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 Abraham Lincoln, January 13, 1861, by Christopher S. German
Abraham Lincoln, January 13, 1861, by Christopher S. German Page  [End Page 66]

Lincoln Group Activities

The 17th annual Abraham Lincoln Association Symposium and Banquet was held, as is traditional, on February 12 in Springfield, Illinois. James M. McPherson delivered "The Hedgehog and the Foxes" and William E. Gienapp presented "Abraham Lincoln and the Border States." Mark E. Neely, Jr., commented. Mortimer J. Adler, philosopher and Great Books promoter, delivered the banquet address, "Lincoln's Declaration." A facsimile of the manuscript of Julia Ward Howe's "Battle Hymn of the Republic," now in the collection of Marshall B. Coyne of Washington, was given to each person who attended the banquet. The facsimile was made possible through Ralph Geoffrey Newman.

John A. Munroe, professor emeritus of the University of Delaware, spoke on "Lincoln's Opponents" at the annual Lincoln dinner of the Lincoln Club of Delaware on February 8.

The Lincoln Group of Washington heard Jennifer Lee, curator of the Lincoln Collection at Brown University, present a slide lecture about her charge—"The Charles Woodbury McClellan Lincoln Collection at Brown University"—on November 21.

The Stephen A. Douglas Association has commenced publication of a newsletter, The Little Giant. The first issue (October 1989) presented excerpts from a speech by the Douglas biographer Robert W. Johannsen, delivered on June 4, 1988. The next issue contained excerpts from Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s "Stephen A. Douglas and the Constitution" delivered before the association on June 3, 1989. The association met on June 2 and heard its president, Ellsworth Brown, deliver "Stephen A. Douglas and Company."

Jean Baker presented "Parallel Lives: The Marriage of Mary and Abraham Lincoln" at the 59th annual Watchorn Lincoln Address before the Lincoln Memorial Association in Redlands, California, on February 12.

The 50th anniversary celebration of the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin was held on April 8 with a symposium featuring Lloyd Ostendorf, who presented "A. Lincoln, Riverman," John K. Lattimer, Page  [End Page 67] who delivered "Lincoln's Toughness and Good Health: He Could Not Have Been a Marfans," and Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s address, "Abraham Lincoln and Total War," which Neely also delivered as the Third Harman Memorial Lecture at Washburn University, Topeka, on March 15. The bulletin of the 46th annual meeting (April 16, 1989) containing "When the Nation Said Farewell to Lincoln" by W. Emerson Reck was published by the Lincoln Fellowship. The Wisconsin Lincoln Fellowship is planning to reissue historical bulletins that have long been out of print; they can be contacted at 1920 Lathrop Avenue, #201, Racine, WI 53405.

The Civil War Round Table (Chicago) heard William J. Sullivan on "Heartland of Freedom: Chicago during the Civil War" at its January 12 meeting. On February 9, the Round Table had a private viewing of the Chicago Historical Society exhibit, "A House Divided: America in the Age of Lincoln." Its 50th anniversary celebration was held on October 12 and 13. Speakers included Mark E. Neely, Jr., who presented "Lincoln and His Cabinet: The Emancipation Proclamation" and James M. McPherson, who delivered "The Civil War: The Struggle for a Unified Nation and the Legacy for the Future."

On January 25, the Sangamon County, Illinois, Historical Society heard Cullom Davis speak on "Lincoln and the Peachy Harrison Murder Trial."

Richard N. Current presented "The Lincoln Nobody Knows: Changes I Would Now Make" at the 6th annual dinner meeting of the Lincoln Group of Florida on March 3 in Orlando and at the April 18 meeting of the Lincoln Group of New York. His paper, which he has been delivering around the country, tells how he entered the Lincoln field as a result of his friendship with the legendary James G. Randall, who asked him to complete the fourth volume of Lincoln the President. Current attempts to answer whether Lincoln hated his father, suffered from an Oedipus complex, suffered from Marfan's syndrome, was infected with syphilis, acted as a dictator, and how he would have treated the South had he lived.

U.S. District Ccourt Judge Richard Mills spoke on "Lincoln the Soldier" before the annual meeting of the New Salem Lincoln League on February 11. The league was formed in 1981 to promote New Salem State Park.

The world's oldest Lincoln Group, the Lincoln Association of Jersey City, held its 125th annual dinner on February 12, with John F. Mikulaninec delivering "Of, For, and By the People." Jules Ladenheim reenacted the address Lincoln made on April 18, 1864, to the Sanitary Fair. Page  [End Page 68]

The Lincoln Day Program of the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial in Lincoln City, Indiana, sponsored by the Lincoln Club of Southern Indiana and the National Park Service, heard an address by Lloyd Ostendorf.

Gary R. Planck, founder of the Lincoln Group of Florida, delivered the Sixth Annual Lloyd Ostendorf Lecture at the Abraham Lincoln Museum on February 12. Planck's address was entitled "Abraham Lincoln: America's Tragic Hero."

The annual meeting and Lincoln Day Dinner of the Lincoln Society (Taipei, Taiwan) heard Don Bishop give "The Public and Private Lincoln."

The 13th annual R. Gerald McMurtry Lecture was delivered at the Lincoln Museum (Fort Wayne) on May 24. John T. Hubbell presented "War and Freedom and Abraham Lincoln."

Paul H. Verduin's address before the Lincoln Group of the District of Columbia, "Lincoln's Tidewater Virginia Heritage: The Hidden Legacy of Nancy Hanks Lincoln," is available from Verduin at 721 Dartmouth Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910.

Louis Mallow presented "The Life of Abraham Lincoln" to the Galien (Michigan) Woods Historical Society on April 22. During April, the play "Black Friday": The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln written by John M. Russell and directed by Bruce Johnson was presented by the LaPorte, Indiana, Little Theatre Club. On April 10, R. Frederick "Fritz" Klein portrayed Abraham Lincoln at Southwest Michigan College, Douragiac, Michigan.

Lloyd Ostendorf addressed the Fourth Annual meeting of the International Lincoln Association on July 2, delivering the keynote address, "Abe Lincoln, Riverman."

Lincoln Legals

The October–December 1989 Newsletter of the Lincoln Legal Papers featured an article about "Lincoln, Medical Law, and Chicken Bones," describing Lincoln's successful defense of Drs. Crothers and Rogers, who were accused of medical malpractice in setting the leg of Plaintiff Fleming. This became known as the "Chicken Bone" case, in which Lincoln used a chicken bone to illustrate how a human bone (like a chicken's) becomes brittle with age.

The fully annotated case of Barrett v. Alton and Sangamon Railroad Company, argued by Abraham Lincoln before the Illinois Supreme Court at its December 1851 term, has been printed by the Lincoln Page  [End Page 69] Legals staff for distribution to donors to the project and is a representative selection of the 100–150 cases that will appear in the multivolume edition of The Lincoln Legal Papers. The assistant editor, William Beard, wrote the commentary and edited the documents. The project's staff has also reproduced, in facsimile, Lincoln's letter to Mason Brayman dated March 31, 1854. Brayman, also an attorney, receives a report on some of the cases in which he and co-counsel Lincoln were involved.

The collection phase of the project was enhanced immeasurably by a grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission and a two-year award from the National Endowment for the Humanities. The Illinois Bar Foundation was also generous in presenting a grant in the sum of $9,000. This will assist in tracking about seventy thousand Lincoln legal papers and documents located in thirty Illinois counties where Lincoln practiced and in about thirty libraries and archives nationwide. The plan calls for the Lincoln Legals staff to collect, edit, and publish a several-volume set of the selected records from three thousand or more cases which were handled by Lincoln at all levels of the state and federal court system.

Lincoln Home National Historic Site

In commemoration of the 125th anniversary of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln (April 14), Louis P. Mallow gave his slide presentation on the events leading to Lincoln's death. Mark Plummer spoke on "The Hainie Diary," which allegedly provides new information on the last day of Lincoln's life. John K. Lattimer also spoke on "Military and Ballistic Aspects of Lincoln's Assassination."

On June 15, a twilight tour of the Lincoln Home neighborhood was held, and on June 16, scenes were presented from Lincoln's "Prairie Years" through the use of marionettes when the DePriest puppets staged "Abraham Lincoln: New Salem to Springfield." A dramatization of an interview with Mary Todd Lincoln's sister, Elizabeth Todd Edwards, was conducted on June 19. On June 21, a forty-five-minute slide presentation was shown, "The Life of Abraham Lincoln," and on June 26, a dramatized interview was conducted with Lincoln's law partner and biographer, William Herndon. A slide presentation, "Lincoln's Campaign Manager: David Davis," was presented on June 27, and the staff discussed "Lincoln Home Archaeology" on June 28. Page  [End Page 70]

Conferences

The 10th annual Illinois History Symposium was held on December 1 and 2, 1989 in Springfield and featured a session on Lincoln and Grant with papers by Douglas Wilson ("Abraham Lincoln and the Spirit of Mortal"), James A. Stevenson ("A Critique: Lincoln vs. Douglas Over the Republican Idea"), and Thomas Keiser ("'Likable Beast' or 'Illinois Butcher': Ulysses S. Grant as Seen by the English During the Civil War").

The annual Civil War Institute at Gettysburg College June 24–30 included talks by Phillip Shaw Paludan ("A People's Contest: A Meaning of the Civil War"), Mark E. Neely, Jr. ("Lincoln and Liberty"), and "The Great Assassination Debate" with William Hanchett, Neely, William Tidwell, and Thomas Turner.

The National Archives-Great Lakes Region presented "Lincoln's Legal Legacy: New Perspectives of Lincoln and the Law" from July 30 to August 2. Lecturers included Mark E. Neely, Jr., Cullom Davis, and Lawrence W. McBride.

Editorials

Robert H. Bork's The Tempting of America: The Political Seduction of the Law (Free Press), while primarily an attack on the forces that prevented his acceptance as a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, discusses the history of judicial review. Bork argues that the Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) was "the first appearance in American constitutional law of the concept of 'substantive due process,' and that concept has since been used countless times by judges who want to write their personal beliefs into a document (the Constitution) that, most inconveniently, does not contain those beliefs." In the Dred Scott case, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney changed "the plain meaning of the due process of the Fifth Amendment" by reading into it "that Congress cannot prevent slavery in a territory because a man must be allowed to bring slaves there," thus, imputing substance into the case.

Lawrence Hyman, of Ridgewood, N.J., in defending Bork and his book The Tempting of America as properly advocating judicial restraint, used the Lincoln quote, "if the policy of the government upon vital questions ... is to be irrevocably fixed by the Supreme Court ... the people will have ceased to be their own rulers." Such Page  [End Page 71] a statement, according to Hyman, helps disprove the growing sense that majority rule is "tyranny."

Mario M. Cuomo's valedictory at Gettysburg on November 19, 1989 spoke of the "new slavery" found in our unfinished business of homelessness, drugs, and despair—issues that Lincoln would not permit to continue.

President Bush's Thanksgiving Proclamation issued on November 19, 1989, mentioned President Lincoln's renewing of the custom of proclaiming a national day of Thanksgiving.

Gary Larson's "The Far Side," syndicated in the Providence Journal-Bulletin on December 30, 1989, depicts Abraham Lincoln reading his declaration at Gettysburg and including lead-off jokes at the beginning of the manuscript.

The language maven William Safire's "On Language" column for the last day of 1989 chose freedom as the "word of the year" and, in so doing, cited Abraham Lincoln's use of the word to which he would add "just and lasting." To Safire, "freedom" exceeds "liberty" in popularity.

Harry S. Truman complained bitterly about statements of historians who say that those presidents who were tall became great, calling this "total baloney" in The Personal and Private Writings of Harry S. Truman, edited by Margaret Truman Daniels (Warner). The former president went on to say that a president should have the qualifications to do the job, including honesty—particularly intellectual honesty. Truman considered Lincoln among the "great Presidents" along with Washington, Jefferson, Jackson, Andrew Johnson, Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and James K. Polk.

The Sun (Westerly, R.I.) of January 8, 1990 carried "Berry's World" depicting Abraham Lincoln in Heaven sadly reading a newspaper with the headline "Lincoln S & L ... Greed."

George Will, in a syndicated article that appeared in January, analogized the abortion issue with Lincoln's approach to slavery. The opponents of abortion should accept limited occasions, Will feels, when abortion may be permitted. Will uses the reasoning that Lincoln did when he astutely advocated prohibition of slavery in the territories—not outright abolition—so that it would lead to slavery's "ultimate extinction."

The annual Lincoln birthday editorial of the State Journal-Register (Springfield, Ill.) pointed out how Lincoln was still newsworthy with the $5,000 contribution of the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America to purchase and conserve Lincoln memorabilia, the return of twenty-four Lincoln-associated furnishings to the Lin- Page  [End Page 72] coln Home in Springfield, and the signing into law by President Bush of an appropriation providing $745,000 for the Lincoln Home National Historic Site to purchase neighboring properties. Even the commissioning of the U.S.S. Abraham Lincoln did not escape notice. Why are these events newsworthy? The editor cited Victor Seacher's conclusion that "It was in the unity of moral purpose between Lincoln and the majority of the American people that the greatness of both took substance...."

The Providence Journal-Bulletin, on February 12, featured Paul Greenberg's "Abraham Lincoln: More than 'likability.'" An editorial in the Pine Bluff Commercial pointed out that while today's politicians and their consultants preach and practice "likability," the issues Lincoln and his contemporaries addressed were not likable at all. How would a contemporary American react to Lincoln's "A house divided against itself cannot stand ..."? His words were not, the author points out, criticized as being too "negative." In today's world, our political leaders should be more candid in stating the problems we confront rather than hide behind "technical corrections or moral compromises." It was Lincoln who said, "We must disenthrall ourselves and then we shall save our country."

Maureen Dowd in "Washington Talk" of the New York Times (February 21) discussed the "pinocchio syndrome" in "President and the Press: A Clash of 2 Sessions." Dowd feels that every president begins telling "little white lies" to hide policy; when the untruth comes out, their noses get a little longer. "No President ends up with the same nose he starts with." Did Lincoln suffer from this syndrome?

In the "Washington Talk" section on July 23, Andrew Rosenthal surveyed the problems of presidents with their own family members in an attempt to put Neil Bush's troubles in perspective. Unfortunately, Rosenthal cited as an example, "Abraham Lincoln's wife was accused of being a Confederate spy." While Mrs. Lincoln may have done some foolish things during her tenure in the Executive Mansion, spying was not one of them as Mark E. Neely, Jr., pointed out in his January, 1975, Lincoln Lore. Carl Sandburg helped spread this story by adding his belief that Lincoln had to defend his wife before the Committee on the Conduct of the War, and Lowell Weicker helped perpetuate the anecdote by reading the Sandburg report during the Watergate hearings. Neely points out that the evidence of such a happening is flimsy indeed.

The publication of Lincoln: Speeches and Writings, edited by Don E. Fehrenbacher and published by Library of America, provoked Page  [End Page 73] much discussion in The New Republic. The November 20, 1989, issue contained Andrew Delbanco's "To the Gettysburg Station," in which he discussed Abraham Lincoln as tactician and saint. Thomas Fleming, in the December 8, 1989 issue of National Review, attempted to demytholize Lincoln along the lines of the Lincoln-basher, M. E. Bradford. In the end, Fleming never doubts Lincoln's greatness, but he asks whether there is not room for doubters who prefer, for example, the corrupt Stephen Douglas "to the not entirely incorruptible Abraham Lincoln." Harry V. Jaffa, author of the much-praised Crisis of the House Divided: An Interpretation of the Issues in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates, rebutted in the January 22 issue.

Joe Patrick Bean discussed the cultural nativism of the "Official English" movement in Texas for the Waco Tribune Herald on March 9. Bean believed this to be a form of Know-Nothing nativism of the 1850s and cited Abraham Lincoln's letter of August 24, 1855: "Our progress in degeneracy appears to me to be pretty rapid. As a nation, we began by declaring that 'all men are created equal.' We now practically read it 'All men are created equal, except negroes.' When the Know-Nothings get control, it will read, 'all men are created equal, except negroes, and foreigners, and catholics.'"

The Sunday Star-Ledger (N.Y.) on December 31, 1989, in an attempt to show a historic precedent for the Vatican turning over a fugitive (in this case, General Manuel Antonio Noriega) to the United States, referred to the apprehension and delivery of John H. Surratt, Jr., one of the suspected conspirators in the assassination of President Lincoln. Surratt changed his name to John Watson and joined the Pope's Zouaves. Upon discovering Surratt, the Vatican was eager to arrest and turn Surratt over to the United States. However, Surratt escaped arrest and was subsequently located in Alexandria, Egypt.

In the New York Times Magazine section in June, William Safire discussed the derivation of "Know-Nothing" which recently had been used by Edward N. Kennedy, who declared that the American people would "reject the Know-Nothing censorship this administration is trying to impose." The columnist discussed how this term, the nickname of the Native American party that reviled immigrants, "has resonated with bitterness throughout the last century of American history."

With tongue in cheek, the columnist Mike Royko, in the Daily News on March 21, took to task a software program's claim to "Write better in 30 days or your money back!" He tried inputting the Gettysburg Address, and the program destroyed the essence of Lincoln's profoundness. For example, Lincoln's "Now we are en- Page  [End Page 74] gaged...." receives the following response from the computer: "Passive voice: 'are engaged.' Consider revising using active voice. See Help for more information."

Ed Stein's cartoon, which appeared in the Daily Courier-Observer on April 26, has a Lithuanian citizen reading, "You can free all of the people some of the time, you can free some of the people all of the time, but you can't free all of the people all of the time" at the "Gorbachev Memorial."

The Christian Science Monitor on February 16 provoked much comment and some criticism in its "Mario Cuomo on Lincoln and Equality" which has the governor saying that Lincoln was an "agnostic," and that George Washington "was a lousy soldier; ..."

Marlette's cartoon for New York Newsday showing "The Great Emancipators" appeared in the Sun (Westerly, R.I.) on June 25. In it, Nelson Mandela appears before the Lincoln of the Lincoln Memorial with an upraised, clenched fist and is received by Lincoln using the same posture.

Colin McEnroe, columnist for the Hartford Courant, parodied George Steinbrenner in the column, "If Honest Abe had done it Steinbrenner's way," which appeared in the Providence Journal-Bulletin on August 14. Steinbrenner compared himself to Lincoln in a Newsweek article when he said, "You think Lincoln was popular? Lincoln said, 'I do the very best I can. If the end brings me out right, what is said against me won't amount to anything. If the end brings me out wrong, 10 angels swearing I was right would make no difference.' I have that saying up in my office, at Yankee Stadium, in my bedroom, everywhere." McEnroe then follows the events of the Civil War, the Steinbrenner way.

July 25, 1861. Following the first Battle of Bull Run, an angry Lincoln fires Army Commander in Chief Gen. Winfield Scott, replacing him with Lt. John Henry Russell, a young frigate captain. July 28, 1861. A tearful, repentant Lincoln calls the 75-year-old Scott into his office, reinstating him and explaining that, at that very moment, workers are delivering an entire new living room and dining room set to Scott's house.

The columnist Billy Porterfield attempted to put Lyndon B. Johnson in retrospect in his article in the Austin American-Statesman (August 22), in which there were some comparisons to Lincoln. The columnist gives LBJ deserved support for pressing and signing into law the most far-reaching civil rights legislation ever, having, "put into law Page  [End Page 75] what Lincoln had dreamed of and what Kennedy had schemed of." Porterfield described the times in which Johnson presided as president as "contentious" as it was in the time of Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln. "He [LBJ] had Lincoln and Twain's sharp, salty gift of narrative."

The Lincoln on Democracy Project

On New Year's Day, William Safire, in commenting on whether Mario M. Cuomo would run for the presidency, cited the governor's Lincoln on Democracy project and his assembly of forty-six Lincoln scholars to help him put together, in one volume, appropriate Lincoln speeches and writings about freedom and civil liberties for translation into Polish. In a related story, the New York Times "International" section reported on January 25 on efforts of the American Federation of Teachers to work with educators in Eastern Europe to revise curricula in order to teach democracy in societies that, for some time, have only known dictatorships. Susan Chira's article "Americans' Challenge: Teaching Democracy" indicates that John P. Frank, an Arizona attorney and respected author of Lincoln as a Lawyer, was chosen to prepare the first booklet about democratic government. It was this pressing need to articulate democracy and how it works that provoked Cuomo to initiate Lincoln on Democracy. On February 12, in the New York Times, Tom Wicker explained how Lincoln was the "Heritage for the World" and described how the governor demonstrated this at Gettysburg on November 19, 1989, where he suggested, "We must reach out to help" the awakened sleeping giant of democracy in Eastern Europe, and there is no better way than through Abraham Lincoln's words. From all of this, the Lincoln on Democracy project was born and blossomed into a book for translation into Polish and other languages. The birthday of Lincoln and the freeing of Nelson Mandela was, to Wicker, a good occasion to salute the project and to quote extensively from the Lincoln utterance record, with Wicker's favorite, "As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this, to the extent of the difference, is no democracy." Other articles about the project appeared in the February 11 issue of the Sunday Times Union (Albany), in Liz Smith's column for the Daily News (February 11), in the Buffalo News (February 12), in an article by Jon R. Sorensen, in a syndicated article for the Hearst newspapers (February 12), in Newsday (February 13), and in a guest Page  [End Page 76] column by Harold Holzer, editor of the project, for the Gannett Westchester Newspapers (February 12).

Jonathan D. Salant, in "Cuomo, Lehrman Together Again, but Not as Rivas" in the Herald-American Post Standard (Syracuse), described how these two former political foes (Lehrman was the opposing candidate at the time of Cuomo's first election victory) have now become allies in promoting the project. Furthermore, Lehrman, who is responsible for the $50,000 prize at Gettysburg College for the best scholarly work on Abraham Lincoln or the Civil War, asked Cuomo to serve on the Advisory Committee for the prize. The governor, in turn, asked Lehrman to serve on the Advisory Committee for Lincoln on Democracy.

NOAA, a Warsaw-based publishing house, brought out the Polishlanguage edition of Lincoln on Democracy in November, at the same time as the English publication by Harper and Row.

Arts

The Smithsonian Institution Press has published Albert Boime's Art of Exclusion: Representing Blacks in the 19th Century.

The Eastman-Kodak Company (Dept. L-5, 1715 Humboldt St., Rochester, NY, 14610) has for sale a helpful reference book entitled Care and Identification of 19th Century Photographic Prints by James M. Reiley.

The State Journal-Register (Springfield) on September 30, 1989, contained Doug Fink's "State's Top-Authors List Is Being Written in Stone" and describes how the names are being etched on the outside of the new Illinois State Library. Abraham Lincoln is among the authors, as are Paul Angle, Vachel Lindsay, Edgar Lee Masters, and Carl Sandburg.

The U.S. Postal Service has produced a sheet of unperforated 1869 Abraham Lincoln 90 cent postage stamps in commemoration of World Stamp Expo '89. Souvenir cards of World Stamp Expo '89 with the Lincoln stamp have also been produced.

The Congress has voted to issue gold and silver coins to mark the 50th anniversary (in 1991) of the Presidential Memorial at Mount Rushmore in South Dakota's Black Hills. All coins will bear the legend "Mount Rushmore: Shrine of Democracy, Golden Anniversary, 1941–1991." Portrait heads of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt will be on the face of the coins. The New York Times, on November 24, 1989, in Page  [End Page 77] "A Face Lift for Mount Rushmore?," described the $40 million project to "spruce up" the memorial for its anniversary. Its sculptor, Gutzon Borglum, recognized that cracks would appear in these gigantic works. Each year, workers seal the cracks with a mixture of granite dust, white lead, and linseed oil to reduce weather damage.

Beatrice Bright and Joanne Greata have been presenting their program "Musical Lincoln" all over the East (E.I. Marketers, 4809 Bentronbrook, Fairfax, VA 22030).

Although $60,000 short of its goal of $100,000 for a life-sized statue of the Prairie Lawyer by the late folk sculptor John R. Frank, the effort continues so that some day the statue may be erected at the Lincoln Home National Historic Site. An article by Bill Kemp about the campaign appeared in the November 16–22, 1989 issue of Illinois Times.

"The Lincolns of Springfield, Illinois," produced by Sangamon State University, was previewed at a reception sponsored by the State Journal-Register at the Lincoln Depot in Springfield, on December 5, 1989 and shown by public television stations throughout the country.

The Library of Congress has published Washingtoniana: Collections in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. The book is the conclusion of the library's two-year project to organize, catalog, and prepare for public use all the photographs of the Washington area in its Prints and Photographs Division. There are many references to Abraham Lincoln and Civil War Washington.

Bart McCarthy, a freelance actor, is presenting his original Lincoln play, Mr. Lincoln Backstage. Primarily aimed at elementary and middle-school audiences, it is an often-humorous journey of Lincoln's life, as McCarthy slowly transforms himself into Lincoln.

Abbeville Press has published John Manship's book about his father, Paul Manship. The photographs are excellent, and the Hoosier Youth, which Manship did for the Lincoln National Life Insurance Company, is represented.

The reviews of the film Glory, about the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment, were highly favorable. It is high drama of the regiment's history and the contribution of black soldiers during the Civil War. For example, Pauline Kael said, "'Glory' isn't a great film, but it's a good film on a great subject" (The New Yorker, February 5). Now that black soldiers have received their due by being properly portrayed for their courage and assistance in ensuring their own freedom, Civil War buffs who reenact battles are hoping that blacks will join the reconstituted regiments. Alan Sverdlik of Cox News Page  [End Page 78] Service discussed the need in "Civil War Buffs Want Blacks to Share the Glory," which appeared in the Providence Journal-Bulletin on January 27.

Mead Data Central, Inc., provider of Lexis and Nexis Information Services, has reproduced giant postcards of Lloyd Ostendorf's pen and wash drawing "Abraham Lincoln and the War Governors."

The National Archives—Great Lakes Region—with the Chicago Bar Association, the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, the American Bar Association, the Trial Lawyers Association of America, and Sangamon State University presented "Lincoln at the Bar: A Courtroom Reenactment" at the Mt. Pulaski Courthouse, Mt. Pulaski, Illinois, on February 12. The script, by Shirley J. Burton and Kellee Green, includes vignettes from six cases that Lincoln argued in federal and state courts, including the Truett murder trial, the "Chicken Bone Case," and his defense of the Franklin postmaster Louis Reinbech, indicted for stealing from the mails. "William Herndon," Lincoln's law partner, narrates the presentation. "Lincoln at the Bar" was performed by the Christmas Spirits, a drama group organized under the auspices of the Chicago Bar Association.

Ken Burns's Civil War documentary which aired on national public television as an eleven-hour series from September 23–27 is available from PBS Video in nine VHS videocassettes (1320 Braddock Place, Alexandria, VA 22314). Time-Life Video (P.O. Box C32350, Richmond, VA 23261) has also produced this documentary in a video produced by Florentine Films and WETA-TV. Those purchasing the set received an educational resource package from PBS Video.

Atlas Video (4300 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814) produced Abraham Lincoln in video with James McPherson as host.

The American Museum of the Moving Image in New York City presented twenty-one features and several shorts in the retrospective "The Unknown John Ford." Among them was the very sentimental "Young Mr. Lincoln" featuring Henry Fonda calmly persuading a lynch mob not to flaunt the law. The film's final shot is of Lincoln climbing to the top of a hill, while music and lightning represent a prophetic vision of Lincoln's future.

Thomason and Grant, Inc. of One Morton Dr., Suite 500, Charlottesville, VA 22901, has published Distant Thunder: A Photographic Essay on the American Civil War with photographs by Sam Abell.

The American Historical Foundation of Richmond, Virginia, offered for sale a limited edition of 250 hand-engraved Henry rifles which exactly replicate the one presented to President Lincoln.

The March 1990 issue of American Heritage printed for the first Page  [End Page 79] time a previously unknown portrait of Lincoln painted from life by the artist Philip O. Jenkins in 1856, purportedly the first from life. The article "Lincoln from Life" is co-authored by James L. Swanson, who uncovered this find, and Lloyd Ostendorf, who independently uncovered an 1866 portrait of Lincoln by Jenkins, who had added a beard to the painting.

The Los Angeles Times, on February 12, profiled Emil Seletz, a self-taught sculptor and the creator of numerous bronze busts of Abraham Lincoln. His present project is a four-foot replica that he hopes to place in Ford's Theatre. Seletz's studio contains forty other busts that he has shaped of Lincoln over the years ("Sculptor Is Honestly Abe's Biggest Fan").

IlliniWeek, a staff newspaper at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign campus, discussed Karl Schneider's terra-cotta panel of the "Lincoln-Douglas Debate" on the east facade of Lincoln Hall at the University and the Lincoln Room at the University Library which houses more than ten thousand books by or about Abraham Lincoln.

The February 21 issue of The Oregonian discussed the renovated statue of Abraham Lincoln and its rededication at Lincoln High School, now a part of the Portland State University campus. The background of the seventy-eight-year-old, life-size white plaster statue is unknown.

Experimental Children's Theatre (250 W. 65th St., New York, NY 10023) has been presenting "Abe Lincoln and the Cool Kid: An Imaginary Visit" as a journey back in time to Lincoln's era.

Another Lincoln impersonator, Charles Brame, is presenting his "The Living Lincoln," with an appearance at the Moscone Center in San Francisco, on March 18.

The sculptor Daniel P. Gray (605 Fair Avenue, NE, New Philadelphia, OH 44663) has created, in 175-mm. scale, a new Lincoln sculpture, the Black Hawk War.

A new exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery displayed portraits and memorabilia of "The Five of Hearts: Henry Adams and His Washington Circle" which included John Hay. James W. Symington, great-grandson of John Hay, discussed Hay in his lecture at the Gallery on June 26, "John Hay: Poet, Pundit, and Public Servant."

The New York Times on June 3 listed Your Obedient Servant, A. Lincoln which, once again, played at New Salem State Park from June 16 to August 18.

The Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial was a co-sponsor of the outdoor musical drama Young Abe Lincoln in June. The historian, Bill Page  [End Page 80] Bartelt, on June 15, told of "William Herndon Visits Mrs. Lincoln's Grave on September 14, 1865."

Vagabond Theatre (Baltimore) presented the play, John Wilkes Booth, I Am Myself Alone on July 6–8, 13–15, and 20–22.

The Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, with Leonard Slatkin conducting, presented a "Copland Portrait" at Great Woods, Mansfield, Massachusetts, which featured Edward M. Kennedy narrating the "Lincoln Portrait."

Jason Robards starred as Abraham Lincoln in the ABC movie, "The Perfect Tribute." This story is based on the book of the same name and tells the fictional story of Lincoln's accidental meeting with a boy from the South who helps a disheartened president understand the importance of his Gettysburg Address. It is based on the classic short story by Mary Shipman Andrews.

The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston is selling a cold-cast bronze reproduction of a 15 1/4 inch bust of Abraham Lincoln by George Edwin Bissell.

Ford's Theatre

After a two-year hiatus, the Lincoln Museum at Ford's Theatre re-opened to much acclaim on June 11. The emphasis is now on the assassination and events surrounding it. When the last museum was constructed after the assassination of President Kennedy, the assassination and museum artifacts related to it were relegated to a back room. Kristin Eddy tells how the Park Service confronted the disturbing subject of assassination in her "Death of a President" which appeared in the July–August issue of National Parks. For the occasion, the National Park Service has published a new Official Park Guide for the theater and the house where Lincoln died. John K. Lattimer spoke on the history of Ford's Theatre and the murder of the president on April 23.

Exhibits

The exhibit "A House Divided: America in the Age of Lincoln" opened February 4, 1990, at the Chicago Historical Society. Put together by the collaborative team of the historian Eric Foner and the curator Olivia Mahoney, a book of the same name was published and is avaiable from W. W. Norton. Harold Holzer reviewed the Page  [End Page 81] book in the February 4 edition of the Chicago Tribune and in the April issue of Americana. Herbert Mitgang reviewed the exhibit in the February 12 issue of the New York Times. The society has issued a press kit describing the decade-long exhibition. The winter issue of "Past-Times" of the Chicago Historical Society described the exhibit and the exhibition, "George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman's Campaign." Published to accompany this exhibition is a full-length biography by Keith F. Davis, George N. Bernard: Photographer of Sherman's Campaign. On February 23, the society presented the Paul M. Angle Civil War Program featuring a slide presentation by Keith F. Davis, co-curator of the exhibit. The society has prepared a handsome brochure describing the American history wing and explaining its two separate but related exhibitions, "We the People: Creating a New Nation, 1765–1820" and "A House Divided: America in the Age of Lincoln."

The Civil War Library and Museum (Philadelphia) brought back its special exhibit "'Fighting For Freedom': The Black Soldier in the Civil War."

The removal of one of the original manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address from the vault in the first-floor foyer of the Old State Capitol, Springfield, caused a stir in February. Articles about this appeared in the Chicago Tribune on February 28 and in the State Journal-Register on February 27 and 28.

A major exhibit, "The American Journalist: Paradox of the Press," opened at the Library of Congress on April 5 and explores the paradoxical role of the press. A book, with the same name and written by Loren Ghiglione, was published by the Library of Congress as a companion volume. Included among the unique items in the exhibition are pencil drawings by Alfred R. Waud and Edwin Forbes of Civil War events and the priceless contents of Lincoln's pockets the night he was assassinated, which included five newspaper clippings.

The Lincoln Museum (Ft. Wayne) prepared an exhibit for Germanfest with the production of a brochure entitled German Images of Abraham Lincoln and a foldout with brief biographies of Carl Shurz and Francis Lieber.

Tours

The History Book Club selected for one of its monthly choices The Civil War Battlefield Guide published for the Conservation Fund Page  [End Page 82] and edited by Frances H. Kennedy. With many contributors, this work presents an updated "state of the battlefields" in the form of an illustrated guide with more than sixty battlefield and campaign sites described. William C. Davis reviewed the volume for the May issue of History Book Club Review.

Alice Cromie's useful A Tour Guide to the Civil War has been published in a third revised edition (Rutledge Hill Press, 513 Third Ave., S., Nashville, TN 37210).

Ed Steers and Joan Chaconas conducted two walking tours on "Abraham Lincoln, John Wilkes Booth, and Civil War Washington" on April 7 and 8. The John Wilkes Booth Escape Route tours, sponsored by the Surratt Society on April 7 and 14, were filled to capacity.

White Mane Publishing Co. (P.O. Box 152, Shippensburg, PA 17257) has published the very useful, informative, and comprehensive Mr. Lincoln's Forts: A Guide to the Civil War Defenses of Washington by Benjamin Franklin Cooling III and Walton H. Owen II with a foreword by Edwin C. Bearss.

Lee C. Moorehead's annual tour "The Land of Lincoln" was conducted on June 22–24. A bus tour of historic Lincoln sites in the Midwest was led by Steven Rogstad June 11–13. Mr. Rogstad also conducted the tour "The Lincolns in Wisconsin" on June 4–7.

The University of Oklahoma Press has published America's National Battlefield Parks: A Guide by Joseph E. Stevens.

Auctions

A petition signed by Lincoln on July 20, 1837, while a legislator, to General Thornton beseeching him not to resign as president of the Illinois Board of Canal Commissioners fetched $11,000 at the Riba auctions on October 28, 1989, having been originally estimated at a value between $3,000 and $4,000. A letter signed by President Lincoln asking that the nephew of his friend Colonel Edward Baker be made a lieutenant sold for $14,000.

The Sotheby's auction on October 31, 1989, saw another signed copy of the printed Emancipation Proclamation by President Lincoln and his secretary of state sell for $115,500. Lincoln's letter to the secretary of war dated June 4, 1863 revoking the suspension of the publication of the Chicago Times sold for $24,200, and Lincoln's letter of October 13, 1853 to Attorney Dummer involving a case in which Lincoln was a litigant went for $15,400.

Sotheby's conducted on January 31 an auction of the collection Page  [End Page 83] of H. Bradley Martin which included a copy of the political debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas in the 1858 Illinois Senate campaign. The copy was signed by Lincoln in ink (the paper caused the signature to bleed). The pre-auction estimate was $12,000 to $18,000, and the sale price was $187,000, including the 10 percent buyer's commission. Sotheby's auction on May 22 fetched $37,500 for Lincoln's appeal on behalf of a Rhode Island girl looking for work.

Classic Auctions, Inc. (62 N. 2nd Ave., Raritan NJ) conducted on February 10 an extensive auction of "Lincoln Memorabilia," most of which were prints. There was also, purportedly, a Lincoln family Bible with the signature of Mary Lincoln dated in 1875. This lot was withdrawn by the owner as it did not receive the minimum bid.

Awards

One of the deans of Lincoln scholarship, Don E. Fehrenbacher, was named the recipient of the Second Annual Award of Achievement by the Lincoln Group of New York and the Barondess/Lincoln Award by the Civil War Round Table of New York.

Harlington Wood, Jr., a judge of the United States Circuit Court of Appeals, received the Lincoln the Lawyer Award from the Abraham Lincoln Association at its banquet on February 12.

James I. (Bud) Robertson received the Townsend-Hamilton Award by the Kentucky Civil War Round Table.

Larry E. Tise, author of Proslavery: A History of the Defense of Slavery in America, 1701–1840 (Georgia) was the winner of the American Historical Association Herbert Feis Award.

The Abraham Lincoln Association provided a copy of Daniel Chester French's bust of Lincoln for the first-prize winner of the 1989 Gettysburg Speech Contest of the Lincoln Society (Taipei).

Richard N. Current became the sixth lifetime honorary member of the Lincoln Group of Florida.

W. Emerson Reck was awarded the Lincoln Diploma of Honor from Lincoln Memorial University.

The fourth annual Lincoln Essay Contest was sponsored in February by the National Park Service at the Lincoln Home National Historic Site with more than seventy eighth-grade students participating by writing on the theme "Lincoln's Legacy." The papers of Page  [End Page 84] the five winners appeared in Historico, the journal of the Sangamon County Historical Society.

Gabor S. Boritt announced the creation of the Lincoln Prize at Gettysburg College, a $50,000 annual award for the best Lincoln or Civil War book of the previous year. The first prize will be awarded on February 12, 1991. The jury consists of Robert V. Bruce, James M. McPherson, and Tom Wicker.

The Lincoln Shrine Boy Scout Pilgrimage Certificate for February 12 sponsored by the Lincoln Museum in Fort Wayne featured George E. Bissell's The Emancipator statue, which is located in Clermont, Iowa.

The American Academy And Institute of Arts and Letters awarded its gold medal for history to C. Vann Woodward.

The 9th annual Lincoln Era Essay contest, sponsored by Indiana University (Bloomington), had as its theme "President Lincoln and Federalism." The essays were published by the Social Studies Development Center, 2805 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405.

Gabor S. Boritt received a Certificate of Excellence from the Illinois State Historical Society for his work on The Historian's Lincoln.

Periodicals

The March 1990 issue of American Heritage was devoted entirely to the Civil War and included James M. McPherson's article, "A War That Never Goes Away," "The Slave Who Sued for Freedom" by John Swan, and "Lincoln from Life" by James L. Swanson and Lloyd Ostendorf.

Harold Holzer's seventeenth consecutive article for The Antique Trader Weekly appeared on February 7 and discussed "Missing Lincolns." Among them are the Bixby condolence letter and early photographs of Lincoln taken in Columbus and Cincinnati in October 1859 and by Calvin Jackson in Pittsfield, Illinois in 1858. Accompanying the article was his annual column, "A Picture's Worth," in which he discussed questions about prints of Lincoln, Washington, and their families. James L. Swanson's "Reward and Other Broadsides of the Lincoln Assassination" appeared in the April 11 issue.

Kant Forbes wrote "Abraham Lincoln's Friend's Church's Fire" about Isaac Newton Arnold and St. James Episcopal Church in the February issue of Avenue M (Chicago).

The April issue of Blue and Gray Magazine had as its feature article Michael W. Kauffman's "John Wilkes Booth and the Murder of Page  [End Page 85] Abraham Lincoln." The lengthy contribution was augmented by excellent photographs of past and present views relating to the assassination and the conspirators. The issue was dedicated to the memory of Mary Todd Lincoln. A sequel in June completed the story with a detailing of Booth's escape route. This issue was dedicated to the Surratt Society and the Dr. Samuel A. Mudd Society.

Frederic Hunter wrote "Unraveling the Lincoln Courtship Conspiracy" for the Christian Science Monitor on November 14, 1989.

Mark E. Neely, Jr., and Harold Holzer wrote "The Miserable First Ladies" (Mrs. Lincoln and Mrs. Davis) in Volume 21 of Civil War. Volume 23 contained "Days of Glory" about how the 54th Massachusetts was portrayed by contemporary artists.

The December 1989 issue of Civil War History contained "Oberlin's James Monroe: Forgotten Abolitionists" by Frederick J. Blue, and an intriguing list by Carl M. Becker in his "'Tardy George' and 'Extra Billy': Nicknames in the Civil War." The June issue contained Charles B. Strozier's "On The Verge of Greatness: Psychological Reflections on Lincoln at the Lyceum," William L. Richter's "The Papers of U. S. Grant: A Review Essay," David L. Lightner's "The Interstate Slave Trade and Antislavery Politics," and Gary W. Gallagher's "The Army of Northern Virginia in May, 1864: A Crisis of High Command."

The entire January issue of Civil War Times Illustrated was about Ulysses S. Grant and was written by Mark Grimsley. The April issue contained "Home of an American Archvillan" by Dorothy Fox, who discussed the family home of John Wilkes Booth. Richard Pindell's article "He Would Steal?" about Simon Cameron, Lincoln's first secretary of war, appeared in the May–June issue. The National Historical Society (P.O. Box 658, Holmes, PA 19043) has reproduced all prior issues of Civil War Times and Civil War Times Illustrated in twenty hardcover volumes.

The January issue of Cobblestone contained Harold Holzer's "'We Cannot Escape History.'"

The May issue of Good Housekeeping contained Daniel Mark Epstein's "Abraham Lincoln's Other Mother."

The autumn 1989 issue of the Illinois Historical Journal contained "Sounds of Silence: An Aspect of Lincoln's Whig Years" by Aryeh Maidenbaum. The winter 1989 issue contained Thomas F. Scnwartz's "'More Pleasure in the Pursuit than in the Possession': A Brief History of the Henry Horner Lincoln Collection in the Illinois State Historical Library," and Bob Sterling's "Discouragement, Weariness and War Politics: Desertions From Illinois Regiments During the Civil Page  [End Page 86] War." The summer issue contained "A New Mary Todd Lincoln Photograph: A Tour of the White Mountains in Summer, 1863" by Lloyd Ostendorf. This newly discovered photograph of Mrs. Lincoln with acquaintances appears in the Lincoln Family Album by Harold Holzer and Mark E. Neely, Jr. (Doubleday).

The annual Lincoln issue of Illinois History: A Magazine for Young People had as its theme "Abraham Lincoln: Uses and Abuses" (Illinois Historic Preservation Agency). Appropriately, the thrust of the issue related to Lincoln in popular culture and how his legacy has been used. The lead article by John Hope Franklin was reprinted from Volume 7 of the Papers of the Abraham Lincoln Association and entitled "The Use and Misuse of the Lincoln Legacy."

Bill Furry wrote "A Lincoln's Eye Look at Local History" for the "Times Out" section of Illinois Times in its February 8 issue, when Springfield, Illinois in 1860 had all the trappings of a Greek revival village.

The December 1989 issue of the Journal of the Lincoln Assassination featured "I'm Mad! I'm Mad!" by Frederick Hatch. The article discussed Lewis Payne, who so viciously attacked Secretary of State William H. Seward on April 14, 1865.

The November 1989 issue of the Journal of Southern History contained Paul A. Cimbala's "The Freedman's Bureau: The Freed Men and Sherman's Grant in Reconstruction Georgia, 1865–1867." The May issue contained the very useful "Southern History in Periodicals, 1989: A Selected Bibliography" compiled by C. S. Monholland.

The Keynoter for spring–summer included "Abraham Lincoln vs. Joseph Lane: The Real Election of 1860."

The summer 1989 issue of the Lincoln Herald contained Martin D. Tullai's "Abraham Lincoln: Man of Humor," Wayne C. Temple's "An Aftermath of 'Sampson's Ghost' A New Lincoln Document," Patricia Ann Owens's "Wyoming and Montana During the Lincoln Administration," John M. Barr's "The Tyrannicide's Reception: Responses in Texas to Lincoln's Assassination," Harold Holzer's "Print of the Edition: An Engraved Tribute to Lincoln's Farewell Address to Springfield," and Steven M. Wilson's "In the Abraham Lincoln Museum Collection" (Ward H. Lamon's snuff box). The fall 1989 issue contained "A Puttin' On (H)airs" by Edward Steers, Jr., "Private Ross and the Ninety-Third New York at the Battle of the Wilderness" by D. Reid Ross, "A North-South Friendship: Abraham Lincoln and Alexander H. Stephens" by Waldo W. Braden, "A Texan Witnesses the First Thanksgiving: Adventures in War-time Washington" by James Marten, and Steven M. Wilson's description of the plaster Page  [End Page 87] model for the "seated Lincoln" by the sculptor Charles Henry Niehaus. The winter issue contained a memorial to Roy P. Basler by Gary R. Planck, "Lincoln's Bixby Letter: A Study in Authenticity" by Joe Nickell, "Secretary Stanton and Congressman Bingham" by Ervin G. Beauregard, "If Lincoln Had Lived: Texans Reconsider Lincoln's Assassination" by John Barr, and Steven M. Wilson's regular column about some object in the Abraham Lincoln Museum at Lincoln Memorial University. This issue's topic was about the Rockaway Carriage used by William H. Seward. The spring issue contained "Lincoln Boutwell and the Creation of the Internal Revenue Department" by Thomas H. Brown, "Mr. Lincoln's Growth in Faith" by W. Emerson Reck, "Itemizing the Gettysburg Address" by James A. Stevenson, "Lincoln and the Illinois Central Railroad" by William D. Beard, and Steven M. Wilson, director of the Abraham Lincoln Museum at Lincoln Memorial University, discussed "The Wide-Awake Vocalist," the songbook of the Republicans in the campaign of 1860, a copy of which is in the museum. Gary Planck's informative news digest appeared in each issue.

The fall 1989 issue of The Lincoln Legacy featured a description of the 1989 Lincoln commemorative stamp produced for the World Stamp Exposition and Lloyd Ostendorf's "Lincoln Likenesses Behind Stamps." The winter issue was devoted to the International Conference on Abraham Lincoln and Democracy held in Taipei, Taiwan in November 1989 and contained articles by Frank J. Williams and Cullom Davis. The winter issue of Tamkang Journal of American Studies contained Davis's "Crucible of Statesmanship: The Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln," which he had presented at the conference.

Sarah McNair Vosmeier reviewed Eric Foner's Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 in the April 1989 issue of Lincoln Lore. It was a highly positive review of a good book, especially because of the book's treatment of Southern blacks and the correction of the earlier view of William A. Dunning, who believed blacks to be inherently inferior to whites. In the June issue, Mark E. Neely, Jr., made excellent suggestions about Confederate imprints that ought to be included in any new Lincoln bibliography. Vosmeier also reviewed the new collection of The Civil War Papers of George B. McClellan: Selected Correspondence, 1860–1865, edited by Stephen W. Sears. She discussed "Photographing Lincoln: The Transformation of American Photography, 1846–1860" in the July, August, and September 1989 issues.

The Lincoln National Corporation has published a brochure "'I Was an Ex-Slave ... And Yet I Was to Meet the Most Exhaulted Page  [End Page 88] Personn in this Great Republic ...'" which described, in their own words, the meetings of Sojourner Truth and Frederick Douglass with Abraham Lincoln.

The fall 1989 issue of the Lincoln Newsletter contained Paul Beaver's "Lincoln's 1855 Defeat for the senate: The J. O. Norton Letter." A special winter 1989 edition reported the commissioning ceremonies of the U.S.S. Abraham Lincoln on November 11, 1989. The spring issue contained the remarks of Ralph G. Newman, "Abraham Lincoln and the Family of Man," which he delivered on the occasion of the 125th anniversary of the founding of Lincoln College. Richard Sloan and Paul Beaver wrote a fine survey of the Lincoln birthday activities for the same issue.

The summer issue of the Lincoln Newsletter contained Paul J. Beaver's "Lincoln in Little-Known Newspaper Articles" found in the collection of H. Charles Nemzer.

The winter issue of the Lincoln College Log described Merrell Gage's Lincoln statue, Lincoln, the student, which he did in 1953 for the college.

Paul Kallina wrote about Lincoln's Irish coachman, Francis P. Burke, in his "The Case of the Missing Coachman" for the March–April issue of The Lincolnian.

The March issue of the Minnesota Monitor, published by the Claremont Institute, discussed "Trashing the Great Emancipator in Minneapolis" by Douglas A. Jeffrey, who complained about a new "sculpture" dedicated in March for the thirty-eight Sioux Indians hanged in Mankato in 1862. The sculpture was an engraving that states the hanging was the result of the "Executive Order signed by the President of the United States--Abraham Lincoln." Jeffrey pointed out 303 Indians were originally convicted; after Lincoln reviewed the records, he reduced the number condemned to death to thirtyeight, those proven to be rapists and active participants in the massacres.

The national edition of the New York Times for April 27 contained Peter Applebome's "Remarkably, Din of Civil War Is Growing Louder" describing the increasing interest in the Civil War and its battles.

The fall 1989 issue of Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives discussed the blockade in Robert J. Plowman's "An Untapped Source: Civil War Prize Case Files, 1861–65" and civil liberties in "Defining Disloyalty: Treason, Espionage, and Sedition Prosecutions, 1861–1946" by Shirley Berton and Kellee Green.

The January issue of Scholastic Search was devoted entirely to "The Tragedy of the Civil War." Page  [End Page 89]

The winter 1989 issue of Sino-American Relations contained an editorial, "The 180th Anniversary of Abraham Lincoln" and published a portion of Howard T. Oedel's "The Lincoln Theme," originally included in the 50th anniversary publication of the Lincoln Group of Boston. The spring issue contained a brief summary of the International Conference on Abraham Lincoln held in Taipei from November 12–15, 1989, including the welcoming remarks of Yu-sheng Chang, president of the Republic of China, the opening address by Yu-tang D. Lew, and the farewell remarks by Frank J. Williams, president of the Abraham Lincoln Association.

The August issue of Sky and Telescope contained "Lincoln and the Almanac Trial" by Donald W. Olson and Russell Doescher.

Patricia O'Toole's article in the June issue of the Smithsonian, "Said Henry Adams: 'Among Us, We Know All Mankind,'" discussed Adams's elite circle called the "Five of Hearts" which included onetime Lincoln private secretary John Hay. Her book, The Five of Hearts, has been published by Potter.

On May 2, the Springfield Herald issued "The Day Mr. Lincoln Was Laid to Rest."

The May issue of Surratt Courier published notes about the Booth family from Richard Sloan and "The Search for John Surratt's Military Records" by Alfred Isaacsson. This issue also described the continuing controversy over the 1988 publication Come Retribution ... about whether or not President Jefferson Davis sanctioned the plot to kidnap President Lincoln. The question remains, Was the leader of the Confederate States of America capable of approving such a plan, and was he ultimately aware that the plan turned into one for murder?

The January issue of the Association of Abraham Lincoln Collectors (TAALC) contained a reproduction of a cartoon of Lincoln, "Lincoln and Number 7" which attempts to show the numerous connections of Lincoln to that numeral. These are: the same number of letters in each of his names, the number of years he lived in Kentucky and New Salem, the number of debates with Stephen Douglas (who himself has seven letters in each name), Lincoln's seven cabinet ministers, and the seven states that seceded before his inauguration.

In its tribute to the one hundred and fifty years of photo-journalism, Time issued a special collector's edition in fall 1989, including the Mathew Brady photograph of Abraham Lincoln taken on the day of the February 1860 Cooper Union speech. The caption, how- Page  [End Page 90] ever, refers to "Senator" Lincoln, a post Lincoln would have loved to have held but never succeeded in achieving.

The USAir's Washington Flyer Magazine for July–August contained "Mr. Lincoln's Washington" by Herb Phillips.

The Westfield Newspapers (N.J.) published on February 18, "Abraham Lincoln Had Roots in Garden State."

Books

Abraham Lincoln

The second supplement to the The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 1848–1865 edited by Roy P. Basler and Christian O. Basler was published by Rutgers, and the publisher reissued the first supplement which had been previously published by Greenwood. The complete set of the original nine volumes of The Collected Works is still in print and available from Rutgers.

The two-volume Lincoln, Speeches and Writings edited by Don E. Fehrenbacher and made possible through the Library of America was a History Book Club selection. The Library has published this in a "subscriber's edition."

The Illinois State Historical Society published The Collected Writings of James T. Hickey from publications of the Illinois State Historical Society from 1953–89.

Bonnie Speer is the author of The Great Abraham Lincoln Hijack about the attempted kidnapping of Lincoln's body (Reliance Press).

The Morningside Bookshop (Box 1087, Dayton, OH 45401) is still awaiting orders before reprinting, in one volume, the indispensable Lincoln Day by Day: A Chronology, 1809–1865 compiled by Earl Schenck Miers, William Barringer, and C. Percy Powell.

George B. Simpson (P.O. Box 303, Sturgis, KY 42459) is the author of Abe Lincoln's 1840 Kentucky Political Speech and the Whig Presidential Campaign of 1840 in Southern Illinois.

The Lincoln Memorial Shrine, Redlands, California, has published Gabor S. Boritt's How Big Was Lincoln's Toe or Finding a Footnote, the author's lecture there on February 12, 1989.

"A. Lincoln: Theologian" is a section in Paul A. Carter's Revolt Against Destiny: An Intellectual History of the United States (Columbia).

Lincoln Memorial University has re-published some of the late Page  [End Page 91] R. Gerald McMurtry pieces in McMurtry on Lincoln edited by Scott D. Miller and Joseph E. Suppiger.

The 28th Annual Fortenbaugh Lecture, "The Shadow of a Coming War" by Robert V. Bruce, has been published and is available from Gettysburg College.

Roy Z. Chamlee,jr., is the author of Lincoln's Assassins: A Complete Account of Their Capture, Trial, and Punishment (McFarland).

Representative American Speeches, 1988–1989, edited by Owen Peterson (H. W. Wilson), contains John A. Lloyd's "The Secret of Mr. Lincoln's Greatness" and Carl Sagan's "Thoughts on the 125th Anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg."

The Lincoln Museum (formerly the Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum) has published and distributed the Sixth Annual R. Gerald McMurtry Lecture delivered in 1983 by Ralph G. Newman, Preserving Lincoln for the Ages: Collectors, Collections and Our Sixteenth President and the twelfth lecture by Robert W. Johannsen, Lincoln and the South in 1860, delivered in 1989.

Americana House (357 W. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60610) has reprinted George S. Bryan's classic, The Great American Myth with a new introduction by William Hanchett (author of The Lincoln Murder Conspiracies), in which he views the assassination through the eyes of Lincoln's biographers since 1865.

Jo Ann Eades (Box 432, Jacksonville, IL 62651) is the author of A New Salem Primer for the elementary school level; it comes with a teacher's guide. Random House has published a new edition of the juvenile book by Wyatt Blassinghame, The Look-It-Up Book of Presidents.

Holy Cow Press has reprinted Meridel Le Sueur's Nancy Hanks of Wilderness Road: A Story of Abraham Lincoln's Mother. Other children's books about Abraham Lincoln available during the year include Abraham Lincoln: The Freedom Prisident by Susan Sloate, a contribution in The Great Lives series (Fawcett Columbine), Meet Abraham Lincoln by Barbara Cary (Random), and True Stories About Abraham Lincoln by Ruth Belov Gross with illustrations by Charles Turzak (Scholastic).

The Illinois Historic Preservation Agency published A Guide to Special Events at State-Owned Historic Sites for 1990 which included many Lincoln-related activities.

Enslow Publisher (Box 77, Hillside, NJ 07205) brought out Dennis B. Fradin's Lincoln's Birthday.

Simon and Schuster has reproduced Lee Morgan's "Abraham Lincoln" from the What Made Them Great series. Page  [End Page 92]

Edmund G. Gillon, Jr., is the author of Cut and Assemble: Lincoln's Springfield Home (Dover).

Arthur Kincaid has published the proceedings of a conference weekend in Bel Air, Maryland, during May 1988 entitled John Wilkes Booth, Actor. It is available from Kincaid for $15 by writing him at Little Foxes, North Leigh, Oxfordshire, England.

DaCapo has issued (in paper) The Lincoln Reader edited by Paul M. Angle in 1947. Although dated, this useful book contains an anthology of biographies of Lincoln written by sixty-five authors.

Robin Vaughn Whitney has revised and updated The American Presidents by David C. Whitney (Prentice-Hall). While a useful compilation of facts about America's forty chief executives, it is not the most comprehensive one-volume reference book of its kind.

Carole Chandler Waldrup is the author of Presidents' Wives: The Lives of Forty-Four Women of Strength (McFarland). It is the author's belief that each of the presidents' spouses in her own way helped shape and support her spouse's career and in so doing contributed something to the country's history.

Homer F. Cunningham is the author of The Presidents' Last Years: George Washington to Lyndon B. Johnson (McFarland).

At Home with the Presidents by Bonnie Blodgett and D. J. Tice (Overlook) includes "A Voice from the Wilderness-Abraham Lincoln" (chapter 8).

Donald C. Pfanz is the author of The Petersburg Campaign: Abraham Lincoln at City Point, March 20–April 9, 1865 (H. E. Howard, P. O. Box 4161, Lynchburg, VA 24502).

Watson Pindell is the author of Milestones to Immortality: The Pilgrimmage of Abraham Lincoln (Role Models, Inc., Fitch Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21236).

David Zarefsky gives an account of the seven 1858 Lincoln-Douglas encounters in Lincoln, Douglas, and Slavery in the Crucible of Public Debate (Chicago). The University of Chicago Press has published a new edition of The Complete Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858 edited and with an introduction by Paul M. Angle and a new foreword by David Zarefsky.

Waldo W. Braden is the author of Building the Myth: Selected Speeches, Memorializing Abraham Lincoln (Illinois) which contains the text of speeches by such people as Mario M. Cuomo, James A. Garfield, Theodore Roosevelt, Adlai E. Stevenson, William H. Taft, Ida M. Tarbell, and Booker T. Washington.

William C. Spragens is the editor of Popular Images of American Presidents (Greenwood). L. Gerald Bursey is the author of the section Page  [End Page 93] on Abraham Lincoln, about whom he says, "the Lincoln image—and its development--is without parallel in American history. It is unparalleled in its heights, its depths, its contrasts, its paradoxes and ironies, its reversals, and its power and influence."

ADS Press (P.O. Box 5837, Springfield, IL 62705), has reprinted Pinkerton's report on the Baltimore Plot to Assassinate Lincoln.

Books from other countries about Abraham Lincoln include R. F. Ivanov's The Diplomacy of Abraham Lincoln (Moscow) and a three-volume set on the presidents, Prezydenci by Longin B. Pastusiak (Warsaw).

Richard Adicks is the author of A Court for Owls (Pineapple Press) about the short and mysterious life of Lewis Payne, the man who attempted to assassinate William Seward the night Booth shot Lincoln.

Civil War

Joseph T. Glatthaar wrote Forged in Battle: The Civil War Alliance of Black Soldiers and White Officers (Free Press). The author explores the uneasy alliance between black soldiers and white officers who were divided by racial tension and ideology but united by the trials of combat.

James M. McPherson is the general editor of Battle Chronicles of the Civil War (Macmillan) in six volumes and containing contributions by noted Civil War scholars including Bell I. Wiley, Stephen B. Gates, and T. Harry Williams. The sixth volume contains biographies of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, and Thomas J. Jackson. A thirty-five-minute video, "The Civil War: The Fiery Trial" narrated by Edwin Newman, is also included.

Thomas Y. Crowell has published Voices from the Civil War: A Documentary History of the Great American Conflict edited by Milton Meltzer. The book consists of personal commentaries from letters, books, diaries, and dispatches from soldiers, slaves, reformers, and writers.

The Illinois State Historical Society has republished Victor Hicken's Illinois in the Civil War.

Wallace J. Schutz and Walter N. Trenerry wrote Abandoned By Lincoln: A Military Biography of General John Pope (Illinois).

Edward Hagerman is the author of The American Civil War and the Origins of Modern Warfare: Ideas, Organization, and Field Command (Indiana).

Roger L. Ransom is the author of Conflict and Compromise: The Page  [End Page 94] Political Economy of Slavery, Emancipation and the American Civil War. An economics and history professor, Ransom presents through quantitative analysis, the themes that "the presence of slavery in the United States represented a contradiction that eventually could only be removed by an armed conflict between the slave South and the nonslave North." The book's second thesis is to show how the attempt by the Southern states to create a Confederacy separate from the American Union failed because the slave society of the South was unable to sustain the effort in the face of a determined foe. The final theme is that the enormity of changes brought about by emancipation made it impossible for people at the time to deal effectively with the problems they faced.

Ralph Geoffrey Newman is the author of The General's Greatest Victory: Grant's Memoirs, which has been published as a miniature book by Ward Schori, 2716 Noyes St., Evanston, IL 60201.

Little, Brown has reprinted (in paperback) Bruce Catton's classics, Grant Moves South and Grant Takes Command.

Continuing the tradition of publishing the works of great American literary figures, the Library of America published The Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant and The Memoirs of William T. Sherman.

Nat Brandt in The Town That Started the Civil War (Syracuse) describes how Oberlin College and the town in Ohio for which it was named fought against enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law.

Steven E. Woodworth's Jefferson Davis and His Generals: The Failure of Confederate Command in the West (Kansas) was the Editor's Choice for the History Book Club in July. Woodworth discusses whether the Confederacy's demise was the fault of an indecisive and inconsistent commander-in-chief.

Christopher Phillips's Damned Yankee: The Life of General Nathaniel Lyon (Missouri) includes much discussion of the turmoil in Civil War Missouri and President Lincoln's role there.

General

Eli N. Evans's well-received Judah P. Benjamin: The Jewish Confederate is now available in paperback from the Free Press.

James L. Crouthamel is the author of Bennett's New York Herald and the Rise of the Popular Press (Syracuse).

Scarecrow Press, Inc. has published Our Vice-Presidents and Second Ladies by Leslie W. Dunlap.

Lewis P. Simpson is the author of Mind and the American Civil War: A Meditation on Lost Causes (Louisiana), in which the author Page  [End Page 95] explores the relationship between antebellum New England and the South.

Iva Bernstein is the author of The New York City Draft Riots: Their Significance for American Society and Politics in the Age of the Civil War (Oxford). Eric Foner considers this the best account of the unrest that occurred in July 1863.

Paul H. Bergeron has edited Volume 8 of The Papers of Andrew Johnson, which covers the period May to August 1865 (Tennessee).

The Indiana Historical Society has published Indiana: A New Historical Guide by Robert M. Taylor, Jr., Errol Wayne Stevens, Mary Ann Ponder, and Paul Brockman. It took ten years to prepare this first guide since the WPA American Guide for Indiana.

The University of Nebraska Press has published A Crisis of Republicanism: American Politics During the Civil War Era edited by Lloyd E. Ambrosius.

Louisiana has published Race and History: Selected Essays, 1938–1988 by John Hope Franklin.

John Niven is the author of The Coming of the Civil War, 1837–1861 (Harland Davidson).

Mary P. Ryan is the author of Women in Public: Between Banners and Ballots, 1825–1888 (Johns Hopkins). She discusses the influence and activities of the roles of many women who took an active part in our culture during the nineteenth century, primarily a man's world at the time.

William W. Freehling is the author of The Road to Disunion, vol. 1: Secessionists at Bay, 1776–1854 (Oxford).

Reference

Facts on File has published Who Was Who in the Confederacy by Stewart Sifakis as the second volume of Who Was Who in the Civil War.

It took Lee W. Merideth (P.O. Box 2083, Twentynine Palms, CA 92277) three years to compile the data necessary for his excellent Civil War Times and Civil War Times: Illustrated Thirty Year Comprehensive Index. It is helpful to have this book divided by subjects, title of articles by authors, and book reviews by author, book title, and subjects. Page  [End Page 96]

Reviews

The December 1989 issue of the American Historical Review contained Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s review of North Callahan's Carl Sandburg: His Life and Works.

The April issue of American History Illustrated contained a short review of the Library of America's Lincoln: Speeches, Letters, Miscellaneous Writings, Volumes 1 and 2, edited by Don E. Fehrenbacher. The reviewer was somewhat euphoric in calling this "The most exhaustive collection of Lincoln's works ever published,..." as the definitive edition is in nine volumes with two supplements (Rutgers). Gabor S. Boritt reviewed the Library of America's contribution for The Christian Science Monitor on November 17, 1989, as did Harold Holzer in the April issue of Civil War Times Illustrated. Mark E. Neely, Jr., reviewed it for the winter issue of Constitution and stated that, "Lincoln's own statements in defense of his policies were, some of them, untrue. Others were misleading and still others seemed downright profound." Doug Kane's review appeared in the December 14–20, 1989, issue of Illinois Times, which also contained Thomas Schwartz's review of Robert W. Johannsen's The Frontier, the Union and Stephen A. Douglas.

The December 1989 issue of Civil War History contained D. Ray Heisey's review of Abraham Lincoln, Public Speaker by Waldo W. Braden and James Banks's review of The "Barberian" Presidency: Theoretical and Empirical Readings edited by William David Pederson and The Rating Game in American Politics: An Anti-Disciplinary Approach edited by William D. Pederson and Ann M. McLaurin.

Mark E. Neely, Jr., reviewed Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era by James M. McPherson in the spring 1990 issue of the Georgia Historical Quarterly, calling it "the best Civil War textbook available...."

The autumn 1989 issue of the Illinois Historical Journal contained Ann Lousin's review of Judah P. Benjamin: The Jewish Confederate by Eli N. Evans. The winter 1989 issue contained Richard N. Current's review of Come Retribution: The Confederate Secret Service and the Assassination of Lincoln by William A. Tidwell with James O. Hall and David Winfred Gaddy, as well as David L. Smiley's review of Volumes 15 and 16 of The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant edited by John Y. Simon, Edward J. Russo's review of the reprint of The Sangamon by Edgar Lee Masters, and Harold Holzer's review of Abraham Lincoln, Public Speaker by Waldo W. Braden. Robert W. Frizzell reviewed Page  [End Page 97] Inside War: The Guerilla Conflict in Missouri During the American Civil War by Michael Felman in the summer issue.

John Y. Simon reviewed The Historian's Lincoln: Pseudohistory, Psychohistory, and History in Illinois Issues (July 28, 1989).

Alan T. Nolan reviewed Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era by James M. McPherson in the December 1989 issue of Indiana Magazine of History. The June issue contained George C. Rable's review of Andrew Johnson: A Biography by Hans L. Trefousse, Helen Jean M. Nugent's review of The Frontier, the Union, and Stephen A. Douglas by Robert W. Johannsen, Harry L. Watson's review of The Historian's Lincoln: Pseudohistory, Psychohistory, and History edited by Gabor S. Boritt with associate editor Norman O. Forness, and The Historian's Lincoln: Rebuttals; What the University Press Would Not Print edited by Gabor S. Boritt.

The February issue of the Journal of Southern History contained Robert E. May's review of The Presidencies of Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore by Elbert B. Smith. The May issue contained W. Emerson Reck's review of Come Retribution: The Confederate Secret Service and the Assassination of Lincoln by William A. Tidwell with James O. Hall and David Winfred Gaddy, as well as Lynda L. Crist's review of Crowns of Thorns and Glory: Mary Todd Lincoln and Varina. Howell Davis: The Two First Ladies of the Civil War by Gerry Van der Heuvel. The August issue contained Alan G. Bogue's review of The Historian's Lincoln: Pseudohistory, Psychohistory, and History, edited by Gabor S. Boritt and Norman O. Forness, and Ronald D. Rietvild's review of Abraham Lincoln: Public Speaker by Waldo W. Braden.

The fall 1989 issue of Lincoln Herald contained Gary R. Planck's reviews of the Meserve Civil War Record compiled and edited by Richard Alden Hubner, Hildene Remembers Lincoln at Gettysburg by Evelyn Mayerson and David Bort, and the reprint of Lincoln's New Salem by Benjamin P. Thomas. Robert Holloway reviewed Shenandoah Valley Families: The Lincolns, the Hanks by Billy Joe Monger, Waldo W. Braden reviewed The Doubled Images of Lincoln and Washington by Marcus Cunliffe and The Historian's Lincoln: Pseudohistory, Psychohistory, and History edited by Gabor S. Boritt and Norman O. Forness, and Thomas R. Turner reviewed Come Retribution, The Confederate Secret Service and the Assassination of Lincoln by William A. Tidwell with James O. Hall and David Winfred Gaddy. The spring issue contained James Martin's review of The Frontier, the Union and Stephen A. Douglas by Robert W. Johannsen and The "Barberian" Presidency: Theoretical and Empirical Readings edited by William David Pederson. Patricia Ann Owens's review of The Seven Faces of Lincoln Page  [End Page 98] edited by Scott D. Miller and Joseph E. Suppiger, Robert A. McCown's review of When Lilacs Bloom Again by Henry DuGarm, Thomas D. Matijasic's review of Blocks Seven and Ten, Elijah Iles' Edition by Albert W. Banton, Jr., Ellen Carol Balm, and Jill York O'Bright, Richard E. Sloan's review of The Journal of the Lincoln Assassination edited by Frederick K. Hatch, Thomas D. Matijasic's review of Further Archaeological Investigations at Lincoln Home National Historic Site, Springfield, Illinois: The 1987 Restoration Project by Vergile Noble, Gary R. Planck's review of Milestones to Immortality: The Pilgrimmage of Abraham Lincoln by Watson F. Pindell and Pinkerton's Report by Allan Pinkerton and Dr. Samuel Alexander Mudd and His Desendents by Richard D. Mudd, Patricia Ann Owens's review of War and the Constitution: Abraham Lincoln and Franklin D. Roosevelt by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Terry Alford's review of A Court for Owls by Richard Adicks, Gary R. Planck's review of The Library of America set, Abraham Lincoln's Speeches and Writings, and Larry E. Burgess's review of The Lincoln Group of New York 10th Anniversary Commemorative Booklet: 1978–1988 edited by Richard Sloan.

Carolyn Quadarella reviewed Robert Alotta's Civil War Justice: Union Army Executions under Lincoln in the March–April issue of The Lincolnian.

Herbert Mitgang's review of the play The Man Who Shot Lincoln by Luigi Creatore appeared in the September 24, 1989 issue of the New York Times. Mitgang points out how the play attempts to revise the history of Lincoln by showing that Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth as a result of sibling rivalry with his brother, Edwin, and not for any political or pro-Southern reasons. John Ziomek reviewed Bennett's New York Herald and the Rise of the Popular Press by James L. Crouthamel in the October 8 issue. The December 10, 1989 issue of the New York Times Book Review contained Alfred Kazin's praiseworthy article about Lincoln: Speeches and Writings edited by Don E. Fehrenbacher (Library of America). Kazin stated, "Beset by every possible threat to the Country and himself, the war President, by the force of his pen, kept the North together." The December 17, 1989 issue carried this work in its "And Bear in Mind" section, calling it "the work not of speechwriters but of a President as forceful in rhetoric as in political and moral leadership."

The spring 1989 issue of The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society contained Mary W. M. Hargrave's review of John C. Calhoun and the Price of Union: A Biography by John Niven and Lowell H. Harrison's review of Volumes 15 and 16 of The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant edited by John Y. Simon. The summer 1989 issue was an index Page  [End Page 99] to the Register for the period 1903–88 and was compiled by Mary Lou S. Madigan. The autumn issue contained Bill Cooper's review of Tippecanoe and Trinkets, Too: The Material Culture of American Presidential Campaigns, 1828–1984 by Roger A. Fischer, Eugene H. Berwanger's review of The Historian's Lincoln: Pseudohistory, Psychohistory, and History edited by Gabor S. Boritt, and Ferenc M. Szasz's review of Abraham Lincoln: Public Speaker by Waldo W. Braden. The winter issue contained William E. Parrish's review of Volume 6 of The Papers of Jefferson Davis edited by Lynda Lasswellchrist and Mary Seaton Dix.

Jean H. Baker discussed "A People's Contest": The Union at War, 1861–1865 by Philip Shaw Paludan in the December 1989 issue of Reviews in American History.

The Washington Post, on April 29, described Bruce Catton's Grant Moves South and Grant Takes Command, which had been reprinted, as full of "painstaking research, superb narrative sweep, a keen eye for detail that both fires the imagination and illuminates character, and a stirring style."

Cullom Davis reviewed The Historian's Lincoln: Pseudohistory, Psychohistor, and History edited by Gabor S. Boritt and Norman O. Forness in Western Illinois Regional Studies.

People and Things

George Bush signed legislation on October 3, 1989 creating a national historic site of the Missouri estate where Ulysses S. Grant and his wife Julia Dent lived before the Civil War. Called White Haven, the Grants lived there from 1854 to 1860.

Appropriately, Schurz biographer, Hans L. Trefousse delivered the inaugural lecture on the new Carl Schurz Lecture Series at the Library of Congress on October 3, 1989. Entitled "Carl Schurz Today," Trefousse described the long and impressive career of Carl Shurz, the nineteenth-century German-American immigrant who was far ahead of his time.

Wertz, Huffman, Parks Realtors are offering for sale the Mordecai Lincoln Homestead, in Exeter Township, Berks County, England. Built in 1733, the home of Abraham Lincoln's great, great grandfather is situated on 9.2 acres and is selling for $299,500.

Larry Edward Sullivan has been appointed the new Chief of the Library of Congress's Rare Book and Special Collections Division.

After forty-eight years at 18 East Chestnut St., the Abraham Lin- Page  [End Page 100] coln Bookshop has moved to 357 W. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60610.

The Navy's newest aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Abraham Lincoln, contains a reception room featuring a permanent display of Lincoln exhibits and artifacts. On behalf of the Abraham Lincoln Association, Ralph G. Newman presented a framed print of the Gettysburg Address in eight languages to the collection.

On February 1, the Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum (1300 South Clinton Street, Fort Wayne, IN 46801) changed its name to the Lincoln Museum. Other changes will include the creation of the Lloyd Ostendorf Gallery containing many Lincoln photographs as well as those of his family and contemporaries.

The staff of the Lincoln Legal Papers has moved to the third level of the Old State Capitol, Springfield.

John Hope Franklin is profiled in the February 1990 issue of Ebony in an article by Charles Whitaker.

The February 12 issue of Time contained Walter Shapiro's "Prolific Purveyor of Punditry" about William Safire. Shapiro describes Safire's wish to project what he saw as a member of President Nixon's staff into all presidential administrations. This tendency is demonstrated in the novel Freedom, the "reconstruction," according to Safire, of the first two years of Lincoln's administration. Safire attempts to project what Lincoln would do in a present crisis by using the diaries of Lincoln's contemporaries.

The State Journal-Register (Springfield, Ill.) on February 12 included a full-page article by Dan Moran about the great Lincoln collection at the Illinois State Historical Library.

Thomas V. DiBacco discussed Abraham Lincoln as a parent in the Miami Herald on February 11 ("Abe Lincoln and the Perils of Parenthood").

The New York Times, on February 12, reported from Reuters that the Reverend Jesse Jackson compared South African President F. W. de Klerk to Abraham Lincoln because of de Klerk's "courageous step" in freeing Nelson Mandela from prison and legalizing the African National Congress-actions, according to Jackson, comparable to Lincoln's issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863.

Paul H. Verduin is the new editor of The Lincolnian published by the Lincoln Group of Washington, D.C.

Marcie Baer profiled Mary Zimmer, second vice-president of the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin and Steven Rogstad, secretary-treasurer of the organization, on February 4 in the Herald Times Page  [End Page 101] Reporter, Manitowoc-Two Rivers, Wisconsin. The March 14 issue of The Country Today reported the 50th anniversary events of the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin.

Lloyd Ostendorf was featured on the front page of the Dayton Daily News on February 28 discussing the "find" of the early Jenkins beardless portrait of Abraham Lincoln and Ostendorf's discovery of a later bearded version. Steve Kinney profiled Ostendorf in the February 9 edition of the Evansville Press.

The Lincoln's Doctor's Dog award goes to the Column of Lists by Irving Wallace, David Wallechinsky, and Amy Wallace, who discussed "Celebrities with exotic pets" in the Evening Times (Pawtucket, R.I.) on February 10. The entry for Abraham Lincoln reads, "As a child, Lincoln counted a pig as one of his few pets. He taught it to play hide and seek and was able to ride it when it was fully grown. In the White House, Lincoln's son Tad was given a pair of goats and a turkey as pets. The turkey, Jack, was to have been the First Family's Christmas dinner in 1863, but he was given a presidential pardon and became a familiar sight at the White House." There was a presidential pardon, not for the turkey, Jack, but rather Jack the doll.

Thomas R. Turner has been elected president of the Lincoln Group of Boston.

Ralph Geoffrey Newman, after twenty-eight years, stepped down as president of the Ulysses S. Grant Association. Frank J. Williams was elected to the office.

Norman Hellmers, formerly superintendent of the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial near Lincoln City, Indiana, is now serving as superintendent of the Lincoln Home National Historic Site, Springfield.

Wayne C. Temple spoke on Lincoln's religion on May 6 at Mary Lincoln's Church, The First Presbyterian Church of Springfield.

The Springfield home of the world-reknown poet Vachel Lindsay was transferred to the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency and is now administered as an Illinois State Historic Site. Lindsay's most famous poem has been considered to be "Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight." His home at 603 S. Fifth Street was built around 1840 and was designed by Henry Dresser, the same architect who designed the home that Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln bought. The Lincolns were entertained at this home by Clark M. Smith, Lincoln's brother-in-law.

Cullom Davis delivered the remarks at the 125th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's internment at Oak Ridge Cemetery on May 4. They were published, in part, by the Illinois Times on May 10. Page  [End Page 102]

A profile of W. Emerson Reck was written by Katherine Ullmer for the April 15 issue of the Dayton Daily News.

The Lincoln Tower in London is the only remaining element of Christ Church, which was built on the site close to Westminster Bridge in 1876. The church, badly damaged during the blitz, was demolished in 1957. The tower was officially opened by Robert Todd Lincoln. The Forge Partnership Architects and Designers, 16 Stratford Road, London, W8 6QD, is seeking assistance in the restoration and rehabilitation of this monument, which has American connections.

The Lincoln Birthday Association of Springfield published A Tribute to George L. Cashman, long-time curator of the Lincoln tomb.

The Stephen A. Douglas Association (175 E. Delaware, Chicago, IL 60611) is looking for tax-deductible contributions to assist in republishing Robert W. Johannsen's seminal Stephen A. Douglas.

The Lincoln Fellowship of Pennsylvania is undertaking an effort to raise $100,000 to cover the costs of a statue of Abraham Lincoln to be placed near the Wills House on Lincoln Square in Gettysburg. The sculptor J. Seward Johnson has accepted the commission. Those interested in contributing may do so by sending their contribution to the Lincoln Statue Fund, c/o Lincoln Room Museum, 12 Lincoln Square, Gettysburg, PA 17325.

Lincoln in Popular Culture

The Annalee Doll Society (P.O. Box 869, Reservoir Road, Meredith, NH 03253) has produced a smiling Abraham Lincoln doll.

A full-page advertisement in the New York Times on October 3, 1989 featured a portrait of Abraham Lincoln in support of donations for the Mental Illness Foundation. It was stated that Lincoln suffered from "mental illness" because of his bouts with depression.

The lead article of the October 27, 1989 issue of the National Review has David D. Hale's "Must We Become Japanese?" as the cover story. The Lincoln of the Lincoln Memorial is depicted with a Samurai band around his forehead and wearing a kimono.

To express the concern of Japanese purchasing power in America as a result of the recent investment in Rockefeller Center, Pat Oliphant, in his editorial cartoon syndicated on November 17, 1989, depicts the Japanese visitors and an American at the foot of the Lincoln Memorial. The Japanese are being told, "Why (Ahem) yes, he just came on the market.... How many yen are we talking here?"

The 1990 award for an unfounded story about where Lincoln Page  [End Page 103] visited, slept, or ate goes to the Associated Press for its syndicated "Who Slept at Cape May in 1849? Was It Lincoln ... or Just a Grocer?" Residents still believe that the 16th president stayed at a hotel in the resort community of Cape May, New Jersey, on July 31, 1849, but a check of Lincoln Day by Day shows that Lincoln was actually practicing law on that day, winning a judgment of $112.30 for a client.

For President's Day, Gordon Monson wrote "A presidential quiz" for the Providence Sunday Journal on February 18. One of the Lincoln questions reads:

Which of the following statements about Abraham Lincoln is not true?
  1. He hated the nickname "Abe."
  2. While eating a salami sandwich and imbibing mineral water, he hurriedly composed the Gettysburg Address on the back of envelope on his way to deliver the speech, then burped incessantly throughout.
  3. He was smuggled into Washington aboard a special train car under a bogus name for his first inauguration (because of rumors about possible assassination attempts).

To think, Lincoln students have spent many years dissuading people from believing that Lincoln wrote his Gettysburg declaration on the back of an envelope while on the train to Gettysburg!

No one would ever give Abraham Lincoln good marks in the culinary arts, and it would be a stretch of imagination to make a cookbook tie into a Lincoln theme. Yet, the Junior League of Springfield, Illinois has published Honest to Goodness: Honestly Good Food from Mr. Lincoln's Hometown, available from the sponsor at P.O. Box 1736, Springfield, IL 62705. The book features a top-hatted Lincoln profile on the front cover, a profile made of popcorn, coffee beans, black seaweed, rice, lentils, paprika, beans, leeks, and other assorted condiments. The section dividers throughout the book contain outstanding photographs of artifacts used by Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln and their contemporaries.

It is hard to conceive of a more insulting attempt than that of the Weekly World News, which, on June 12 asked its readers to believe that "Abraham Lincoln's Ghost [was] Photographed!" with purported photos of a transparent Lincoln walking toward and on the terrace of his memorial in Washington.

Coin World published a six-part series on "Face of Lincoln, An American Institution" by Fred L. Reed III in its February 14, 21, 28, Page  [End Page 104] and March 7, 14, and 21 issues. Reed treats the Lincoln face and profile, showing how it has become part of treasury notes, bills, coins, advertisements, postcards, stamps, and other ephemera.

In changing his mind on taxes, George Bush invoked Abraham Lincoln by saying, "I'm doing like Lincoln did, I'm thinking anew" on June 29. Even this president must "get right with Lincoln."

Christopher Hitchens, in Blood, Class, and Nostalgia: Anglo-American Ironies (Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux) states that "Churchill is morally irrefragable in American discourse, and can be quoted even more safely than Lincoln."

The Associated Press, in an article by Scott Rothshild, syndicated on August 22 and appearing in the Austin American-Statesman, sheds light on Lincoln's success in the Almanac trial, in which Duff Armstrong had been accused of stabbing a man to death at around 11:00 P.M. on August 29, 1857. Lincoln, as everyone knows, beguiled the jury by demonstrating by means of the almanac that the moon had been about to set at the time of the incident, thus discrediting the prosecution's witness who testified that he could make out the young Duff Armstrong by the moon's light. There has always been some doubt aboout the veracity of Lincoln's claim; many of the people attending the camp meeting testified that the moon was high at about 8 P.M. Now, two Southwest Texas State University astronomers have explained the phenomenon, which occurs once in nineteen years. Both the camp attendees and Lincoln were right; the moon was high at 8 P.M. but quickly dropped to its most extreme southern declination and was obscured from view at around 11 P.M.

Necrology

Robert P. Howard, a journalist, writer, Lincoln student, and gentleman, died on October 21, 1989. He was the author of Illinois: A History of the Frame State and Mostly Good and Competent Men.

Roy P. Basler, retired chief of the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress and former executive secretary and editor in chief of the Abraham Lincoln Association, died on October 25, 1989, after just completing his second supplement to The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. The second supplement, which he co-edited with his son, Christian, had just gone to press at Rutgers. He was also the author of The Lincoln Legend (1935), Lincoln, His Speeches and Writings (1946), A Short History of the American Civil War (1967), A Page  [End Page 105] Touchstone for Greatness (1973), and Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in Translation (1972).

Jordan D. Fiore, president of the Lincoln Group of Boston, died on November 15, 1989. In addition to his interests in Abraham Lincoln, he was the author of numerous articles and books in the fields of Colonial history, Civil War history, and the history of American intellectual thought.

James Ewell Stewart III, grandson of the Confederate General J. E. B. Stewart, died on April 11, coincidentally, 125 years to the day that the Confederate cavalry surrendered to Union forces.

Fairfax Downey, biographer and military historian, died on May 31. Among his more than fifty books are Sound of the Guns and Storming of the Gateway.

William J. Wolf, theologian and Episcopal minister as well as author of The Almost Chosen People: A Study of the Religion of Abraham Lincoln, died on June 6.

Works in Progress

Michael Burlingame of Connecticut College has completed his manuscript entitled The Inner Lincoln.

In 1992, The Henry E. Huntington Library, Art Gallery, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California, and the Illinois State Historical Library will present a major Lincoln exhibit at the Huntington. It is expected to be the largest exhibit of Lincoln material ever shown.

Mark E. Neely, Jr., and Harold Holzer are at work on their new book, Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: The Civil War in Art (Crown) which will be published in 1992.

Vintage Books will soon make available, in paperback, the Library of America's edition of Lincoln: Speeches and Writings.

William Hanchett, author of the seminal work on Lincoln assassination historiography, and Gary Beebe are working on a TV documentary, "Black Easter: The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln."

A feature film of Michael Shaara's classic novel about the Battle of Gettysburg, The Killer Angels, will be released in 1991. It stars Robert Duvall as General Robert E. Lee, with Hal Holbrook and Richard Jordan in supporting roles.

The Chief Justice of the United States, William Rehnquist, is at work on a book about Salmon Chase and the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson. Page  [End Page 106]

A four-volume Encyclopedia of African American Culture and History to be compiled at Columbia University will be published in February 1993 by Macmillan.

Richard N. Current has a new book in the works, Lincoln and the Loyalists: His Soldiers from the South, the results of the author's new enthusiasm about the neglected subject of the men from the Confederacy who fought for the Union, which current estimates to be about a hundred thousand.

Acknowledgments

Many thanks to all who provided information and copies for mention in this article. Special thanks to Arnold Gates, former literary editor of the Lincoln Herald, who is responsible for my beginning this effort and who has been most helpful in providing information, thanks also to Harold Holzer, Mark E. Neely, Jr., Tom Lapsley, Steven K. Rogstad, and Wayne C. Temple. I welcome any news concerning Abraham Lincoln to be considered for publication in the next issue of the Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association; contact me at 300 Switch Road, Hope Valley, RI 02832. Page  [End Page 107]