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The Spin on History

An editorial columnist asked, "Harding or Truman? Will our President develop a decisive foreign policy like Truman, who stumbled at the beginning, only to become known as the president responsible for the Marshall Plan? Or will Clinton end up like the hapless Warren G. Harding, who set in motion a policy of retreat and isolation? Why this hunger for corollaries, this need to "compare and contrast"? Analogy is the hoary device beloved of political commentators and journalists.

The trouble is that history, like an individual genius, resists analogy. One lesson of Lincoln's administration is the degree to which contingency rules human events. Lincoln was a believer in the parts played by luck and personality. As David McCullough said of Truman, "It was luck, good and bad, and the large influence of personality, that determined the course of events time and again." The same stubborn tenacity that enabled Lincoln to triumph over George McClellan in 1864 made him fire the same general two years earlier—an act that propelled McClellan to be Lincoln's opponent.

The truth is, no one had a clue what kind of president Lincoln would be when he was elected, what problems he would confront— or when. That is why it tickles when people ask what Lincoln would do if he were around today. The world our current presidents inherit isn't the world Lincoln inherited, even though the hot spots are similar—racism, multiculturalism, and political correctness— leading to division, divisiveness, and "civil war." The difference is that the country is moving in a direction opposite from the pluralistic society for which Lincoln strove. In other words, Lincoln helped make us a pluralistic society ("the United States 'is' rather than the United States 'are'"). We are returning to the United States of many.

The Spoken Word: Lincoln Group Activities

The Lincoln Memorial Association of the Lincoln Shrine in Redlands, California, heard Charles Strozier discuss "God, Lincoln, and the Page  [End Page 33] Civil War" at the sixty-second annual Watchorn Lincoln Dinner on February 12. Strozier focused on the causal relationship between the idea of the apocalypse and slavery in regard to figures such as Lincoln.

The twenty-first annual Abraham Lincoln Symposium was held February 12 in the Old State Capitol, Springfield. "New Directions in Lincoln Studies" included papers by Edward M. Bruner ("New Salem as a Contested Site"), Glen W. Davidson ("Abraham Lincoln and the DNA Controversy"), and James Gilreath ("Guilt, Innocence, Forensic Science, Faith and the Lincoln Forgers"). Comments were by Richard S. Taylor. The association banquet was held that evening, with several Lincoln speeches performed by actor Sam Waterston, who portrayed Lincoln in the 1993 revival of the play Abe Lincoln in Illinois in New York. In describing his interest in Lincoln, Waterston used quantum theory as a metaphor because it "describes something that is real" and thus "relates to the character and nature of Abraham Lincoln, which are equally as elusive and equally as real."

The sixtieth annual Pilgrimage of the American Legion to the Lincoln Tomb was also held February 12 in Springfield; the annual Veterans of Foreign Wars pilgrimage was February 13.

The Lincoln Club of Delaware heard James W. Symington, a descendant of John Hay, deliver "A Hayride with Abraham Lincoln" at the annual Lincoln Dinner on February 10. Eric Rise presented "Abraham Lincoln and Civil Rights during the Civil War" on November 13.

In his weekly radio broadcast to the nation on February 12, President Bill Clinton discussed Lincoln in the context of the Los Angeles earthquake twenty-six days before. To Clinton, we satisfy Lincoln's call to "the better angels of our nature" when we respond to others in need. Clinton called Lincoln "The Great Conciliator" and asked the recurring Lincoln question, "Can we do better?"

On April 14 John Lattimer delivered the tenth annual Lloyd Ostendorf Lecture at Lincoln Memorial University. His presentation covered "medical and ballistic details of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln." President Scott D. Miller and Museum Director Stephen G. Hague were speakers at the May 5 dedication of the Abraham Lincoln Museum Library Reading Room.

Phillip C. Stone's annual pilgrimage to the Lincoln Cemetery (north of Harrisonburg, Virginia, where Lincoln's father Thomas was born in 1778) took place on February 12. Pat Murphy described the gathering for the January 14 Harrisonburg Daily News-Record.

On February 21, I presented the slide lecture "Abraham Lincoln" Page  [End Page 34] at Washington's Headquarters State Historic Site in Newburgh, New York.

The ninetieth Lincoln Day luncheon of the Illinois Republican party was held in Springfield on February 11 and honored Congressman Robert Michel.

The annual dinner of the New Salem Lincoln League on February 19 featured an address by Norman Hellmers, superintendent of the Lincoln Home National Historic Site.

The Lincoln Group of Florida heard Gabor Boritt on March 12. His "And the War Came: Lincoln and the Question of Individual Responsibility" was preceded by the fourth annual Basler Memorial Lincoln Symposium featuring Arlyn Katims's "The New York City Draft Riots" and Stephen Hague's "Treasures of the Abraham Lincoln Museum." The first ten years of records of that Lincoln group were placed in the Abraham Lincoln Museum of Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, Tennessee. Gary R. Planck's useful directory of Lincoln organizations and publications appeared in the September Newsletter.

The seventh annual Harmon Memorial Lincoln Lecture, James A. Rawley's "Lincoln and His War Generals," was held March 4 at Washburn University, along with the monthly meeting of the Lincoln Club of Topeka. Rawley concluded that Lincoln quickly learned the nuisance of leading a nation in war, especially the handling of the arrogant McClellan, bad-tempered Hooker, and tentative Meade. On May 5, members heard Dale Jirik discuss Mentor Graham. The April 10 minutes carried "Remembering Judge Harman" by James R. James. On September 8, Bill Stumpff started the new club year with "Lincoln and the Press." The club also compiled a directory of members.

John Hennessey spoke to the Lincoln Group of the District of Columbia on February 12 about "Lincoln and the Common Soldier: The Diverse Motivations of the Ordinary Soldier in Taking Up Arms for the Union." I spoke on "Abraham Lincoln: Our Ever-Present Contemporary" at the April 19 meeting. "Valiant Woman: Clara Barton's Role in the Civil War" was the title of Stephen B. Oates's address at the May 17 annual banquet. On September 20, Kerry Childress spoke on Lincoln's summer White House and its restoration. Ann Wilson discussed the relationship between Lincoln and "Smiler" Colfax on October 18. The annual Landes Lecture was held November 15, entitled the "Hoffman Daguerreotype." The group has compiled a new member directory.

"'The Whole Family of Man': Lincoln and the Last Best Hope Abroad" was presented by James M. McPherson on March 23 to Page  [End Page 35] the Lincoln Group of New York. On May 4, the group heard Grant Romer and Joseph Buberger discuss one of the Lincoln field's hottest controversies, whether the Buberger daguerreotype was the very first camera portrait of Lincoln. On November 17, Lloyd Ostendorf discussed the authenticity of a document he believes to be the surviving second page of Lincoln's reading copy of the Gettysburg Address.

Harold Holzer and Mark E. Neely, Jr., presented "Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: The Civil War in Art" at the January 14 meeting of the Civil War Round Table (Chicago). The February 11 meeting was Robert V. Remini's "Henry Clay, Slavery, and the Coming of the Civil War"; the September 9 meeting heard my "Abraham Lincoln—Our Ever-Present Contemporary"; and the December 9 meeting was David E. Long's "'I Shall Never Recall a Word': Emancipation and the Race Issue in the 1864 Presidential Election Campaign."

Stephen B. Oates addressed the Northern Illinois Civil War Round Table on June 3 with "John Brown."

The fifty-fourth annual meeting of the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin was held April 16; Michael Burlingame presented "Honest Abe, Dishonest Mary." A special fellowship bookplate for Burlingame's The Inner World of Abraham Lincoln was distributed at the meeting. Burlingame delivered his paper on the true authorship of the famous letter to the Widow Bixby at the April 9 meeting of the Lincoln Group of Boston. Edmund Hands presented "Glory and the Man Who Wasn't There" on October 22.

The thirty-eighth annual Lincoln Tomb ceremony commemorating the 129th anniversary of Lincoln's death was conducted by the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War at Oak Ridge Cemetery on April 15.

John Y. Simon's "Lincoln, Grant, and Unconditional Surrender" was the second E. B. "Pete" Long Memorial Lecture at the American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming, on April 29. It was preceded by a luncheon roundtable discussion by the Department of History.

The Chicago Bar Association sponsored a reenactment of one of Lincoln's murder trials on May 5 at the Dirksen Federal Court Building. Judge Abraham Lincoln Marovitz and other prominent attorneys reenacted People v. Harrison. Cullom Davis, senior editor of the Lincoln Legal Papers, participated in a panel discussion.

The Montgomery County, Maryland, Civil War Round Table heard "A Man Called Lincoln" by James I. Robertson, Jr., on May 12.

The annual meeting of the Lincoln Group of Illinois was held Page  [End Page 36] June 11 at Illinois Benedictine College. The Thomas J. Dyba Lecture was given by Wayne Weslowski, creator of a model of the Lincoln funeral train.

On June 30, the Gettysburg Civil War Institute heard Howard Jones's "To Preserve a Nation: Abraham Lincoln and Franklin D. Roosevelt as Wartime Diplomatists" and also saw Gary Kersey's play A Quaker Family Visits Abraham Lincoln.

The Sangamon County Historical Society held a downtown Lincoln walk on July 3 to nine historic sites connected with Lincoln's Springfield.

Richard Blake, Lincoln impersonator and newly elected president of the International Lincoln Association, presented his inaugural address "The Art of Presenting Abraham Lincoln" on July 2 at the Idyllwild (California) School.

I delivered the keynote address for the launching of the Louisiana Lincoln Group on February 26 at Louisiana State University in Shreveport.

The Association of Lincoln Presenters' latest membership roster lists eighty-six who portray Abraham Lincoln, forty-five of whom are members of the association.

On October 5, Cullom Davis presented "A. Lincoln, Esq., Prairie Lawyer" before the Wisconsin History Foundation in Madison.

On November 19, the Lincoln Fellowship of Pennsylvania heard Richard Marius, author of a forthcoming book on Civil War poetry. The speaker at the Gettysburg Soldiers' National Cemetery was Henry Cisneros, secretary of housing and urban development. "The Moral Problem of Slavery" by Robert William Fogel was the thirty-third annual Robert Fortenbaugh Memorial Lecture at Gettysburg College.

Harold Holzer presented "Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: The Civil War in Art" at the second annual dinner meeting of the Rhode Island Civil War Round Table on November 1.

The Lincoln Legal Papers

According to the February issue of the American Bar Association's ABA Journal, Lincoln was not the folksy lawyer many have imagined. Janet Key's profile dispels the popular view of "Honest Abe" as the politician who practiced a little law on the side. Lincoln instead was a shrewd, sophisticated, and aggressive trial attorney who cared about making money and winning. Key's portrait of Lincoln over a twenty-four-year legal practice indicates that he was one of the Page  [End Page 37] most well-respected trial and appellate lawyers of his era in Illinois as well as in the forefront of developing corporate law in the West.

The February 13 Providence Journal-Bulletin reported that Lincoln remained very much the lawyer during his presidency, when he wrote a telling one-line sentence demonstrating his deft ability to intervene and yet detach himself from a judicial proceeding. The cautiously worded sentence reads, "In this case, not as a precedent for any other case, the District Attorney will be justified by me, if in his discretion, he will enter a Nolle Prossequi. April 2, 1864. A. Lincoln." This involved a request by the Maryland district attorney and the defense lawyer to dismiss a criminal complaint in a federal treason case from 1861 that was to go to trial when victory for the Union was imminent. Joseph A. Kirby's syndicated article "Abe Lincoln Was an Outstanding Lawyer" appeared in the July 31 Journal.

A profile of the Lincoln Legal Papers by James L. Tyson appeared in the March 22 Christian Science Monitor. But Jerome J. Shestack in "Abe Lincoln as a Lawyer" for the April Florida Bar Journal believes that "Lincoln's place in history derives not from his abilities as a lawyer, but from his qualities as a human being."

S. L. Carson's "Lincoln Legal Discoveries Highlight Early Proxy and Authentication Questions" appeared in the winter 1994 Manuscript Society News. Carson discussed the thirty-four newly discovered legal documents in Lincoln's handwriting found in the basement of the Tazewell County Courthouse, Pekin, Illinois. The documents show Lincoln signing the name of the state's attorney four times on bills of indictment, but neither his own name nor signature appears. Covering the years 1842 to 1845, the documents show the wide range of Lincoln's practice and the shift from a subsistence to market economy where, in the absence of a national currency, individuals and businesses freely used promissory notes as a medium of exchange.

At the February 12 meeting of the Lincoln Legal Papers Advisory Board, it was reported that the number of legal cases in which Lincoln was involved totaled 5,456, with 79,481 documents accessed. After a national search, attorney and historian Mark Steiner was appointed associate editor for the project and given adjunct faculty appointment in the Department of History at Sangamon State University.

On March 29, Senior Editor Cullom Davis announced that the National Historical Publications and Records Commission renewed its 1994–95 grant for the sum of $50,000. The National Endowment for the Humanities approved a two-year grant for a total of $150,000, Page  [End Page 38] of which $50,000 must be in the form of matching support. As a result, the Abraham Lincoln Association, cosponsor of the project, is seeking donations. Such donations are tax deductible. Inquiries and gifts should be sent to Richard E. Hart, Suite 501, One North Old State Capitol Plaza, Springfield, IL 62701. Donors of $100 or more will receive a portfolio of reproductions of some of the recently discovered Lincoln documents from Tazewell County.

The CD-ROM Abraham Lincoln Legal Papers: The Complete Facsimile Edition is now scheduled for release in 1997. The 100,000 documents in the collection (representing more than 250,000 pages) will be scanned into electronic format as digital images and then made available on CD-ROM. A comprehensive electronic index will accompany the set. Michael Merschel described the "new technology being used on old records" for the August 28 Dallas Morning News.

Conferences

On February 4 and 5 the Greater Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, Chamber of Commerce sponsored "Lincoln and His Era," with papers by Edwin C. Bearss ("Lincoln and His Generals"), William Adams ("Lincoln and Curtin"), Roy Frampton ("Lincoln in Gettysburg"), John Schildt ("Four Days in October: Lincoln's Antietam Visit"), Kenton Broyles ("Campaign Memorabilia of the Lincoln Era"), Clark Evans ("Lincoln and the Theater"), Mike Kauffman ("The Escape and Capture of John Wilkes Booth"), and Joan Chaconas ("The Guilt or Innocence of Mary Surratt").

"A Day with Mr. Lincoln," a symposium at the Huntington Library, was held February 19. Presented were Larry Burgess's "Seeing through Hindsight's Eyes: Lincoln and Fame," Cullom Davis's "The 'Engine That Knew No Rest': Lincoln's Career in Law," Ronald D. Rietveld's "Lincoln Triumphant: From Crisis to Victory, 1864–65," and William Hanchett's "Persistent Myths of the Lincoln Assassination."

On March 9, the Supreme Court Historical Society and Friends of the Law Library of Congress commenced a six-part lecture series, "The Supreme Court in the Civil War." The first, on that date, included a panel discussion introduced by Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, with Herman Belz, Ludwell Johnson, and Larry Kramer discussing "Antebellum Constitutional Crises." On March 30, Phillip Shaw Paludan spoke on "Taney, Lincoln, and the Constitutional Conversation." Edward White challenged two aspects of the "conventional wisdom" on Salmon P. Chase and the Chase Court Page  [End Page 39] on April 6. Mark E. Neely, Jr., talked about "Justice Embattled" at his lecture on April 26, in which he pointed out that the Confederacy never got around to organizing a supreme court and that Jefferson Davis's record on civil liberties was not as spotless as his apologists maintained after the war. Harold Hyman explored how remarkable it was that the Supreme Court remained in operation and continued to hear cases throughout the war, a testimony not only to the strength of the Union constitutional system but also to the fragility of its "unsystematic legal system."

The thirteenth annual Midwest Civil War Round Table Conference, with the theme "Abraham Lincoln: An Anthology," was held April 29–30 in Indianapolis. Speakers included Alan T. Nolan ("Abraham Lincoln—Lawyer"), David E. Long ("Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties"), John Hennessy ("Year of Trial: Abraham Lincoln" and "The Virginia Front in 1862"), Theodore P. Savas ("Lincoln and Davis on Ordinance and War: A Comparison"), Mark E. Neely, Jr. ("The Triumph of the Two-Party System?"), Gerald Prokopowicz ("Lincoln's Early Years: Routes of Strategy"), and Jerry L. Russell ("Preservation Today and Tomorrow").

The American Blue and Gray Association held its annual meeting in Springfield from July 27 to 30. "The Last Year of the War, 1864–65" included Cullom Davis's "Lincoln's Law Practice," George L. Painter's "Abraham Lincoln and the Politics of Slavery," Wayne C. Temple's "The Gettysburg Address," John Y. Simon's "Grant, Lincoln and Unconditional Surrender," and William C. "Jack" Davis's "The Last Days of the Presidency of Jefferson Davis." Max and Donna Daniels performed "An Evening with Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln" on July 30.

Todd Volker's third conference at Ottawa, Illinois, coincided with the broadcast by C-SPAN of the first Lincoln-Douglas debates reenactment on August 20. The theme was "The Anti-Lincoln Tradition." Commentators included Harold Holzer, Robert Bray, Justin Walsh, Richard N. Current, Thomas Landess, and Michael Burlingame.

The sixtieth annual meeting of the Southern Historical Association, held in Louisville, offered a session on November 10 by the Society of Civil War Historians. The theme was "Civil War: Modern War or Not." Grady McWhiney presided; Herman M. Hattaway, Mark E. Neely, Jr., and Brooks D. Simpson were panelists. "Lincoln Scholarship: Past, Present, Future" was the session held November 12, with Frank J. Wetta presiding. Papers included Joseph G. Dawson's "Lincoln and the Generals: Historiography, 1980–1993," Thomas R. Turner's "Lincoln Scholarship: The Assassination," William Page  [End Page 40] E. Gienapp's "Politics during the Civil War," and Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s "Fate of Lincoln Scholarship."

The Smithsonian Institution offered the weekly series "Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War" from July 11 to August 8. Gabor Boritt presented "The Real Lincoln," and Harold Holzer delivered "Popular Art and Fine Art: Lincoln as His Contemporaries Saw Him."

The fifteenth annual Illinois History Symposium, December 2–3, sponsored by the Illinois State Historical Society, Springfield, included Lloyd H. Efflandt's "Lincoln, Illinois Militiaman."

Editorials

Paul Greenberg's annual syndicated Lincoln editorial appeared in the February 11 Shreveport Times. "Americans could benefit by becoming more Lincolnesque," wrote Greenberg, pointing to the many who were fooled by Lincoln's apparent lack of force. Americans failed to appreciate the depth of Lincoln's will and perseverance and the extent of his cunning and simplicity, although those qualities would later be known as "Lincolnesque." Now that power is in the hands of the professionals, people believe that all is supposed to be right, but Americans will always have need of those certain qualities that "for want of any better of word, might be called Lincolnesque." How did this rough-hewn man "manage to save the Union," and what made him so confident that freedom would not only survive but also prevail? To that commentator, Lincoln had "thought this thing through." While others saw the past, he saw the future and understood the underlying issues of his time.

Dale Turner's "Honesty, Humor, a Belief in God Elevated Lincoln," which appeared in the February 12 Seattle Times, pointed out that although Lincoln was not a member of any organized religious sect, he was one of the most profoundly religious presidents. To Turner, "No leader in American history quoted from the Bible more often or applied its truth in daily life more than Lincoln."

David Lehman's "Deconstructing Abe: Fashionable Ignorance and the Gettysburg Address" appeared in the February 11 Chicago Tribune. The author of Signs of the Times: Deconstruction and the Fall of Paul de Man described a speaking engagement at Wittenberg University at which a professor cited approvingly his "mock-deconstruction" of the Gettysburg Address. Lehman wrote that the opening of the address—"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal" — Page  [End Page 41] meant, to the politically correct, that Lincoln appropriated, "for the patriarchal authorities the procreative power vested in the female body." "All men are created equal," to deconstructionists means that "men" excludes woman and other "marginalized" figures and that the document therefore promotes something other than full equality. Lehman said that he was sobered by today's campus atmosphere, where he believes a civil war is underway that is "peculiarly low and mean-spirited."

In "On Language" for the March 6 New York Times Magazine, William Safire discussed "Peoples" and pointed out that Lincoln, in his declaration at Gettysburg, drew on the phrase created by the Rev. Theodore Parker for "of the people, by the people, for the people."

Peter H. Gibbon discussed "In Search of Heroes" for the February Ideas, Notes, and News about History from the National Council for History Education. He feels that we have lost the vision of greatness, like Lincoln's, in our schools and culture and have traded the study of exemplary life for "information, irony and reality." Instead of being uplifted by exemplary lives, high culture, communities, families, churches, and temples, we are overcome "by an all-enveloping enemy culture interested in amusement, titillation and consumerism."

My "Abraham Lincoln's Legend Lives On" appeared in the February 3 Chariho (R.I.) Times and the February 9 Barrington (R.I.) Times. Donald Wyatt pointed out that "American's interest in Abraham Lincoln [is] at [an] all-time high" in the February 10 Warwick (R.I.) Beacon.

The January cover of Mad Magazine depicted "Abraham E. Neuman" in the Lincoln Memorial, stating, "You can fool some of the readers all of the time ... these are the schumucks we're after!"

Barron's cartoon syndicated in the April 18 Providence Journal-Bulletin had a two-faced William Clinton chiseled next to Lincoln on Mount Rushmore.

On January 17, "Berry's World" showed Washington and Lincoln giving each other high-fives, while Bob Thaves's "Frank and Ernest" portrayed one of Lincoln's secretaries telling him, "You know that little girl who said you should grow a beard?—Now she thinks you ought to have your ears pierced."

Cartoonist Holbert of the Boston Herald portrayed a group of Lincoln look-alikes at a meeting of GOP governors, where the moderator states, "And there may be some here with even higher aspirations in '96." His cartoon appeared in the December 8 Westerly (R.I.) Sun.

Ronald D. Rietveld's perspective on Lincoln, "A President for the Page  [End Page 42] Ages," appeared in the November 19, 1993 Los Angeles Times. Rietveld pointed out that Lincoln was actually indifferent to power and, trusting in God, dared to take moral (and politically unpopular) stands.

The annual Lincoln editorial in the February 11 State Journal-Register (Springfield, Ill.) offered examples of the "tremendous surge of interest in Lincoln memorabilia"—the discovery of thirty-four original Lincoln documents in the Tazewell County Courthouse and the sale of a Lincoln letter for $728,500 when it had been appraised at $150,000. In the same paper on February 13, Doug Pokorski wrote "Celebrating Abe: Mary Lincoln Deserves Blame for Rough Treatment by Writers."

David Shribman's "Time to Revisit Lincoln Legacy" in the February 11 Boston Globe concerned "losing" Lincoln. Shribman believes that Lincoln is quickly receding from the American memory just when we need him the most. Americans must work to be worthy of such ancestor heroes, Shribman feels. His concern is that Lincoln's presidency is as remote to people today as George Washington's administration was to him. "Henry Ward Beecher of Brooklyn's Plymouth Church loathed Lincoln in life but celebrated him in death: 'Dead-dead-dead,' Beecher said, 'yet he speaketh.' Abraham Lincoln, the better angel of our nature, speaketh, if only we would listen."

"All Hail the Emancipator: Why Abraham Lincoln Was Not a Racist" by Bob Armidon appeared in the February 21 It magazine. The author criticizes those who accuse Lincoln of being a racist who acted against slavery only for political purposes. Such attacks not only ignore Lincoln's words and actions, Armidon observed, but also remove them from the historical setting of his time. Lincoln was always hostile to slavery, and although he was not an abolitionist in the true sense, he believed, "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong." During the senatorial canvass of 1858 he declared that emancipation should be a long-term goal that must be achieved "as fast as circumstances should permit." As president, Lincoln's priority was to preserve the Union; without civil war, which he chose in order to save the Union, there could be no emancipation. His Emancipation Proclamation, a military measure, was "the most revolutionary action ever taken by a president up to that point." Lincoln confiscated about $3 billion worth of slave property, which in current value would be worth $3 trillion. To four million slaves, the promise of freedom was now government policy. As Fredrick Douglass said, "Viewed from the genuine abolition ground, Mr. Lincoln seemed, tardy, cold, dull, and indifferent; but measuring Page  [End Page 43] him by the sentiment of his country, a sentiment he was bound as a statement to consult, he was swift, zealous, radical, and determined."

Cartoonist Jim Borgman's portrayal of Washington as "Wonk City" appeared in the June 13 Washington Post; it depicted "The Washington Mall" anchored on the east by Congress and on the west by the Lincoln Memorial. "When the going got tough, it was not unusual for presidential aide Gil Wonkmeister to grab a TCBY and talk things out with Abe" according to one image. In another, Lincoln says from his memorial, "Like I told Nixon, Stonewall."

My "A Million Marathons" appeared in the spring-summer News from Marathon House (Providence). "If Lincoln were alive today, he would be the first to say there should be a million Marathons" in an effort to fight alcohol and drug addiction—this century's Civil War.

The July 18 New Yorker contained Handelsman's cartoon depicting Lincoln at Gettysburg saying, "But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. Only Disney can do that." Conrad's "Drawingboard" for the July 18 Los Angeles Times portrayed Lincoln at Gettysburg wearing Mickey Mouse ears with the label "Disney's America." The November 14 issue contained Sidney Blumenthal's history note, "Re-inventing Lincoln." While describing artist Sam Fink's The Illustrated Gettysburg Address, Blumenthal discussed how "every age has its own vision of Lincoln." Fink's illustration of a berobed Sixteenth President captures a "majestic Lincoln."

Mike Thompson poked fun at the alleged new photograph of Lincoln in the July 17 State Journal-Register (Springfield, Ill.) with an atypical American family: "Browsing through the local antique mall, the Abercromby family discovers yet another long-lost, authentic Abraham Lincoln photograph." One says, "It has a nose. Lincoln had a nose." "It has two eyes. Lincoln had two eyes." "It has hair. Lincoln had hair." "Then it must be Lincoln! It must be Lincoln!!"

Sheldon Whitehouse, U.S. attorney in Rhode Island, wrote an op-ed piece for the October 15 Providence Journal-Bulletin, in which he discussed the lack of faith in government. In so doing, he praised "participatory democracy." It is the central message of Lincoln's description of government as "of the people, by the people, and for the people."

Garry Wills's "Read Polls, Heed America," which appeared in the November 6 New York Times Magazine, pointed out how political leadership in a democracy is like walking a tightrope. "Can a position be created that fudges some objections while seeming to satisfy several demands? That is how Lincoln treaded his way Page  [End Page 44] through the mine fields of the slave issue when he ran for office in Illinois. He had to alienate abolitionists while stealthily appealing to the Know-Nothing party." Evading issues can be dangerous for a politician, Wills observed; one should evade, like Lincoln, only when it serves a purpose. Wills showed how Lincoln maintained "an intelligence network in Illinois" to deal with the power of public opinion.

The Arts

The February–March American Heritage featured an article about the "discovery" of a daguerreotype alleged to be the first photographic portrait of Lincoln. Harold Holzer estimated that the picture, from the family of one of Lincoln's private secretaries, John Hay, was taken in 1843 when the thirty-four-year-old Lincoln was serving in the Illinois legislature. A controversy has ensued about whether the photo is authentic. Doug Pokorski's "Old Photo Looks a Lot Like Lincoln" for the March 6 State Journal-Register (Springfield, Ill.) quoted Thomas F. Schwartz's concern over the need of provenance— the documented, unbroken chain of possession that would link the photo directly back to Lincoln himself. There was no evidence that Hay or his daughter ever mentioned the picture or identified it as Lincoln or described how it came into the family's possession.

The March 15 Westerly (R.I.) Sun carried the story further with "President Lincoln Is Back as Prince Charles," indicating that shortly after the portrait of "Lincoln" appeared in the March 1 issue, Buckingham Palace officials contacted the editorial offices with an "urgent" request for more information. Apparently, Prince Charles was convinced that he is somehow related to Lincoln because of his resemblance to the man in the photo. Larry Dublin of Gannett suburban newspapers reported "Critics Question Authenticity of Picture" on January 14, and New York Newsday contained George DeWan's "Stir over 'Earliest' Photo." Other articles about the daguerreotype appeared in the Milwaukee Journal, Chicago Sun-Times, and Chicago Tribune on January 13, the Times (London) and Providence Journal-Bulletin on January 14, and the Washington Post on January 15.

Suzanne Richards reported in the March 31 Oregonian the dedication of the Portland monument to General Charles Frémont, who helped create Oregon Territory. Now known as one of the Page  [End Page 45] thorns in Lincoln's side, Frémont was also a California senator, Arizona governor, and the first Republican candidate for president.

The U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing has issued a souvenir card for the European convention featuring the $100 gold certificate intended for use in 1908 but never issued. The certificate bears a portrait of Lincoln and is part of a series by the bureau called "Unfinished Masterpieces."

The surreal The America Play played at the Joseph Papp Public Theater in the East Village. Presiding over the first act is the "Foundling Father" played by Reggie Montgomery, a Lincoln look-alike.

The Springfield Historic Sites Commission rededicated the Lincoln Eighth Judicial Circuit marker in the Old State Capitol Plaza, Springfield, on May 8.

H. Konick's cartoon of Sam Waterston in Abe Lincoln in Illinois appeared in the New Yorker (December 15).

Griessman (Suite 505, 1421 Peachtree Street NE, Atlanta, GA 30309) has available a sixty-minute audiocassette titled "Lincoln Live."

William Gordon's "Lincoln Before and After Split Image," which appeared in the February 10 Star-Ledger (Newark), featured a one-of-a-kind 1860 ambrotype of Lincoln taken for Marcus L. Ward of New Jersey two days after the presidential nomination at the Republican convention. Gordon compared the youthful image to the president's aged appearance five years later.

Wisconsin Public Television has produced The Memoirs of Abraham Lincoln in video. Written by Peter King Beech, it stars Granville "Sonny" Van Dusen as Lincoln.

Commemorative coins of the Lincoln Shrine, minted by the Redlands Coin Club, are once again available for sale at the Lincoln Shrine at the A. K. Smiley Public Library, Redlands, California. Created by the longtime president of the Redlands Coin Club, John Lenker, the coins feature the Barnard bust of Lincoln above an exterior view of the shrine. The five varieties include bronze, oxidized bronze, copper, oxidized copper, and silver.

"Lincoln and the American Experience" was the theme of the 1994 season of the Great American People Show at Lincoln's New Salem. Presented were Mr. Lincoln and the Fourth of July and Edgar Lee Masters's Spoon River Anthology.

Bonnie L. Roecker, director of development for St. Joseph's Home in Springfield, Illinois, announced the issuance of the 1994 Christmas collector's ornament featuring the Lincoln Home. The 1993 ornament featured the Old State Capitol. Page  [End Page 46]

Craig D'Ooge's " The Birth of a Nation': Symposium on Classic Film Discusses Inaccuracies and Virtues," featuring a still of John Wilkes Booth leaping from the president's box at Ford's Theatre, appeared in the Library of Congress Information Bulletin on June 27. John Hope Franklin discussed the "Cruel Hoax" on the American people that the movie created in a picture of Reconstruction still used to bar African-Americans from positions of public trust.

Allan Kozinn reviewed Van Cliburn's historic return to the stage in a concert with the Moscow Philharmonic at the Metropolitan Opera House on August 2. Cliburn's program included his own animated reading of the narration in Aaron Copland's Lincoln Portrait (New York Times, August 4). The February 23 Chronicle for Higher Education reported that eighty-five-year-old U.S. Supreme Court Justice Harry Blackmum took the stage at the University of Minnesota to narrate Lincoln Portrait—a long-held wish.

The National Endowment for the Humanities announced a $750,450 grant to American Social History Productions to produce the first hour in a projected five-hour documentary titled "Forever Free: America in the Era of Emancipation and Reconstruction" (New York Times, August 25).

Among its 1995 calendars, Pomegranate (Box 6099, Rohnest Park, CA 94927) has produced "Lincoln," featuring images from the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian Institution and "The Civil War 1995 Calendar" from the Library of Congress.

Dicksons, Inc. (P.O. Box 368, 709B Avenue East, Seymour, IN 47274) has produced Hong Zing Zou's portrait of Lincoln kneeling in prayer.

On October 20, the Associated Press reported that "Tad," a Family Channel movie starring Kris Kristofferson and Jane Curtin, had finished filming in Richmond and Petersburg. It was to delve into Lincoln's personal side as father and as chief executive. The show aired in March 1995.

On October 27, CBS aired "The Ghost of Lincoln," with David E. Long as one of the commentators. The program discussed Lincoln's dreams, premonitions, and preoccupation with death.

Cartoonist Mike Thompson showed Lincoln in the September 8 State Journal-Register (Springfield, Ill.) saying, "We are now engaged in a great Civil War, a long, bloody conflict fought in a house divided against itself.... But enough about my married life, let's discuss the war with the South." On September 21 he portrayed modern-day campaign managers reviewing the Lincoln-Douglas Page  [End Page 47] debates on C-SPAN with such comments as "Where are the zingers?!!" "No sound bites?! No sound bites?! You call this a DEBATE?!!"

Stahler's cartoon in the August 30 Westerly (R.I.) Sun, titled "Today's Congress in 1863," featured a member of Congress saying to Lincoln, "We've hammered out a compromise, Mr. President, that frees 95 percent of the slaves by 1899."

The documentary "Frederick Douglass: When the Lion Wrote History" appeared on PBS on November 2.

Christopher LaMontagne has created an Abraham Lincoln in wood (P.O. Box 45, Forestdale, RI 02824).

Sculptor John McClarey (4 Ridge Ct., Decatur, IL 62522) has created and cast in bonded-bronze his "Trial Lawyer," "The Lincoln Family, circa 1858," "The Campaigner," "Civil War President," and "Debate '58," which includes small busts of Lincoln and Douglas.

The Lincoln Memorial University 1994 Christmas card featured the traditional Lloyd Ostendorf portrait of Lincoln reflecting on a moonlit evening while walking home with Christmas gifts and saying, "I can see how it might be possible for a man to look down upon the earth and be an atheist, but I cannot conceive how he could look up into the heavens and say there is no God." A matching print is available from Lincoln Memorial University.

The C-SPAN Reenactment of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Doug Pokorski reported that the "Lincoln-Douglas Debates Make C-SPAN" in the February 24 State Journal-Register (Springfield, Ill.). Encouraged by Harold Holzer's 1993 The Lincoln-Douglas Debates: The First Complete Unexpurgated Text, C-SPAN televised the first-ever reenactment of the entire series of seven debates. Each of the local communities produced the debates: Ottawa on August 20, Freeport on August 27, Jonesboro on September 17, Charleston on September 18, Galesburg on October 8, Quincy on October 9, and Alton on October 15. On March 2, C-SPAN sponsored R. Fredrick Klein giving Lincoln's "House Divided" speech in the Old State Capitol.

For each of the reenactments, C-SPAN presented six hours of programming, including the debates, with a total of 3,891 telephone calls and queries from the viewing audience, demonstrating that Americans can sit through more than three-second sound bites. C-SPAN also produced a press kit and educators' kit, complete with Page  [End Page 48] poster, teachers' guide, and college-level resource guide, along with a "scrapbook" of the reenactments.

Along with the debates, C-SPAN offered A Companion to the Lincoln-Douglas Debates by John Splaine as well as the following videotapes: Lincoln-Douglas Series Highlights: The Complete Lincoln-Douglas Debate Reenactments (twenty-one hours), The Complete Lincoln-Douglas Debates Series (forty-two hours), a single debate reenactment, or a single debate reenactment with C-SPAN programming (C-SPAN, Box 53, Washington, DC 20055). Rebecca Bailey wrote about the series in the August Civil War News. Harold Holzer's "Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Exploding History's Myths" appeared in the New York Post on August 19.

Valerie Burd reviewed the reenactment in Ottawa for the August 22 Chicago Tribune; the August 22 New York Times reviewed the performances of Max Daniels as Lincoln and Jim Gayan as Douglas.

Exhibits

"The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America" continued at the Huntington Library through August, with more than three hundred thousand viewing the exhibition. The catalog by John H. Rhodehamel and Thomas F. Schwartz, with a foreword by James M. McPherson, is available from the Huntington (1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, CA 91108). A review by F. Colin Kingston appeared in the July Autograph Times.

The University of Chicago Library Department of Special Collections sponsored "Stephen A. Douglas and the American Union" from February 12 to June 15. The exhibition was drawn from the Douglas papers in the library. Daniel Meyer is the author of the handsome catalog.

"Now He Belongs to the Ages: The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln" was on view at the New York Academy of Medicine from February 7 to April 15. A group of artifacts related to Lincoln's assassination was shown from the Lattimer Family Collection.

Drawing upon the extensive collections of the Lilly Library at Indiana University and the Lincoln Collection at Brown University, "Abraham Lincoln: Cartoon Character and National Icon" was featured in the Round Barn at Heritage Plantation of Sandwich (Mass.) from May 8 to October 23.

The April 12 State Journal-Register (Springfield, Ill.) reported that a surveying demonstration, including a display of antique and Page  [End Page 49] modern surveying instruments, was held at New Salem State Historic Site on August 13 and 14. "Surveying at New Salem" included a party of five men "viewing" (surveying) a road through New Salem village using surveying instruments similar to those Lincoln employed during his six years as deputy surveyor for Sangamon County.

Tours

William D. Pederson conducted his Land of Lincoln pilgrimage to Springfield from February 10 to 14.

Under the direction of Stephen Hague, Lincoln Memorial University conducted a Lincoln Pilgrimage from May 8 to 14 to prominent Lincoln sites in Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. The second Lincoln Pilgrimage retraced the steps of the first, conducted by R. Gerald McMurtry in 1940.

Lee C. Moorehead's annual Lincoln Seminar—"Long Look at Lincoln"—was held July 8–10. It also included tours of Lincoln sites in Sangamon and Menard counties in Illinois. I delivered "Abraham Lincoln: Our Ever-Present Contemporary"; Marty Benner told how "The Study of the Lincoln Legal Papers Shows Lincoln to Have Been an Outstanding Lawyer"; Harold Holzer presented "The Lincoln-Douglas Debates: What They Really Said" and "Lincoln and His Mail"; and Lee Moorehead spoke on "The Controversy over Billy Herndon, Lincoln's Law Partner, as a Major Source of Lincoln History" and "Lincoln as Masterful Politician." The dramas Abraham Lincoln and the Fourth of July and An Evening with Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln (written and enacted by Max and Donna Daniels) were performed at New Salem.

The Civil War Round Table (Chicago) conducted its October 12–16 "Kentucky Bluegrass" tour of Lincoln's birthplace outside Hodgenville and the homes of Mary Todd Lincoln, Cassius Marcellus Clay, and Joshua Speed. Ralph Geoffrey Newman wrote "The Lincoln Family in Kentucky" for the fall tour edition of Civil War Round Table.

Auctions

Sotheby's on May 3 auctioned an Abraham Lincoln autographed letter dated "Washington 17 March 1863" to his "intimate" friend Joshua Speed. President Lincoln asked Speed to intervene in the Page  [End Page 50] case of Lyman Guinnip, who had been indicted for helping a slave to escape. Lincoln comments, "I scarcely think he is guilty of any real crime. Please try if you can to slip him through." Estimated at between $80,000 and $120,000, it sold for $79,500, perhaps indicating some stabilization in the price of Lincoln manuscripts.

Another autographed letter signed "A. Lincoln," sent after the 1860 Republican convention to Charles C. Nott, a board member of the Young Men's Republican Union, contains the nominee's instructions for publication of the Cooper Institute address, "I do not wish to have the sense changed, or modified, to a hair's breadth." The letter was sold at Christie's on May 20 for $387,500, after an original estimate of $120,000 to $150,000. A signed carte-de-visite ("A. Lincoln") sold for $27,600, after an estimate of $15,000 to $20,000.

The Arthur Rubloff collection of sculpture was auctioned by Leslie Hindman in Chicago on May 22. Featured were Daniel Chester French's maquette of his Abraham Lincoln executed for Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1912 (which sold for $68,000 after a pre-bid estimate of $30,000 to $40,000); James Earl Fraser's seated Lincoln maquette (which sold for $18,000 after a pre-bid estimate of $5,000 to $10,000); and John Gutzon Borglum's Lincoln, a reduction of the Lincoln the friendly neighbor statue in front of the Essex County Courthouse in Newark, New Jersey (which sold for $150,000 after a pre-bid estimate of $15,000 to $25,000).

An autographed letter and envelope franked by Lincoln as postmaster and written from Vandalia, Illinois, on December 10, 1835, to T. J. Nance of New Salem brought $100,000 at the auction of the Louis Grunin collection of free franks and Americana held at the Robert A. Siegel Auction Galleries on May 5, 1993.

Sotheby's November 7 auction featured Lincoln's letter to Governor Michael Hahn of Louisiana, in which Lincoln proposed extending the voting franchise to "some of the colored people" of Louisiana who "would probably help ... to keep the jewel of liberty within the family of freedom." It sold for $288,500. Also offered was Congressman Lincoln's letter of February 2, 1848, to William H. Herndon describing the effect of fellow Representative Alexander H. Stephens's speech: "I just take up my pen to say, that Mr. Stephens of Georgia, a little slim, pale-faced, consumptive man, with a voice like Logan's, has just concluded the very best speech of an hour's length, I have ever heard. My old, withered, dry eyes, are full of tears yet." Estimated at between $25,000 and $35,000, it sold for $101,500. Page  [End Page 51]

Awards and Prizes

The Abraham Lincoln Association and Southern Illinois University Press continued the call for manuscripts for the Abraham Lincoln Association Prize, which receives $1,000 and publication. Manuscripts were judged by a panel of Lincoln scholars, including Richard N. Current, Robert W. Johannsen, and Mark E. Neely, Jr. The panel was chaired by John Y. Simon. The award recipient was Michael Burlingame for Abraham Lincoln: An Oral History.

Recipients of the Abraham Lincoln Association Award of Achievement on February 12 were Sam Waterston (who several times has portrayed Lincoln), William D. Pederson (who organized the first-ever Lincoln conference held in the Deep South as well as a teacher's institute to explore ways of approaching Lincoln in the classroom), and Louise Taper, who initiated the idea of the Huntington Library exhibition "The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America."

Harold Holzer received the annual award of the Lincoln Group of New York for 1993 for Dear Mr. Lincoln: Letters to the President and his edition of The Lincoln-Douglas Debates. Winner of the 1994 award was the Huntington Library for the exhibition "The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America," with special citations to Louise Taper for conceiving the idea and Thomas F. Schwartz and John H. Rhodehamel for writing the catalog.

The 1994 Barondess Lincoln Award of the Civil War Round Table of New York was presented to Harold Holzer on April 15 for The Lincoln-Douglas Debates and Dear Mr. Lincoln: Letters to the President.

On May 7 Lincoln College awarded honorary degrees to General Gordon R. Sullivan, Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army; James T. Hickey, former curator of the Horner Lincoln Collection of the Illinois State Historical Library; and Civil War historian Frank E. Vandiver.

The fourth Lincoln Prize at Gettysburg College was awarded to Ira Berlin, Barbara Fields, Steven Miller, Joseph Reidy, and Leslie Rowland for Free at Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Freedom, and the Civil War. The editors of that book divided $40,000. Second place went to Reid Mitchell for The Vacant Chair: The Northern Soldier Leaves Home.

The Society of American Historians presented the Bruce Catton Prize for Lifetime Achievement to John Hope Franklin, citing his 1947 book From Slavery to Freedom as the introduction of black history to many readers. Page  [End Page 52]

Nominations for the 1994 Tony Awards included Abe Lincoln in Illinois and Sam Waterston for "Leading Actor in a Play."

The Lincoln Essay Awards of the eighth annual Lincoln Essay Competition of the Lincoln Home National Historic Site had as the theme "The Character of Abraham Lincoln." With nearly 650 essays submitted, the winners were, first place, Melissa Judy Unterseh of Waterloo, Illinois, Junior High School; second place, Shelby Craig of Winchester Elementary School; and third place, Ryan Berkshire of Brookwood Junior High School.

The Association of Lincoln Presenters gave the 1993 Abraham Lincoln Award to Dan Bassuk and the 1993 Glenn Schnizlein Memorial Award to Max and Donna Daniels as the best team to portray Abraham and Mary Lincoln. Beginning in 1994, that group presented three awards: the Abraham Lincoln Award, the Mary Todd Lincoln Award, and the Best Lincoln Pair.

Michelle Caswell received a check for $2,500 for her winning Lincoln essay in a contest sponsored by the Huntington Library. One of five thousand entrants, Caswell escaped Bulgaria with her family when she was sixteen. Bettina Boxall profiled her in "A Picture of Freedom, Lincoln Postcard That Kept a Child's Hope Alive Inspires Prize Essay" in the Los Angeles Times on February 12.

Thomas Turner and William Hanchett were awarded the Lincoln Diploma of Honor by Lincoln Memorial University at the spring commencement exercises.

Richard N. Current received the 1995 Nevins-Freeman Award from the Civil War Round Table (Chicago) at the October 13 meeting. Glen Wiche and Ralph Geoffrey Newman wrote The Nevins-Freeman Award: The First Decade, 1974–1983.

Lincoln Home National Historic Site

The Lincoln Heritage Lectures held February 12 featured John Y. Simon's "Mary Lincoln and the Biographers," Roger A. Fischer's "Lincoln as Icon: The Posthumous Lincoln in American Cartoon Art," and Harold Holzer's "The Lincoln Mailbag: The Presidential Mail, 1861–1865."

"Abraham Lincoln: A Biography in Words and Music," February 5 and 6, featured Fritz Klein as Lincoln and Paul Presney, Jr., as Jesse DuBois, Illinois state auditor.

On April 8 the Midwest Regional Office of the National Park Service announced approval for an environmental assessment for Page  [End Page 53] the location of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Center. The service recommended that construction of the center be on the block in downtown Springfield bounded by Capitol, Fourth, Jackson, and Fifth streets, just north of the Executive Mansion. Derrick DePledge reported in the State Journal-Register that the U.S. Senate, despite efforts at delay, had authorized up to $18 million for the facility. In the May 26–June 1 Illinois Times (Springfield), James Krohe, Jr., offered "Making Lincoln Come Alive" and stated that a building rising from the parking lot where the old Abe Lincoln Hotel had once stood would be "the closest thing to a miracle I ever expect to see." Other than that, Krohe saw very little to commend about spending $18 million for the Lincoln Center. His tongue-in-cheek editorial did indicate that people would "flock" to see Lincoln's body, "probably better preserved today than Reagan was at the time he left office." He termed the presentation of Lincoln as "Disneyfication."

Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial, Lincoln City, Indiana

The opening of a "see and learn" exhibition "A Walk Through the Life of Abraham Lincoln" was held February 6. The exhibit was developed from a new American history textbook, Adventure Tales of America: An Illustrated History of the United States. The book's author, Jody Potts, was the featured speaker.

The Lincoln on Democracy Project

Just when we believed that Lincoln on Democracy had seen its final foreign translation, Mario M. Cuomo, coeditor, arranged for translations of the book into both Hebrew and Arabic abridged editions for distribution in the Mideast in 1994 and 1995.

Periodicals

Slyvia A. Leeseberg, editor of the Lincoln Chronicle, announced that the Chronicle will no longer be published.

Harold Holzer's twenty-first annual article for the Antique Trader appeared on February 9 ("Letters to the Civil War White House, Dear Mr. Lincoln"). Page  [End Page 54]

Douglas L. Wilson's "A Most Abandoned Hypocrite" in the February–March American Heritage unveils a previously unknown Lincoln manuscript in which he dismantles a long-time political adversary, the Rev. Peter Cartwright, with ruthless wit.

"The Great Debate, Lincoln vs. John A. MacDonald on the Speaker's Platform" by David Raymont appeared in the February–March Beaver: Exploring Canada's History.

"Family Tree: Last of the Lincolns" by Michael R. Beschloss, which appeared in the February 28 New Yorker, solicited a spirited response from Paul H. Verduin. Verduin pointed out that Lincoln's mother, not grandmother, was reputed to be illegitimate; that Lincoln's last law partner and biographer William Herndon did not interview anyone in Kentucky; and that the old rumor that Lincoln was illegitimate is without credibility. The Chicago Tribune syndicated an article about the Beschloss piece, "Lincoln Lineage Still Fascinates," which appeared in the May 8 Providence Journal.

The March–April Harvard Magazine contained "Very Truly Your Friend, A. Lincoln" about the letter written to George C. Latham on July 22, 1860. Latham was a friend of Lincoln's eldest son, Robert, and the presidential candidate wrote a consoling letter about Latham's being turned down for admittance by Harvard College. All was not lost, for George enrolled at Yale.

"What Makes a Good Leader?" by Garry Wills appeared in the April Atlantic Monthly.

The May Journal of Southern History contained "Southern History in Periodicals, 1993: A Selected Bibliography."

Peter Reisenberg's speech at the ninth annual meeting of the Lincoln Society, Taipei, on April 18, 1993, "Citizenship: Ancient and Modern," was published in the winter Sino-American Relations. The spring issue contained "Abraham Lincoln and Human Rights" by Yu-Tang D. Lew, which he presented at the International Conference on Lincoln, Taipei, November 12–15, 1989. The autumn issue contained Cullom Davis's "The Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln," which also was presented at the conference.

The winter Lincoln Herald contained Douglas L. Wilson's "A Talk at the Lincoln Home National Historic Site," Erving Beauregard's "Edwin M. Stanton and Freemasonry," and Gary R. Planck's "Lincoln News Digest." The spring issue included my "Robert Todd Lincoln and John Hay, Fellow Travelers," Michael Burlingame's "How Shorthand Reporters Covered the Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858," and Planck's "Lincoln News Digest." In the summer issue were Mark H. Dunkelman's "Emory Sweetland Remembers November 19, 1863," Charles M. Hubbard's "Lincoln's Choice of Foreign Minis- Page  [End Page 55] ters," Mark Reinhart's "The Lincoln Image on the Screen," Wayne C. Temple's "An Index to Charles Durman's He Belongs to the Ages: The Statues of Abraham Lincoln," and Planck's "Lincoln News Digest." The fall issue included Brooks D. Simpson's "Lincoln Finds His General," Richard Hanks's "Lincoln and the Politics of Nepotism," Lloyd Ostendorf's "Lincoln Photographs—Signed and Dated," and Planck's "Lincoln News Digest."

Barbara Hughett's "The Birth of Lincoln College" and William D. Beard's "Lincoln's Jarndyce v. Jarndyce: A Family Dispute on the Illinois Frontier" appeared in the spring Lincoln Newsletter. The summer issue included David E. Long's "Lincoln the Assassin?" and Harold Holzer's "The Great Debates in Print." The fall issue contained George Levy's "President Lincoln Rejects an Appeal for Mercy" and Barbara Hughett's " "The Lion of Whitehall': Cassius Marcellus Clay." The winter issue contained Holzer's "Re-creating the Lincoln-Douglas Debates" and Hughett's "The Birth of a City, 1853" and "Lincoln at the Chessboard" as well as excerpts from her forthcoming The Lincoln College Story, 1865–1995.

Articles in the February Illinois History: A Magazine for Young People, published by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, had as the theme "Illinois and the Civil War."

Clark Evans wrote "The Curious Turns of the Hackett Affair" for the January–February Lincolnian. His "Maumguinea Lincoln's Favorite Dime Store Novel?" appeared in the March–April issue. Evans and Wendy Swanson wrote "President Lincoln Rides the Eastern Rails" for the July–August issue. The September–October issue included Evans's "Lincoln Sites: Britain's Monument to the Great Emancipator Are Not Exclusive to Edinburgh." Gayle T. Harris wrote on "Lincoln in Literature" for the May-June issue, in which she discussed Mr. American and the remarks of George MacDonald Fraser's character, Sir Harry Flashman, V.C., on Lincoln: "Good lawyer. Damned good lawyer ... pity his people immigrated. He'd have been the best Law Chief Justice or Law Chancellor this country ever saw." Fraser's 1980 novel Flash for Freedom! that includes Flashman's run-ins with Lincoln is now available from Books on Tape.

The entire May issue of Cobblestone, a publication for children, is devoted to Lincoln.

The first newsletter in recent memory of the Lincoln Fellowship of Pennsylvania appeared in April.

Dan Bassuk's "A Lincoln Portrait of Raymond Massey (1896–1983)" appeared in the spring Lincarnations, the newsletter of the Association of Lincoln Presenters. The fall issue contained a profile of Robert and Janet Taylor, who portrayed President and Mrs. Page  [End Page 56] Lincoln at Hildene, Robert Todd Lincoln's twenty-four-room Georgian mansion in Manchester, Vermont.

"Lincoln Takes the Fall at Niagara" appeared in the spring Reviewing Stand, a quarterly publication for Friends of the Presidential Entourage of Abraham Lincoln.

The February Lincoln Ledger, published by the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin, contained Henry J. Peterson's "Lincoln at the Wisconsin State Fair as Recalled by John W. Hoyt," Tom Millstead's "Ex-Racine Newsman Saved Lincoln's Speech for Posterity," and the second "Cumulative Bibliography" compiled by Daniel E. Pearson. "'I Slept with Lincoln': Lucien S. Hanks's Nighttime Experience," reported by Fred L. Holmes, was in the May issue.

James I. Robertson, Jr.'s "A Man Called Lincoln" appeared in the May Maryland Line, the newsletter of the Montgomery County Civil War Round Table. Michael W. Kauffman's "The Lincoln Assassination: The Case Revisited" was in the October issue.

The April Little Giant, the publication of the Stephen A. Douglas Association, featured Barbara Hughett's "George D. Levy to Deliver Address on 'To Die in Chicago: Confederates at Camp Douglas'" as well as Glen Wiche's "The Little Giant and the Lady Elgin."

Numbers 1839 and 1840 of Lincoln Lore contained Matthew Noah Vosmeir's "Lincoln's World: Election-Time in Britain." Number 1840 also included "News from the Abraham Lincoln Association." The Lincoln National Museum has suspended publication of Lincoln Lore until the Lincoln Museum relocates to its new home and museum in 1995.

The March 31 supplement to Illinois Times contained a "Visitor's Guide to Springfield."

Caesar Roy attempts to answer "Was Lincoln the Great Emancipator?" in the May-June Civil War Times Illustrated.

"The Political Acsent of James Buchanan" by Kurt Zwikl appeared in the spring-summer Keynoter.

The March Lincoln Train Times from Illinois Benedictine College announced completion of the "President's Car" in the Lincoln miniature train.

The Louisiana Lincoln Group has commenced a new serial, Louisiana Lincolnator, with the fall issue. David Wells is editor-in-chief. Sonja Webb's "Lincoln's Trip to Louisiana," "Lincoln Featured Prominently in The Book of Virtues," and "Abe for Kids" are in that first issue.

In the December 1992 Color Bearer: The Journal of the American Blue and Gray Association, a southerner proposed that Lincoln was a visionary deserving of credit for saving the Union. Not so, responds Page  [End Page 57] a Virginian in "Lincoln the Savior: A Dissenting View" in the May 1993 issue. The author traces "Big Government" woes back to Lincoln's constitutionalism. The July 1993 issue contains David E. Long's "Lincoln, Once Again," a dispute of the portrayal of the Sixteenth President as a belligerent despot.

Arthur F. Loux contributed "The Lincoln Club of Topeka" to the fall Lincoln Herald.

My "A Candidate Speaks in Rhode Island: Abraham Lincoln Visits Providence and Woonsocket, 1860" appeared in the November 1993 Rhode Island History.

Judy Hevrdejs's "Illinois Proudly Presents Lincoln's Life and Times" was in the Providence Sunday Journal on July 31.

Stephen Hansen and Paul Nygard wrote "Stephen A. Douglas, the Know-Nothings, and the Democratic Party in Illinois, 1854–1858" for the summer Illinois Historical Journal.

The spring Journal of Information Ethics, on the special theme "Plagiarism, Part I" contained several papers on the Robert Bray-Stephen B. Oates controversy. Part 2, the fall issue, discussed plagiarism in general terms.

The summer Lincoln Legacy includes a membership directory for the Lincoln Group of Illinois.

The fall 1993 Northern Kentucy Law Review (Salmon P. Chase College of Law) included Susan J. Court's "An Uneasy Partnership: The Political Relationship between Salmon Chase and Abraham Lincoln," Roger D. Billings, Jr.'s "Salmon P. Chase and the Great Lincoln Biographers," and Herman Belz's "Deep-Conviction, Jurisprudence, and Texas v. White: A Comment on G. Edward White's Historicist Interpretation of Chief Justice Chase."

The September Turf North included Susan J. Harlow's "Hildene Recalls the Time of Country Gentlemen."

"The Jurisprudence of Levi Woodbury" by William D. Bader, Henry J. Abraham, and James B. Staab appeared in the winter Vermont Law Review.

Stacey Breadhoff's "Mining the Archives" in the November Record (National Archives and Records Administration) discussed Lincoln's Thanksgiving Proclamation of 1863, in which he enumerated the blessings of the American people and called upon them to "set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next, as a day of Thanksgiving," thus creating the first traditional celebration of Thanksgiving.

Don Comer asked whether history's great president was also a great lawyer in "Lincoln the Hedger" for the November Oregon State Bar Bulletin. Page  [End Page 58]

"Abraham Lincoln as Authentic Reproduction: A Critique of Postmodernism" by Edward M. Bruner appeared in the June American Anthropologist.

"'Who Has Done This Deed?': The Response of Methodist Pulpits in the North to the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln" by David B. Chesebrough was in the July Methodist History.

"Gettysburg and Silence" by Edwin Black appeared in the February Quarterly Journal of Speech.

Allen D. Spiegel's "Abraham Lincoln and the Insanity Plea" was in the June Journal of Community Health.

"Historians Commemorate Political Reform of Frederick Douglass" by Peggy Langrall was published in the winter Smithsonian Institution Research Reports.

"Pericles's Influence on the Gettysburg Address" by James A. Stevenson was published in the spring Midwest Quarterly, and "Lincoln vs. Douglas Over the Republican Ideal" appeared in the spring American Studies.

John Rhodehamel and Thomas F. Schwartz wrote about the "Abraham Lincoln Exhibition at the Huntington Library" for the winter Historian.

Books and Pamphlets

Lincoln

Merrill D. Peterson depicts Lincoln's changing image and how it served the needs of Americans after his death in Lincoln in American Memory (Oxford University Press), a History Book Club selection. Philip Shaw Paludan's The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln (University Press of Kansas) also was a History Book Club selection. Paludan discusses Lincoln's complex personality, because of which the president was in conflict on many issues. He offers a portrait of the president as he evolved plans for reconstruction, restricted civil liberties, and managed foreign affairs.

The psychobiography The Inner World of Abraham Lincoln by Michael Burlingame has been published by the University of Illinois Press. Also from Illinois is Sylvia Neely's translation (from the French) of Olivier Frayssé's Lincoln, Land, and Labor, 1809–60, William Hanchett's succinct and thought-provoking Out of the Wilderness: The Life of Abraham Lincoln, Gabor S. Boritt's Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream, and A History of Illinois: From Its Commencement as a State in 1818 to 1847 by Governor Thomas Ford (originally written in 1854), annotated and introduced by Rodney Page  [End Page 59] O. Davis. A video documentary based on the Hanchett book has been produced by White River Pictures and is available through TN Releasing Co. (1-800-289-6682).

The University of Nebraska Press has reissued Lloyd Lewis's Myths after Lincoln as The Assassination of Lincoln: History and Myth, with a new introduction by Mark E. Neely, Jr.

LaWanda Cox's Lincoln and Black Freedom: A Study in Presidential Leadership has been published in paperback by the University of South Carolina Press.

The papers from the seventh annual Lincoln Colloquium held October 24, 1992, at Sangamon State University and sponsored by the Lincoln Home National Historic Site, Eastern National Park and Monument Association, the Sangamon County Historical Society, and the Lincoln Group of Illinois have been published as Abraham Lincoln and the Political Process. Contents include George L. Painter's "Introduction: 1854: Year of Decision," Rodney O. Davis's "'I Shall Consider the Whole People of Sangamon, My Constitutents': Lincoln and the Illinois General Assembly," Cullom Davis's "Abraham Lincoln, Esq.: The Symbiosis of Law and Politics," Roger A. Fischer's "Retailing the Railsplitter: 1860 Lincoln Material Culture Reconsidered," John Y. Simon's "Lincoln's Decision to Issue the Emancipation Proclamation," and William E. Gienapp's "The Presidential Leadership of Abraham Lincoln."

Abraham Lincoln in the American Mind, papers from the eighth annual Lincoln Colloquium, was also published by the Lincoln Home National Historic Site. Edited by Linda Norbut Suits and George L. Painter, the book contains an introduction by Painter, Richard West Sellars's "Remembering Abraham Lincoln: History and Myth at Historic Sites," my "The Crisis in Lincoln Collecting: Mayhem and Beyond," Douglas L. Wilson's "William H. Herndon and the Necessary 'Truth,'" William Hanchett's "When the Bells Tolled: The Misunderstood Aftermath of Lincoln's Assassination," and Harold Holzer and Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s "Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: Lincoln and the Civil War in Art."

Elizabeth Fox-Genovese's lecture delivered November 19, 1993, at Gettysburg College, "To Be Worthy of God's Favor: Southern Women's Defense and Critique of Slavery," has been published as the thirty-second annual Fortenbaugh Memorial Lecture.

Among Lincoln publications for children are Martha Brenner's Abe Lincoln's Hat, with illustrations by Donald Cook (Random House) and Fred Trump's Lincoln's Little Girl: A True Story (reprinted by Boyd's Mills Press, 1815 Church, Honesdale, PA 18431).

Even though Lincoln is not profiled in any of the sixteen categories Page  [End Page 60] of leadership in Garry Wills's Certain Trumpets: The Call of Leaders (Simon and Schuster), Lincoln is the standard Wills uses in the Introduction. To Wills, Lincoln satisfies the definition of leadership as a "leader [who] does not just vaguely affect others.... He or she takes others toward the object of their joint quest."

W. Emerson Reck's A. Lincoln, His Last Twenty-four Hours (University of South Carolina Press) has been published in paperback, as has James M. McPherson's Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution (Oxford University Press).

The Lincoln Memorial Shrine in Redlands, California, has published Charles B. Strozier's "God, Lincoln, and the Civil War," delivered at the sixty-second annual Lincoln Dinner on February 12.

Thomas Publications (P.O. Box 3031, Gettysburg, PA 17325) has published Lincoln, A Pictorial History by Edward Steers, Jr.

Abraham Lincoln: Sources and Style of Leadership, edited by William D. Pederson, Vincent J. Marsala, and me, has been published by Greenwood Press. It includes Ethan Fishman's "Under the Circumstances: Abraham Lincoln and Classical Prudence," Ronald D. Rietveld's "Lincoln's View of the Founding Fathers," Joseph R. Fornieri's "Abraham Lincoln and the Declaration of Independence: The Meaning of Equality," James A. Stevenson's "Lincoln's Poetry and Prose," David E. Long's "I Shall Never Recall a Word," Brooks D. Simpson's "Lincoln and Grant: A Reappraisal of a Relationship," William C. Harris's "Abraham Lincoln and Southern White Unionism," David H. Leroy's "Lincoln and Idaho: A Rocky Mountain Legacy," and my "Lincoln and Leadership: An International Perspective." The chapters were originally presented as papers at Louisiana State University in Shreveport in September 1992 at the Lincoln Legacy Conference. Other papers from the conference are in the June Quarterly Journal of Ideology: A Critique of Conventional Wisdom, published by Louisiana State University in Shreveport. With an introduction by Pederson and me, articles included are Kenneth M. Holland's "Abraham Lincoln and Roger Taney: President versus Chief Justice," Thomas Turner's "Still Another Hidden Hand Presidency? The Presidential Leadership Styles of Abraham Lincoln and Dwight Eisenhower," Cullom Davis's "Law and Politics: The Two Careers of Abraham Lincoln," and Archie P. McDonald's "'That Reminds Me of a Story'... A. Lincoln and His Use of Humor and Anecdote."

Tyndale House Publishers of Wheaton, Illinois, has released Abraham Lincoln: The Man and His Faith by G. Frederick Owen, originally published under the title A Heart That Yearned for God. Page  [End Page 61]

Budd Press (P.O. Box 3485, New York, NY 10185-0030) has published President Lincoln's Third Largest City: Brooklyn and the Civil War by E. A. "Bud" Livingston.

Harlan Davidson, Inc. (773 Glenn, Wheeling, IL 60090-6000) has reprinted John Hope Franklin's The Emancipation Proclamation.

The case that the wartime election of 1864 was the most critical in American history is presented in The Jewel of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln's Reelection and the End of Slavery by David E. Long (Stack-pole).

Abraham Lincoln and the Golden Age of American Law by Cullom Davis was published as the bulletin of the fifty-second annual meeting of the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin held at Milwaukee on April 12, 1992.

Write-Ideas (31 Pheasant Drive, New Canaan, CT 06840) has published It Didn't Happen the Way You Think—The Lincoln Assassination: What the Experts Missed by Robert Lockwood Mills.

A Day with Mr. Lincoln: Essays Commemorating the Lincoln Exhibition at the Huntington Library has been published by Rank and File Publications (1926 S. Pacific Coast Highway, SU228, Redondo Beach, CA 90277) and includes a foreword by James M. McPherson, as well as Cullom Davis's "'The Little Engine That Knew No Rest': Lincoln's Career in Law," Larry Burgess's "'We Cannot Escape History': Lincoln and Fame," William Hanchett's "Persistent Myths of the Lincoln Assassination," John Rhodehamel's "A. Lincoln in San Marino," and Ronald D. Rietveld's "Lincoln Triumphant: From Crisis to Victory, 1864–1865" and "Discovering the Last Lincoln Photograph."

Da Capo Press, a subsidiary of Plenum Publishing, has brought out a paperback edition of Lincoln's Herndon with a new introduction by the author, David Herbert Donald.

James A. Rawley has written the introductions for paperback reprints of The Life of Abraham Lincoln by Isaac N. Arnold and Recollections of Abraham Lincoln, 1847–1865 by Ward Hill Lamon for the University of Nebraska Press.

Addison Wesley has published Harold Holzer's Dear Mr. Lincoln: Letters to the President in paperback.

The Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin, Milwaukee published John Wilkes Booth and the Terrible Truth about the Civil War by William Hanchett (bulletin 49) and Honest Abe, Dishonest Mary by Michael Burlingame (bulletin 50).

The Pioneer and the Prairie Lawyer: Historical and Biographical Boon in Lincoln Family Heritage by Willard Mounts has been published by Ginwill Publishing (2585 S. Holly, Denver, CO 80222). Page  [End Page 62]

Sam Fink has hand-lettered and illustrated Lincoln's speech in The Illustrated Gettysburg Address (Random House).

Lucas Eugenio Morel's dissertation, "The Role of Religion in Abraham Lincoln's Statesmanship: Moderating the Influence of Religion in a Self-Governing Regime while Preserving Its Legitimate Claim on the Souls of the Nation," is available from UMI, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

Books on Tape has produced volume 2 of Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years by Carl Sandburg in twelve sound cassettes.

Biographies

Stephen B. Oates, who wrote With Malice toward None, is the author of A Woman of Valor: Clara Barton and the Civil War (Free Press), a History Book Club selection in June.

Joan D. Hedrick is the author of Harriet Beecher Stowe: A Life (Oxford University Press).

Thomas Mallon's novel Henry and Clara is about the Ford's Theatre witnesses Clara Harris and Henry Rathbone (Ticknor and Field).

The Civil War

William W. Freehling is the author of The Reintegration of American History, Slavery and the Civil War (Oxford University Press).

God Ordained This War: Sermons on the Sectional Crises, 1830–1865 by David B. Chesebrough was published by University of South Carolina Press.

Joy Hakim is the author of War, Terrible War (Oxford University Press), which James M. McPherson believes to be the best story of the Civil War that has been written for young readers.

Stackpole Books has published The Story the Soldiers Wouldn't Tell: Sex in the Civil War by Thomas P. Lowry, M.D.

Glenn Linden and Thomas Pressly are coauthors of The American Civil War as Personal Experience: A Civil War Reader (McGraw-Hill).

The University of Tennessee Press has published War in Kentucky: From Shiloh to Perryville by James Lee McDonough.

Eugene H. Berwanger is the author of The British Foreign Service and the American Civil War (University of Kentucky Press).

Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s The Civil War and Two-Party System: An Address Inaugurating the John F. Bannon, S.J., Endowed Chair in History in American Studies has been published by St. Louis University.

The third annual Frank L. Klement Lecture at Marquette University, "The Wicked Rebellion and the Republic: Henry Tuckerman's Page  [End Page 63] Civil War," by Robert W. Johannsen, delivered on September 26, has been published by the Department of History at Marquette.

Combined Books (151 East 10th, Conshohocken, PA 19428) published The Civil War Book of Lists and Darryl Lyman's Civil War Wordbook, Including Sayings, Phrases, and Expletives.

Alice Cromie's Tour Guide to the Civil War is available in a revised fourth edition (Rutledge Hill Press, Nashville).

William F. Thompson's The Image of War: The Pictorial Reporting of the American Civil War was published by Louisiana State University Press.

General

Simon and Schuster has published, in two volumes, Running for President: The Candidates and Their Images, 1789–1992, edited by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., with Fred L. Israel and David J. Frent.

The Free Press published "A Government of Our Own": The Making of the Confederacy by William C. Davis.

Ralph Lerner's Revolutions Revisited: Two Faces of the Politics of Enlightenment (University of North Carolina Press) includes a chapter on "Lincoln's Revolution."

Reference

Lincoln retains first place in the second and updated edition of The Rating of Presidents among Historians: Greatness in the White House... from George Washington to Ronald Reagan, compiled and written by Robert K. Murray and Tim H. Blessing (Pennsylvania State University Press).

Kent State University Press has published volume 1 of The Salmon P. Chase Papers: The Journals from 1829–1872, and volume 2: Correspondence, 1823–1857, both edited by John Niven.

The Papers of Jefferson Davis, volume 8, 2862, edited by Linda Lasswell Crist, has been published by Louisiana State University Press.

The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents, from George Washington to Bill Clinton by William A. DeGregorio was published by Wings Books and is distributed by Random House Value Publishing.

The University of Tennessee Press has published The Papers of Andrew Johnson, volume 11, August 1866–January 1867. Paul H. Bergeron is editor.

D. Ray Wilson is the author of Illinois Historical Tour Guide (Crossroads Communications, Carpentersville, IL 60110). Page  [End Page 64]

Canes in the United States: Illustrated Mementoes of American History, 1607–1953 by Catherine Dike has been published by Cane Curiosa Press (250 Dielman Road, Ladue, MO 63124).

Reviews

Reviews of Lincoln in American Memory by Merrill D. Peterson appeared in the March 20 Chicago Tribune (reviewed by Jonathan Yardley), the March 22 Christian Science Monitor (reviewed by Gabor S. Boritt), as well as the April 21 New York Review of Books, where James M. McPherson also reviewed Phillip Shaw Paludan's The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln and J. David Greenstone's The Lincoln Persuasion: Remaking American Liberalism.

The January–February Lincolnian contained Gayle T. Harris's review of Abe Lincoln in Illinois, the reprise of Robert E. Sherwood's Pulitzer Prize-winning play. The March–April issue contained David Seddelmeyer's review of The Gettysburg Soldier's Cemetery and Lincoln's Address: Aspect and Angles by Frank L. Klement. Richard Hanks reviewed the Klement book for the spring Lincoln Memorial Association. David Seddelmeyer reviewed Merrill D. Peterson's Lincoln in American Memory for the November–December issue.

Stephen W. Sears's review of The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America by Mark E. Neely, Jr., appeared in the December 26, 1993, Book World, and David Traxel's review of the work appeared in the June 12 New York Times Book Review. A review of the videodocumentary "The Making of an Exhibit: The Last Best Hope of Earth" by Barbara Hughett was in the summer Lincoln Newsletter, and Matthew Dietrich's review of the videocassette appeared in the January 13 State Journal-Register (Springfield, Ill.). Ferenc Szasz reviewed The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America by John H. Rhodehamel and Thomas F. Schwartz for the winter Register of the Kentucky Historical Society.

Gene D. Lewis reviewed Political Parties and American Political Development from the Age of Jackson to the Age of Lincoln by Michael F. Holt in the summer Register of the Kentucky Historical Society.

Reviews of Dear Mr. Lincoln: Letters to the President, compiled and edited by Harold Holzer, appeared in the January 9 Washington Post Book World (reviewed by David Streitfeld), February 18 Chicago Tribune (reviewed by Patrick T. Reardon), March 27 Parade Magazine, May 16 People Weekly, June 12 New York Times Book Review (reviewed by Richard E. Nicholls), May Illinois Issues (reviewed by Michael J. Page  [End Page 65] Devine), the spring News from Historic Hildene, and the December Blue and Gray Magazine (reviewed by Michael C. C. Adams).

Harold Holzer's Washington and Lincoln Portrayed: National Icons in Popular Prints was reviewed by David L. Lightner in the spring Illinois Historical Journal, and The Shadows Rise: Abraham Lincoln and the Ann Rutledge Legend by John Evangelist Walsh for the summer issue. Patricia Ann Owens reviewed Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: The Civil War in Art by Harold Holzer and Mark E. Neely, Jr., for the summer issue.

Harold Holzer reviewed Lincoln at Gettysburg by Garry Wills for the February Journal of Southern History, and Dan Pearson reviewed the book in the January Lincoln Legacy.

The January Lincoln Legacy also contained Sylvia A. Leeseberg's review of Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution by James M. McPherson and Steven K. Rogstad's reviews of Lincoln's Assassins: A Complete Account of Their Capture, Trial, and Punishment and the videocassette Black Easter: The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. The collector's issue (distributed in August) contained Luann Elvey's review of Lincoln's Springfield and the Civil War by Camilla A. Quinn, Lee C. Moorehead's review of The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America by Mark E. Neely, Jr., and Dan Pearson's review of The Shadows Rise: Abraham Lincoln and the Ann Rutledge Legend by John Evangelist Walsh.

Joseph George, Jr., reviewed The Lincoln-Douglas Debates: The First Complete, Unexpurgated Text, edited by Harold Holzer, in the winter Illinois Historical Journal, and Paul H. Bergeron reviewed the book in the May Journal of Southern History. The autumn Illinois Historical Journal contained George's review of The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America by Mark E. Neely, Jr., and L. Moody Simms, Jr.'s review of Dear Mr. Lincoln: Letters to the President, compiled and edited by Harold Holzer.

The winter Lincoln Herald included Arthur F. Loux's review of the videocassette John Wilkes Booth: The Myth and the Mummy by Jo Ann Miller and John Sims, my review of The Law of Illinois by John Long, William Hanchett's review of The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln by Michael O'Neal, William D. Pederson's and my review of The Shaping of American Liberalism: The Debates over Ratification, Nullification, and Slavery by David F. Ericson, and Wayne C. Temple's review of Abraham Lincoln, the Complete Politician by William L. Huganir. The spring issue contained Patricia Ann Owen's review of The Poems of Abraham Lincoln, William F. Hanna's review of The Lincoln Nobody Knows: The Mysterious Man Who Ran the Civil War by Webb Garrison, Gary R. Planck's review of A Lincoln Page  [End Page 66] Connection: Wisconsin-Massachusetts by Kenneth A. Bernard, Steven K. Rogstad's review of Confederate Bastille: Jefferson Davis and Civil Liberties by Mark E. Neely, Jr., Robert A. McCown's review of Just a Few Words, Mr. Lincoln: The Story of the Gettysburg Address by Jean Fritz, Gary R. Planck's review of Atlas of Know New York Herald April 15, 1865 Lincoln Assassination Reprints by R. J. Brown, Thomas D. Matijasic's review of The Shadows Rise: Abraham Lincoln and the Ann Rutledge Legend by John Evangelist Walsh, and Steven K. Rogstad's review of What Is an American? Abraham Lincoln and 'Multiculturalism' by Richard N. Current. The summer issue included Richard Adick's review of "Alias 'Paine'": Lewis Thornton Powell, the Mystery Man of the Lincoln Conspiracy by Betty Owensbey, William D. Pederson's review of The Lincoln Persuasion: Remaking American Liberalism by J. David Greenstone, Thomas Trimborn's review of American Portraits: The Recording of American Portraits conducted by Leonard Slatkin and featuring the Lincoln Portrait narrated by Gen. Norman H. Schwarzkopf, Wayne C. Temple's review of The Last Best Hope of Earth by Mark E. Neely, Jr., Thomas F. Schwartz's review of Dear Mr. Lincoln: Letters to the President, compiled and edited by Harold Holzer, Thomas D. Matijasic's combined review of The Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Values in Conflict by Jeffrey Wiese and The Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Values in Conflict Teaching Manual by Diana Prentice Carlin and Dana V. Hensley, and Robert A. McCowan's review of Abraham Lincoln, a Man for All the People: A Ballad by Myra Cohen Livingston. The fall issue included Daniel E. Pearson's review of The Essential Abraham Lincoln, edited by John Gabriel Hunt, Edmund Hands's review of Lincoln: In His Own Words, edited by Milton Meltzer, Patricia Ann Owens's review of The Gettysburg Solidiers' Cemetery and Lincoln's Address: Aspects and Angles by Frank L. Klement, Stephen G. Hague's combined review of The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America by John H. Rhodehamel and Thomas F. Schwartz and the videocassette The Making of an Exhibition: The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America, and Gary R. Planck's combined review of Out of the Wilderness: The Life of Abraham Lincoln by William Hanchett, the videocassette In Mr. Lincoln's Footsteps by Bert Bartlett, the teachers' guide by Richard Eggleston, and the videocassette Echoes of Abraham Lincoln by Fritz Klein.

David Walton reviewed The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln by Phillip Shaw Paludan in the June 12 New York Times Book Review.

Garry Greenberg reviewed the videocassette Out of the Wilderness in the spring Lincoln Memorial Association. Page  [End Page 67]

The June Civil War History contained Robert W. Johannsen's review of The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America by Mark E. Neely, Jr., and Daniel E. Sutherland's combined review of "Leadership during the Civil War"—The 1989 Deep Delta Civil War Symposium: Themes in Honor of T. Harry Williams, edited by Roman J. Heleniack and Lawrence L. Hewitt, and Douglas Southall Freeman on Leadership, edited by Stuart W. Smith. Joel H. Silbey's review of The Lincoln Persuasion: Remaking American Liberalism by J. David Greenstone, Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s review of The Shadows Rise: Abraham Lincoln and the Ann Rutledge Legend by John Evangelist Walsh, and David B. Chesebrough's review of Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend by Lois J. Einhorn appeared in the September issue.

The Gettysburg Soldiers' Cemetery and Lincoln's Address: Aspects and Angles by Frank L. Klement was reviewed by Michael Russert in the July Civil War News. The October issue contained Steven J. Wright's review of It Didn't Happen the Way You Think—The Lincoln Assassination: What the Experts Missed by Robert Lockwood Mills; the November issue included Judy Yandoh's review of the paperback edition of Lincoln, Douglass, and Slavery by David Zarefsky.

Wayne C. Temple reviewed The Gettysburg Soldiers' Cemetery and Lincoln's Address: Aspects and Angles by Frank L. Klement and Lincoln's Little Girl by Fred L. Trump for the May Lincoln Ledger.

David Holahan reviewed Michael Burlingame's The Inner World of Abraham Lincoln for the October 16 Day (New London, Conn.).

Kate Wegener reviewed Lincoln in American Memory by Merrill D. Peterson for the fall Lincoln Memorial Association, as did Major L. Wilson in the summer Register of the Kentucky Historical Society.

In "The Civil War and the Quest for Originality" (Reviews in American History, December), Albert Castel reviewed The North Fights the Civil War: The Homefront by J. Matthew Gallman, Partners in Command: The Relationships between Leaders in the Civil War by Joseph T. Glatthaar, and What They Fought for, 1861–1865 by James M. McPherson.

People

Chuck Hand (310 Monterey, Paris, IL 61944) issued Lincoln Catalogs 4 and 5.

Dan Weinberg's Abraham Lincoln Book Shop published catalogs number 128, 129, and 130.

S. L. Carson profiled Ralph Geoffrey Newman in the spring Page  [End Page 68] Manuscript Society News. Newman Rare Books has opened at 410 South Michigan Ave., Suite 802, Chicago.

Brooks Davis has stepped down as president of the Stephen A. Douglas Association; C. Robert Douglas was elected his successor.

Steven K. Rogstad offered two courses at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside in Kenosha: "Abraham Lincoln Film Festival" and "A New Look at Mary Todd Lincoln."

Bill Higgins's "Connoisseur's World" for the February Town and Country was a profile of Louise Taper, who did so much in organizing the Huntington Library exhibition "The Last Best Hope of Earth."

Jack Smith profiled Duke Russell in "View" for the February 15 Los Angeles Times. Russell has been in the vanguard in efforts to make Lincoln's birthday a holiday in California.

James M. McPherson's interview in the January–February Armchair Historian reveals that his interest in the Civil War was sparked by the civil rights movement while he was a student at Johns Hopkins University. He became increasingly aware of the parallels between the times in which he lived and what had happened during the Civil War ("violence between black and white, between North and South"), especially the confrontation between the federal government and southern governors.

"What They Fought For: A Conversation with James M. Mc-Pherson" by William J. Miller appeared in the August Civil War: The Magazine of the Civil War Society.

Harold Holzer was interviewed by Barry Gray on February 21 about Dear Mr. Lincoln. The subject also arose during "Talk of the Nation" with Ray Suarez on February 8.

William D. Pederson has become chief executive officer of the International Lincoln Association, replacing one of the dual roles of founding director and chair Wallace H. Best. Richard Blake was elected president. Pederson has also started the Louisiana Lincoln Group at Louisiana State University, Shreveport.

John Spofford Morgan, great-grandson of Ainsworth Rand Spofford, librarian of Congress from 1864 to 1897, presented his great-grandfather's certificate of appointment as librarian of Congress to the current librarian, James H. Billington, on May 2. The certificate, dated December 31, 1864, is signed by Lincoln and Seward.

Lincoln look-alike James A. Getty, a member of the Gettysburg (Pa.) Presbyterian Church, was featured in the June Presbyterian Survey.

Ruth Cook, for fifteen years a staff member at the Lincoln Museum, Fort Wayne, and for many years assistant editor of Lincoln Lore, retired in April. The Abraham Lincoln Association honored her at Page  [End Page 69] the banquet on February 12 with a proclamation. Carolyn L. Texley has been appointed collections manager and archivist at the Lincoln Museum.

Carolyn Quadarella completed two years as president of the Lincoln Group of the District of Columbia. Gayle Harris was elected to succeed her.

After ten years as president of the Lincoln Group of Florida, Gary R. Planck retired; Dan W. Bannister was elected his successor. Planck also ended his eighteen-year tenure as review editor of Lincoln Herald; he is succeeded by Steven K. Rogstad.

Dale Jirik, who served twenty-four years as secretary of the Lincoln Club of Topeka, was elected president.

William and Yolanda Butts of Main Street Fine Books and Manuscripts (301 South Main, Galena, IL 61036), have published book catalog number 2: The Abraham Lincoln and Civil War Collection of Arnold F. Gates.

Barbara Hughett has been elected president of the Lincoln Group of Illinois and the Civil War Round Table.

A letter from Lloyd Ostendorf, dean of Lincoln photograph experts, appeared in the May Lincoln Ledger. He argues that the Hoffman daguerreotype is not Lincoln because its subject, as presented by Joe Buberger, has a low brow, low hairline, and a narrow forehead, unlike Lincoln's high forehead and wide forehead as shown in his 1846 daguerreotype. The daguerreotype also shows a stubble of unshaven blond whiskers unlike Lincoln's dark hair.

Juli Cragg Hilliard profiled David E. Long's Jewel of Liberty for the September 19 Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Long and his book were also featured in Carlos Galarza's article "The Haunted President" for the October 25 Bradenton Herald.

Anthony Flint's article for the September 18 Boston Globe discusses Michael Burlingame's The Inner Life of Abraham Lincoln, in which Lincoln is portrayed as a spousal abuse victim. Burlingame argues that Mary Lincoln struck her husband often. Doug Pokorski, in "Inner Abe: New Book Details Depth of Lincoln's Marital Problems" for the September 6 State Journal-Register, discusses Lincoln's marital problems.

Harold Holzer was profiled in "Prime-Time Drama: Lincoln vs. Douglas" in the "Westchester Weekly" section of the August 21 New York Times.

Stephen G. Hague left his position as director of the Abraham Lincoln Museum of Lincoln Memorial University to take a position at a historic house museum in Philadelphia.

Lew Mallow presented his "Lincoln and Civil War" programs Page  [End Page 70] thirty-seven times to various school, church, fraternal, and historical societies. Included were nine presentations of "The Life of Mary Todd Lincoln," eight of "The Life of Abraham Lincoln," five of "The Assassination of President Lincoln," and two of "Abraham Lincoln: A Contrast in Time."

Lincoln Train Times, published by Illinois Benedictine College, reported in December that the second major component of the Illinois Benedictine College Lincoln Train Project, the locomotive "Nashville" had been completed.

Lincoln in Popular Culture

In the film In the Line of Fire (1993), the protagonist Frank Corrigan, an aging Secret Service agent played by Clint Eastwood, looks at Lincoln in the Washington Memorial and says, "Wish I could have been there for you."

Scientific American, by depicting a photograph of Lincoln standing with Marilyn Monroe in Bus Stop, uses digital forgery to demonstrate that photographic evidence can be created for events that never happened.

Stephanie Schorow's article "Lincoln Might Be Sinkin' if He Ran for Prez Today; or, Would You Vote for Lincoln?" appeared in the February 21 Boston Herald.

The January 7 State Journal-Register (Springfield, Ill.) told of a negative of a beardless Lincoln that brought $2,800 at an estate sale in Monmouth, New Jersey. The purchaser, Robert Matson, later discovered that it was worth no more than $50 because it was only a negative made by a photographer who copied the original more than fifty years after Lincoln's death. Matson became suspicious when he saw the words "Kodak Safety Film" on the border of the negative. Matson sued in order to get his money back. The judge ruled that although the wording in the auction advertisement was misleading, it was not misleading enough to constitute fraud.

The May 30 New York Times reprinted excerpts of commencement addresses in "For Graduates of 1994, Praise, Caution, Cajoling and Words to Leave By," including Andy Rooney's observation at Gettysburg College on May 22:

I was thinking—just as an example of how much the times influence what a person does with his life—if Abraham Lincoln were alive today, would he be standing here making his Gettysburg Address and saying "Fourscore and seven years ago Page  [End Page 71] our forefathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation"? Of course not. The nation isn't new anymore. He'd have to say, "Tenscore and eighteen years ago." Lincoln would probably be a relatively obscure lawyer who was turned down for the Supreme Court because he and Mary had a live-in maid for whom they never paid Social Security.

Michael Wines's "Step up, Folks! Check It Out! Nationhood!" (New York Times, May 29), which discusses Disney's proposed "America," asks whether the presentation would complement Washington's myth-making. "Blacks can see in the Lincoln memorial something very different than whites," said John M. Findlay, a University of Washington historian, "The question of whose Lincoln is more historically accurate—Washington's columned memorial, with the pensive statue or Disney's top-hatted homily-spouting mannequin—could be argued for years. But the question of which is real is easy to answer: neither. And, in the most curious way, both." Guest editorials on the issue by James M. McPherson and A. Wilson Greene appeared in the August Blue and Gray Magazine.

Artist and part-time sales clerk Fran Volz created a seven-foot Lincoln bust from snow and ice at her Arlington, Illinois, home. Michael Martinez wrote about it for the Chicago Tribune on February 12.

Michael Merschel discussed how the "Lincoln Portrait [Is] Still Emerging" (Dallas Morning News, August 28). He pointed out that the more research that's done, the more complex Lincoln becomes. After sixteen thousand books about Lincoln, he is the most chronicled American and remains the most compelling figure in our history. Merschel discussed the reenactment of the Lincoln-Douglas debates on C-SPAN, the Lincoln Legal Papers research that reveals that Lincoln "represented all kinds of clients, many of them morally repugnant," and Michael Burlingame's contention that Mary Todd Lincoln was guilty of spousal abuse.

S. L. Carson, editor of Manuscript Society News, described another of Burlingame's theses for the summer issue, "Historian and Member Claims Mary Todd Lincoln Was a Thief." Burlingame's Inner World of Abraham Lincoln caused Joe Berger to observe in the November 1 Weekly World News that "Wimpy Abe Lincoln was battered by his butt-kicking wife."

In "A Cartoonist Feasts on a President. So?" in the New York Times on August 31, James Barron wrote about historians, biographers, cartoonists, and comedians being asked how they would draw some presidents. Comedian Carol Leifer said about Lincoln, Page  [End Page 72] "A black Bic pen. The cap looks like a stovepipe hat and he was tall and thin and he signed the Emancipation Proclamation. Even in the Lincoln Memorial, for such a beloved President, he looks so miserable, you feel like handing him a six-pack and saying, 'Hey, Abe Lincoln, it's Miller time.'"

In a letter to me, William Hanchett commented on Marilyn Monroe's interest in Lincoln. He referred to Anthony Summers's Goddess: The Secret Lives of Marilyn Monroe (New American Library, 1986), which indicates that Lincoln was her hero. Monroe would take Lincoln's portrait from home to home until the end of her life. "Even Hollywood glamour queens wanted to get right with Lincoln."

During the campaign for Illinois governor, Democrat Dawn Clark Netsch drew a parallel to the winning visage from the past when she kicked off the last stretch of her campaign with the slogan "more than just a pretty face." Senator Paul Simon joined her in Grant Park, Chicago, in front of the Lincoln statue there and said that Lincoln was "such an ugly person" that many of his contemporaries thought the successful lawyer and politician should have been running for cover—not the presidency (Chicago Tribune, October 21).

Lincoln received short shrift in National Standards for United States History, a federally funded curriculum guide issued in November. According to the November 7 Time, while Harriet Tubman (the African-American organizer of the Underground Railroad) is cited six times, the Gettysburg Address is mentioned only once in passing.

Gustav Niebuhr's "More Than a Monument: The Spiritual Dimension of These Hallowed Walls" in the November 11 New York Times indicates that the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington is becoming as hallowed as Gettysburg, where "Lincoln's address paired national unity and purpose in a way that is seen as almost mystical."

Lincoln is now part of the street drug jargon. Tom Kuntz, in "Don't Bogart That Fatty, My Friend, Pass It Over to the Lexicographer" for the December 10 New York Times Week in Review reports that "an Abe is $5 worth of drugs" and that "Abe's cabe" is a $5 bill.

Necrology

David Kirschenbaum, a dealer in rare books and manuscripts who was regarded as the dean of American booksellers, died in Manhattan Page  [End Page 73] on January 19. The owner of Carnegie Books was known for finding books and manuscripts relating to Lincoln.

Howard C. Westwood, a student of and writer about Lincoln and Grant as well as a member of the board of directors of the Ulysses S. Grant Association, died on March 17.

Kenneth A. Bernard, president emeritus of the Lincoln Group of Boston, Lincoln scholar, and teacher, died on March 30.

Cartoonist Jim Dobbins, known for his work in featuring Lincoln in the Boston Herald American and Manchester Union Leader, died on May 5.

Character actor Royal Dano, who because of his lankiness and hollow cheeks played Lincoln on television and in an outdoor staging of The Tall Kentuckian for the 175th anniversary of the city of Louisville in 1953, died on May 15 at age seventy-one. Dano was also the voice of Lincoln in the Walt Disney "animatronic" Lincoln created for the Illinois pavilion of the New York World's Fair in 1964.

Frank L. Klement, Civil War scholar and author, died in Milwaukee on July 29.

Ralph E. Becker, a Washington lawyer and former ambassador, long an avid collector of political memorabilia dating to 1790, died on August 24.

Margaret Brown Klapthor, an expert on White House history and former department chair at the Smithsonian Institution, died on September 26. She was the author of the sixth edition of First Ladies (1990) for the White House Historical Society.

Theologian Elton Trueblood, who wrote Abraham Lincoln, Theologian of American Anguish, died on December 20 at the age of ninety-four.

Collections

Beverly Beyett's "Around Town" for the February 10 Los Angeles Times profiled Don McCue, curator of the Lincoln Shrine in Redlands, California. Larry E. Burgess of the A. K. Smiley Library where the Lincoln Shrine is located described its founder Robert Watchorn in the winter Lincoln Memorial Association.

The Abraham Lincoln collection at Bridgewater State College has begun cataloging the Arthur L. Hayden scrapbooks and issued a catalog describing them on February 5.

The Library of Congress and the National Park Service are in a Page  [End Page 74] fight over the location of one of the five original copies of the Gettysburg Address. The Library of Congress holds two, and the National Park Service wants one of them to be on permanent display at the visitors' center at Gettysburg National Military Park. Harry F. Rosenthal's Associated Press story appeared in the February 11 Providence Journal-Bulletin. Librarian of Congress James H. Billing-ton, in a letter published in the March 4 New York Times, argued that the Library of Congress should retain both copies. The Joint Congressional Committee on the Library of Congress agreed in June 1992 that one copy could remain at Gettysburg until December 1994. The November Civil War News included Deborah Fitts's "Gettysburg Address Display at Park in 1995 Is Uncertain," acknowledging that Gettysburg hopes for keeping the document were dimming. Jack Anderson's and Michael Binstein's syndicated "Federal Agencies Battle over Gettysburg Address, Score: Park Service, 2; Library of Congress, 0" appeared in the February 21 Oregonian. Since 1979, approximately 2.5 million tourists have viewed the Gettysburg Address at Gettysburg. Columnists point out that a financial audit of the Library of Congress (which loaned the manuscript) indicated questionable financial management and collection control; they suggest that Lincoln might have wanted his great speech to stay at Gettysburg, the "'proper final resting place' for a speech that echoes through the ages."

Barbara Pengelly's "Cosey Forgery Still Causing Headaches for Collectors" appeared in the May-June Autograph Times.

Kristina L. Southwell wrote about the Henry B. Bass Collection at the University of Oklahoma, Norman for the spring Lincoln Herald.

The University of Oklahoma Press has published Forging History: The Detection of Fake Letters and Documents by Kenneth W. Rendell.

The Lincoln Museum, Fort Wayne, Indiana, has been closed while a new facility is constructed at Renaissance Park in Fort Wayne. The opening of the museum and library is expected for September 1995, when sponsor Lincoln National Corporation will also celebrate its ninetieth anniversary. Eric Zorn profiled the Lincoln Museum and scholar-curator Gerald Prokopowicz for the February 20 Chicago Tribune.

The collector's Lincoln Legacy, distributed in August, contained Thomas F. Schwartz's "A Curator Looks at Lincoln Collecting," Jack Smith's "Lincoln and Collecting Lincolniana," and Luann Elvey's "Lincoln Memorabilia Quest." Page  [End Page 75]

Assassination

Surratt Courier, a publication of the Surratt Society, announced John Wilkes Booth's escape route tours for April 9 and 13 and September 10 and 24. "Lincoln and the Theatre" by Cindy Diane Rauch appeared in the May issue. Steven G. Miller's "Were the War Department Rewards Ever Paid?" was in the February issue, and Terry Alford's "John Matthews: A Vindication of the Historical Consensus" was in the April issue. The Surratt Society (P.O. Box 427, Clinton, MD 20735) published The Body in the Barn: The Controversy over the Death of John Wilkes Booth, compiled from Courier articles.

The June 12 New York Times reported that the skull of Lewis Thornton Powell (also known as Lewis Paine), the twenty-one-year-old Confederate soldier who tried to kill William Seward on April 14, 1865, had been discovered in the Smithsonian Institution in 1991 among bones kept in a storage bin. The skull was sent to Florida to be buried next to Powell's mother.

The April Journal of the Lincoln Assassination contained Part 4 of "Four Lincoln Conspiracies." The August issue included a Lincoln assassination reading list. The October 25 New York Times reported that twenty-two Booth family descendants and two historians began the attempt to exhume Booth's body to test the theory that someone else was buried in his grave in Greenmount Cemetery, Baltimore. The effort to exhume Booth's body was reported in the October 25 Providence Journal-Bulletin and the October 26 Westerly (R.I.) Sun, which included additional commentary that Lois Rathbun, a Booth descendant residing in Hopkinton, Rhode Island, was among the twenty-two descendants seeking to exhume the body. A Westerly Sun editorial, "On Exhumation" (November 9), asked, "How important is it to know the cause of death of historical figures? Is it worth exhuming the body of Abraham Lincoln to find out if he suffered from Marfan's disease or is it necessary to know if the body buried in Booth's grave is indeed that of the assassin?"

Works in Progress

Mark E. Neely, Jr., is at work on a book about two-party politics during the Civil War as well as another, with Harold Holzer, on popular lithographs and engravings of the North during the war.

The eagerly awaited biography of Lincoln by David Donald, titled ... Events Have Controlled Me, is expected in 1995. Page  [End Page 76]

The Library of America has announced that the Chinese edition of Speeches and Writings of Abraham Lincoln is due from Beijing in 1995.

The papers delivered at the October 16–17, 1993, Huntington Library conference "'The Last Best Hope of Earth': Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America" will be published in 1995 by the University of Illinois Press as "We Cannot Escape History": Abraham Lincoln and the Last Best Hope of Earth, edited by James M. Mc-Pherson.

David E. Long is at work on a book about the 1860 election.

Roger A. Fischer's Them Damned Pictures, about cartoons that attack Lincoln, is due from Shoestring Press in 1995.

Paul L. Bremer of Grand Rapids is updating the index to Lincoln Herald since the last was issued in 1980.

Dr. Mudd and the Lincoln Assassination: The Case Reopened—The Proceedings of a Moot Court of Military Appeal to Hear the Case of Dr. Samuel A. Mudd, edited by John Paul Jones with contributions by F. Lee Bailey, John J. Douglas, Candida Ewing Steel, and John S. Jenkens, will be published in 1995 by Combined Books, Inc. (151 E. 10th Avenue, Conshohocken, PA 19428).

Hans Trefousse is at work on a biography of Thaddeus Stevens, which the University of North Carolina Press will publish.

Lincoln and the Illinois Supreme Court by Dan Bannister will be published in 1995.

Barbara Hughett's forthcoming The Lincoln College Story, 1865–1995 will have a foreword by John Y. Simon.

Jack Waugh is at work on a recreation of the Reelection of 1864 (Crown Publishers).

Terry Alford has written a new biography of John Wilkes Booth, which is expected to be published in 1996.

Stephen B. Oates's Voices of the Storm: A Biographical Portrait of the Civil War Era continues. Among the fifteen characters are Lincoln, Davis, Lee, and George Fitzhugh.

Rodney O. Davis and Douglas L. Wilson are preparing Herndon's Informant Material (University of Illinois Press) and a new edition of Herndon's Life of Lincoln. Wilson is also at work on a collection of his Lincoln essays for Oxford University Press.

Michael Vorenberg is completing his dissertation at Harvard University: "Final Freedom: The Thirteenth Amendment and the Politics of Emancipation, 1860–1865."

Southern Illinois University Press will publish in 1995 a two-volume edition of the diary and letters of John Hay, edited by Michael Burlingame. The first volume will include the diary, and Page  [End Page 77] the second will include letters on dates for which there are no corresponding diary entries. Burlingame has also completed a volume on the interviews conducted by John Nicolay in anticipation of his multivolume biography of Lincoln.

On his death, Frank L. Klement had two books in the hands of publishers. The first is a revision of his 1963 work Wisconsin and the Civil War (State Historical Society of Wisconsin); Steven K. Rogstad will write an introduction for the second, Essays on Copperheadism (White Mane).

Wayne C. Temple's Abraham Lincoln: From Skeptic to Prophet has gone to press for publication in 1995.

Michael Parrish has completed a list of reference works on the Civil War for the Greenwood Press forthcoming guide to research and literature.

Gabor S. Boritt is editing the Columbia Book of Lincoln Quotations.

Eleven more essays delivered at the first national symposium on Lincoln held at Louisiana State University in Shreveport in September 1992 will be published by Savas Woodbury in 1995. Included in Abraham Lincoln: Contemporary, edited by William D. Pederson and me, are "Prudent Archery: FDR's Lincoln," by Philip Abbott, "Gerald Ford and the Lincoln Legacy: A Time to Heal" by Edward L. Schapsmeier and Frederick H. Schapsmeier, "From Poltroons and Apes to Diamonds in Their Setting: Lincoln's Practice of Cabinet Alchemy" by Arthur R. Williams and Amanda Noble, "Abraham Lincoln and Judicial Review" by William D. Bader, and "Lincoln's Visions, Dreams, and Premonitions" by John Stuart Erwin.

Louisiana State University Press will bring out Sectional Crises and Southern Constitutionalism, which combines two of Don E. Fehrenbacher's books, The South and the Three Sectional Crises and Constitutionalism in the Slaveholding South. Recollected Words by Virginia Fehrenbacher and Don E. Fehrenbacher will be published in 1996 (Stanford University Press).

Henry Holt and Company will bring out a new printing of Lincoln's Devotional in 1995.

Jack Waugh is at work on another treatment of the 1864 election campaign. He will treat the election as a journalist and intends to have the reelection campaign reemerge with the full panoply of characters, color, cross-purposes, pageantry, sites, sounds, smells, and meaning brought back to life.

Hastings House will publish the Memoirs of Mariah Vance, the Lincolns' Maid. Page  [End Page 78]

Acknowledgments

Many thanks to all who provided information and copies for mention in this article, especially Harold Holzer, John Y. Simon, Tom Lapsley, Wayne C. Temple, Gregory Romano, Martin Tullai, William D. Pederson, and Norman Hellmers. Page  [End Page 79]