6. See Foucault (1976). Leopold Sédar Senghor and Sartre, for example, believed négritude to be the antithesis to racial oppression. Frantz Fanon, in Black Skin, White Masks (1967) and the Wretched of the Earth (1963), adapted and transformed the Sartrian dialectic of négritude by “moving from a thesis of oppression and alienation to an antithesis of négritude as a reaffirmation of identity and power, and finally to a synthesis of political liberation, as well as personal freedom” (Jules-Rosette 1998:247). Indeed, Fanon managed to merge both individual identity and collective action into a political program.

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