Lincoln's Vandalia, a pioneer portrait; illus. by Romaine Proctor.
Baringer, William Eldon, 1909-
Page  [unnumbered]

NOTES

Page  [unnumbered]Page  129

NOTES

PART I

  • Page 7 ^1 Thomas Ford, History of Illinois, Chicago and New York, 1854, 106-107.
  • Page 11 ^2 The Illinois Monthly Magazine, II, (Jan., 1832), 172-174.
  • Page 13 ^3 Robert W. Ross (ed.), Historical Souvenir of Vandalia, Illinois . . . , Effingham, Ill., 1904, 9-11.
  • Page 14 ^4 Reavis was variously spelled Reeves, Rivis, Reavy, Reavise, Ravis.
  • Page 14 ^5 Sections 8, 9, 16, 17, township v Range 1 East of the Third Principal Meridian. "Report of Commissioners" 1st General Assembly, Illinois State Archives, Springfield, Illinois.
  • Page 14 ^6 John Moses, Illinois, Historical and Statistical, Chicago, 1889-92, I, 298; William H. Brown, "Early History of Illinois," Fergus' Historical Series, [Chicago, 1881], No. 14, 89.
  • Page 15 ^7 "List of lots sold in the town of Vandalia. . . ." Illinois State Archives.
  • Page 15 ^8 Ferdinand Ernst, "Travels in Illinois in 1819," Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society, 1903, 163.
  • Page 16 ^9 F. Ernst, Bemerkungen auf einer Reise durch das Innere der Verei|nigten Staaten von Nord-Amerika im Jahr 1819, MS. translation, Illinois State Historical Library; Charles B. Stuart, Notes on a Journey to the Western States, MS., Illinois State Historical Library, 12-13; Chester A. Loomis, A Journey on Horseback Through the Great West in 1825, Bath, N. Y., [182-?], 13.
  • Page 16 ^1^0 Ernst, "Travels in Illinois in 1819," Transactions, 150-165.
  • Page 18 ^1^1 Frederick G. Hollman, Auto-Biography, Platteville, Wis., [n.d.], 7-8, 11.
  • Page 18 ^1^2 Moses, op. cit., I, 298.
  • Page 18 ^1^3 Daniel P. Cook to Thomas Mather, Jan. 27, 1820, Chicago Historical Society.
  • Page 20 ^1^4 Hollman, op. cit., 12-13; Edwardsville Spectator, Dec. 26, 1820; Order Book for County Commissioners' Court, Vol. A, pp. 1, 70; John Reynolds, My Own Times, Belleville, Ill., 1855, 183.
  • Page 20 ^1^5 Report of Commissioners; J. D. Caton, Address delivered on the occasion of the laying of the cornerstone of the new State House at Springfield, Ill., on Monday, Oct. 5, 1868, Springfield, 1868.
  • Page 21 ^1^6 Moses, op. cit., I, 300-306.
  • Page  130Page 22 ^1^7 Thomas Lippincott's Recollections, Alton Telegraph, March 17, 1865.
  • Page 22 ^1^8 Illinois Intelligencer, Feb. 1, March 29, July 12, Aug. 9, 23, Dec. 23, 1823; Illinois Advocate and State Register, July 19, 1834; Hollman, op. cit., 14-16.
  • Page 23 ^1^9 Illinois Intelligencer, Feb. 13, 1824, repeated in each issue to May 7, Nov. 12, 1824; Laws of 1823, 232.
  • Page 23 ^2^0 Illinois Intelligencer, Dec. 10, 1824.
  • Page 23 ^2^1 Ross, op. cit., 21, 68-69, 168.
  • Page 24 ^2^2 Reynolds, My Own Times, 169.
  • Page 24 ^2^3 Ford, History of Illinois, 104-105; Illinois Intelligencer, Feb. 3, 1827.
  • Page 25 ^2^4 Illinois Advocate, July 19, 1834; Illinois Intelligencer, July 5, 1823, July 9, 1824, July 8, 1825, July 10, 1830; Edmund Flagg, The Far West (Early Western Travels, Vol. XXVI), I, 237.
  • Page 25 ^2^5 Ross, op. cit., 35; Illinois Intelligencer, May 24, 1823, Jan. 9, June 4, 1824; Address of James Hall to Vandalia Antiquarian and Historical Society, 1828, in James Stuart, Three Years in North America, Edinburg, 1833, II, 228.
  • Page 26 ^2^6 Esther Shultz, "James Hall in Vandalia," Journal, Ill. State Hist. Soc., XXIII (April, 1930), 98; John T. Flanagan, James Hall, Literary Pioneer of the Ohio Valley, Minneapolis, [1941], 49-62; Western Monthly Review, Cincinnati, I, 563-565, in Journal, Ill. State Hist. Soc., II (Oct., 1909), 70-74; James Stuart, Three Years in North America, II, 227.

PART II

  • Page 31 ^1 The Illinois Monthly Magazine, II (Jan., 1832), 172-174.
  • Page 31 ^2 Illinois Advocate, Dec. 24, 1834; W. B. Archer to Jacob Harlan, Jan. 16, 1833, Harlan-Archer MSS., Illinois State Hist. Lib.; Sangamo Journal, April 19, 1834.
  • Page 32 ^3 Illinois Advocate, July 19, Oct. 29, 1834.
  • Page 32 ^4 Ibid., Dec. 16, 1831, Sept. 7, 1833, Feb. 27, Nov. 19, 1834, Jan. 20, 1836; Illinois Intelligencer, Nov. 5, Dec. 16, 1831; Sangamo Journal, Jan. 10, 1835; Illinois State Register, Aug. 26, 1836, May 4, 1838.
  • Page 33 ^5 Illinois Advocate, Feb. 11, 18, 1835.
  • Page 33 ^6 John Carroll Power, History of the Early Settlers of Sangamon County, Illinois, Springfield, Ill., 1876, 185-186; Illinois Advocate, Dec. 20, 1834, Feb. 4, 1835; Ross, op. cit., 26, 56.
  • Page 34 ^7 Illinois Advocate, June 3, 1831, March 16, Sept. 7, 1833, March 22, Dec. 24, 1834, Jan. 28, 31, Dec. 30, 1835.
  • Page 35 ^8 Beardstown Chronicle, Dec. 6, 1834.
  • Page  131Page 35 ^9 W. S. Prentice, "Recollections of Vandalia Thirty Years Ago," in History of Fayette Co., Philadelphia, 1878, 30.
  • Page 36 ^1^0 William Pickering to I. N. Arnold, 1866, photostat, The Abra|ham Lincoln Association; Daniel Roberts, "A Reminiscence of Stephen A. Douglas," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Vol., 87 (Nov., 1893), 957-959; County Commissioners on March 5, 1832, Record Book; Illinois Advocate, Sept. 7, 1833.
  • Page 38 ^1^1 Ford, op. cit., 28, 32, 40, 103.
  • Page 38 ^1^2 Ibid., 55, 89-91.
  • Page 39 ^1^3 A. D. Jones, Illinois and the West, Philadelphia, 1838, 101 ff.
  • Page 39 ^1^4 W. D. Howells, Life of Abraham Lincoln (The Abraham Lincoln Association edition, Springfield, Ill., 1938), 40, Lincoln's note.
  • Page 40 ^1^5 Contract between A. P. Field and Asahel Lee, 10th G. A., Misc. State House Papers (misdated), Illinois State Archives; Illinois Intelligencer, Jan. 28, 1832; Illinois Advocate, Nov. 27, 1832; Senate Journal, 1834-35, 412; Memorandum of Property, 1833, made by John York Sawyer, public printer, 1832-33 G. A., Misc. State House Accounts.
  • Page 40 ^1^6 Howells, op. cit., 41. Although Douglass signed his name thus at this time, he dropped an s in later years.
  • Page 42 ^1^7 Illinois State Register, March 15, 1885.
  • Page 42 ^1^8 Alton Telegraph, Nov. 25, 1864; Usher F. Linder, Reminiscences of the Early Bench and Bar of Illinois, Chicago, 1879, 260; Quincy Whig, Jan. 25, 1840.
  • Page 43 ^1^9 Frank E. Stevens, "Alexander Pope Field," Journal, Ill. State Hist. Soc., IV (April, 1911), 7-37.
  • Page 45 ^2^0 For the complete list, see House Journal, 9th G. A., 1 sess., 3-4.
  • Page 49 ^2^1 Jones, op. cit., 101 ff.
  • Page 49 ^2^2 Theodore C. Pease, Illinois Election Returns, Springfield, Ill., 1923, 268-278, lists 27 Democrats, 1 questionable Democrat, 17 Whigs, 2 questionable Whigs, and 8 unidentified.
  • Page 52 ^2^3 Robert D. Holt, "The Political Career of William A. Richard|son," Journal, Ill. State Hist. Soc., XXVI (Oct., 1933), 226.
  • Page 52 ^2^4 Quincy Whig, Dec. 28, 1839.
  • Page 53 ^2^5 House Journal, 80, 81, 84, 86; House Bill 34, 9th G. A. MSS., Illinois State Archives, copy, The Abraham Lincoln Associa|tion.
  • Page 53 ^2^6 House Journal, 103.
  • Page 55 ^2^7 Ibid., 153-154; Illinois Advocate, Dec. 27, 1834.
  • Page 56 ^2^8 House Journal, 233; Sangamo Journal, Jan. 17, 1835.
  • Page 56 ^2^9 Douglas's speech at Ottawa, Aug. 21, 1858, in Frank E. Stevens, "Life of Stephen A. Douglas," Journal, Ill. State Hist. Soc., XVI (Oct., 1923-Jan., 1924), 250.
  • Page  132Page 57 ^3^0 Jesse W. Fell to David Davis, Dec. 15, 1885, Illinois State Journal, Jan. 14, 1886.
  • Page 58 ^3^1 House Journal, 311, 515.
  • Page 58 ^3^2 Harry E. Pratt, The Personal Finances of Abraham Lincoln, Spring|field, Ill., 1943, 143; House Journal, 343-344.
  • Page 58 ^3^3 Theodore C. Pease, The Frontier State, Springfield, Ill., 1918, 62-69. The major part came from taxes on lands owned by non-residents, various school funds, rent on state-owned saline lands, etc.
  • Page 59 ^3^4 Illinois Advocate, Dec. 24, 1834, Jan. 7, 14, 21, 31, Feb. 14, 1835; Sangamo Journal, Dec. 27, 1834, Jan. 10, Feb. 7, 14, 1835.
  • Page 59 ^3^5 Sangamo Journal, Jan. 24, 1835; Illinois Advocate, Dec. 17, 1834, Feb. 14, 1835.
  • Page 60 ^3^6 House Journal, 9th G. A., 2 sess., 404.
  • Page 62 ^3^7 Harry E. Pratt, Lincoln, 1809-1839, Springfield, Ill., 1941, xxxviii; MSS., 9th G. A., 1 sess., Illinois State Archives.
  • Page 62 ^3^8 Authorities on the period have not gone quite the whole dis|tance in identifying the anonymous correspondent as Lincoln. Pratt (Lincoln, 1809-1839, xliii) wrote, "These letters are thought to have been written by Lincoln." A. J. Beveridge (Abraham Lincoln, I, 171, n. 5) concluded that the author "almost cer|tainly was Lincoln." The style of the letters is like that of his known writings. But the strongest evidence is the fact that Lincoln was the only Sangamon County Whig continuously in the legislature during the time the letters were written, the 9th and 10th general assemblies.
  • Page 62 ^3^9 Sangamo Journal, Jan. 31, Feb. 7, 1835.
  • Page 63 ^4^0 "Short autobiography . . . ," June, 1860, John G. Nicolay and John Hay (eds.), The Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln, New York, 1905, VI, 32-33; Robert T. Lincoln Papers, Library of Congress.
  • Page 64 ^4^1 Deposition of Harvey Lee, Dec., 1836, Misc. State House Papers, 1836-37 G. A., Illinois State Archives; House Journal, 10th G. A., 1 sess., 840; Senate Journal, 334.
  • Page 65 ^4^2 Sangamo Journal, Feb. 6, 13, 20, 1836.
  • Page 65 ^4^3 Ibid., Dec. 12, 19, 1835.
  • Page 67 ^4^4 Ibid., Jan. 2, 9, 1836; the second pigeon was a convention Democrat who was defeated for the office of probate judge.
  • Page 67 ^4^5 House Journal, 274, 286, 305.
  • Page 68 ^4^6 Ibid., 27; Illinois Advocate, Dec. 23, 1835, Feb. 17, 1836; Bever|idge (I, 171-172) says the Senate was Whig by a majority of one. There were only 8 Whig senators (Pease, Illinois Election Returns, 252-255, 265-267, 279-280).
Page  133

PART III

  • Page 71 ^1 Illinois Advocate, Feb. 3, March 25, 1836.
  • Page 72 ^2 Benjamin P. Thomas, Lincoln's New Salem, Springfield, Ill., 1934, 37; Pratt, Lincoln, 1809-1839, 52-53.
  • Page 72 ^3 Sangamo Journal, June 18, 25, July 2, 1836. The others were Dawson, McCormick, Wilson, and Edwards.
  • Page 73 ^4 Robert L. Wilson to William H. Herndon, Feb. 10, 1866, Herndon-Lamon MSS., Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
  • Page 74 ^5 Sangamo Journal, April 19, June 21, 1834.
  • Page 74 ^6 Ibid., June 28, Sept. 27, 1834.
  • Page 75 ^7 Paul M. Angle, "Here I Have Lived," Springfield, Ill., 1935, 35-39, 54-55; Sangamo Journal, Nov. 19, 1836.
  • Page 75 ^8 Sangamo Journal, Nov. 26, Dec. 3, 1836.
  • Page 76 ^9 "Up to the Hub," in Sangamo Journal, July 16, 1836; Ford, op. cit., 169; Sangamo Journal, June 25, July 16, 1836.
  • Page 77 ^1^0 Edmund Flagg, The Far West, New York, 1838, I, 241-245.
  • Page 77 ^1^1 Ibid., I, 243-245; Store and Tavern licenses, Fayette Co. Com|missioners Court Records; Illinois State Register, April 15, 29, Aug. 19, Dec. 2, 1836.
  • Page 77 ^1^2 Contract between Town of Vandalia and James Hankins and Abner Flack, 1836, Illinois State Archives; Illinois State Register, Aug. 26, Sept. 23, Nov. 18, 1836.
  • Page 78 ^1^3 Deposition of Harvey Lee, Dec., 1836, 1836-37 Miscellaneous State House Papers, Illinois State Archives; J. Duncan to A. P. Field, Levi Davis, and John Dement, Aug. 12, 1836, ibid.; Illinois State Register, Aug. 12, 1836; House Journal, 10th G. A., 1 sess., 479-480; Senate Journal, 27.
  • Page 78 ^1^4 Illinois State Register, Aug. 19, 1836.
  • Page 78 ^1^5 1836-37 G. A. Misc. State House Papers, Illinois State Ar|chives; summarized in J. F. Booton and G. M. Nedved, Record of Restoration, Third State House, Vandalia, Ill., 1945, 35; Illinois State Register, Dec. 8, 1836.
  • Page 79 ^1^6 William Wilson to Mrs. Wilson, Dec. 29, 1836, Wilson MSS., Ill. State Hist. Lib.
  • Page 80 ^1^7 Pease, Illinois Election Returns, 265-267, 279-280, 283-303.
  • Page 80 ^1^8 Moses, op. cit., I, 407; Charles P. Johnson, "Personal Recollec|tions of Some of the Eminent Statesmen and Lawyers of Illinois," Transactions, Ill. State Hist. Soc., 1904, 28.
  • Page 82 ^1^9 Linder, Reminiscences, 35-41, 55-58, 65-67, 99-102, 220-224, 266-267, 371-373; Quincy Whig, Jan. 16, 1841; C. P. Johnson, op. cit., 29-39; John F. Snyder MSS., Ill. State Hist. Lib.
  • Page 83 ^2^0 Linder, op. cit., 280.
  • Page  134Page 84 ^2^1 J. C. Power, op. cit., 244, 278-279, 281-282, 301-302, 372-373, 464, 486-487, 690, 775-776; Pease, Illinois Election Returns, passim; Quincy Whig, Dec. 28, 1839.
  • Page 86 ^2^2 Reynolds, My Own Times, 321; Linder, op. cit., 148, 333-334, 348, 238-239.
  • Page 86 ^2^3 Illinois State Register, Dec. 9, 1836.
  • Page 87 ^2^4 House Journal, 10th G. A., 1 sess., 5-10, 204; Illinois Patriot, clipped in Sangamo Journal, Dec. 24, 1836; Sangamo Journal, Dec. 17, 1836.
  • Page 88 ^2^5 Senate Journal, 10th G. A., 1 sess., 16-17.
  • Page 89 ^2^6 Vandalia correspondence, Dec. 11, Sangamo Journal, Dec. 17, 1836.
  • Page 89 ^2^7 Illinois State Register, Dec. 15, 1836.
  • Page 90 ^2^8 "Autobiography of Stephen A. Douglas," Journal, Ill. State Hist. Soc., V (Oct., 1912), 341.
  • Page 91 ^2^9 Lincoln to Mary Owens, Dec. 13, 1836, photostat, The Abra|ham Lincoln Association.
  • Page 91 ^3^0 Alton's House delegation (Madison Co.) numbered three; Vandalia's (Fayette and Effingham counties) two.
  • Page 91 ^3^1 William H. Herndon and Jesse W. Weik, Herndon's Life of Lincoln (Angle ed., 1930), 140.
  • Page 92 ^3^2 Sangamo Journal, Dec. 17, 24, 1836; Ida M. Tarbell, Life of Abraham Lincoln, New York, 1900, I, 145; Benjamin Godfrey to Theron Baldwin, Jan. 5, 1837, MS., Ill. State Hist. Lib.
  • Page 93 ^3^3 Vandalia correspondence, Dec. 25, Sangamo Journal, Dec. 31, 1836; House Journal, 59, 63, 65, 69, 79, 168-174.
  • Page 93 ^3^4 House Journal, 29-30, 55.
  • Page 94 ^3^5 Lincoln to Mary Owens, Dec. 13, 1836, Works, I, 17; House Journal, 53, 55.
  • Page 96 ^3^6 Sangamo Journal, Dec. 17, 31, 1836, Jan. 7, 1837; Joseph Duncan to Mrs. Duncan, Dec. 18, 1836, Elizabeth Duncan Putnam, "The Life and Public Services of Joseph Duncan . . . ," Transactions, Ill. State Hist. Soc., 1919, 157; House Journal, 83; Illinois State Register, Jan. 12, 1837.
  • Page 96 ^3^7 House Journal, 86, 88-89, 92-94, 123; Illinois State Register, Jan. 12, 1837; Sangamo Journal, Dec. 31, 1836, Jan. 12, 1837; M. L. Houser, Lincoln's Early Political Education, Peoria, Ill., 1944, 20-25.
  • Page 97 ^3^8 Sangamo Journal, Jan. 28, Feb. 11, 1837.
  • Page 97 ^3^9 Ibid., Feb. 18, 25, 1837; House Journal, 527, 584.
  • Page 98 ^4^0 Vandalia correspondence, Dec. 17, Sangamo Journal, Dec. 24, 1836.
  • Page  135Page 98 ^4^1 Vandalia correspondence, Dec. 25, Sangamo Journal, Dec. 31, 1836; House Journal, 102-117.
  • Page 99 ^4^2 Linder, op. cit., 260-261; Illinois State Register, Jan. 12, 1837; Works, I, 19-34; Sangamo Journal, Jan. 28, 1837; House Journal, 195-198, 236-237, 247, 288, 296-297, 302-306.
  • Page 100 ^4^3 House Journal, 134, 241-244, 248-249, 309-311.
  • Page 101 ^4^4 Linder, op. cit., 59-60.
  • Page 101 ^4^5 House Journal, 202-215.
  • Page 102 ^4^6 Ford, op. cit., 185; Illinois State Register, Feb. 16, 1837.
  • Page 103 ^4^7 Wilson to Herndon, Feb. 10, 1866, Herndon-Lamon MSS., Huntington Library; House Journal, 363-376, 413, 432-433, 441-443.
  • Page 103 ^4^8 Sangamo Journal, March 4, 1837.
  • Page 103 ^4^9 Illinois State Register, March 6, 1837.
  • Page 104 ^5^0 Ibid., Feb. 10, 1837.
  • Page 105 ^5^1 House Journal, 546; Illinois State Register, July 20, 1838.
  • Page 105 ^5^2 House Journal, 592-594.
  • Page 106 ^5^3 Wilson to Herndon, Feb. 10, 1866, Herndon-Lamon MSS., Huntington Library.
  • Page 107 ^5^4 House Journal, 608-610, 612-614, 661-666, 701-703; Laws of 1837, 321-322.
  • Page 109 ^5^5 John G. Nicolay and John Hay, Abraham Lincoln, A History, New York, 1890, I, 138; House Journal, 752-759.
  • Page 109 ^5^6 Samuel D. Lockwood to Mary V. Nash, Feb. 26, 1837, copy, The Abraham Lincoln Association.
  • Page 109 ^5^7 Illinois State Register, May 6, 1837.
  • Page 110 ^5^8 Sangamo Journal, March 4, 1837; during the Eleventh General Assembly, when the House was debating whether to spend more money on internal improvements or to cut down the works in progress, Lincoln admitted that he and his Sangamon colleagues had made solemn pledges in 1836 and 1837 to support internal improvements, and intended to do so. (Illinois State Register, May 3, 1839)
  • Page 110 ^5^9 Illinois State Register, March 6, 1837.
  • Page 111 ^6^0 House Journal, 817-818.
  • Page 111 ^6^1 Lincoln to Levi Davis, April 19, 1837, G. A. Tracy (ed.), Uncollected Letters of Abraham Lincoln, Boston and New York, 1917, 2.
  • Page 112 ^6^2 House Journal, 840; Illinois State Register, May 6, June 17, 1837.
  • Page 113 ^6^3 Illinois State Register, July 15, Aug. 4, 1837; House Journal, 10th G. A., spec, sess., 21, 113, 121, 140.
  • Page 114 ^6^4 Linder, op. cit., 62-63.
  • Page  136Page 114 ^6^5 Sangamo Journal, July 29, 1837.
  • Page 116 ^6^6 Illinois State Register, March 1, June 3, 10, 29, 1837; Aug. 10, 1838; fifteen stores in 1836, nine in 1837, twenty-six in 1838 (County Commissioners Court Record Book).
  • Page 116 ^6^7 Illinois State Register, July 6, Aug. 10, 1838.
  • Page 117 ^6^8 A. W. Snyder to James Semple, March 21, 1837, Snyder MSS., Ill. State Hist. Lib.
  • Page 117 ^6^9 Sangamo Journal, Aug. 25, Dec. 8, 1838; House Journal, 11th G. A., 1 sess., 5-6; Illinois State Register, Dec. 5, 1838.
  • Page 118 ^7^0 House Journal, 10-17, 26-30, 119, 122-123, 125-127, 137, 140-141, 152, 181-189, 199.
  • Page 119 ^7^1 Illinois State Register, March 22, 29, 1839; Sangamo Journal, April 5, 1839.
  • Page 119 ^7^2 Illinois State Register, Aug. 2, 1839.
  • Page 121 ^7^3 Chicago Daily American, Aug. 7, 8, 1839.
  • Page 121 ^7^4 Ross, op. cit., 23.
  • Page 121 ^7^5 Free Press and Illinois Whig, April 4, 1839, Aug. 28, 1841.
  • Page 122 ^7^6 William C. Greenup to James Black, July 12, 1838, copy, The Abraham Lincoln Association.
  • Page 123 ^7^7 Ross, op. cit., 19, 23, 28.
  • Page 123 ^7^8 A persistent Vandalia tradition states that Lincoln and two Whig colleagues, to prevent a quorum, jumped out a window of the House. The exact spot is exhibited with pride. This in|cident, however, occurred in Springfield, Dec. 5, 1840, when House and Senate met temporarily in two churches.
  • Page 123 ^7^9 Illinois began defaulting on interest payments in 1841, but at the end of the decade, to restore the state's credit, payment was resumed, and the last of the internal improvement debt was finally paid in 1871.
  • Page 123 ^8^0 Charles Bent (ed.), History of Whiteside County . . . , Morrison, Ill., 1877.