4. Sikh fundamentalist ideology revolved around the maintenance of militant fervor in the pursuit of a Sikh homeland, Khalistan, and these Sikhs defined themselves against the Hindu majority in India, while carefully maintaining a historical mistrust for Muslims as well. For more on Sikh nationalism see Juergensmeyer 2000 and Mahmood 1996. On the other hand, Hindu fundamentalist narratives paint the picture of embattled Hindus striving to protect their religious integrity from inherently dangerous and alien Muslim and Christian Indian minorities. For more on Hindu nationalism, see the first footnote. As well as hinging on very contested historical constructions and narratives of religious interpretation and practice, both extremisms advocate violent means if necessary to achieve states solely dominated by their own religion and no other.


 [ return to text ]