5. See Feschbach 1992 for an extensive discussion of environmental problems of the Soviet era. In a 1994 article in the German newspaper Die Zeit, Michael Schwellen reported that “[r]ight now, 110 million of Russia’s 147 million people have to breathe air polluted beyond legal limits...Half of Russia’s people drink water that does not meet safety guidelines, according to a new study by the German Institute for Economic Research...Industrial waste water dumped into rivers and lakes is inadequately treated—if at all.”

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