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Page 21 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 21 TETRADIUM DANIELLIIH (KOREAN EVODIA; RUTACEAE) AS AN ESCAPE IN NORTH AMERICA Michael A. Vincent W.S. Turrell Herbarium, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 USA, 513. 529. 2755, email@example.com Tetradium daniellii (Benn.) T. G. Hartley (Korean evodia, Rutaceae) is native to Tibet and the Yunnan Province, China, northeast through China to North and South Korea (Hartley 1981). The species first came to the attention of western botanists in the mid-1800's, and was first described as a species of the genus Zanthoxylum by Bennett (in W.F. Daniell 1862). It was introduced into North America about 1905 (Rehder 1947). In the horticultural trade, the tree has been known as Evodia daniellii (Benn.) Hemsl. (Dirr 1997; Nelson 1997), though that generic name is apparently most correctly spelled "Euodia", since Evodia is considered an orthographic variant of the original spelling Euodia (Bean 1978; Mabberley 1997). The genus Tetradium, containing 9 species (Flanagan 1988), is probably most closely related to Phellodendron Rupr. and Zanthoxylum L. (Hartley 1981). The genus Tetradium (as Evodia), especially fruit of T ruticarpum (A.Juss.) T.G. Hartley (Evodiae Fructus), has been used medicinally in China to treat gastric and intestinal ailments for about 2000 years (Anonymous 2002a). It has also been used to treat headaches, to decrease blood clotting, and to reduce arthritis pain (Anonymous 2002b), and as a stimulant and antihelmintic (Mabberley 1997). Several bioactive alkaloids have recently been characterized from E. ruticarpa, and these may have use in treatment of obesity or ulcers (Ko et al. 2002). Fruits of other species have been used in chutney (Mabberley 1997) and other condiments (Daniell 1862). Several species are grown as ornamental trees (Rehder 1947). Korean evodia (bebe tree, bee-bee tree, bee tree; Fig. 1) is a moderate-sized tree or large shrub, reaching 8-12(-20) m tall, with a similar spread of the crown. Its bark is smooth and gray to black. The young branches are pubescent, becoming glabrous as the growing season progresses; winter buds are naked. Leaves are 22-40 cm long, opposite to subopposite, odd-pinnately compound, with 5-11 leaflets; leaves are deciduous, dropping when green, or turning yellowish in autumn. The leaflets are 5-13 cm long, ovate to oblong, acumimate at the apex and acute to rounded at the base, short-petiolulate, with crenate margins; the upper leaf surface is glabrous, while the lower is somewhat pubescent, at least when young; there are prominent to inconspicuous oil dots on the lower surface. The small white to cream-colored unisexual flowers appear in June to August, and are borne on the current years' growth on 10-17 cm broad, somewhat flattened terminal corymbs. Flowers are usually 5-merous, though occasionally 4-merous; sepals are slightly pubescent, 0.5-1.5 mm long; petals are white to cream colored, glabrous adaxially and somewhat pubescent abaxially,
Page 22 ï~~22 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 22 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 FIGURE 1. Tetradium daniellii. A. Young branch with naked terminal bud (Wilson s.n., 8 Oct 2002 [MU]). B. Mature leaf (Wilson s.n., 11 Apr 1986 [MU]). C. Infructescence with open fruits and seeds (Wilson s.n., 7 Oct 1986 [MU]). D. Inflorescence (Vincent 6300 [MU]). The scale bar represents 1 cm for A, and 2 cm for B, C, and D.
Page 23 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 23 3-5 mm long; the pistil is 4-5 carpellate, pubescent, with 2 ovules per carpel; the ovary is superior. Fruits are brown, pinkish, dull red, or black follicles containing 2 brown to black seeds, one of which is usually sterile (Hartley 1981; Sargent 1913). Tetradium daniellii is highly prized as a nectar source for honeybees (Anonymous 1974; Hayes 1977; Lohmiller 1977; Lovell 1969). Indeed, when the plants are in flower, an incredible number of bees can be seen (and heard) visiting the flowers. Hayes (1977) describes the tree as valuable for beekeepers because it flowers prolifically from mid-July through mid-August, when little else is blooming. The heavy seed production has been cited as a potential food source for wildlife (Hayes 1977). The species is becoming more popular as an ornamental tree (Coombes 1992; Dirr 1997; Gilman & Watson 1993), though it can be susceptible to wind and ice damage due to its weak wood (Flint 1983; Gilman 1997). Propagation is usually by seeds (Dirr 1990). It is relatively tolerant of many soil conditions (Flanagan 1988), but does not tolerate extreme drought or overly wet soils (Schnelle 1992). The species is described as hardy is USDA zones 4 through 8A (Dirr 1997; Gilman & Watson 1993), but Schnelle (1992) reported that freeze damage and die-back have been seen on young trees at Kansas test sites. Korean evodia is a relatively short-lived tree (15-40 years; Dirr 1990; Poor 1997). In this paper, I present the first report Tetradium daniellii as a documented escape from cultivation in Ohio. The plants found (immature saplings ranging from 1-2 m in height) were growing in a weedy fencerow within 20m of a pair of large trees in cultivation, with Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim. There are no previous reports of the species as an escape in Ohio (Cooperrider et al. 2001). Rhoads & Block (2000) mention that Euodia daniellii may be present in Pennsylvania as an escape, in a description of Euodia hupehensis Dode. Since E. hupehensis has been synonymized with Tetradium daniellii in the most recent monograph (Hartley 1981), all Pennsylvania records should be considered the latter. Documentation was seen for two Pennsylvania counties (Lancaster and Montgomery). The species has also been seen as an escape in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, though not documented (T. A. Block, pers. comm.). Korean evodia has recently been reported as an escape in Missouri (Bowe & Redfearn 2002). No other reports are known from the botanical literature for North America, and the species is not listed in Kartesz and Meacham (1999). As discussed for Eucommia ulmoides (Vincent 2002), Tetradium daniellii does not seem to be overwhelmingly invasive, though its heavy fruit and seed set make it more likely that it may spread very effectively. In Pennsylvania, the species is spreading rapidly (T. Block, pers. com.). The species has been removed from one botanical garden because of fears of spread, due to the tremendous fruit set (K. Conrad, pers. comm.). Specimens examined: MISSOURI: Green County, 22 Oct 2002, Bowe 90-02 (SMS), and 6 Nov 2992, Bowe 99.02 (SMS). OHIO: Butler County, 8 Oct 2002, B.B. Wilson s.n. (MU, MO, NA, OSH). PENNSYLVANIA: Lancaster County, Flourtown, 9 Aug 1996, A.F. Rhoads & T.A. Block s.n. (MOAR); Montgomery County, New Danville, 2 Aug 1998, T.A. Block s.n. (MOAR).
Page 24 ï~~24 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 LITERATURE CITED Anonymous. 1974. Evodia daniellii, Evodia velutina: die Wohlduftraute, ein Superbienenbaum. Fruits & Abeilles March 1974: 21-22. Anonymous. 2002a. Evodia fruit (Fructus Evodiae). www.healthphone.com/consump_english/encyclopedia/ chinese_herbal_files/evodia_fruit.htm (accessed 6 December 2002). Anonymous. 2002b. Evodia fruit (Evodia rutaecarpa; Wu zhu yu). http://www.kalyx.com/ store/proddetail.cfm/ItemID/12261.0/CategorylD/2500.0/SubCatID/2500.0/file.htm (accessed 6 December 2002). Bean, W. J. 1978. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. John Murray, London, England. 4 vols. Bowe, L. M. and P. L. Redfearn. 2002. A new escaped species in Missouri: Evodia daniellii (Rutaceae). Missouriensis 23: 28-31. Coombes, A. J. 1992. Eyewitness Handbooks of Trees. Dorling Kindersley, New York, NY. 320 pp. Cooperrider, T. S., A. W. Cuisck, and J. T. Kartesz. 2001. Seventh Catalog of the Vascular Plants of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, OH. 195 pp. Daniell, W. F. 1862. Notes on some Chinese condiments obtained from the Xanthoxylaceae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 3, 10: 195-202, plate V. Dirr, M. A. 1990. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants: Their Identification, Ornamental Characteristics, Culture, Propagation and Uses (4th ed.). Stipes Publishing Co., Champaign, IL. 1007 pp. Dirr, M. A. 1997. Dirr's Hardy Trees and Shrubs. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 493 pp. Flanagan, M. 1988. Notes on the genus Tetradium. Kew Magazine 5: 181-191. Flint, H. L. 1983. Landscape Plants for Eastern North America. Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. 677 pp. Gilman, E. F. 1997. Trees for Urban and Suburban Landscapes. Delmar Publishers, Albany, NY. 662 pp. Gilman, E. F. & D. G. Watson. 1993. Evodia danielii-Korean Evodia. Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Fact Sheet ST-242. 3 pp. Hartley, T. G. 1981. A revision of the genus Tetradium (Rutaceae). Gardens' Bulletin, Singapore 34: 91-131. Hayes, B. 1977. Two oriental exotics-extraordinary nectar producers. American Bee Journal 117 (6): 363, 405. Kartesz, J. T., and C. A. Meacham. 1999. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC. Ko, J.S., M.-C. Rho, M. Y. Chung, H. Y. Song, J. S. Kang, K. Kim, H. S. Lee, and Y. K. Kim. 2002. Quinoline alkaloids, diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitors from the fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa. Planta Medica 68: 1131-1133. Lohmiuller, O. 1977. Die Wohlduftraute (Evodia daniellii)-ein Superbienenbaum. Bienenvater 98(2): 39-40. Lovell, H. B. 1969. Let's talk about honey plants. Gleanings Bee Culture 97: 547-548, 570. Mabberley, D. J. 1997. The Plant-Book (ed. 2). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 858 pp. Nelson, E. C. 1997. Tetradium Louriero. Pp. 108-109. In: Cullen, J. et al. (eds). The European Garden Flora. Vol. V, Dicotyledons (Part III). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. Poor, J. M. (ed.). 1997. Plants that Merit Attention. Vol. 1-Trees (revised). Timber Press, Portland, OR. Rehder, A. 1947. Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs Hardy in North America (ed. 2). Macmillan, New York, NY. 996 pp. Rhoads, A. F. and T. A. Block. 2000. The Plants of Pennsylvania. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA. 1061 pp. Sargent, C. S. 1913. Plantae Wilsonianae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 3 volumes. Schnelle, M. A. 1992. Evodia. American Nurseryman 176: 130. Vincent, M. A. 2002. Eucommia ulmoides (Hardy rubber-tree, Eucommiaceae) as an escape in North America. Michigan Botanist 41: 137-141.