Abstract

Sharks in the Library! This article is a historical perspective on librarians’ fight against rising journal prices. Libraries' battle against rising journal prices and the publishing industry is compared to a horror movie. To emphasize this point, the author has revised the script of the movie Jaws so that the horror transpires within a library setting. This article shows how the battle for more affordable journals has empowered librarians and helped make them a more cohesive community. The author’s revised movie script illustrates the parallels between the terrorized islanders in the original movie and the once-fearful librarians warring against rising journal prices. Due to the graphic nature and adult language used in the scripts, reader discretion is advised.

As a young, generation-X librarian new to the profession, I set out to devise a new solution to the problem of skyrocketing journal prices. I bravely assumed the solution was to use pay-as-you-go plans as a cost-containment measure. After reviewing the literature, and interviewing seasoned library professionals, I was dismayed to discover that libraries had been there and done that. Libraries considered, and rejected, pay-as-you-go plans because they created a set of issues that challenged the very mission of the library. For instance, they found that patrons did not seek information from electronic journals because of the costs. As the mission of the library is to provide information at low cost, that was not a viable solution.

This essay offers an historical perspective on this problem, and reflects on a few significant changes libraries have survived. The serials crisis is at heart a fable, a horror tale in which the main characters grow and learn. I view these changes that libraries have undergone in the context of the horror movie Jaws. As a child, I thought Jaws was the most frightening movie imaginable. After witnessing the horrors facing library budgets, Jaws seems almost comical. I invite you to take a light-hearted look back and laugh as I chronicle the fears librarians have overcome and the strengths the profession has found in the process.

Back Story

Many library changes are a result of crippling budget cuts. For example, in Pennsylvania library funds have been cut in half. The New York Public Library asks for donations at the checkout desk. California libraries have posted “wish lists” online to acquire materials they can no longer afford. The West Virginia State University library now charges residents $50 annually to check out books—previously a free service. In Denver, the public library is now closed one additional weekday. Budget crunches are caused by many reasons. However, expenditures on journals comprise about 70% of the average academic library’s budget for materials. Research libraries in the United States spend more than $500 million on journals annually, and several large libraries estimate that they spend 20% of their budgets on electronic materials (Hayden, 2003). These are realities that librarians are coping with.

Research illustrates the continual rise in journal costs. An original study by Joan Schlimgen entitled “Update on Inflation of Journal Prices” found that prices continued to rise independently of the Consumer Price Index. Schlimgen reports that journal prices jumped 51.9% from 1996 to 1999 and an additional 32% from 1999 to 2002 (Schlimgen, 2004). The rise in journal prices negatively affects the purchasing power of libraries. Data compiled by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) shows that the median ARL library will be able to buy 16% fewer serials in the year 2020 compared to 1986 (Kyrillidou, 2000). Joseph Branin and Mary Case, in “Reforming Scholarly Publishing in the Sciences,” report that serials purchases declined by 7% between 1986 and 1996 for the largest research libraries in the United States and Canada (Branin and Case, 1998). Simply put, the less money libraries have to spend, the fewer resources librarians can buy.

Payment Plans

Consumer-driven market trends show a shift towards selective purchasing whereby consumers pay only for desired features. The best example of this trend is the telecommunications companies’ flexible pay-as-you-go plans. These plans allow consumers to exercise better control over their expenditures (Graham, 2006). Initially I thought of pay-as-you-go plans as a “new” solution to the costly journal crisis. More and more library vendors are using these payment plans; two online legal research services, Westlaw and LexisNexis, both offer pay-as-you-go plans to patrons. The LexisNexis Web site states, “There is no charge to conduct a search or view headlines. Users pay only for the complete text of articles that they view.” Westlaw’s Web site informs users, “Using your credit card, you can access state and federal case law, statutes, and a wide variety of additional Westlaw resources.”

Pay-as-you-go isn’t new, however. A veteran librarian explained some of the limitations imposed on patrons during what I call the “Dreadful Days of Dialog.” As a novice librarian, I thought Dialog was only a footnote in the textbook of my reference class. I vaguely recalled something about Bluesheets—those pages that provided details about database content, search features, sample records, and output options for individual databases. Fellow librarians quite vividly remember using Dialog and the disadvantages of pay-as-you-go plans based on their Dialog experience (although the conversations could as easily apply to any online database). They report that pay-as-you-go plans seemed to reduce the amount of time patrons spent browsing and viewing documents. People who were charged for usage, or who knew that the library was being charged, tended to retrieve only one document as a cost-containment measure. Patrons didn’t browse through documents that might give them additional or related—or better—information.

I originally thought another cost-effective solution for librarians would be to receive itemized bills at the end of the year based on exact article usage. This bill would, of course, deduct any charges for articles that were undeliverable as a result of interruptions due to problems with firewalls, IP authorization, password authentication or expiration, or concurrent user limits. In an effort to ascertain the practical usefulness of itemized bills, I interviewed librarians who actually used such billing methods. I was disillusioned to discover these librarians viewed itemized bills with disdain because they believe package deals provide greater access.

Even though my original solutions were unusable, the knowledge I gained gave me insight that formed the context for my historical perspective.

Shifts / Trends

Librarians are successful in their service industry because they are customer focused and they adapt to meet the changing needs of their patrons. In an attempt to ensure perpetual access with limited funds, library administrators are constantly exploring cost cutting measures. To combat rising journal prices, libraries are moving toward alternative sources of scholarly material, and librarians are forming organizations such as Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and the Open Access Initiative (OAI).

SPARC is an alliance of universities, research libraries, and organizations. The coalition began as a 1997 initiative of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), designed to be a constructive response to market dysfunctions in the scholarly communication system. SPARC unites librarians in universities and libraries worldwide for the purpose of finding and supporting alternative ways to disseminate scholarly research. 

The OAI was formed to enhance access to e-print archives as a means of increasing the availability of scholarly material. The Open Archives Initiative develops services that permit searching across documents stored in various institutional repositories.

The OAI and other digital archiving services—particularly Portico and CLOCKSS—were formed to meet librarians’ interest in archiving and preserving information in electronic formats. Portico began as the Electronic-Archiving Initiative launched by JSTOR in 2002. Portico provides a permanent archive of electronic scholarly journals.

Librarians formed CLOCKSS to build a trusted distributed archive to protect online scholarly content from catastrophic events and long-term interruptions. CLOCKSS is built on LOCKSS (it stands for “Controlled LOCKSS). LOCKSS, of course, stands for "Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe." It is open-source software that provides librarians with an easy and inexpensive way to collect, store, preserve, and provide access to local copies of content they purchase. Both CLOCKSS and LOCKSS are new initiatives created in early 2006.

Librarians also modified collection development practices away from ownership and towards access for scholarly resources by subscribing to electronic journals on publishers’ sites. The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) reports that spending on electronic journals has increased 712% between 1994 and 1995 (Case, 2004).

A lasting adaptation that has served the library community well is their participation in state-wide and regional consortia, even consortia across geographic boundaries in subject or industry areas. This cooperation allows librarians to share resources through interlibrary loans and to share the financial burdens of license agreements. ARL statistics show that interlibrary loan borrowing increased 169% from 1986-1999 (Kyrillidou, 2000). Scholarly journal ownership is becoming increasingly more expensive. As such, sharing the cost of access appears to be a more viable option for libraries with limited budgets.

 Librarians are transitioning away from a paper-based system towards electronic collections (Luther, 2000). Along with electronic access, publishers typically sell bundled collections of journals. This keeps costs down, encourages wider use of their offerings, and allows them to sell their entire portfolio of journals. Publishers are offering more electronic publications, and libraries are buying more of them (Luther, 2000). Through such package deals, more journal titles are accessible, but library budgets are bound in long-term contracts. While long-term contracts can be positive in that they lock in a fee over many years, there are some disadvantages. Librarians have listed some of those disadvantages on SPARC’s Declaring Independence Web site. One main disadvantage, they say, is that libraries end up buying content that is not needed. Recently, more libraries are declaring independence from bundled packages. In 2003, 57 ARL members responded to a survey asking them about their plans to renew their package subscriptions. Almost 40% (22) of the libraries indicated they were planning to cancel or considering canceling a bundled package for the 2004 renewal (Case, 2004).

Serials Prices: The Movie

This situation of rising costs librarians desperately trying to cope, is comparable to horror movies wherein weary victims are menaced by an ominous force that grows stronger every day. Libraries’ situation bears many similarities with the movie Jaws, in which the victims are likable and the villain complex but not willfully evil. Jaws broke all box office records to become the highest grossing film of the mid 1970s. Similarly the cost of scholarly journals is destined to break a few records as well, and that is just as terrifying as any Great White shark. Library budgets cannot keep pace with the increased volume and cost of scholarly journals. These journal costs paralyze shrinking library budgets and compromise the libraries’ abilities to function.

I revised Jaws’ script using library jargon to showcase analogies to the relationship between libraries and publishers. Because drama is so much more compelling than fact, and because a good story is worth re-telling, I decided to base my analysis of libraries on Jaws (with apologies to author Peter Benchley and director Steven Spielberg) (Gottlieb, 2006). The riveting similarities served as my inspiration to write this library horror tale.

Movie Overview and Revisions

In the original movie Jaws, a vicious shark terrorizes hundreds of defenseless swimmers on Amity Island. The movie successfully horrified countless movie goers as well. My revision is titled J.A.W.S. (for Journal Assault Warrior Squad). In my version, the unspeakable horror takes place in a library. I have substituted for the terrorized islanders in Jaws the cautious librarians in J.A.W.S. My revision draws parallels between the experiences of both the islanders and the librarians. I’ve excerpted some of the most notable quotations from Jaws for the library version J.A.W.S. Readers may find movie clips from the original Jaws movie on YouTube or Jawsmovie.com.

The following characters are crucial to my J.A.W.S. analogy:

  • The tourists in Jaws are the library patrons in J.A.W.S.
  • The shark in Jaws is the predatory publishing industry in J.A.W.S.
  • Captain Quint, Chief Brody, and Hooper in Jaws are librarians actively fighting to protect their budgets in J.A.W.S.
  • Islanders worried about preserving their tourism economy are librarians concerned with preserving their budgets.
  • Mayor Vaughn represents not a group, but rather the complacent mindset of those who are afraid of change and who wish to continue doing business as it has always been done.

Jaws is the story of a Great White shark that is menacing the seaside community of Amity Island. The resort town’s economy depends totally on tourism. Unfortunately, a shark kills a tourist. Police Chief Martin Brody naturally tries to close the beaches. Incredibly, Mayor Vaughn thwarts Chief Brody’s efforts. The mayor and the islanders are understandably concerned about losing income from tourism. The mayor denies that a shark was involved, instead blaming the tourist’s death on a boating accident, and obstinately refuses to close the beaches to swimmers.

However, a second shark attack claims the life of another young Amity resident, Alex Kintner. This makes it impossible for the mayor and his supporters to continue spreading their boating accident theory. This second attack forces the islanders to finally confront the dangerous predator in their midst. Alex’s mother offers a $3,000 bounty for the capture of the killer shark.

In a desperate attempt to protect the inhabitants, Chief Martin Brody enlists the assistance of an eccentric shark hunter, Captain Quint. The residents are against hiring Captain Quint after he demands $10,000 to kill the shark. But, realizing that tourist business is desperately needed to keep Amity’s economy alive, the islanders eventually ante up and pay Quint’s fee. The hunters (Captain Quint, a young researcher named Hooper, and Chief Brody) slay the predatory beast and save Amity’s tourism economy.

My characters are slightly different. While there are no Great White sharks swimming around inside libraries, there are predatory publishing prices lurking about, preying on poor defenseless library budgets.

In Jaws, Captain Quint is on a “seek-and-destroy mission. Luckily, the librarians’ mission has been more of a “seize-and-redesign” mission. Librarians have been working to re-design publishers’ pricing policies to create affordable electronic journals and archives. That mission has been achieved through creative solutions such as new pricing models, consortial efforts, electronic preprints, and open access.

Mayor Vaughn represents the mindset of librarians afraid of providing only access to resources instead of owning resources locally; those afraid of electronic-only subscriptions; and those who, before such conventions as ArXiv (an open e-print archive), were afraid of digital archives replacing print material stored in physical, on-site archives. Whether mayor or librarian, Mayor Vaughn knows that it is incredibly important to describe the situation carefully, to keep the business (tourism or libraries) going.

Movie Scripts

In Jaws Mayor Vaughn explains:

In J.A.W.S. Mayor Vaughn explains:

Martin, it's all psychological.

You yell “barracuda,”

Everybody says, “Huh? What?”

You yell “shark,” we've got a panic on our hands on the Fourth of July.

Martin, it's all psychological.

You yell “deaccession,”

Everybody says, “Huh? What?”

You yell “publishers have raised prices again” and we've got a panic on our hands during Banned Book Week."

Mayor Vaughn, in Amity or in a library, understands damage control spin.

Similarly, the workplace is a source of tension, whether it is a library or The Orca, Captain Quint’s cleverly named vessel.

In Jaws Hooper and Quint argue:

In J.A.W.S. Hooper and Quint argue:

Hooper: [trying to get the fishing line secure] It may be a marlin or a stingray... but it's definitely a game fish. [Hooper pulls as the lines snaps and he crashes his head into the wall]

Quint: [picking up the line]

Gamin' fish, eh? Marlin? Stingray? Bit through this piano wire? Don't you tell me my business again! You get back on the bridge...

Hooper: Quint, that doesn't prove a damn thing! Quint: Well it proves one thing, Mr. Hooper. It proves that you wealthy college boys don't have the education enough to admit when you're wrong.

[Quint enters the cabin as Hooper makes faces at him] Brody: [following Quint inside the boat] What's the point? Hooks and lines...

Quint: [slams on the roof at Hooper] Hooper! Twelve minutes south southeast now, full throttle! Hooper: [Mocking Pirate Voice] Aye, aye, sir! AYE JIMBOY ARAGHHH!

Quint: [to Brody] See what I do, Chief, is I trick 'em to the surface. And I jab at 'em. I'm not gonna haul 'em up like a lot of catfish. [slams on the roof]

Quint: Hooper, full throttle! Hooper: [voice imitating Clark Gable] I don't have to take this abuse much longer!

Hooper: [trying to complete the Approval Plan] It may be Alibris or Bolerium... but it's definitely a vendor. [Hooper identifies the fund codes and he crashes his head into the wall]

Quint: [reviewing the Approval Plan]

Vendor, eh? Alibris? Bolerium? Went right through this expendable fund? Don't you tell me my business again! You get back in the conference room...

Hooper: Quint, that doesn't prove a damn thing! Quint: Well it proves one thing, Mr. Hooper. It proves that you well-funded professional librarians don't have the education enough to admit when you’re wrong.

[Quint enters the conference room as Hooper makes faces at him] Brody: [following Quint inside the conference room] What's the point? Endowments and Encumbered funds...

Quint: [slams on the table at Hooper] Hooper! Twelve minutes until the budget meeting in the southeast boardroom, hurry up, I need the Approval Plan now! Hooper:[Mocking Pirate Voice] Aye, aye, sir! AYE JIMBOY ARAGHHH!

Quint: [to Brody] See what I do, Chief, is I trick them publishers to the boardroom. And I threaten 'em with subscription cancellations. I'm not gonna deal with 'em like I deal with vendors. [slams on the table]

Quint: Hooper, hurry up! Hooper: [voice imitating Clark Gable] I don't have to take this abuse much longer!

Mayor Vaughn represents a change-adverse mindset that exists in both libraries and publishing firms. Publishers have their own fears, such as the cost of publishing journals simultaneously on paper and electronically. No matter how painful the current situation may be, there is a sense of comfort in the things we know. Unknown and new procedures are frightening.

In Jaws, Mayor Vaughn complains:

In J.A.W.S., Mayor Vaughn complains:

Mayor Vaughn: I don't think either of one you are familiar with our problems.

Hooper: I think that I am familiar with the fact that you are going to ignore this particular problem until it swims up and bites you on the ass.

Mayor Vaughn: I don't think either of one you are familiar with our problems.

Hooper: I think that I am familiar with the fact that you are going to ignore this high journal price problem until it strangles your budget and bites you on the ass.

As with any change, there are a few who oppose eliminating antiquated processes because the transitional period would be difficult and disruptive.

In Jaws, Mayor Vaughn says:

In J.A.W.S., Mayor Vaughn says:

Fellows, let's be reasonable, huh? This is not the time or the place to perform some kind of a half-assed autopsy on a fish...

And I'm not going to stand here and see that thing cut open and see that little Kintner boy spill out all over the dock.

Fellow librarians, let's be reasonable, huh? This is not the time or the place to perform some kind of a half-assed autopsy on a predatory publisher...

And I'm not going to stand here and see that thing cut open and see those little devoured library budgets spill out all over the reference desk.

Librarians did perform an autopsy—the examination after the fact—on the journal publishing crisis, to gain information about affordable alternatives. And, as in the film, the obvious solution was not necessarily the right one.

In Jaws Police Chief Brody exclaims:

In J.A.W.S. Police Chief Brody’s exclaims:

“You're going to need a bigger boat.”

“You're going to need a bigger library budget.”

I was most intrigued by how Quint’s response to the original $3,000 bounty fit so well into my J.A.W.S. interpretation.

In Jaws, Captain Quint says:

In J.A.W.S, Captain Quint says:

“Y’all know me. Know how I earn a livin’. I'll catch this bird for you, but it ain’t gonna be easy. Bad fish. This shark, swallow you whole. No shakin’, no tenderizin’, down you go.

And we gotta do it quick, that'll bring back your tourists, put all your businesses on a payin’ basis. But it's not gonna be pleasant. I value my neck a lot more than three thousand bucks, chief. I'll find him for three, but I'll catch him, and kill him, for ten.

But you've gotta make up your minds. If you want to stay alive, then ante up. I don't want no volunteers, I don't want no mates, there's too many captains on this island. Ten thousand dollars for me by myself. For that you get the head, the tail, the whole damn thing.

“Y’all know me. Know how I earn a livin’. I'll get these affordable electronic journals for you, but it ain't gonna be easy. Bad publishing industry. This publishing industry, swallow your budget whole. No shakin’, no tenderizin’, down it goes.

And we gotta do it quick, that'll bring back your patrons, put all your printing patrons on a payin’ basis. But it's not gonna be pleasant. I value my neck a lot more than three thousand bucks, chief. I'll find the publisher for three, but I'll force ‘em to start offering affordable alternatives, for ten.

But you've gotta make up your minds. If you want your library doors to stay open, then ante up. I don't want no volunteers, I don't want no interns, there's too many directors in this budget meeting. Ten thousand dollars for me by myself. For that you get the affordable alternatives, the paradigm shift, the whole damn thing.

Perception is the great determinant. One’s viewpoint and eventual stance on a predicament depends on the way one perceives it. For instance, as libraries become publishers through institutional repositories, they view publishing complexities of providing access from a different vantage point.

Police Chief Brody in Jaws:

Police Chief Brody in J.A.W.S.:

Brody: It doesn't make any sense when you pay a guy like you to watch sharks.

Hooper: Well, uh, it doesn't make much sense for a guy who hates the water to live on an island either.

Brody: It's only an island if you look at it from the water.

Brody: It doesn't make any sense when you pay a guy like you to monitor journal price statistics.

Hooper: Well, uh, it doesn't make much sense for a guy who hates fund management to work in Collections Acquisition either.

Brody: it’s only an insoluble problem if you look at it from the fund manager’s viewpoint.

There is a profound message in one of the funniest and most encouraging scenes in Jaws. Two lovable old islanders, Denherder and his friend Charlie, put Charlie’s wife’s holiday roast on a hook as bait to catch the shark and claim the $3,000 bounty. Predictably, poor hapless Charlie falls into the water. His friend Denherder urges him to keep swimming back to the dock, to focus on the solution and not the problem. Denherder’s insistence on not looking back is universally sound advice for forward-thinkers in any field.

In JawsDenherder yells:

In J.A.W.S.Denherder yells:

Charlie! Take my word for it!

Don’t look back!

Swim Charlie!

Swim! C’mon Charlie!

Swim!

Swim Charlie! C’mon!

Come here boy! C'mon!

C’mon Charlie, swim!

Come here Charlie!

C’mon Charlie, keep movin’!

Keep movin’ Charlie!

C’mon a little more Charlie!

Atta boy Charlie!

Come here Charlie!

Atta boy, atta boy, atta boy Charlie

Charlie! Take my word for it!

Don't look back!

Join a consortium Charlie!

Use OAI!

C’mon Charlie! Use SPARC!

Use CLOCKSS Charlie!

C’mon! Come here boy! C’mon!

C’mon Charlie, use Portico!

Come here Charlie!

C’mon Charlie, keep movin’!

Keep movin' Charlie!

C’mon a little more Charlie!

Atta boy Charlie!

Come here Charlie!

Atta boy, atta boy, atta boy Charlie

Conclusion

When Jaws was released thirty years ago, journal prices were lower. Rising journal prices eventually empowered librarians to employ efficient alternatives to provide access to journal articles. The brave librarians in J.A.W.S. shift away from ownership and toward access; away from a paper-based system toward more electronic collections; and toward cooperation through regional consortia and open access initiatives—just as real-life librarians have done.

History is often rewritten as fiction because history has such an amazing storyline. While Jaws was not a docudrama based on actual historical events, J.A.W.S. could be. In J.A.W.S. gallant librarians draw together, fight local inertia, and beat the rising prices beast. Dr. Phil, the pop-psychology TV guru, advises, “There are no victims just volunteers!” Following that reasoning, librarians must remain vigilant and refuse to be victimized by either predatory publishing practices or complacent mindsets. Librarians should continue working with publishers to ensure the relationship does not become predatory. Unlike the doomed swimmers in the movie Jaws, our fate is not sealed.

In Jaws Police Chief Brody boasts to his wife and Hooper:

In J.A.W.S. Police Chief Brody boasts to his wife and Hooper:

Brody: Now this shark that... that... that swims alone... Hooper: Rogue. Brody: What's it called? Hooper, Brody: [together] Rogue.

Brody: Rogue, yeah. Now this guy, he... he keeps swimmin’ around in a place where the feeding is good until the food supply is gone, right?

Hooper: It's called “territoriality.” It’s just a theory that I happen to... agree with.

Brody: Then why don't we have one more drink and go down and cut that shark open?

Ellen Brody: Martin? Can you do that?

Brody: I can do anything; I'm the chief of police.

Brody: Now this publisher that... that... that solicits alone... Hooper: Rogue. Brody: What's it called? Hooper,Brody: [together] Rogue.

Brody: Rogue, yeah. Now this guy, he... he keeps solicitin’ around in a place where the library budget is good until the funds are gone, right?

Hooper: It's called “territoriality.” It's just a theory that I happen to... agree with.

Brody: Then why don't we have one more drink and go down and dismantle that publishing industry’s unaffordable pricing structure?

Ellen Brody: Martin? Can you do that?

Brody:I can do anything; I am a LIBRARIAN!

Afterword

I villainize the publishing industry in this essay for strictly literary reasons. In truth, libraries rely on publishers and vice versa. The relationship is a mutually beneficial one. Publishers, like any other companies in a capitalist society, have a right to make a profit. As the history of the challenges and changes that libraries have faced show, librarians adapt and devise creative solutions. Looking ahead, I hope the next person writing a historical perspective about the relationship between libraries and publishers will be able to view it as a romantic comedy instead of a horror film.

It is only fitting to conclude with a toast to the dedicated librarians who persevere through daunting times, ever trying to find more affordable alternatives to increasing journal prices. So I'll close my movie script with the infamous toast from the original movie. The quote is intentionally unchanged because like the relationship between publishers and librarians, not everything needs to be changed!

In Jaws Captain Quint toasts:

In J.A.W.S. Captain Quint toasts:

Here's to swimming with bow-legged women

Here's to swimming with bow-legged women

The End.

Figure 1: J.A.W.S. Coming to a Theater Near You.
Figure 1: J.A.W.S. Coming to a Theater Near You.

Felicia A. Smith is a Staff Librarian at the University of Notre Dame. Ms. Smith has worked for the Law and the Chemistry Library. Ms. Smith also worked in Collection Development at the main Hesburgh Library. Ms. Smith now works with Electronic Resources and Library Instruction departments at Hesburgh. She earned her B.A. in Communications from University of Illinois at Chicago in 1994, and her M.A. in Library and Information Science from Dominican University in 2004. She has worked in academic, medical, and public libraries in various capacities. Before becoming a librarian she worked as a Certified Criminal Defense Private Investigator in Chicago, Illinois specializing in homicide and narcotics cases. Ms. Smith has published articles that are available on her Web site at: http://www.nd.edu/~fsmith3/

NOTES

    1. [1] J.A.W.S should not be confused with JAWS for Windows. JAWS for Windows (Job Access With Speech) is a screen reader with Braille displays for the visually impaired that uses synthesized speech technology.

    2. [2] Freedom Scientific. “JAWS for Windows.” Available at http://www.freedomscientific.com/fs_products/software_jaws.asp (accessed December 2006).

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