to offer its comparatively significant quota during the next lustrum. Mr. S. C. Baldwin, was the first superintendent of the C. & N.-W. R'y. He was succeeded in 1882 by Mr. W. B. Linsley. Mr. George M. West is assistant superintendent. To his skill as a photographer the pages of this pamphlet testify. Mr. Barr is the resident agent of the company, his connection with Escanaba dating from 1864. The peninsula division of which Escanaba is the head quarters, comprises all the road-beds north of Ft. Howard Wisconsin, and contains in all 470 miles of track. Two passenger trains arrive and depart each, from and for the north and south, daily, also six freight trains both ways for the north, and ten both ways for the south, daily. Of the 216 daily ore trains, 136 come and go from the west, and 80 i from the north, every twenty-four hours, during the season. The road branches at various points, from the local trunk lines, which will be seen upon reference to the map, all center at Escanaba. The distances from Escanaba in miles, of some of the chief objective ppints, are as follows: Negaunee 62; Ishpeming 65; Marquette 75; Michigamme 87; Metropolitan, 45; Crystal Falls 80; Iron River 90; Watersmeet 126; Menominee 65. The 'furthest point west reached by this road is Ft. Casper in Wyoming, 1,430 miles from Escanaba. The entire system of the road however and its connections, offers direct travel over 6,500 miles of railway. Having taken you over the division of the road, an introduction to the yards at Escanaba will be interesting. In these yards, which cover an area of over 200 acres, are twenty-eight miles of railroad, and upon the ore docks themselves are four miles additional. At the present time 5,500 ore cars are engaged, some with a capacity of eight, and some of twenty tons. One hundred and ten locomotives are kept busy handling this freight and yet notwithstanding this vast tonnage of rolling stock, the company have at times been unable to transport the ore offered to them. The usual number of cars per train is twenty-eight, and sixty-five, according to their capacity. Upon occasions however ninety-nine loaded cars have comprised a single haul. These cars are all built with air-brakes. The longest haul is from Watersmeet, at the summit of the Lake Superior water shed. Last year with a total carriage of ore slightly exceeding 3,000,000 tons, the freight rates amounted to $1,750,000. If 3,800,000 tons, which is the estimated output for this season, is reached, twenty per cent. at least can be added to the total of last seasons rates; this at the lowest calculation, and knocking off a liberal per centage, would amount, in round numbers, to $2,300,000. And yet with all these freight facilities, the company has been unable to meet the demand and carry the cargoes tendered. The Marquette range mines at

Page  64 64. one time during the past summer, asked for the use of 1,700 cars. The company could only spare 1,200, representing an unsupplied want of fifty-two cars a day. Railway statistics afford no parallel to this. Imagine a standing offer of 1,000 tons of freight each day, begging for, but unable to obtain transport. An aggregate of daily freight tolls amounting to $780, which freight receipts extended over a season of 200 days, would pay six per cent. interest on a sum sufficient to build 125 miles of railroad at $20,000 a mile, during a working period of seven months duration. The freight thus denied Escanaba was shipped per force to Ashland. Under these circumstances, it is not perhaps remarkable, that at this late date, other railw ay lines are seeking to acquire a share of this legitimate plunder. A railway whose net earnings at one point-for the first five months of the year-on the carriage of coal and merchandise alone, reached $60,000, and whose net earnings for the month of May are three times that of January, and the earnings of the remaining quintette of navigable months in relatively increasing proportion,-would be, one would think, in a position to regard with indifference, the additional profit derivable from freight receipts on ore, amounting to $2,300,000 per annum. All of this freight until it enters the yards, is hauled over a single track. Other than the ore and general merchandise handled by the C. & N.-W. railway, some thirty million feet of lumber is also shipped to Escanaba, from Metropolitan, besides $250,000 worth of ce'dar and hemlock ties, fence posts, and telegraph poles. About 250,000 tons of coal will also be hauled from Escanaba this season, half of which is consumed by the mines, and half by the railway company. Twenty thousand tons of pig-iron will have been delivered on the docks, by rail, during the year, and over one hundred thousand tons of general merchandise. Within the yards is a busy scene. The tracks crossing and re-crossing each other, like the strands of a spider's web, over which locomotives, and freight cars, pass in an endless procession, filling the air with clang of bells, shriek of whistle, roar of escaping steam, and grinding of brakes, bewildering with their aggressive din. Always combative never willing to recede, and awaiting their turn, to mount the trestle roadways to the long black docks, the intricate approaches to which, forever tax the eternal vigilance of restless switchmen. Considering the enormous traffic, the percentage 9f smash-ups is comparatively small, though collisions, and track jumping of wild trains, when the momentum born of grades defies the air-brakes, are not uncommon, and the low levels then are a golgotha of wreckage. Loss of life is relatively rare, though injuries are not unfrequent. The machine shop is 30 by 300 feet and the blacksmith shop 60 by 300 feet. The round house contains 34 stalls, a paint shop, carpenter shop and repairing shops, in all of which large gangs of men are constantly employed. The very acme of perfection must have been reached, when systematizing the business of this road, or otherwise endless blockades would be of continual occurrence. To relieve this congestion of freight however, and the Chicago road of a percentage of its profits, competing lines as I have stated are now scheming for prior admittance. Already one road has obtained the desired ingress, the Escanaba, Iron Mountain & Western, better known as the Schlesinger road, and with

Page  65 65. magnificent new dock at North Escanaba-the terminal of their "range" railway-have secured direct connection with the Iron Mountain mines, and the shores of Lake Michigan. From Escanaba to Iron Mountain is 52 miles, from thence to Florence, which will be reached in the spring, is 14 miles, and Crystal Falls, the ultimate jumping off place, is 16 miles yet further, 82 miles in all. The last spikes which will pin this steel larriat to the water front at Escanaba, will be driven, whilst this page is still wet from the press, and the million or more tons of ore of the Chapin confederation, will be shipped from the dock during 1891, to Cleveland, Ohio, by a fleet of fifteen steel steamers exclusively operated by the mining syndicate. This ore dock will eclipse all others, and lead the world. It is 1,392 feet out in deep water, and is approached by an open trestle 2,000 feet in length. It has 232 pockets capable of holding 162 tons each, with a total capacity of 37,500 tons. Its dock is 52 feet above the water line. You, dear reader, who peradventure revel in one hundred feet of a local jetty, or 300 feet of a merchants' dock, and wax eloquent over your wonderful wharfage facilities, must either hold your peace, or move to Escanaba. Over 7,000,000 feet of timber will be used in this structure. Mr. Hollidge is the engineer in charge of construction, and Messrs. McIntosh Brothers are the contractors for both railroad and docks. As the gradients on this railway are slight as compared with those of the C. & N.-W., the Iron Mountain trains will haul double the usual load, probably 50 cars of 20 tons each. In addition to the facilities offered by the Schlesinger road, the C. & N.-W. will, it is stated, eventually absorb the Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western, which connects after traversing a rich ore region, with their line at Watersmeet. And not satisfied with this, it will parallel the Milwaukee & Northern, and the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic, competing for the trade now shared by these. The Minneapolis, Sault Ste. Marie & Atlantic road, better known as the "Soo Line," practically an extension of the Canadian Pacific, already has a station at North Escanaba, but without marine connection, and another at Gladstone-with good water facilities-seven miles up the bay; notwithstanding which latter fact however, realizing the commercial importance of obtaining dock privileges at Escanaba, its management is now in communication with the civic authorities for the acquiring of right of way, and lake dockage on the southern water front bounded by Michigan avenue. The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, equally alive to the importance of ingress to Escanaba, are also endeavoring to arrange with the city council for certain concessions, which will secure likewise to them, terminal quarters in the same locality; whilst the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic, recognizing the commercial blunder, which led them to erect costly docks, at the Lake Superior port of Marquette, are not only contemplating, but have actually sought the concessional co-operation of the city, which if extended will confer upon them also, the necessary port accommodation, at the recognized head waters of lake navigation, which every ore road in the Upper Peninsula is now fighting might and main to secure. The degree of importance which is attached to the securing of access to the harbor of Escanaba, is convincingly shown in the fact, that the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Company are ready to sacrifice all the capital invested

Page  66 66. in their huge ore docks and yards at Marquette, and transfer their entire ore interests to the Iron Port of the World. And to impress the full significance of this fact on thb mind of the reader, and to demonstrate the paramount advantages of the port of Escanaba, it must be remembered that, though Marquette is fifty miles by rail nearer to the mines than is Escanaba, the difference of the longer overland haul, is more than compensated for by the shortened water mileage from Escanaba-as against via Lake Superior and the Sault canal-to a common point of intersection, for all lower lake-port vessels on Lake Michigan, which with the added and constant probability of canal detention, and brief season of navigation, robs time contracts of their market essence, and establishes by long odds Escanabas absolute supremacy! Such potent trade facts as these are unanswerable, and are capable of but one, of only two interpretations:-either some of America's shrewdest financiers have gone daft, or Escanaba is verily and indeed, the natural northern outlet for all the vast products of the territories embraced in its own latitude. One of the recognized axioms in railroading, is the readily understood one, that the difference of cost in a long, or a short haul of freight, when the latter is once in motion, is in an inverse ratio, to the distance carried. Every trader knows this, either to his benefit, or his negative loss. The carriage of freight beyond a certain distance is not regulated by an unvarying mileage scale, but is simply a fixed and same sum for any and all points in the one division. Hence with due regard for the value of this established rule I cannot abandon my contention, that Escanaba, profitting largely by this, and other relative conditions, and her physical location, is bound to disturb the western current of trade which has hitherto centered at Duluth, and divert the greater portion of it, to her own, future warehouses of, receipt! We live in an age-compared with fifty years since-of miraculous development. If we who are here to- day, are permitted to see the old village of Sand Point five years hence, in addition to the millions of tons of red ore which will be pouring into the hatches of the iron ships, millions of bushels of golden wheat, a cataract of wealth, will be falling from the spouts of elevators into the ample holds of grain steam-barges. Competition for the grain freights of the northwest is now assured by the construction of these rival roads, and as a reduction of ten cents a ton may be looked for in the charges on ore, a saving of nearly $1,000,000 on the total output will be effected by the mines, which means, that this additional amount will be reinvested in the further production of the raw material. Hence Escanaba's possibilities are in their infancy. It would take nearly five years of her total output of ore, at the present rate of production to supply the metal to re-lay the existing railway tracks in the United States alone. And now that the problem of the manufacture of steel cars has been solved by Mr. Hodges of Detroit, another market for Escanaba's universal product is opened. Some 7,500 iron cars are now running over the railways of America. It is estimated that a steel car will carry twice as much as a wooden one. Over one million freight cars are in use in Canada and the United States. The life of a wooden car is about, at most, say ten years. Without taking into consideration the yearly want exacted by the demands of increased mileage,

Page  67 67. 100,000 new cars are required annually. If in the close future one-half of this number are built of steel, 500,000 tons of metal would annually be required in their construction, consuming about one-half of Escanaba's output of ore last season. In the weight of ships alone, by the substitution of steel for wood, a difference of more than 300 tons weight in vessels of relative dimensions has been effected. But why continue? If space permitted, and I had the time to write, and you to read, I could fill a pentateuch in reciting industrial truths relative to Escanaba. If you are still a "doubting Thomas," for goodness sake establish conviction, by a personal investigation. We have glanced at the railway yards; come now and visit the ore docks. The port of Escanaba has four of these, and one in process of construction. The view on the cover of this pamphlet gives an excellent idea of their general appearance. They are numbered from south to north, from the city side, up. "Number 4," the last one built-the one nearest to you at the foot of the pine tree-will do for an example. Its deck is 47 feet from the water line, and as the natural shore is flanked by a bit of level beach, it has to be approached on trestles. It is 2,524 feet from end to end 1,000 feet on land, 36 feet wide and has 250 pockets, or tanks let into it, whose open mouths 11 feet wide by 16 feet long are flush with its surface. These pockets are built within the lines of track upon which the trains run, and have an average capacity each of about 140 tons of ore. The floors of the ore cars are hinged, and directly the locking bolts are withdrawn, the box of the car which is built on the principle of an inverted mansard roof, empties its contents into the pocket below, and into which the ponderous load crashes with the roar of thunder. Within these pockets, whose inside walls are given an outward slope, the ore rests on the trap which closes the mouth of the iron shoot, which is hinged to the face of the docks side to be hoisted out of the way or lowered into the ships hatchways at will. Directly a ship is in position to receive her cargo, and the shoots-to the number that the location of the ships hatches will allow-four or six perhaps-are lowered into her hold, the retaining doors of the pockets are opened with a resounding bang, and down the echoing iron shoots-split tubes of boiler plates-descend-with the deafening din that solid ore on hollow metal can alone produce-streams of grey bessemer and red brown hematite in their mad race to eastern furnaces. Under the glare of electric light, the scene at night time is a page from the Inferno. Searching rays of brilliance and tangible walls of shadow. An army of leaping "trimmers" and ore men, busy with pick and crow-bar, silhouetted by the lime light, which converts the pink-rust colored surface of their shiny clothes, into gleaming shrouds of shot silk, enhanced by glint of polished pick, and the shower of metallic particles which dance in the incandescence. Now concealed and now bathed in clouds of dense smoke, opaque white steam, discharged with all the combative bluster, which locomotive and ship funnel are famous for. Add to this the strident screams of the engines, the piercing pipe of the ships whistles, the swash of water, the clang of bells, the tumult of departing vessels, the confusion of new arrivals, and,a very babel of voices. Over and above all this seemingly hopeless chaos, but which is in fact system made perfect,-ascends

Page  68 68. the possessing up-roar of the discharging shoots, as hundreds of tons of magnetic boulders, all luminous with their own friction, and with the noise of a billion brass gongs, go bounding down into the black holds of the silent ships. Iitthe construction of this dock 5,137,000 feet of timber (B. M.) were used, 126,440 lineal feet of piling, and 148,565 lbs. of iron bolts. In addition to its own weight, it has to bear when all its 250 pockets are full, 35,000 tons of ore, or a little less than half the weight of its own bolts. The combined capacity of the 832 pockets of these four docks is about 116,000 tons of ore. Mr. Selden late divisional engineer of the C. & N. W., had charge of all dock construction. Separation of the various grades of ores is strictly followed, hence it of course happens that a ship is necessarily detained in moving from pocket to pocket-like a bee in search of honey-seeking her cargo. Notwithstanding this, 2,000 tons have been loaded on a vessel in thirty-five minutes, whilst a ship carrying a cargo of 2,850 tons, has been loaded, trimmed and despatched, taking the seasons average, in eight hours and a half! The date of expected arrival -amongst favored vessels-is wired in advance, and they can usually reckon on their berth, and that their load will be in waiting for them. I have seen a ship, take several hundred tons before she was fairly snubbed up. When the ore is not packed in the pockets it flows down the shoot like brown sugar, and you can see the vessel settling in the waters from the impact. As fast as a compartment is filled with ore, the stevedores-the ore trimmers-descend into the hold and level off the cargo. These men, or the "boss" who farms their labor, receives fjom 3 1-2 to 4 cents per ton, based, not on the amount of cargo, but the ships tonnage. Hundreds of trimmers are employed upon the docks, day and night, and make big wages. Unloading is of course a slower process. Shovels, buckets, and hoists, at twelve cents a ton. During twenty-four hours 40,000 tons of ore have been loaded and shipped from Escanaba! It would take 4,000 vessels of 1,000 tons each to convey this year's crop of ore. You will remember that the "way of a ship upon the sea," was one of the three problems, King Solomon declared, remained to him a mystery. From an Escanaba standpoint however it is quite capable of a solution. But how hopelessly "rattled" the wise King would have been could he have visited Sand Point, and seen the output of his own wonderful mines discounted I have also ventured to explain the way of "an Eagle in the air," by arresting one on the branches of the pine tree, on the cover of this book. As to Solomon's third proposition I am silent, as it is foreign to the thread of this story. The first steamship that appeared on Lake Michigan, visited the straits of Mackinac in 1819. She hailed from Lake Erie, and was called the "Walk-in-the-Water." To-day the total tonnage of vessels, engaged in the ore trade and cleared at the port of Escanaba, for the season of 1890 amounts to nearly 7,600,000 tons. Including the tonnage of ships carrying coal, timber, pig-iron, and general merchandize, it will considerably exceed 8,000,000 tons. The total of the tonnage of all ocean vessels entered and cleared at the custom district of New York, from and for 63 foreign countries amounted last year to 11,000,000 tons only, or less than one-third more than that of the Iron Port of the World. Mulhall ranks the greatest sea ports of the

Page  69 earth in their order of tonnage as follows: London, New York, Liverpool, Marseilles, Antwerp, Hamburg, Havre and Glasgow. As Liverpool is placed at 7,320,000, Escanaba outclajses her, and ranks next to New York, discounting the great Mediterranean port of Marseilles; altogether distancing Antwerp, Hamburg, Havre and Glasgow, and occupying third place in the list of the greatest shipping entrepots of the world! The total tonnage of the combined ports of Great Britain is but nine times greater than that of Escanaba. In extenuation of these statistics however I must add that in the case of New York, the figures are from the official records of -1889, whereas those of the other great ports, are taken from returns embodied in the edition of Mulhall issued previous to 1887. I have furthermore disregarded in the case of each port the fact as to whether the vessels were with cargoes, or in ballast, a feature of comparison, which operates of course largely in favor of Escanaba. The trade of Liverpool on a basis of freight actually conveyed into, as well as out of port greatly exceeds of course that of Escanaba, but under any conditions, whether regarded from the tonnage of entrances and clearances, or based on actual freights shipped and received, Escanaba ranks fourth, and beats all other ports in the world hollow. These figures of course, in no sense, are intended to convey the erroneous impression that the value of Escanaba's marine trade is in excess of or even equal to any of the ports referred to, as no suspicion of comparison even is permissible as regards values of freights, and no sane man would dare to hazard the parallel. They are submitted however as amazing facts, requiring no coloring, but indicative of the growth in trade of an almost unknown port, whose commerce is rapidly attaining extraordinary proportions. The level of Lake Superior is 18 feet above that of Lake Michigan, which latter is 579 feet above the sea, is 345 miles long, is 84 miles broad, contains 22,400 square miles, and is 870 feet deep, and is encompassed exclusively by American territory. At the present time some fourteen distinct lines of vessels are engaged in the ore carrying trade of Escanaba, the chief of which are as follows: Inter Ocean Transportation Co., Mutual Transportation Co., Minnesota Transportation Co., Menominee Steamboat Co., Milwaukee Transportation Co., Brown Steamship Co., Lake Superior Transportation Co., Sandusky Transportation Co., Milwaukee Tug Boat Line, Lehigh Valley Transportation Co., Goodrich Transportation Co., Wolf Davidson S. S. Line, the Drake Syndicate of Buffalo and the Bradley Fleet. The best of these are of steel. Besides these there are innumerable "wild" boats and lake "tramps." For the year ending June 1889, 989 new vessels were built, and added to America's merchant marine, exclusive of 88 canal boats, with a total gross tonnage of 221,682 tons. To afford a relative idea of the immensity of the trade of the great lakes, I will give the figures for the four divisions separate: Atlantic and Gulf coasts, 612 vessels 89,058 tons. Pacific coast, 112 " 17,939 " Western Rivers, 83 '" 12,202 " Northern Lakes, 182 " 102,483 " To recognize the class of the lake built ships it is only necessary to remember, that

Page  70 70. whilst the number built on the lakes was four and one-half times less than that of the total number launched throughout the country, the carrying capacity was within 16 thousand tons of the grand total of all the rest of the ships built in the whole of the United states combined. Of these, Michigan supplied 90 vessels with a gross tonnage of 53,153 tons, against New York's 198 ships, with a gross carrying capacity of 22,445 tons only! And yet Escanaba's shipping trade is but in its earliest infancy. The most capacious of these steel boats, and probably the handsomest vessel on the lakes, is the Inter Ocean Transportation Company's ship "Maryland," of Milwaukee, Captain Jos. E. Yacks, which runs regularly between Chicago and Escanaba, in" connection with the Illinois Steel company's Works. The Maryland is 335 feet long, 42 feet beam, 24 feet deep, 32 feet from deck to top of pilot house, has nine hatches, is 1,200 horse-power, has a draught of sixteen feet six inches loaded and twelve feet nine inches with water ballast. Her speed when light is thirteen and when loaded, twelve miles an hour. Her quickest recorded time to Chicago, and return to Escanaba, a distance of 576 miles, including time consumed in unloading, is 52 1-2 hours, PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH ESCANABA. and she burns sixty tons of coal on the round trip, carries a crew of twenty-three, cost in the neighborhood of a quarter of a million dollars, and has taken in one load from the docks, a cargo of 3,737 net tons of iron ore, and has averaged eight round trips in thirty-one days. Another vessel, the Cambria has been loaded with 2,400 tons of ore, trimmed and despatched in two hours, and averaged during the season five trips per month to Ashtabula, Lake Erie and return, a distance of 1,100 miles for the round trip, carrying for the season a grand total of 100,000 tons. At a freight rate of 60 cents per ton, in the case of the Maryland and 85 or 90 cents per ton in the case of the Cambria, it is quite possible for either vessel to earn $90,000 during the season. Allowing $27,000 of this for salaries, fuel and expenses, and$13,000 to pay interest on investment, either of these boats would have paid for themselves at the close of the fifth season. That there is enormous money in carrying ore is evidenced by the fact that a score or more vessels of greater capacity and finish to any now floating will be turned out of the dock yards next spring. Many of the mining companies operate their own fleet. Mines, railways, docks and ships all un

Page  71 der the one control. Upon a summers day to get within the cool shade of the balsam boles, which cast their grateful shadows on the beach at Michigan avenue, and watch the procession of these black monsters, as they come thrumming up Green Bay, pumping out their water ballast, and signalling the dock masters with brazen steam calls, is an educator to implicit believe in Escanaba's marine pre-eminence. The fact that the ore boats return here light, preferring time to cargo, is in itself a significant trade sermon. The splendor of the fittings of these boats is equal to those of most ocean liners. The effort is of course concentrated on the captain's quarters, the dining and smoking rooms, and the two or three staterooms, for the accommodation of invited guests. No other passengers are carried. Transportation by an ore boat is a mark of especial favor. The wood carving of these interiors and the exquisite taste displayed in the fittings, spoils one for a palace. Panels. of butternut and walls of polished white-mahogany, smoother than the satins of their delicate draperies, with their yielding lounges, more suitable for a honeymoon than for a bluff lake skipper's forty winks. These are all all aflame with the dazzle of mirrors and the glitter of hammered brass. Huge sailing vessels also visit Escanaba, carrying 2,500 tons of coal, and the steel boats of the Lehigh company steam out of the harbor for Buffalo with. 26.,000 barrels of flour from Gladstone. Everything is conducted on a colossal scale." Thirty-six vi6ssels can be loading at the ore docks, six at the lumber docks, and six discharging their cargoes at the coal docks, simultaneously. These latter docks with their Ludlow and Champion hoists, and two hoisting engines, have an unloading capacity of 3,000 tons per day. The lumber dock has a capacity of 50,000,000 feet, and the pig-iron dock 195,000 tons. The coal rates from lower lake ports to Escanaba in mid-season are about 40 cents per ton, to one dollar towards the close of navigation. At times a fleet of seventy or eighty vessels, has been in port at the same time. From the opening to the close of navigation, by sunlight or electricity, day and night, the docks are continuously the scene of a frantic rush of business, and the army of officials and workmen have little chance of rest. Ever and always unceasing motion. A commercial St. Vitus' dance. During the past eighteen years the earliest opening of navigation at Escanaba, was on- March 16th. The latest, May 6th. The earliest closing was on November 80th, the latest on January 5th. The average season is however from about April 25th to December 10th. Vessel insurance ceases on November 30th at noon. Between Escanaba and ports on Lake Superior there is practically a difference of from six to seven weeks longer duration of open season, in favor of Escanaba. Ice and canal detention, higher insurance rates, lower water, and more dangerous navigation, and locked gates after dark, whilst handicapping northern harbors, all contribute to Escanaba's trade. Ship captains won't ascend the "Soo," and carry half loads only, subject to this quoted list of disadvantages, when Escanaba offers them complete freedom from all such drawbacks. Hence, the railroads are compelled to seek the ships, and as a corollary Duluth and Marquette in future will have to content themselves with but a "mess of pottage." The suggestion of an English expert to deepen all the canals between the Atlantic and Superior at a cost of 30,000,

Page  72 72. 000 dollars if accomplished, would not retard, but stimulate Escanaba's trade. The contemplated construction of a canal from the head of Escanaba harbor, across the peninsula to Au Train and Houghton on Lake Superior at a cost of $9,000,000, whilst completely side-tracking the Sault St. Marie locks, (542 miles would be saved on round trips from Chicago to Duluth) would develope the shipping trade of Escanaba, for her commercial position is unassailable, her geographical location is impregnable. By existing waterways Escanaba is 300 miles nearer to Cleveland than is Duluth, and 62 miles nearer than Marquette. To Buffalo, the same relative differences exist, whilst to Chicago, Escanaba is nearer than is Duluth by 539 miles, and than is Marquette, by 280 miles. I present these figures as a text, out of which the lightning calculator, can evolve his own commercial problems. Canals are invaluable factors where physical conditions interrupt navigation. Escanaba however is suA MACKINAW" BOAT. premely blest in that she has '"no use" for them. One hundred and seventy-eight Lake Superior vessels were delayed at one time for several days this summer at the Soo, owing to a break-down; fifty-eight vessels grounded during the month of May. Nothing of this description mars the entrance or the exit of Little Bay de Noquet; as against 14 feet 6 inches of water at the Sault Ste. Marie, Escanaba has from six to ten fathoms. In 1889 though the tonnage of the Sault canal was 7,221,935, exceeding that of the renowned aqueduct at Suez which was 6,783,177, no comparison must be instituted as regards values, for the freight passing by Port Said was officially valued at 282 million dollars. For 1890 the tonnage of Escanaba's ore vessels alone amounts to about 7,500,000 tons. Men who "go down to the water in ships," can bear witness to these truths, as do also official records, all of which tend to establish the fact that the harbor of Escanaba, is unequalled, and that the blue tides of shimmering Bay de Noquet do not raise their white crests in defence of a "Mare clausum."

Page  73 ri.i-;:i r r::I ';i I i -~. ~a~~~;: i

Page  74 _ _ _~ THE COCHRANE ROLLER MILLS,

Page  75 CHAPTER V. / ) C5 INDUSTRIES-EXISTENT AND POSSIBLE. SROB ABLY there is no city in America, of equal size to Escanaba, and pos-; sessing one-tenth of its natural advantages, but can show superior progress in the realms of manufacture, than can the Iron Port of the World. In the introductory remarks which preface these chapters I find the following sentence: "While Escanaba stands alone then, the mistress of the iron ore trade of both hemispheres, her individual economic condition"-that is, her condition as regulated by the application of political economy-"is one of comparative poverty." This is distressingly true. With the exception of the saw mill, and railway work shops previously referred to, and two establishments for the manufacture of malt liquors and mineral waters, she has but one factory engaged in the conversion of the crude material into the perfected article of trade. Before enumerating then what the industrial enterprises are, whose absence from her trade directory would fill a lexicon, let us consider the few existent ones, and they insist on unusual attention, for in the case of the celebrated Cochrane Roller Mills, it is the original foundry for the production of the wonderful chill rolls and which as patented, bear its name. Originally established at Dundas, Ontario in 1888, by the inventor of the roller, Mr. W. F. Cochrane, and the present President, Mr. Valancey E. Fuller, it later sought a center, where shipping facilities, and the natural resources of the country would seem to indicate an eligible site for its permanent location. The results of Mr. Cochrane's inventive genious reached the ears of the late Hon. James H. Macdonald, then Lt.-Governor of the State of Michigan, an Escanaba capitalist and shrewd business man. Impressed with the importance of the invention, a "deal" was effected, and the foundry was transferred to its present quarters. A few weeks previous to the completion of the new buildings however, both Gov. Macdonald and Mr. Cochrane lost their lives in a deplorable railroad accident, and for five months from Jan. 19, 1889, all work was at a standstill. In June of the same year however Mr. Fuller, whose interests in the enterprise remained unchanged, was called to the president's chair, and with characteristic energy cleverly directed, succeeded in placing the affairs of the company on a satisfactory basis. The foundry, which is built of white brick, and faces the main line of the C. & N.-W. railway at its crossing of Stephenson avenue, is 200 feet long, 75 feet wide, with walls 35 feet in height. The machine shop is 250 feet long, by 60 feet wide. It stands in a plat of ten acres, about five of which are covered by buildings. The structure cost $50,000, the plant

Page  76 76. $175,000, and in point of general equipment and peculiar value of its machinery, is probably not only the most perfect foundry in northern Michigan but the most complete, north of Milwaukee. The scope of its manufacturing capacity is not however limited to the production of the now celebrated "One belt drive, continuous train of Rolls," but is rather taxed, in construction of machinery and other iron and steel manufactures, required by the railroads, the steam boats, the mines, and in the structural work of buildings. Under the management of Mr. Frank Brewster-a practical expert-the perfection of chill work has been attained. From the same cupola, and at one heat, iron is daily cast, having a depth of chill of three inches; rolls are cast whose chill is from one, to one and a quarter inches, and trucks with a chill of a quarter to three quarters of an inch, which is claimed is the equal, if not the superior of any known furnace. It has good grounds for this contention, as it controls the trade in chilled truck wheels in both the Menominee and Marquette Ranges, and bases its asserted superiority, on the one of many grounds, that its supply of pig-iron is drawn from the superlative mines of Michigan. Besides one foundry in Connecticut, and one in Deleware, it is the only factory in America which makes chill rolls as a matter of distinct commerce. Its energies in this direction are exclusively confined to the manufacture of the Cochrane patent, which from its singularly profitable advantages, has in the face of strenuous manufacturing opposition, completely won over every mill man who has given it a trial. The chief feature of the Cochrane train of Rolls is, that forty rolls, can be driven by one belt, on a continuous shaft, and all embraced in the one frame, whereas by the old method, four rolls only could be driven by one belt; and its grist advantages do not stop here, for according to the testimony of mill men in various localities in the United States and in the Dominion of Canada, its ratio of production is forty to to fifty per cent. over all other systems of rolls, using the same amount of power. The substantial consideration also exists that it can be erected, operated and maintained at a greatly reduced cost; whilst its product leads that of all others, in its more even granulation and consequent market value. The Cochrane Rolls are without doubt the appliance of the future, and as the merit of the "Big One," is already extending its reputation into the remote eastern states, it will be but a few seasons, if the testimony of leading millers is of any value, before a complete revolution in milling machinery will have taken place, and a larger output of superior flour, at a more than corresponding decrease in cost, be universally practicable by the adoption of Escanaba's wonderful chilled rolls. The people of Sand Point are a thirsty multitude, and the demand for Mr. Nicholas Walch's amber liquids, are second in degree only, to the admitted standard of their quality. The Escanaba Brewing Company was established in 1887. The building which is of red brick, is on Delta avenue on the bay shore. The water exacted by its capacious vats, is pumped from an artesian well, which has an unfailing flow from a depth of 700 feet. It has a capacity of 8,000 barrels a year, its four floors, 80 by 90 feet being fitted up with an apparatus of improved design. In August last 600 barrels of its mellow brew slaked the parched thirst of Delta's dusty highway and byway men, and is fast taking the place of Milwaukee's imported com

Page  77 pounds. To those who are of a more temperate disposition Mr. Jepson offers with his soda water factory, a choice of aerated, and mineral draughts, mountain beer, syrups, essences, and all sorts of drinkable effervescence known to the trade. His factory on Mary street is furnished with the latest style of machinery, and his manufactures are equal to the best. And with these the calendar is exhausted! The fishing industry of Escanaba in 1866 when little but salt fish and not much of that was shipped, gradually developed into enormous proportions five years later, when the catch exceeded that 'of all previous years. In 1881 the Booth Co. shipped over 1,500,000 pounds, and Messrs. Winegar & Burns 700,000 lbs. of whitefish, lake trout, dory, pickerel and sturgeon, to Chicago. At this time the fishing season had no limit, and any kind of net was permissible. The fishery laws though passed in 1878, were not enforced until 1887. Meanwhile the waters of Escanaba became practically depleted. Anyway the fish disappeared, and phenomenal catches became a thing of the past. The Booth Co. abandoned their freezers and costly packing houses, and left the field to Mr. B. D. Winegar who now is the sole operator in the industry. This gentleman declares the total catch now will not exceed 500,000 lbs. though the fish which are caught are of exceptionally fine quality. The state hatcheries at Milwaukee and Lansing, are striving to re-populate the waters, but it is claimed the "fry" is not properly placed, being deposited in deep lake, instead of in the shallower waters of the shore line. It is also claimed that no fishing should be tolerated during the spawning season, and that offering fish for sale below a certain size, be legally and strictly prohibited. The fish dealer now has no alternative, greatly to his loss, but to purchase every grade of fish brought to him. Reference has already been made at length to the saw mill interests, and the city lumber yards of the I. Stephenson Co. under Mr. Burns' management, and that of Mr. Butts'. The latter gentleman however has just acquired a site on the Cochrane addition upon which a planing mill and sash and door factory is now in the course of construction. Here lumber will be manufactured for the wholesale and retail trade by improved machinery, and presents a field of lucrative profit to the enterprising promoter. This closes the enumeration of Escanaba's existent industries. You naturally ask in the face of the wonderful facts which I have recited, as to her wealth of resource, how it is that she halts in the midst of such great advantages, and stands at gaze, when her hand should be on the horn of the plough of progress, hurrying to fruition her list of palpable possibilities. The trouble has been that amongst her people are men who through adventitious circumstances, have been in a position, if not to mould public opinion, yet by the force of their example, to encourage others to aid them in throwing cold water on any live project which might not happen to play directly into their own hands. Nearly every town has a few of these petticoated exponents of the customs of a dead century, men imbued with an amount of trade intelligence, equal only in degree, but in an inverse ratio, to the estimate they have themselves formed of their own business abilities. Escanaba however in this particular has more than her proper share. An enormous trade has developed in their midst, but through no effort on their part,

Page  78 and whilst they are quite sensible of increasing prosperity they regard the challenge thrown at them by commerce, much in the same way that a Commanche Indian views his first "locomotive." Others again realizing that they have a "soft" thing, encourage the less discerning into the belief that with the arrival of outside capital and labor, will surely come the crack of local doom. After all however it is possible they have their uses, and though they may act as a kedge anchor in one sense, they do not entirely "hopple" the more intelligent men of business, whose desire to attract outside attention, is shown in the publishing of their lines of trade, in the business directory, attached to this pamphlet, and a careful study of whose various advertisements, will give the man who may contemplate embarking in business in Escanaba, a very correct idea of the branches of trade, whose field yet remains unoccupied, The banking facilities of Escanaba are of a very limited nature. Since the PRESIDENT FULLER'S RESIDENCE withdrawal of the Greenhoot Bros. and the Delta County bank, only one other institution remains to handle a business entirely out of proportion to its capacity. The crying demand amongst the merchants for another bank has however induced the Escanaba Banking Company to come to the rescue, who it is announced will be in a position to commence business after the advent of the new year, with a capital stock of $50,000. The vast extent of timber lands contiguous to Escanaba, have already been referred to, and statistics given of the estimated living crop of hardwood in the northern peninsula, out of the manufacture of which, into staple articles of trade, fortunes are waiting to be made. Clearing the lands of the pine does not however kill off arborescent vegetation, for from the ashes and decay of the fir tree springs up as a second growth, poplar and white birch, cherry and hemlock. Of the bark of hemlock, hundreds of thousands of dollars worth are annually shipped to eastern tan

Page  79 neries. In the manufacture of leather, there should be remunerative profit for the experienced man, for not only is the supply of tan-bark inexhaustible, but a very large trade in hides already exists. For the establishment of a paper mill, no better opportunities are possible than those offered by Escanaba. Material for pulp abounds in the forests of pine, poplar and spruce, whilst the latter produces the finest sulphite in the world. Hundreds of cords of pulp wood are yearly shipped from Delta and adjoining counties, south to Kaukauna and Appleton, 150 miles, when it could be manufactured at a handsome profit at Escanaba. Forty cords of wood will make 2,700 bundles of pulp, representing over 70,000 lbs. of wrapping paper. Spruce and poplar make the best print papers known. The paper mills in the Fox River Valley, Wisconsin, actually seek their pulp wood from this county. A small mill will consume 100,000 cords annually. The difference in price of pulp wood there and at Escanaba, is $1.25 per cord in favor of the latter place, which would in one year amount to a sum sufficient to construct a new pulp mill. Who will start one? A box factory would obviously pay well here, the materials are inexhaustible and markets adjacent. A wagon and sleigh, buggy and cutter factory could also be operated to remunerative advantage, indeed the manufacture of all kinds of vehicles and agricultural implements, could be engaged in to endless profit, when the plethora of hard and soft woods, and the enormous supply of iron is given due consideration, and there is little doubt that agricultural works ere long must be erected at Escanaba, and upon a large scale. The manufacture of furniture perhaps would be the most profitable industry of all. The local trade demands a very large supply, and if a factory was established for the producing of the most needed articles of the trade, a handsome return for the investment might be looked for. Every one appears to be agreed on this. Elm and basswood, and ash grow in profusion, as do both varieties of the maple, also beech and cherry, and black and yellow birch. The uses of these woods is manifold. Every description of woodenware would also find ready and adjacent marketsbowls, pails, tubs and shovels, should recoup handsomely the man who would engage in their manufacture. Cedar grows in profusion, and to great dimensions. i'amarack is abundant. Wood suitable for veneer and for panel work attain magnificent proportions; charcoal timber exists in inexhaustible quantities. And nearly all these staple manufactures, for which a splendid local market exists in the northern penisular, are saddled (after the raw material has been shipped to the southern manufacturer, and re-shipped to the consumer in the north) with two freights. A polygonal turning factory, would pay well. Indeed as I have attempted to demonstrate in previous chapters, almost any industry dependent on the two great components, iron and wood, ought if established at Escanaba, to prove a source of complete profit to the investors. If large enterprises are sought, scope for capital is presented in the great need which exists for the establishment of a dry dock. With a shipping trade, as shown in the capacity of the vessels entering and clearing from the harbor, and expressed at 8,000,000 tons, there is no hospital for sick ships nearer Manitowoc, and a disabled

Page  80 80. vessel has now to be towed to this port if she needs repairs. Added to this the field for ship-building is unlimited, and as all the structural requisites are produced upon the spot, the construction of every kind of marine carrier, could be prosecuted at a minimun outlay. Railway car-works, would also find a home market, for the output of a factory operated on an extensive scale, whilst the co-operation of the existing and complete Cochrane foundry, would largely minimize the first cost, in the equipment and running of any kind of works, were iron so largely enters into the composition of the manufactured article. In addition to the woods already named, there are nine distinct kinds of oak, also five kinds of maple, two species of elm, three of cherry, the American linden, three of ash, black-walnut and butternut, three kinds of hickory, two of beech, ironwood, balsam, poplar, cottonwood, sycamore, and three sorts of birch, besides some nine varieties of pine and fir. To the artificer in wood, this array of raw material extends an attractive invitation. In addition to copper and iron, salt, gypsum, stone, slate, brick, clays, and glass sands of high commercial value, are scattered through the territory, whilst coal beds exist in some districts and are being mined to considerable profit. Over 58,000 tons were produced in 1889. About two miles back from the shore line of Little Bay de Noc, and six miles from Escanaba's wharves, explorations for coal are now being prosecuted with good results. A shaft 150 feet deep has been sunk, and still in progress, the promoters being satisfied with the yields brought to the surface by the drill. Sufficient guaranty has been presented to warrant the prediction of future coal fields for Escanaba. The production of copper in the northern peninsula, for 1889 amounted to 38,393 long tons, being nearly two-fifths of the entire production of the United States and less than one-seventh of the product of the world! The Ropes gold mine at Ishpeming 60 miles from Escanaba, produced last year $90,060 of gold anb $9,655 of silver. Can any one with this startling array of commercial inducements, doubt for one moment that the trade possibilities of Escanaba have been over-estimated? I imagine not counting as I dare, upon her past achievements, that it is but reasonable to regard them,-even viewed through the searching glasses of business calculation-as the prelude to future exertions and expanding destinies. The doors of her ante-chambers have been thrown open, and the sinews of her material might displayed, it only now remains for the seeker after profitable investments, the skilled artificer, and the industrious manual laborer, to determine by a personal inspection of this city of promise, the measure of these written veracities, now submitted.

Page  81 CHAPTER VL THE TOURIST AND SPORTSMAN-DREAMLA ND-ROD AND GUN. HE tourist and the sportsman, if they have followed the story of Escanaba's early days will doubtless have reached the just conclusion, that the sobbing of the dark pines, and the low soft murmur of the yellow sand bars, audible with the fervor of the hot wet kisses of Bay de Noc, from June to September,-rightly interpreted, tell inviting tales of hunting possibilities and a -. bewitching dreamland. ' To the fagged out citizen of more ardent latitudes, S. the health-giving breezes laden with the ozone which rises from the beryl-tinted waves of Green Bay, or odorous with the essences, shed by the fragrant pine forests-is imparted a degree of vigor, that nothing but a seminorthern atmosphere can inspire. Already the virtues latent in the temperate breezes of Lake Michigan, qualified by the ruder winds which cross the peninsula from Superior-strained through the green intervening sieve of balsam and of linden, and which reach Escanaba, purged of bluster and freighted with vitality, have established with all those who have ever visited the place, a reputation for great healing powers. In the summer the prevailing winds are from the northwest and southwest. A current of moving atmosphere, crossing to and fro every few alternate hours of the day. The mean average temperature for the month of July, extending over a period of ten years, is found to be about 67 degrees. As the summer advances this rate, of course increases. People afflicted with hay fever and bronchial affections, obtain immense relief, from a few weeks sojourn at the skirts of the pine forests. Escanaba in itself has been singularly free from epidemics, and now that the town has established a thorough system of drainage, and possesses magnificent water works, little more remains either to be desired or obtained. From Chicago to Escanaba by water is 280 miles, by rail 326 miles, but the traveler is not limited to this line of route. The Cleveland line of steamboats, which call at Detroit bound for Mackinaw make direct connection at St. Ignace with the South Shore road for North Escanaba via Trout Lake, as do also the Canadian Pacific boats calling at St. Marie, from whence by the main line of the "Soo" road, Escanaba is reached the same afternoon. Once at Escanaba, the traveler is limited in his choice of hotels. There are but two of the better class, and they are classified as "the one that sets the best table," and "the one that has the better rooms." As a man can hardly arrange to table d'hote at one and lodge at the other, he must regulate his selection according to the development of his carnal or his mental inclinations. A first-class hotel is badly needed, and the picturesque site of the present deserted Tilden house, on Michigan

Page  82 82. avenue, offers a splendid opportunity for a modern structure, in the hands of a competent Boniface. Having landed you then in the office of the New Ludington, and drawn your attention to the gleaming bosom of Bay de Noquet, as seen through the hotel windows, whose sparkle a hundred yards away you never grow weary of watching, I will-assuming you to be a sportsman as well as a tourist-recount the especial advantages which constitute Escanaba a typical summer resort. The fact of Escanaba being only a few hours ride by rail from Chicago, or from hundreds of other less large cities, within the same radius, makes it quite possible for the business man who wants to share an outing with his family, to join them after office hours at the close of the week, take in all the peace, and quiet, and sport, and beauty-I refer to the scenery-which possesses the place, and return, with a new lease of life, and a fresh grip on his constitution, in ample time to open up the counting house on Monday morning. Michigan avenue, as it now stands, is one of the finest natural marine parades on the continent. The Ford River road, which runs a sinuous gold brown ribbon through seven miles of Michigan leafy wonderment, ON THE BEACH, MICHIGAN AVENUE. cannot be surpassed as a forest drive. It follows the shore line of Green Bay through the dense timber. For miles along the beach, and for a mile out, the water is so shallow that children can bathe with absolute security and hence boating is unattended with any risk at all. All along the shore line are magnificent places for pitching tent, and as flies are never troublesome, camping out becomes a protracted picnic. Here in the summer days, to the dreamful splash of water, the drowsy murmur of swaying tree tops, the whispers of the woodlands, the faint whirr of humming birds, the lazy buzz of bees, the hum of pacific insect life, and the mellow piping of the robins,-hammock swung, and pondering over the fiction of your choice, you can watch the great ships with their banderoles of black smoke, as they come surging out of the purple horizon; the white gulls lazily circling in mid-heaven; the mackinaw boats with cinamon colored sails, idly flapping in the heat-killed wind; the splash of a salmon trout as he takes his air bath, or rises to a fly-all this you can do, "unter der Linden" of Michigan avenue. And when tired of yourself you can seek the society of your goddess in muslin, place her in the stern sheets of an Escanaba "wherry," and skuAl 'round the lighthouse point, and so to the merchants' dock,

Page  83 83. where you will find Capt. Chas. E. Burns and the steamer Lotus, of whom you will ask passage for yourself and your odalisque, to Maywood or Hunter's Point. The Burns Transportation Co. run a line of fast boats which connect with the "Soo" railroad at Gladstone, and other points between Escanaba and the head of Bay de Noc. Gladstone is seven miles distant. t'he "Lotus"-which was built for a yacht owner on the St. Lawrence-will carry you there in twenty-seven minutes. The bay is four miles wide, and as you flank the buttresses of lime stone which guard the west coast, and set your courses for the Sunset Club's house, beg of Capt. Burns who is a great traveler to show you his relics of Palestine, and before you fall into raptures over the beauties of Squaw Point or Maywood, learn from him something about the valley of Jeoshaphat, and the plains of Sharon. He went there with the "Advents" from Maine years ago. The chief points of interest on the west shore, are -first of course-familiar lat Rock at the mouth of the Escanaba, Gladstone, a THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. shipping place of growing importance, Days River, Masonville and the Tacoosh river. At Gladstone the bay contracts, and as you reach the narrowing passage, into the smaller bay beyond, the depth of water diminishes. On the east bank are Squaw Point, Maywood, Hunter's Point, and the Whitefish river. At each of these places is a saw-mill. The scenery that frames the bay is entrancing. Maple and fir, birch and spruce, a blend of constrasted foliage, with indented yellow shore line and rocky ledges in places, cool green with bits of mallard-looking marsh, along the edges of which in autumn, scarlet leaved trees bend their blood-red crests like a band of flamingoes. The glories of these woods and these waters, over which I am tempted to linger, offer towards sundown with their sky-scape of beaten and burnished gold, with their cisterns of pale cobalt and misty seas of green jasper, and the jagged points of wind tripped clouds, like rippled sand bars seen through stained glass,-a picture impossible to perpetuate with the ordinary blacks and whites of modern pages of print. How would it do to stamp all such descriptive writing from............:::n =................:............:S n:............................._.... shipig lac o gowig mprtace DysRivrMaonvll ad te a4ot river At ladsone he by cotracs, ad as ou rach he.nrrown..pss..,..n to ~ ~ ~ ~~ -----.h.mllrb..eo d,.edpt wae imnse............st.b....... Squa Poit, Mywod, Hnters Pintand he hiteish ive.....e.h.o..h.s

Page  84 84. founts of colored ink? Maywood is a delightful spot. Here is a landing place and here, already, Chicago people are arranging for the building of summer cottages. Near to Squaw Point is the house and grounds of the Sunset Club, the fashionable Mecca of Escanaba society, with its Dutch doors and open fire-places, where the jeunesse doree don their blazers and their boating frocks, and where after the usurping demands of business are temporarily dismissed, Sand Point commerce or those of its representatives who are lucky enough to be on the list of the club's limited membership-abandon themselves to love-making, fishing, yachting, and feasting. As "article 999" of the club by-laws explains that "Everything Goes," the members emulate Steerforth's advice to David Copperfield, and "Go it." Here you meet delightful women, and no less entertaining men, and can be accommodated with a waltz and an ice-cream, or a John Collins and a quiet game of "draw," according to the style of the lines upon which you happen to be built; or you can seek the piazza and in company with "her," note the transcendent moon effects of tranquil Bay de Noc. The bays and rivers are alive with fish, bass running all the way up to four pounds can be caught from the landing. Huge pickerel abound, and tremendous perch. Magnificent bathing can be had, and the Lotus calls four times a day. In the inland lakes adjoining, and up the rivers, trout are plentiful and offer grand sport, and the fame of Escanaba's fishing grounds. as evidenced by the increasing advent of fishermen from distant states, is rapidly extending. To the devotee of a tenbore, and a bag of decoys, the marshes round about Maywood and the mouth of the Whitefish river, present incomparable wild fowl shooting, for which a punt and a good dog are indispensable. The chief varieties of duck are the Mallard, Blue Bill, Red-Head, Wood duck, Fall duck, Butter-Ball, Widgeon and Teal. About the sedges the Jack-snipe love to linger, and in the woods the Ruffled Grouse and the spruce Partridge drum to their hearts' content. Red deer are very plentiful; at Felch mountain, near Narenta on the C. & N.-W., their tracks are as thick as those of rabbits in a warren, whilst close to Metropolitan, and within a few miles of Escanaba, the strawberry beds of the farmer is a favorite stamping ground. The forests are full of berries, and absolutely free from flies, and springs of the purest water fill the thickets with the music of their babble. Escanaba can boast of some devoted and thorough sportsmen, and to the stranger in search of information I would strongly recommend him to tax the advice of such men as D. W. Kolle (jeweler), J. N. Mead (druggist,) or J. A. Walker (tobacconist), all of whom as very courteous gentlemen, would gladly extend the benefit of their experience. Appended is a synopsis of the Game Laws of Michigan, showing the open seasons: Deer, in the Upper Peninsula, from September 25th to November 15th. - Fawns in spotted coat, and deer in red coat, must not be killed at any time. Deer must not be killed at any time while in the waters of any lake or stream. Hounding prohibited and dogs may be killed. For Woodcock, Partridge and Ruffled Grouse, the season is from September 1st to January 1st. For Snipe, from September 1st to May 1st. For Wild Turkey, from October 1st to December 1st.

Page  85 85. For Wild Geese, Red Heads, Blue Bills, Canvas Back, Widgeon and Pin-tail ducks, September 1st to May 1st. For Wood, Teal, Mallard or Gray duck, and all other wild fowl, from September 1st to January 1st. Prairie Chickens and Quails protected till 1894. Wild Pigeons. No fire-arms can be used against wild pigeons within five miles, and no trap, snare, net or other means within two miles, of tneir nesting place, at any time from the beginning until the last hatching of such nestings. Insectivorous Birds and Song Birds must not be killed or taken, nor their nests molested at any time. Brook Trout, from May 1st to September 1st. Grayling, from May 1st to November 1st. Mascalonge, Black and Green Bass, from July 1st to March 1st. Perch and other varieties at any time. All sorts and conditions of men and women congregate at Escanaba, and though the former as a rule are strapped to the commercial grindstone, the "women-kind" as Thackery calls them, have ample time to improve the opportunity and cultivate "diviner things." Indeed none of the elements required for the attainment of as A HUNTING CAMP ON THE ESCANABA. high a standard as exists, is wanting in its social condition. A just estimate of this can be reached from the degree of culture evidenced in household interiors, better emphasized in the realms of music and art, as expounded in the higher accomplishments of many of Escanaba's wives and daughters. Church choirs, musicales, cameras, and easels attest this, whilst ravishing toilettes, have given currency to the state proverb, which quotes every article of feminine raiment when of a particularly "fetching" description, as "a la Escanaba." Hence if you are dyspeptic, "worn, and hard beset" with your own effete world and out of joint, come north and regain vitality at Escanaba's Siloam. If a chokebore is your idol, take the earliest season's train for the mallow marshes of Maywood. If a Winchester is your weakness, hasten with all speed to the glorious pine forests of the Delta, where red bucks grow fat as they champ the wild juniper. If the reel, the creek, the swish of the bamboo, and the plunge of the bass, constitute your arti

Page  86 86. eles of faith, hurry to the silent pools of Bay de Noquet, where the spotted beauties in liquid ambush are waiting to add vicarious aid to your chestnut stories. If the palette is your fetish, bring your canvas to Sand Point, for over the woods and hills of this peaceful peninsuil' nature has spilt her richest paint pots. If the womenGod bless them-of your native hamlet lack the charms that invest our own northern daughters of Eve, get a dispensation, and find your womanly ideal under the leafy arches of Michigan avenue. And if,-and oh! perhaps of more paramount importance than all else-your investments are not proving what they promised, sharpen up your commercial wits, and hasten to retrieve your waning revenues, by a legitimate test of the industrial opportunities which are presented to the live man of business, be he capitalist, manufacturer, or artizan, in the expanding destinies of "THE IRON PORT OF THE WORLD." A BUNCH OF MAYWOOD BEAUTIES.

Page  [unnumbered] F. J. MERRIAM eO., (succESSORS TO VAN CLEVE a MERRIAM.) REAL ESTATE L INBURANCE. Escapaba City botS aid $uburba9 Acreage Property+ Sole Agents for the Lots and Other Lands Belonging to THE I. STEPHENSON COMPANY.., And also for the lots contained in the property known as THE COCHRANE ADDITION. TIMBER, FARMING AND MINERAL LANDS IN ALL PARTS OF MICHIGAN AND WISCONSIN. * 21NE, 1INE * Tributary to all Rivers, Bay Shore and Railroads. -EXTRA FINE CEDAR FOR SALEI+ Along the C. & N.-W., Milwaukee & Northern and Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, and on the Bay Shore in groups to suit the purchaser. HARDWOODD AND FARMING LANDS ON THE LINE OF RAILROADS AGEN7I~S FOR THE LANDS OF JAS. B. GOODMAN & CO., F. H, -VAN CLEVE J. IA.VAN CLEVE, In the Upper Peninsula. SOLE AGENTS FOR THE LOTS BELONGING TO TrHE M. I. & 0... Co., Fm '. Van( Cled, F. D. Mead and the qoodmran Addition, Town of Gladstone. TAXES PAID AND ASSESSMENTS OF NON-RESIDENTS ATTENDED TO. ~7CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED.

Page  [unnumbered] V. LINDEN, DBALE3JR IN iroceris CROCKERY, GLASSWARE, Woode.w rc, Etc. 1 Gromplete Line of OGents' FJrnishing Goods. CORNER LUDINGTON AND CHAROTTE.,B C. LINDLEY, PAINTER A1wND DECORATOR,* PEIC AITA Au owI"' INTERIOR DECORATIONS, IN PLASTICO OR PAPER, A SPECIALTY. We represent the several branches of the trade, and would be pleased to submit original or special designs, and also estimates, for any work in the U. P. A TRIAL WILL co fMYt=C YOU TIATg SWDE LEAD. S SHOP LOCATED ON EAST END LUDIJNGTON STREET.

Page  [unnumbered] Columbus J. Provo, COfiTlfACTTO1 A14D BUILDEli. Plans for buildings furnished. Contracts taken for all kinds of work, either in city or country. Raising and Underpinning of buildings a Specialty. Satisfaction guaranteed. None but first-class mechanics employed. Shop Corner Hale and Georgia Streets. Address Lock Box 638, - - - Escanaba, Michigan.: C. G. SWAN,: HIGHEST CLASS OF * Expert Work in Painting and General Decorating. e Calsomining and Paper Hanging of a Superior Finish. Artistic designs in Plastico, for interiors, and every description. Sign Writing in all modern styles, attractive and effective. The painting of carriages and sleighs a specialty. Correspondence invited and estimates cheerfully furnished. Shop and Residence Cog, Second and Charlotte Sts, - - - Escanaba, Mich'gan FPi0ED EE1.:1A1HHIs, @ CC)NT1RCTR - uND 5 BUI@dlbeTS@ Work of Every Description promply executed. Plans and Specifications for buildings of all kinds. Office at Residence, Cor. Wolcott St. and Ogden Ave. Escanaba, - - - - - Michigan.:L. VILMER,: (0NTRACTOR ANBUTLOER. ESTI IATES F'.7IRN ISHED. ESCANABA, MICHIGAN.

Page  [unnumbered] E.B.ROYCE C~ITY PAND SUBURBAN PROPERTIES~ Daniel Wells, Jr., 0. d. Ludington, I-arrion L udington, Perry H. Smith, George Dunlap. 226 Ludingaon Smrreirmt ESCANABA, 5 MICHIGAN.

Page  [unnumbered] ESCANABA, NMICHIGAN. FORMERLY PROSECUTING ATTORNEY OF SCHOOLGRAFT COUNTY. COLLECTIONS PROMPTLY ATTENDEDI) TO AT ALL POINTS IN THE UPPER PENINSULA. PROSECUTING /TTORNEY Eiscanaea, - uichigan. Georc~ geGa\\u p, Prttor neyT a- Xohictor in Chanc er y %scanaba, - 1Wh;gan. \'v\ead kb 3enni\ngs, - B TTORN - RiT - LWrI OFFICE OVER FIRST NATIONAL BANK. CIEBR AL PR YTICYEI Xn RLL COURTVS. 3ohrn P~ouser.,c ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR. General Prackice in 1h CouArts. E. P. ROYCE. W. F. WAITE. Riogu 'e akte., -~i<~trntorne -at-law, Escanaba, Michigan. ATTORNEY-AT-LAW, OFFICE IN DALEY BLOCK. Escana-ta, - M higan. TOrornear L n Ge\zear, SP hys7-cian and Bur geon, 4 Ottce, Corner Lu~dinEgton and E~lmore.

Page  [unnumbered] @ R U@]5CNS@ JIFLTLO C.00 @ Qcqcral cOmr9rlsslor) m1 rckgt~s+ Fe~ts1ý Butter, 9ggs. aid QCctra1 Fa~rnMProduce. --"-cAMAIL ORDERS RECEIVE PROMPT ATTEN-TON.--... West Ludington Street, - - - Escanaba, Michigan, FINE MILLINERY, NOTIONS, FANCY GOODS, ETC., ETC, Painting and Stamping. Lessons in painting given. Stamping stencils furnished. Cot'ner Hale and Georgia Stg, - - - - - Escanaba, Michigan. Ps*G;EORGE E. VVHYBREW* al Plans and Specifications furunished on application. I use nothing but kiln dried lumber. EOR1~~71 Sg3EET, to W EW)IPU~1B7{,llW1ýJG)TJ1 ~IE44ERAL o STE/IMS*IIP o AqE('f. Drafts and Money. Orders Issued to any part of Europe. 10 11 Ludington St., - - Escanaba, Michigan, GEORGE MARSILý, -.m~tDEALER IN-2-m.Flour, Feed, Glassware, Crockery, Etc. Store Corner Jacob and Charlotte Sts. Escanaba,' Michigan,

Page  [unnumbered] o<JUSTIN N. MEADDo P~~rlinorpto Dratg t~ adchmist.% ----+-DEALER IN BOOKS, STATIONERY 0 WALL PAPER. ---+F0---ALSO DIAMONDS, FINE JEWELRY, AND WATCHES AND CLOCKS. 410 Ludington Street, - - Escanaba, Michigan. Ephriarn & Morrell, *MERCI4JIfPT TAILORS* A N -AFD - ---" b U:'s FURN IS11ERSo _mL ESTABLISHED 1869.--- 420 Ludington St., - Escanaba, Michigan. EIVIT3ILT ~ GLASER, Justice of thd PRaci and r4otar) Publ;c. Prepares documents in English and German 1angua es. Sells tickets from any part of western Europe to meny part of the U. S. Buys and sells real estate and loans money on real estate security. Office in court house. JOHN A. JOHNSON, JUSTIGE OF THK PElR6R lANTD NOThRY PUBLIG. Real Estate and Fire Insurance Agent. Office in Daley Block, up stairs, 615 Ludington St., Escanaba, Michigan.

Page  [unnumbered] RIVFHFON BROS, GENT'S FURMISIIER&. R. R. STERLING, ---LDEALER --.m FINE BooTg, gHoEg, +FINE 1vTAIL9RINW+ A SPECIALTY. MASONIC BLOCK, Large Variety o et makes MASONIC BLOCK, Escanaba, Escanaba, Michigan* saaa ihgn Escanaba,: Michigan,

Page  [unnumbered] * The a Scandia aSsupply p Company CAPITAL STOCK $5,000. SURPLUS $2,500. ESTABLISHED APRIL 28, 1888. GROCERIES, S PRO VI1ISN] And Family Supplies. LARS GUNDERSON, Pres. J. A. JOHNSON, Vice-Pres. J. A. STROMBERG, Sec. and Treas. 903 Ludington Street. D. A. Brotherton, o ()id1 CEngneqr and Draughtsman, 0 Townsite and Additions Platted. City Lots Surveyed and Sections Sub-divided. Township Diagrams. City, Town and County Maps on Short Notice. OFFICE IN MASONIC BLOCK.

Page  [unnumbered] JOHN A. WALKER, -EWHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN-'3 7 I l\T E CIG -.. A.." R 8. Michigan. m Gr. F. PE~TERSEN,. MANUFACTURER OF AND DEALER IN FINE BOOTS SHOES Ludington Street, - - Escanaba Michigan. *L. D. oM'ENNAW WINE A[ 0SPIRIT ERCHANTI Wholisalq and Rit&ail. + RESTAURANT. IN CONNBECTION + Corner Ludington and Wolcott.Sts. ESCANABA, - MICHIGAN.

Page  [unnumbered] W. ~. WALKER, Kllma1-6 G'-ýý-DEALER REPAIRING EXECUTED IN A FIRST-CLASS MANNER, Erickson & Bissell, 6 DaALADRS IN* C ROCERIES ANO PROVI OS Railmoad Iies, Posts and IeIegiaph PoIe's, Escanaba, Michigan. *1.A.Brekqtinbach & Co. DEALER IN FN~s~ ]{D SIJLi 1TQTES Sausages, Butter, Eggs, Game, Oysters, Etc. ESCANAB.A.9 ESOAABA - - - - MICHIGAN.

Page  [unnumbered] Ira3:zI ci~~~~ ~ ~ C vBhP 3 ~ Crt,'" n'lc~111"ooll z; k WA5 44g ~ '~,J

Page  [unnumbered] J:ohn E.Sulli~van, Gr.oceries -Provisions- Produce P~roýprietor Ckhrlotte.St~reet Yard, A!I Kin- ds of Wood~ 405 Cliarlotte 'Street, Enseanab~a, MThcligaii. 1.*DRI1Nf{ ESQANABA BEER*ý T1ir, Escana~ba.J3re-wing Corn TH~~~T.jPUHZP-NDBZ-I Mail Orders from All Parts of the Country Receive Prompt Attention

Page  [unnumbered] +*NORTHT_ mA m 1**T clomewr mA, IESn r 1 n nL Estate ofI Stephenson & Co. CITY LOTS AND ACREAGE PROPERTY POH SAL.s GEO. T. BURNS, SEC'Y AND TREAS. AGENT.

Page  [unnumbered] ISAAC STEPHIENSON, President. S. W. WYATT, Manager. G. T. Bu-iIs, See. and Treas. I. 1STERE1EPIS0P C. J. BARNES, Vice-President. C. W. WELLS, Ass't Treas. MANUFACIURERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN LATH AND SHINGLES, SAW MI S ND DOC S At Escanaba and Flat Rock, Delta Co., Michigan. Chicago Offices: 23O West Twenty-Second Street,

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