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Alexander Gardner albumen print of Lincoln delivering his
second inaugural address, March 4, 1865.
Alexander Gardner albumen print of Lincoln delivering his second inaugural address, March 4, 1865. Page  [End Page 72]

Lincoln Group Activities

Jean H. Baker presented "'Not Much of Me': Abraham Lincoln as a Typical American" before a record crowd of 163 people on May 19 at the 11th annual R. Gerald McMurtry Lecture, Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum, Fort Wayne. The 10th annual R. Gerald McMurtry Lecture, House Divided: Lincoln and His Father, by John T. Simon, has been published by the library.

John K. Lattimer delivered the annual address before the Lincoln Club of Delaware on February 11.

Jean H. Baker delivered "Mary Todd Lincoln—A Political Woman" before the Lincoln Fellowship of Pennyslvania on November 19, 1987.

William Safire spoke on "Lincoln's Excesses: Their Effect on Modern Presidents" at the October 9, 1987 meeting of the Civil War Round Table in Chicago. William Hanchett delivered his "Abraham Lincoln—Man in the Middle" at the February 12 meeting, and Harold Holzer and Mark E. Neely, Jr., delivered "The Confederate Image: Prints of the Lost Cause" on March 11. U.S. Senator Paul Simon presented "Lincoln the Legislator" on October 7, Gordon Whitney presented "Sherman's Lieutenants" on November 11, and "Holiday Music of the Civil War" was presented by Karen Osborne and Ed Pierce on December 9.

Richard Mudd discussed the role of his grandfather, Samuel A. Mudd, at the October 21 meeting of the Lincoln Group of New York.

Thomas R. Turner presented the fourth annual dinner address, "The Lincoln Assassination: An Historical Perspective," before the Lincoln Group of Florida on February 27.

The 56th annual Lincoln dinner of the Lincoln Memorial Association of the Lincoln Memorial Shrine in Redlands, California, featured Hans Trefousse on Febraury 12, who spoke on "Lincoln: The Great Emancipator." His address is available from the Lincoln Memorial Shrine. Harold Holzer delivered his " `Forever Free': Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation at 125" at the New York State Museum in Albany on January 9. Page  [End Page 73]

The annual dinner meeting of the Lincoln Society of the Republic of China was held in Taipei on February 27 and featured David Dean, director of the American Institute in Taiwan, who spoke on "Democracy and Leadership."

Richard N. Current appeared before the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin April 10 with "How Lincoln Interpreted the Constitution."

The Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian Church of Brooklyn, George L. Knight, pastor, observed its 120th annual celebration of Lincoln Day on February 7 with hymns and songs of Lincoln's day and a special prelude composed in 1987 by Sisler, "Abe Lincoln Turns to Prayer."

The Lincoln Club of Topeka met February 4 and heard E. W. Smith deliver his "Lincoln's Kansas Heritage." Ellen Banks McDowell presented "Women in the Time of Lincoln" on March 3.

The Lincoln Group of Boston held its 50th anniversary meeting at Bridgewater State College and heard reminiscences from Frederick I. Olson, a charter member of the group. For the occasion, a 50th anniversary booklet was published, edited by Sylvia Bernard Larson. The April meeting featured Paul J. Beaver's "The Little Known Lincoln Country" and a dramatic/musical program on the life of Abraham Lincoln. In commemoration of the sesquicentennial of the birth of John Hay, the October 8 meeting was held at Brown University with presentations from Jennifer Lee ("John Hay: From Poetry to Statesmanship") and Frank J. Williams ("John Hay and Abraham Lincoln: A Relationship Re-examined").

On February 7, the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial in Lincoln City, Indiana, and the Lincoln Club of Southern Indiana heard George Painter deliver his "Abraham Lincoln and the Constitution." Over the weekend of August 12–14, the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial sponsored the 1988 Indiana Lincoln Festival with an exhibit and publication entitled A Brief History of Lincoln City, Indiana.

Members of the Lincoln Group of the District of Columbia saw Harold Holzer's February 9 slide presentation, "Lincoln from Life." S. L. Carson presented a slide presentation of "Robert Todd Lincoln's Hildene" before the group of March 15. The May 17 meeting featured Tamara Melia, who spoke on "Lincoln's Navy." Sherrill V. Martin presented "Sounds of the Civil War" at the September 20 meeting. On October 18, Jean H. Baker presented "Mary Todd Lincoln: Myths and Realities" and Joseph George presented "'The World Will Little Note': Newspapers and the Gettysburg Address."

Mark A. Plummer delivered the first Harman Memorial Lincoln Lecture, "Lincoln and the Rail-Splitter Election," at Washburn University, Topeka, Kansas, on April 19. Page  [End Page 74]

The annual Lincoln Day observance was held by the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church, Washington, D.C. on February 7, and included a reading of Lincoln's second inaugural address by Nancy Grosshans, a medley of songs of the Civil War with the New York Avenue Choir, Stephen H. Prussing, director, and "Robert Todd Lincoln's Hildene" by Robert T. Thum.

Father Daniel A. Degnan delivered the address at the 123rd annual dinner of the Lincoln Association of Jersey City on February 12.

James M. McPherson, Huntington-Seaver Fellow in the History of Liberty and Edwards Professor of American History at Princeton, delivered "Lincoln and Liberty: From a Negative to a Positive Concept of Freedom in the Civil War Era" at the Huntington Library on April 7.

Lloyd Ostendorf discussed the tragedies in the male Lincoln line at the fourth annual 1840s period dinner and benefit auction of the Lincoln Log Cabin/Lincoln Sargent Farm Foundation on February 20. Other participants included Basil Moore, Lincoln humorist and lecturer; Thomas F. Schwartz, curator of the Lincoln Collection of the Illinois State Historical Library; Bob Coomer, superintendent of historic sites, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency; and Bernadine Bailey, Lincoln author.

The Civil War Institute at Gettysburg College has started a newsletter with John Nace as editor.

The bulletin of the 44th annual meeting of the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin featuring Wayne C. Temple's "Dr. Anson G. Henry: Personal Physician to the Lincolns" was distributed in April.

Robert W. Johannsen, author of the definitive biography of Stephen A. Douglas, delivered the address on the occasion of the 127th anniversary of Douglas's death on June 4 at the Douglas Tomb in Chicago.

John A. Lloyd delivered the fourth annual Lloyd Ostendorf lecture, "The Secret of Mr. Lincoln's Greatness," at Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, Tennessee, on February 12. LMU has published this lecture.

The newly formed Lincoln Group of Illinois has become one of the most active and fastest growing groups in the country with more than 160 members. With the Lincoln Home National Historic Site and the Sangamon County Historical Society, the group sponsored the third annual Lincoln Colloquium at the Lincoln Library in Springfield on October 15. Craig Colten discussed the evolution of Lincoln placenames. Thomas Keiser analyzed the abuse heaped upon Lincoln in the North and in England. Helen Crocker discussed the English Page  [End Page 75] playwright John Drinkwater's 1918 dramatization of Lincoln's presidency, and Richard Sloan presented his very popular "Lincoln's Assassination and John Wilkes Booth as Depicted in Theater Arts." The papers from the first two symposia have been published and are available from the Lincoln Home National Historic Site.

A full day's activities surrounded the 125th anniversary of Lincoln's Gettysburg Declaration on November 19, sponsored by the Lincoln Fellowship of Pennsylvania. A reenactment of Lincoln's arrival, with James Getty portraying President Lincoln, opened the program. Chief Justice William Rehnquist and members of the Pennsylvania legislature were in the audience. Luncheon speaker Mark E. Neely, Jr. discussed the "irrelevance of the Milligan decision." Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., presented the annual Fortenbaugh lecture at Gettysburg College, speaking on "Lincoln and FDR as Commanders in Chief."

Lincoln Legals Project

A descriptive article about The Lincoln Legals: A Documentary History of the Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln, 1836–1861, was written by Herbert Mitgang for the New York Times and syndicated on February 11. It was carried on that date in the Illinois State Journal-Register. Formerly under the aegis of Roger D. Bridges and now Cullom Davis, the project is being financed, in part, by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. The Abraham Lincoln Association and the College of Law, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are co-sponsoring the project. The editor has called for copies of any documents relating to Abraham Lincoln's law practice, whether letters or legal pleadings. While supported by the State of Illinois, your tax-deductible contribution would help the present budgetary shortfall. Please make your checks payable to the Abraham Lincoln Association and send to the Old State Capitol, Springfield, Illinois 62701, designating your contribution for the Lincoln Legals.

Through the good detective work of William D. Beard, assistant editor of the project, six previously unknown cases in which Lincoln was counsel and which were argued before the Illinois Supreme Court were uncovered in the basement of the Illinois Supreme Court building.

Lincoln Home National Historic Site

The 179th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's birthday was celebrated at the Lincoln Home with the showing of two films relating Page  [End Page 76] to Lincoln's birthplace in Kentucky and his boyhood years in Indiana: "Lincoln, the Kentucky Years" and "Here I Grew Up."

After months of rehabilitation and $2.2 million, the Lincoln Home was reopened on June 16. Illinois Governor James R. Thompson delivered the major address.

On July 12, the public was treated to "Face-to-Face with Billy Yank: A Dramatized Interview with a Civil War Soldier." James W. Patton, III, an interpreter at Lincoln's New Salem State Historic Site, narrated a slide presentation, "Lincoln at New Salem," on July 13.

Lincoln Home employee Judith Winkelmann portrayed Mrs. Edwards in "Finding Mrs. Lincoln: A Dramatized Interview with Mary Lincoln's Older Sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Todd Edwards" on July 19.

"Lincoln Home Archeology" was presented on July 21 and August 18 with Albert Brine, one of the archeologists who investigated the Lincoln Home and other historic site structures in the area.

Paul Presney, Jr., portrayed William H. Herndon July 26 in "The Real Lincoln? A Dramatized Interview with Lincoln's Law Partner and Biographer." Nan Wynn presented a slide presentation of Lincoln's Tomb on July 27, and on July 28 and August 11, James W. Patton, III, presented his slide presentation, "The Reconstruction of Lincoln's New Salem." The National Park Service presented a twilight tour of the Lincoln Home neighborhood on July 29, and John Squibb delivered his lecture "Lincoln and the Election of 1860" on July 29.

U.S. District Court Judge Richard Mills presented "A. Lincoln: The Consummate Lawyer" on August 8, and Judith Baumann presented "A Glimpse of Glory: Lincoln at Vandalia" on August 10. Mr. Richard Schachtsiek, superintendent of the Postville Courthouse and Mount Pulaski Courthouse State Historic Sites, presented "Lincoln the Lawyer in Logan County: Postville and Mount Pulaski Courthouses" on August 17.

Conferences

The National Theater Conference at Ford's Theater on December 28, 1987, featured John Ford Sollers and Grace Newton Sollers, donors of the John Thompson Ford collection to the Library of Congress, who presented "Lincoln and Ford's Theater."

The eighth annual Illinois History symposium sponsored by the Illinois State Historical Society on December 4–5, 1987, featured two sessions on Lincoln. Papers were read by Thomas Keiser, "Abra- Page  [End Page 77] ham Lincoln and the English Press," and Robert Bray, "The Cartwright-Lincoln Acquaintance," with comments by Thomas F. Schwartz. The second session heard papers by Jim R. Martin, "The Secret Baptism of Abraham Lincoln," and James Stevenson "Interpreting Abraham Lincoln's Affinity for Macbeth," with comments by Paul J. Beaver.

The Virginia Country Civil War Society presented a one-day symposium, "The Valley Campaign of 1864," on January 30 in West Palm Beach, Florida.

The 15th annual Abraham Lincoln symposium, sponsored by the Abraham Lincoln Association and the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, was held February 12 in the Old State Capitol, Springfield, with papers by John Y. Simon, "Lincoln and Ann Rutledge," and Jean H. Baker, "Mary Todd Lincoln: Managing Home, Children and Husband," and comments by Judith L. Everson of Sangamon State University. The Prairie Capitol Singers presented a musical drama in the House of Representatives following the annual Association dinner.

The American Civil War Commemorative Committee, Inc., sponsored the 125th anniversary reenactment of the Battle of Gettysburg, June 24–26.

The Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association presented "The Novel as History: William Safire's Freedom" in San Francisco on August 12. William Hanchett chaired and Larry E. Burgess, William C. Davis, Joseph George, and Mark E. Neely, Jr. were panelists.

A conference in honor of retiring professor James A. Rawley, University of Nebraska, was held May 1–2, 1987, with the theme "Nineteenth Century American Political History." Among the papers delivered were "Lincoln and Johnson: A Comparison" by Hans L. Trefousse, "Salmon P. Chase and the Republican Presidential Nominating Conventions of 1856 and 1860: Bolingbroke or Radical Reformer?" by John Niven, "Lincoln and Other Yuppie Lawyers: Abolitionism as a Professional and Political Problem" by Harold M. Hyman, and "Lincoln and the Rhetoric of Politics" by Phillip S. Paludan. Joel Silbey, Michael Holt, and Richard N. Current offered comments.

The Vicksburg National Military Park (3201 Clay Street, 39180) celebrated the 125th anniversary of the campaign and siege of Vicksburg with a series of bus and walking tours, interpretive programs at the military park, and symposium speakers, including Robert Walker (May 17, "Blacks and the Vicksburg Campaign"), Reverend Page  [End Page 78] Larry Daniel (May 20, "General John Pemberton at Champion Hill"), Grady McWhiney (May 21, "Jefferson Davis and His Generals") and Ed Bearss (May 22, "General Grant at Vicksburg").

The Monmouth County Library in Manalapan, New Jersey, presented "The Civil War in Book and Film" April 20–23. Among the papers delivered were Richard N. Current's "Abraham Lincoln the President" and Gabor S. Boritt's "Abraham Lincoln and His Generals."

The 54th annual meeting of the Southern Historical Association was held November 9–11, 1987, in Norfolk, Virginia, and featured a session on "Women and the Impact of the Civil War," with Phillip S. Paludan presiding. Papers were delivered by Gordon B. McKinney, "The Other Victims: Women in Civil War Western North Carolina," Marli Weiner, "Women Confront the New South: Women's Organizations and the Problem of Race," Wendy Hamand, "The Woman's National Loyal League: Feminists, Abolitionists, and the Civil War," with comments by Jean Friedman. "Longshadows: A Legacy of the American Civil War"—a new Civil War film by the James Agee Film Project—was shown, and the Society of Civil War Historians held a panel discussion on Civil War naval history, with W. N. Stitt presiding.

Editorials

The fuss over senator and presidential candidate Joseph R. Biden, Jr., raised a ruckus that inspired several articles, including one by Clifford D. May that appeared in "Washington Talk" (New York Times, September 21, 1987). May alluded to the natural function of politicians to paraphrase or plagiarize others. One example, purportedly in this category, is Abraham Lincoln, who in 1863 at Gettysburg used the phrase "government of the people, by the people, for the people," which in that author's view was the same as Daniel Webster's words in 1830, "people's government, made for the people, made by the people, and answerable to the people." While I will let the readers determine whether or not this falls into the Biden category, I must respectfully demur. No one said that Lincoln's thoughts at Gettysburg were totally original, but neither can one accuse him of being a plagiarist, especially when the view of government and the people was not only shared by Senator Webster and President Lincoln but by most Americans who dared read the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Page  [End Page 79]

Russell Baker nudged Senator Biden's use of others' oratory in "Man Here Needs a Ghost" (New York Times, September 19, 1987). Baker pretended to ask questions to which Biden would respond with portions of speeches made by others not relating to the question asked. One of Baker's responses for Biden borrowed the opening lines of Lincoln's second inaugural address.

The New York Times on February 26 gloated over the Supreme Court decision to sustain the overturning of the verdict for Reverend Jerry Falwell and his suit against Larry Flynt's Hustler as a victory for a free press and the First Amendment. The Times supported the editorial with a Punch cartoon by John Tenniel depicting Lincoln's profile on the body of an eagle, entitled "Federal Phoenix."

In his column "On Language" (New York Times Magazine, March 6, 1988), William Safire took Vice President George Bush to task for attributing his statement "Here I stand—warts and all" to Mr. Lincoln when Bush presented himself to the New Hampshire electorate after his defeat in Iowa. Safire's research revealed that it was not Lincoln who said this, despite the wart on the right side of his face; it was the Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell.

Read Kingsbury, senior editor of the Times-Union in Albany, discussed the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation owned by the State of New York and issued by Lincoln on September 22, 1862. In his editorial, "He Found Words to Free Slaves, Preserve Union," (Rochester Democratan Chronicle, February 12, 1988) Kingsbury said "I know there's a controversy about whether Lincoln ordered the emancipation of enemy-held slaves because he abhorred slavery or because he hoped to split the Confederacy. Why either/or?"

In its annual Lincoln editorial on February 12, the State Journal-Register (Springfield, Illinois) used Carl Sandburg's "steel and velvet" peroration before a joint session of the Congress on February 12, 1959.

In his February 12, 1988 Chicago Tribune editorial "A Sad Evolution into Wage Slavery," economist Dan Lacey took our society to task for ignoring Abraham Lincoln's wish that all should attempt to step above a wage-oriented economy. Lincoln's wish for everyone to strive toward capitalism, knowing that one had to labor in the vineyards first, is in disarray today. Lacey believes as we have disavowed this by being content with a wage (in most cases, two) economy which only exacerbates individual and national debt.

Paul Greenberg's article, "Today's Candidates Lack Substance of Lincoln, Douglas," appeared February 12 in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. He bemoaned the superficiality of today's presidential Page  [End Page 80] candidates and compared them to Lincoln and Douglas, who, while not running for the presidency in 1858, debates issues and made statements of substance that affected the election of 1860. Greenburg described the 1988 lineup of presidential candidates as "a vague collection of Buchanans and Pierces and Fillmores."

Tom Wicker bemoaned the loss of a portion of the Bull Run battlefield in "A Heritage Imperiled" (New York Times, April 1, 1988). He protested plans for building a shopping mall on the site of General Lee's headquarters and the staging area for General James Longstreet's counterattack at the second battle in 1862, which drove the army of General John Pope from the field.

William Safire's "How to Write a Memoir" (New York Times, April 18, 1988) discussed former press aide Larry Speakes's unethical behavior in attributing his own statements to President Reagan. Safire noted that even John Hay, President Lincoln's junior secretary, jotted down on April 24, 1861, President Lincoln's despairing comment "I don't believe there is a North" when he was concerned by the absence of Union troops. Yet, years later, Mr. Hay attempted to present a different image of Lincoln by amending the quote to read "I begin to believe there is no North." The point, of course, is that presidential aides should make careful notes and quote their leaders accurately.

Richard N. Current responded to Gore Vidal's essay, "Passing the Word of History and Hagiography" (Los Angeles Times, March 24, 1988) with his own letter June 8. Current noted numerous historical errors in Vidal's Lincoln: A Novel. Current also charged that, in his Times essay, Vidal had failed to respond to Current's criticisms except on one issue: whether or not Lincoln, to the end of his life, had favored colonization. In his essay, Vidal had cited Current as the very authority on whom he could rely for such a policy. Current responded that, while he had never argued that it was his opinion or accepted fact that Lincoln favored colonization, he had cited General Ben Butler's report that the President had summoned him to the White House in the spring of 1865 to discuss the possibility of removing the colored population from the United States. Current concluded that, if Ben Butler could be believed, Lincoln had remained a colonizationist to the end of his life.

In his essay, "Past Reality, Present Fantasy" (Christian Science Monitor, June 28, 1988), Current took to task those books and the resulting miniseries that distort historical characters and cause them to say or do things they never actually did. Gore Vidal states that Lincoln and other principal characters of his novel did "pretty much" in Page  [End Page 81] real life what he has them saying and doing. This is not so. As examples, Current stated, "The real Lincoln never threatened to 'burn Baltimore to the ground,' nor did he flout the Constitution and its provisions regarding habeas corpus. Neither did he go before a congressional committee to intimidate his fellow Republicans into keeping quiet about Mrs. Lincoln's transgressions. ... " Current was troubled, too, by television critics who willingly accept these views of history as the truth.

Senator Paul Simon noted in "What I learned, reflections on my run" (New York Times Magazine, July 3, 1988), adapted from his book, Winners and Losers (about the presidential primaries), that while there were more debates in 1988 than in any prior presidential campaign, they did not really come up to the standard of a true "debate" and were "as different from the Lincoln-Douglas debates as a Beethoven symphony is from a radio jingle." Today's candidates often must limit their answers to journalists' questions to less than a minute.

William F. Buckley's column, "Democrats Have Only 'Petulant Nothingness' to Retail to the Voters" (Providence Journal-Bulletin, July 23), forgave Michael Dukakis's lack of oratorical ability by recalling that Lincoln was "not an orator." By doing so, Buckley erroneously disparaged Lincoln, who had great oratorical ability, as he was able to sway juries and crowds.

Arts

President and Mrs. Reagan's 1987 Christmas card featured the White House State Dining Room (the East Room), with the G. P. A. Healey portrait of Lincoln prominently displayed. Thomas William Jones of Bellevue, Washington, was the watercolor artist.

Mike Virgintino (1869 Andre Place, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598) has reproduced on VHS video the five-hour documentary, The Divided Union.

Recorded Books, Inc. (6306 Aaron Lane, Clinton, MD 20735) has available on cassettes Part II (The War Years) of the well-written memoirs of U. S. Grant.

Spoken Arts Records has reproduced a portion of Abraham Lincoln's speeches delivered by Roy Basler in tape cassette (310 North Avenue, New Rochelle, NY 10801).

An outdoor musical drama written and produced by Billy Edd Page  [End Page 82] Wheeler, Young Abe Lincoln, was performed at Lincoln State Park, Lincoln City, Indiana.

In last year's article, I reported that New York City's "Adopt-a-Monument Plan" included a request for funds to refurbish Henry Kirke Brown's Abraham Lincoln, which stands in Prospect Park, Brooklyn. Since then, Lincoln Savings Bank of Brooklyn has provided the sum of $40,250 necessary for this conservation project.

Hawkhill Associates, Inc. (125 E. Gilman, Madison, WI 53703) has reproduced its A. Lincoln film script for a 35mm slide and cassette presentation as well as in a video cassette format.

NBC presented its four-hour "epic" based on Gore Vidal's Lincoln on March 27 and 28. Ernest Kinnoy wrote the television script. Sam Waterston starred as Abraham Lincoln and Mary Tyler Moore portrayed Mary Lincoln. Despite the efforts of these two fine actors, this author gave the production a "C" for entertainment and "D" for historical accuracy. It is unfortunate that millions of viewers came away with an inaccurate view of Lincoln.

In January Cartoonist Wright of the Miami News showed the Lincoln of the Lincoln Memorial with his hand to his eyes in grief over the caption "He's been like that since Jimmy the Greek hit town!"—an expression of concern about the oddsmaker's comments regarding black athletes.

PBS presented Look-Away, a chronicle of the life of Mary Todd Lincoln. Ellen Burstyn portrayed Mrs. Lincoln.

Owen T. P. McGowan, director of the Clement C. Maxwell Library, accepted a diorama of the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, created by Paul Abrahamson, who presented it to the college in memory of his brother, Murray Abrahamson.

Chattanooga Coin Co. (P.O. Box 80158, Chattanooga, TN 37411) has for sale a one-pound silver coin featuring presidential profiles sculpted by Thomas D. Rogers.

Bruce Bailey's article, "Three Score and Seventeen Restored 'Seated Lincoln' Statue Rededicated in Newark" (The Star Ledger, February 12, 1988), tells of the replication of the enchanting Gutzon Borglum work, especially loved by children who can sit on the bench next to the President.

The exhibit A Confederate Image continued at the Museum of the Confederacy in Richmond from April 22 to September 25, then traveled to the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington. It was also scheduled to visit the Mississippi State Historical Museum in Jackson, the Newberry Library in Chicago, and the Jimmy Carter Presidential Library in Atlanta. Page  [End Page 83]

The National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan, hosted the exhibit Treasures from the Land of Lincoln between March 20 and 24. The artifacts were borrowed from the Lincoln collection of the Illinois State Historical Library.

The Philadelphia Maritime Museum opened its special exhibition, "Ironclad Intruder: U.S.S. Monitor," on March 25.

Michael Hill of the Baltimore Sun syndicated his article "Portraying Lincoln's wife 'big challenge'" about Mary Tyler Moore's portrayal of Mary Todd Lincoln for the NBC miniseries Lincoln. The article appeared in the Oregonian on January 11.

On March 3 cartoonist Oliphant depicted Dukakis, Gephardt, Jackson, Gore, and Hart as "carpetbaggers" or as "Democrats who took the South."

Sangamon State University, under the direction of J. Michael Lennon and Marilyn Huff, produced a TV documentary about the restoration of the Lincoln Home in Springfield.

Newport News Shipbuilding, which constructed the U.S.S. Abraham Lincoln, issued a handsome brochure for the christening ceremonies, held February 13, which contained much Lincoln material, including a fine survey by John Y. Simon entitled "Lincoln's Navy."

House of Tyrol (P.O. Box 909, Gateway Plaza, Cleveland, GA 30528) has two video recordings available: Civil War Battlefields (V532) and The Civil War in Pictures (V705).

The Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum in Fort Wayne, Indiana, has produced a handsome poster, "The Lincoln Family Tree," based on photographs it recently acquired from a cache owned by Lincoln's last surviving descendant, Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith.

The 1988 Attendance Award, promulgated for Boy Scout pilgrimages on Lincoln's birthday by the Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum, featured Max Bachman's sculpture Abraham Lincoln, located in Minneapolis.

The Stephen Foster Memorial of the University of Pittsburgh (15260) has produced a tape cassette of The Blues and the Grays, containing music from both sections of the country at the time of the Civil War.

The Edwin Knowles Company continues its production of limited edition plates in its Lincoln series with Beginnings in New Salem. Other plates in the series are The Gettysburg Address, The Second Inaugural, and The Lincoln-Douglas Debates.

Filmmaker James Agee (316 E. Main Street, Johnson City, TN 37601) has produced Long Shadows, an 88-minute documentary Page  [End Page 84] available in 16mm or video about American perceptions of the Civil War.

Lloyd Ostendorf's annual cartoon ("If destruction be our lot, we must ourselves be its author and finisher. We must live ... or die by suicide.... " A. Lincoln) appeared in the K-O Times and shows a shocked Lincoln as he views nuclear leaks, church scandals, terrorism, drugs, and alcohol abuse.

Even in Palm Springs (or at least close to Palm Springs in Morongo Valley, CA) there is the presence of Lincoln. Each Sunday afternoon Bill and Joy Groves offer various biographical productions in their Lincoln cabin.

The 1987 annual report of the Lincoln National Corporation featured "Lincoln the Youth" by Indiana artist George McCullough, based on his interpretation of Paul Manship's statue Abraham Lincoln: The Hoosier Youth.

The Petrarch Press (133 W. 72nd Street, NY 10023), in honor of the 125th anniversary of the Gettysburg Address, produced two special prints of Abraham Lincoln's declaration.

Key Video (39000 Seventh Mile Road, Livonia, MI 48152) has reproduced in VHS Young Mr. Lincoln with Henry Fonda and Alice Brady. This is the 1940 production by Darryl Zanuck, directed by John Ford.

Atlas Video, Inc. (1418 Montague Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20011) has released two video documentaries: Civil War: the Fiery Trial and Ironclads: The Monitor and the Merrimac.

The Cooper Union has produced a deck of playing cards featuring its Great Hall and the famous speakers who expounded their views there (Office of Public Affairs, Cooper Square, New York, NY 10003).

The National Museum of American Art (formerly the National Collection of Fine Arts) of the Smithsonian Institution, Gallery Place, Eighth and G Streets, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20560, is conducting an inventory of American sculpture from colonial times to the present and continuing the inventory begun in 1971 of American paintings executed prior to 1914. Please write for a questionnaire and assist in this worthwhile historical undertaking.

Alice Tully Hall at Lincoln Center presented another Robert Wilson type play, The Lincolns by Ethyl Eichelberger, on July 21. The reviewer for The New York Times, Jennifer Dunning, called this "a wild brand of theater. Half Lincolnesque figure, half huckster in his black top hat and suit, Mr. Eichelberger plays his accordion and sings, recites the Gettysburg Address and delivers some skewed aphorisms and a knock-knock joke...." Page  [End Page 85]

Video Yesteryear (Box C137, Sandy Hook, CT 06482) offers the Westinghouse Studio One production of Abraham Lincoln by John Drinkwater, first telecast May 26, 1952 with James Dean in his first TV appearance, playing a Civil War soldier sentenced to be shot for desertion. This company also offers a cassette tape of two early radio broadcasts of Hallmark Cards' Abraham Lincoln—The Prairie Years by Carl Sandburg, starring Gregory Peck, and Cavalcade of America's Abraham Lincoln: The War Years with Raymond Massey.

A Civil War exhibit, "A Nation Divided: The War Between the States, 1861–1865," was displayed at the Chicago Public Library Cultural Center.

Exhibits

Thomas F. Schwartz, curator of the Lincoln Collection at the Illinois State Historical Library, put together an exhibit, "The Constitution in Crisis, Abraham Lincoln, Slavery, and the Union," in commemoration of the bicentennial of the Constitution on September 17, 1987. The exhibit was shown at the Old State Capitol in Springfield.

On January 9, the New York State Library in Albany placed the original manuscript of the Emancipation Proclamation, issued on September 22, 1862, on exhibit in the lobby of the State Museum, Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza.

The Morris Museum of Morristown, New Jersey, presented an exhibit of large albumen prints of Civil War scenes, including Abraham Lincoln and General Robert E. Lee, from the private collection of David L. Hack of West Orange, New Jersey.

The Civil War Library and Museum of Philadelphia held a reception April 21 in honor of its exhibit, "The Spoils of War: Running the Blockade during the Civil War," which was shown in the National Archives, Philadelphia Branch, from January 27 to July 31.

Cavalier Galleries of Stamford, Connecticut, exhibited a scale model of Mount Rushmore with a larger-than-life bronze of Abraham Lincoln by Gutzon Borglum.

Tours

The History Book Club presented its Great Journeys, Campaigns of the Civil War: The Peninsular Campaign (April 6–10), Mississippi Valley Campaign (May 28–June 5), Gettysburg—the 125th Anni- Page  [End Page 86] versary (June 22–26), and Sherman's March to the Sea (October 29–November 5).

Rita Mae Brown surveyed the many Civil War reenactments scheduled for 1988 (Travel Section, New York Times, June 12). This was the 125th anniversary of the battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg.

The 38th annual battlefield tour of the Civil War Round Table in Chicago celebrated the 125th anniversary of the Battle of Chancellorsville from April 28 through May 1.

Auctions

Riba-Mobley Auctions sold several Lincoln items on November 7, 1987, including a lamp used by the President at a secret war conference, his carpetbag, and a large collection of letters and documents addressed to Lincoln.

On November 24, 1987, Sotheby's of London auctioned, as a single lot, currency bonds issued by the Confederate States of America and only recently discovered in a London warehouse. These bonds had been held there many decades after failed attempts by the holders to redeem them from the United States government after the fall of the Confederacy.

The annual auction of the Lincoln Group of the District of Columbia, featuring artifacts from Ford's Theater, was held December 16, 1987, at the Fort Lesley J. McNair Officers' Club.

Sotheby's auction on April 16 featured Abraham Lincoln's signed authorization for the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation. This was the presidential order directing the Secretary of State to affix the seal of the United States to the proclamation signed by Lincoln on New Year's Day, 1863. A recent discovery, it sold for $192,500 plus 20% in commissions. At the same auction, Abraham Lincoln's gracious letter to the Army of the Potomac dated December 22, 1862, an attempt to assuage his and their feelings at the great loss at the Battle of Fredericksburg, was sold for $236,000 plus 20% in commissions.

Swann Galleries conducted an auction of printed Americana including much assassination material from the Edward Doherty Archive.

Christie's East auctioned the "Century" collection of Civil War art May 27. The drawings, originally commissioned in the 1880s by Century Magazine, had been lost for 60 years. The sale price totaled $289,135. Page  [End Page 87]

On October 26, Sotheby's sold at auction the note from Robert E. Lee to Ulysses S. Grant written the morning of April 9, 1865, calling for a suspension of hostilities pending their negotiation of a Confederate surrender.

The Cases of the Missing Documents—Continued

Charles Merrill Mount, nee Stanley Merrill Suchow, was convicted by a jury in the U.S. District Court of Boston on April 18 of interstate transportation of stolen goods taken from the National Archives. At sentencing on May 23, Mount received a three-year prison term by Judge Rya Zobel and was ordered to repay the $20,000 given to him by Goodspeed's Bookshop in July 1987. It was Goodspeed's who alerted the authorities.

In the meantime, a Federal Grand Jury is investigating the missing documents from the Rosenbach Museum in Philadelphia; allegedly some had been sold by manuscript dealer Paul Richards after he bought them from the former curator of the museum, Clive Driver.

Awards

Weldon E. Petz, long-time student and writer on all things Lincoln, received the Governor's Award as an outstanding citizen of Michigan. The Michigan State Senate proclaimed a tribute day in his honor.

Robert K. Krick, chief historian for the Federicksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, was selected by the Civil War Round Table of Chicago September 9 to receive the 1988 Nevins-Freeman award.

Harold Holzer, publicist, author, and expert in Lincoln iconography, received the Lincoln Diploma of Honor from Lincoln Memorial University May 7.

The theme for the second annual Lincoln essay competition of the Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield was "Lincoln's Years in Springfield." Shawnika Champion won first prize, and Rachel Duda took second prize.

William Safire received the prestigious Barondess/Lincoln Award from the Civil War Round Table of New York February 10 for his Freedom.

Robert V. Bruce, past president of the Lincoln Group of Boston Page  [End Page 88] and author of Lincoln and the Tools of War (1956), won the 1987 Pulitzer Prize in History for The Launching of Modern American Science, 1846–1876, published by Alfred A. Knopf.

William Gienapp received the Avery Craven Award from the Organization of American Historians for The Origins of the Republican Party, 1852–1856, published by Oxford University Press.

Peter R. Kolchin took one of the 1988 Bancroft Prizes in American History for his Unfree Labor: American Slavery and Russian Serfdom, published by Harvard University Press.

James I. (Bud) Robertson, Jr., received the 1987 Fletcher Pratt Award for his General A. P. Hill: The Story of a Confederate Warrior.

Russell Freedman received the 1988 Newbury Medal for his Lincoln: A Photobiography.

The theme of the seventh annual Lincoln Era Essay Contest, sponsored by the Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, was "Lincoln and the Elections of 1860 and 1864." The papers are available from the library.

Abraham Lincoln himself received a diploma "in recognition of his contribution to civil rights in the United States and the world" by the Town of Sarandi, State of Parana, Brazil. Martin Luther King, Jr., and John F. Kennedy were also honored. The Abraham Lincoln Association accepted the Diploma of Honor on behalf of President Lincoln. According to the U.S. Information Service, Mayor Bifon of Sarandi awarded the diplomas as part of the town's observance of the centennial of the abolition of slavery in Brazil, which took place on May 13, 1888.

Jackie Dunlap received first prize in the 1988 annual history fair sponsored by the Illinois State Historical Society for her 1/24 scale model of the Lincoln Home.

Periodicals

The State Journal-Register ("The Weekend Journal") featured the Lincoln Home restoration November 27, 1987. Doug Pokorski's article "Lincoln statue has a disarming distinction" about the Lincoln statue in Rosamond Cemetery, Chicago, appeared in the State Journal-Register (Springfield) February 12.

The Civil War Quarterly distributed in December 1987 reviewed The Confederate Image: Prints of the Lost Cause by Mark E. Neely, Jr., Harold Holzer, and Gabor S. Boritt.

The December 1986 issue of the Journal of American Studies pre- Page  [End Page 89] sented Bruce Collins's "The Lincoln-Douglas Contest of 1858 and Illinois' Electorate" and John Ashworth's "The Democratic-Republicans Before the Civil War: Political Ideology and Economic Change."

The December 1987 issue of Civil War U.S.A. featured Larry Purvis's article on Stanton's early years, Susan Young's "Gettysburg Address More Than 'Four Score'" and a feature article on the The Confederate Image: Prints of the Lost Cause.

The Providence Sunday Journal Travel Section featured Phyllis Meras's article on "The Surrender at Appomattox" September 6, 1987, and Harold A. LeSieur's syndicated article "Lincoln Museum Takes You Back to Scene of the Crime" November 29, 1987.

Chad Carlton's syndicated article from the Chicago Tribune about Lincoln's hometown and the Lincoln legend was carried in the Providence Journal-Bulletin February 13.

John Martin, TV critic for the Providence Journal, presented his "Lincoln: Historical Soap" on March 25, and interviewed this author for his views on the NBC production Gore Vidal's Lincoln on March 28.

You can tell that Mark Neely is hard at work on his Constitution volume with the publication of "The Case of John N. Eitel" in the April and May 1987 issues of Lincoln Lore, and his "Stabbing the Constitution" (about the "arbitrary" arrest of Judge Richard Bennett Carmichael of the eastern shore of Maryland) in the May issue. The August 1987 issue featured "Freedom and the Genre of Historical Fiction" by Sarah McNair Vosmeier. The January 1988 issue contained Neely's highly critical review of Gore Vidal's Lincoln: A Novel, with research by Marilyn Tolbert. The February and March issues featured "Death's Jester: John Singleton Moseby." Sarah McNair Vosmeier discusses one of the few professional, female historians to focus on the Civil War period in her "Ella Lonn: Female Scholar and Civil War Historian" in the March issue. The May issue contained Sarah McNair Vosmeier's "The Indiana State Debt and Governor Oliver P. Morton: 'The Ablest and Most Energetic of the War Governors.'"

The spring issue of The Review of Politics (Notre Dame) contained Herman Belz's "Abraham Lincoln and American Constitutionalism."

Philip Shabecoff's "U.S. Fights a New Battle of Antietam," concerning the threat of development at Antietam Battlefield, appeared in the November 10, 1987 issue of the New York Times.

Jeffrey Wert's learning guide for the October 1987 issue of Civil War Times Illustrated related to "the diplomatic front" during the Civil War. Michael Hofferber's article about the bronzes of Augustus Page  [End Page 90] Saint Gaudens, "Bronze Heroes," was in the November 1987 issue, as was William Harris Bragg's "Joe Brown vs. the Confederacy." The January issue contained "The War Inside the Church" by Herman Hattaway and Lloyd Hunter about churches that split over slaves and secession. Jeffrey Wert's learning guide contained "The Pain of Secession" in the same issue. The February issue contained Jean M. Hoefer's "The Woman 'Moses,'" about Harriet Tubman. Jeffrey Wert's learning guide for the month was "Our Constitution." The March issue contained "Mourning a National Casualty" by Roger G. Kennedy, in which the director of the National Museum of American History explained how the Civil War stifled American art and creativity, something akin to Robert Bruce's theory that the Civil War strangled American scientific advances. Kennedy's thesis was hotly disputed by Harold Holzer and Mark E. Neely, Jr., authors of The Lincoln Image and Images of the Lost Cause, who responded that Mr. Kennedy should have had cause for jubilation in recognizing the artistic record of the Civil War. The April issue was devoted entirely to Stonewall Jackson, and a special summer issue covered the 125th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg. The September issue contained an excerpt by Stephen W. Sears, "The Grand Campaign."

Antiques and the Arts Weekly featured "The Confederate Image" by Mark E. Neely, Jr., Harold Holzer, and Gabor S. Boritt on October 23, 1987.

Joseph George, Jr.'s "The North Affair: A Lincoln Administration Military Trial, 1864" appeared in the September 1987 issue of Civil War History along with "A Select Bibliography of Civil War Articles, 1986" compiled by James W. Geary. The December 1987 issue contained Allan G. Bogue's "William Parker Cutler's Congressional Diary of 1862–63," Edwin S. Redkey's "Black Chaplains in the Union Army," and A. Wilson Greene's "Opportunity to the South: Mead versus Jackson at Fredericksburg." The June issue contained Stephen W. Sears's "The Curious Case of General McClellan's Memoirs," Edwin C. Fishel's "Pinkerton and McClellan: Who Deceived Whom?" and Edward Hagerman's "Field Transportation and Strategic Mobility in the Union Armies." The September issue contained "How the Civil War Dictionary Came Into Being" by Mark M. Boatner, III, "The Protection of Black Rights in Seward's New York" by Paul Finkelman, "The Door to Slave Bastille: The Abolitionist Assault upon the Interstate Trade, 1833–1839" by David L. Lightner, and "Benjamin Butler's Naval Brigade" by Howard C. Westwood.

Lincoln Days, Inc. of the LaRue County Herald News published on October 8, 1987 its magazine, Lincoln and the Constitution. Page  [End Page 91]

The summer 1987 issue of the Register of the Kentucky Historical Society contained William C. Davis's "John C. Breckinridge." The winter 1987 issue of the Register contained John David Smith's "E. Merton Colter, 'The Dunning School,' and The Civil War and Readjustment in Kentucky."

David Warren, who constructs reproductions of Lincoln furniture, wrote "Lincoln Corner Cabinet" for the September–October 1987 issue of Workbench. He has also published the plans in pamphlet form for a Lincoln Home Miniature Replica, available from him at a cost of $15 (Six N. Michigan, Chicago, IL 60602).

Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., interviewed William Safire in "Lincoln: Fiction and Fact" for the December 1987 issue of American Heritage. Daniel Aaron presented a fine article about George Templeton Strong, "The Greatest Diarist," in the March issue. As an offshoot of Mr. Strong's diary, Vera Brodsky Lawrence covered The New York Music Scene in the Days of George Templeton Strong, 1836–1875, Volume I, reviewing the period 1836–1850. Thomas Fleming contributed "West Point in Review" in April, and Stephen W. Sears, author of a new volume on George B. McClellan, asked why history has not been kinder to his subject in "God's Chosen Instrument" in the July–August issue.

This author's annual Lincoln article appeared in the February issue of Antiques & Collecting—Hobbies. John M. Taylor, whose article "American Presidential Autographs," appeared in the September issue, believes that Lincoln's autographs are the most prized.

The fall 1987 issue of Lincoln Herald contained "Eyewitness to History: Newton Ferree, the Lincoln Assassination and the Close of the Civil War in Washington" by John K. Lattimer and Terry Alford, John A. Lloyd's "Lincoln's Immortality," Joseph George, Jr.'s "The Trial and Execution of Two Confederate Agents in New York," and David Hein's "Lincoln in the 1850s: Freedom and Responsibility." Gary Planck continues his worthy "Lincoln News Digest" in every issue. The spring issue contained "Profanation of the Constitution: Radical Rule, 1861–1877" by Thomas Bland Keys, Raymond G. Lande's "Madness, Malingering and Malfeasance," and Harold Holzer's "Print of the Edition: Advertising the 'Death of Lincoln.'" The summer issue contained "Lincoln's Western Travel, 1859" by Waldo W. Braden, "The Literature of Confederate Victory: Forays in Imaginary History" by Stephen Davis, "Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865—A Study" by Louis William Doll, "His More Distant Hero: Horace Porter and Abraham Lincoln" by Richard Henry Owens, and "The Poetic Image of Abraham Lincoln" by James Stevenson. Page  [End Page 92]

The September 15–21 issue of Illinois Times contained "Words for the 'Little Giant'" by Maija Devine.

The February issue of Illinois History had as its theme "Abraham Lincoln and Slavery," with the keynote piece by Roger D. Bridges, "Abraham Lincoln and the 'Peculiar Institution.'" Other contributions by Illinois high school students were "The Preserver of the Union" by Karen Landahl, "An Opinion on Slavery" by Dave Noble, "Lincoln and the Matson Slave Case" by Jennifer Ford, "Abraham Lincoln and Slavery, 1828–1863" by Mary Elizabeth Dueker, "Lincoln and Slavery" by Tom Rood, "Through the Eyes of a Freed Slave: 'Lincoln, Our Great Savior'" by Jason Ho, "The Great Emancipator?" by Katy Patterson, "Frederick K. Douglass Remembers Lincoln" by Donna Boundy, "Lincoln versus Frémont" by E. Jigarshah, "'Naturally Anti-slavery': Lincoln and 'That Peculiar Institution'" by Tina Kaneshiro, "Three Plans of Action" by Tracy Fencil, "Lincoln and 'That Peculiar Institution'" by Deepa Bhadra, and "The Long Road to Equality" by Amy Richardson.

In October 1987, the Lincoln Group of Illinois commenced its quarterly publication, The Lincoln Legacy. The January issue featured an article by Francis O. Krupka about the old stairway discovered in the Lincoln Home during renovation, Thomas J. Dyba's "A Neighborhood Changing for the Better," and Wayne C. Temple's "Mary Lincoln: Housewife." The July issue was devoted to the reopening of the Lincoln Home, Springfield, and contained a sample of the reproduced wallpaper used in Abraham Lincoln's bedroom.

Stephen Tomski's article "Not for Publication" appeared in the December 1987 Newmonth.

William J. Dean's "Abraham Lincoln" appeared in the New York Law Journal February 11 and Judge Joseph W. Bellacosa's "Demythologizing Lincoln" appeared February 19.

Timeline (Ohio Historical Society) for February–March contained Betty L. Mitchell's "Out of the Glass House: Robert Todd Lincoln's Crucial Decade." The June–July issue contained "Stephen Crane's Red Badge of Courage" by Stephen B. Oates.

Louis Beggi's "Lincoln and Lloyd George" appeared in the July–August issue of The Lincolnian published by the Lincoln Group of Washington. The September–October issue contained Benedict R. Maryniak's "Yankees in Yarmulkes: Jewish Chaplains in the Union Army" and Daniel L. Andree's "Lincoln's Grandmother: The Pioneer Woman."

Harold Holzer's traditional Lincoln article for the Antique Trader Weekly appeared February 10. In "What's New About 'Old Abe?'" Page  [End Page 93] Mr. Holzer surveyed the present Lincoln field, describing the personalities involved and the progress made in studying and disseminating information about Lincoln.

The September–October 1987 issue of Illinois contained "Lincoln Log Cabin Gains a Neighbor" by Evelyn Goodrick and "White Snakeroot" by William Werner, Jr. The "milk sickness" was the cause of Nancy Lincoln's death. The November–December 1987 issue contained Dianne L. Beetler's "A New Salem Christmas." The January–February 1988 issue contained Michael White's "Tyrant in the White House," not about the President but about his youngest son, Willie, and the March–April 1988 issue contained White's study of "The Escape and Suicide of John Wilkes Booth." Sean Ginty wrote "Abraham Lincoln, the Indulgent Father" for the May–June issue. The September–October issue contained Michael K. White's "Journey of the Lincoln Funeral Train."

The winter 1987 issue of the Illinois Historical Journal contained Paul Finkelman's "Slavery, the 'More Perfect Union,' and the Prairie State." The spring issue contained "Forgotten Soldiers: The Confederate Prisoners at Camp Butler, 1862–1863" by Camilla A. Corlis Quinn and Robert M. Sutton's "The Northwest Ordinance: A Bicentennial Souvenir."

Parade (April 3) carried an excerpt from Harry S. Truman's More Plain Speaking, "The eight best presidents, the eight worst presidents—and why." Truman said of Lincoln: "He was a strong executive who saved the government, saved the United States.... He was the best kind of ordinary man, and when I say that he was an ordinary man, I mean that as high praise, ... That's the highest praise you can give a man, that he's one of the people and becomes distinguished...."

The Surratt Courier featured George Kackley's two-part article on Anna Ella Carroll in April and May. Laurie Verge's "That Man Lloyd" also appeared in the April issue.

Richard Halloran's "Serene Now, Antietam" appeared in the travel section of the Sunday New York Times April 10.

The May issue of the Journal of Southern History contained the thorough "Southern History in Periodicals, 1987: A Selected Bibliography" compiled by C. F. Monholland. The August issue contained Lacy K. Ford's "Republican Ideology in a Slave Society: The Political Economy of John C. Calhoun" and Brooks D. Simpson's "Grant's Tour of the South Revisited."

Appropriately, the Memorial Day editorial in The New York Times (May 30) referred to the "first" Memorial Day address as that given Page  [End Page 94] by Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg and pointed out that in a search for peace and reconciliation, Lincoln was not speaking only of Union forces when he referred to the "brave men living and dead," but must have been including Confederate forces as well. It was his hope, as it is ours today, that enemies would become friends.

Thomas A. Lewis contributed "There, in the heat of July, was the shimmering Capitol" to the July issue of Smithsonian. This is a fine narrative about Jubal Early's raid into Maryland and to the edge of Washington. President Lincoln witnessed a part of the skirmish at Fort Stevens and was allegedly abmonished by young Lieutenant Oliver Wendell Holmes to "Get down, you damn fool."

The Library of Congress Information Bulletin of July 18 contained "The Presidential Election Process: A Selected List of References" compiled by Louis Drummond and revised by Mary Kramer and John Simon.

The Chicago Tribune's "Welcome Mat Is Out Again at Lincoln's Illinois Home" was syndicated July 24.

The first issue of the Journal of Confederate History (Guild Bindery Press, Box 2071, Lakeway Station, Paris, TN 38242) featured "Why Study Confederate History?" by John McGlone, "The Mysterious Mist of Gettysburg" by Larry T. McGehee, "Hood's Division Opens the Assault" by Harry W. Pfanz, "In the Prison Cell I Sit" by James I. Robertson, "A Private's Imprisonment: The Wartime Diary of Chaplain Thomas H. Davenport," "The Federal March through Georgia: An Account of Pvt. William Norrell," "Buchanan and the Mobile Squadron" by William N. Still, Jr., "The Battle of Nashville" by Walter T. Durham, "An Account of the Battle of Nashville by Private Joe Johnston" transcribed and annotated by Tim Burgess, "The Constitution of the Confederate States of America as a Model of American Constitutional Reform" by Devereaux Dunlap Cannon, Jr., and "Strategic Victories or Tactical Defeats? Nathan Bedford Forrest at Brice's Crossroads, Harrisburg and the Memphis Raid."

Paul Horgan's "Doomsday and Mr. Lincoln" appeared in the July–August issue of The Saturday Evening Post.

Movie Collector's World on August 5 published Bill Levy's "Abe Lincoln in Illinois and Young Mr. Lincoln: Two Different Cinematic Views of Lincoln."

Harold Holzer and Mark E. Neely, Jr., co-authors (with Gabor S. Boritt) of The Confederate Image, wrote "Where Rebels Once Reigned—A Landmark of the Confederacy—Its White House—is newly restored as Jefferson Davis knew it" for the August issue of Americana. The September–October issue reviewed The Lincoln Highway: Main Page  [End Page 95] Street Across America (University of Iowa Press), the story of the first transcontinental highway, with photographs by Drake Hokanson.

The August 15 issue of U.S. News & World Report featured "Reliving the Civil War ... Why America's Bloodiest Conflict Still Grips Us 125 Years Later," with commentary by James McPherson.

Books

Abraham Lincoln

Significantly, Rutgers University Press has reprinted The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Although priced at $400 a set, it is important that this invaluable resource remain in print.

"Lincoln-175" was a fantastic conference at Gettysburg College in 1984 on the occasion of the 175th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's birth. Under the leadership of Gabor S. Boritt, it featured dozens of papers. Many are now published in The Historian's Lincoln: Pseudohistory, Psychohistory and History, edited by Boritt and Norman O. Forness (University of Illinois Press).

Harold Holzer's paper "'True Likenesses,' 'Iron Masks,' and 'The Animal Himself': Abraham Lincoln from Life" was published by the Lincoln Memorial Shrine. Likewise, Oscar Handlin's "The Road to Gettysburg," delivered as the 25th annual Fortenbaugh Memorial Lecture at Gettysburg College on November 19, 1986, has been published by the college.

Gabor S. Boritt's excellent Abraham Lincoln, War Opponent and War President, the inaugural lecture of the Robert C. Fluhrer Professor of Civil War Studies at Gettysburg College on March 28, 1987, has been published and is available from the college.

Clarion Books/Tickner & Fields published Russell Freedman's prizewinning book for children, Lincoln: A Photobiography.

LSU has published Waldo W. Braden's Abraham Lincoln: Public Speaker.

The long-awaited Come Retribution: The Confederate Secret Service and the Assassination of Lincoln by William A. Tidwell with James O. Hall and David Winfred Gaddy has been published by the University Press of Mississippi.

Fred B. Rothman & Co. (10368 W. Centennial Road, Littleton, CO 80127) has reprinted Frederick Trevor Hill's Lincoln, the Lawyer.

The National Park Service, Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, has printed Katherine B. Menz's The Lincoln Home Historic Furnishings Report. Page  [End Page 96]

Floyd Mansberger of Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, has written Archeological Investigations at the Lincoln Home National Historic Site, Springfield, Illinois for the National Park Service. If one is interested in what was found in the home's elaborate privy, copies may be obtained from the National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Federal Building 474, 100 Centennial, Lincoln, NE 68508.

Former site superintendent Albert W. Banton, Jr., Ellen Carol Balm, and Jill York O'Bright have written Blocks 7 and 10 Elijah Iles' Edition Lincoln Home National Historic Site for the National Park Service.

Jill York O'Bright authored "There I Grew Up ...": A History of the Administration of Abraham Lincoln's Boyhood Home.

Sterling North's 1956 book, Abe Lincoln, Log Cabin to White House, was reissued by Landmark Books.

The Illinois Historic Preservation Agency has produced a handsome brochure describing The Lincoln Legals: A Documentary History of the Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln, 1836–1861.

Douglas H. Gregg's article "Abraham Lincoln and American Civil Religion" formed a part of American Christianity: A Case Approach, edited by Ronald C. White, Jr., Louis B. Weeks, and Garth M. Roselle (Eerdmans).

James W. Muller edited The Revival of Constitutionalism, which contained Robert K. Faulkner's "Lincoln and the Constitution" (University of Nebraska Press).

William D. Pederson and Ann M. McLaurin have edited The Rating Game in American Politics (Irvington) containing "Abraham Lincoln: The Saint and the Man" by James C. Davies.

Waldo W. Braden's "Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865), Sixteenth President of the United States" appeared in American Orators Before 1900: Critical Studies and Sources, edited by Bernard K. Duffy and Halford R. Ryan (Greenwood).

William Safire's forceful Freedom has been reissued in paperback by Avon.

Personal Contributions

An index for the Lincoln Log is available from its creator, Richard Sloan (3855 Arthur Avenue, Seaford, NY 11783). This is a valuable resource tool in that the Lincoln Log has not been published since 1980.

James David Altman (77 Folly Road, Charleston, SC 29407) wrote Mr. Lincoln's War on the South, Torlief S. Holmes wrote April Tragedy: Page  [End Page 97] The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln (Old Soldier Books, Inc., Poolesville, MD 20837), and Ralph Geoffrey Newman reproduced the first proof of the etched portrait of Walt Whitman by Thomas Johnson with a facsimile of "O Captain! My Captain!"

H. D. Smiley authored Abraham Lincoln and the Washington Territory (Ye Gallean Press, P.O. Box 287-C, Fairfield, WA 99012).

Mary Todd Lincoln

In America's First Ladies: Private Lives of the Presidential Wives (Atheneum), Diana Dixon Healy points out that Mary Lincoln was the first woman in Washington to hire a mulatto woman as her dressmaker and was quoted as saying of her husband: "He is to be President of the United States someday; if I had not thought so, I never would have married him, for you can see he's not pretty. But look at him. Doesn't he look as if he would make a great President?"

The excellent Mary Todd Lincoln, Her Life and Letters, edited by Justin G. Turner and Linda Levitt Turner, with an introduction by Fawn M. Brodie, is now in paperback (International Publishing Corp., 560 Lexington, NY 10022).

Oxford University Press has published Betty Boyd Caroli's First Ladies.

Presidential Wives, An Anecdotal History by Paul F. Boller, Jr. (Oxford) includes a section on Mary Todd Lincoln.

Gerry Van der Heuvel attempts to point out the parallel experiences of Mary Todd Lincoln and Varina Howell Davis in Crowns of Thorns and Glory (Dutton).

Jean Baker's Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography has been published in paperback by Norton.

Civil War

Salem House Publishers presented The Divided Union, the Story of the Great American War 1861–1865 by Peter Batty and Peter Parish to support the five-part TV series which commenced on November 11, 1987, on the Arts and Entertainment cable network.

St. Martin's Press has published the Royal Historical Society work by Douglas Fermer, James Gordon Bennett and the New York Herald, a Study of Editorial Opinion in the Civil War Era 1854–1867.

James M. McPherson's Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, a volume in the Oxford History of the United States, has received glowing reviews. It was the Book of the Month Club and History Page  [End Page 98] Book Club selection for January and remained on the best seller (nonfiction) list of The New York Times Book Review Section for many weeks. Edwin McDowell reported in The New York Times April 22 that Ballantine Books, in the largest reprint sale of any book published by a university press, paid $504,000 for the paperback rights. At the time of this report, Battle Cry was in its fourth printing and had sold 106,000 copies.

Jeffrey D. Wert authored From Winchester to Cedar Creek: The Shenandoah Campaign of 1864 (South Mountain). The University of Illinois Press has reprinted The Era of the Civil War, 1848–1870 by Arthur C. Cole, with an introduction by John Y. Simon.

Johns Hopkins University Press published Richard A. Sewell's A House Divided: Sectionalism and Civil War, 1848–1865.

William Garrett Piston authored Lee's Tarnished Lieutenant, James Longstreet and His Place in Southern History (University of Georgia Press).

Stephen R. Wise wrote Lifeline of the Confederacy: Blockade Running during the Civil War (University of South Carolina Press).

A dual biography, The Generals Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee by Nancy Scott Anderson and Dwight Anderson, was published by Knopf.

The first major defeat of the Confederacy in 1862 is discussed in Benjamin Franklin Cooling's Forts Henry and Donaldson: The Key to the Confederate Heartland (University of Tennessee Press).

Harold W. Phanz has authored Gettysburg: The Second Day (University of North Carolina Press).

George Green Shackelford's George Wythe Randolph and the Confederate Elite was published by the University of Georgia Press.

The story of a Northerner who owned a plantation in the South during the Civil War is portrayed in North by South: The Two Lives of Richard James Arnold by Charles and Tess Hoffman (University of Georgia Press).

Lawrence Lee Hewitt authored Port Hudson: Confederate Bastion on the Mississippi (LSU Press), a History Book Club selection.

The University Press of Mississippi published Landscapes of Battle: The Civil War, with photographs by David Munch and text by Michael B. Ballard.

The long-awaited revised edition of The Civil War Dictionary by Mark M. Boatner, III, has been published by McKay.

Now available from Macmillan are Volume 7 and its supplement, Reconstruction and Reunion, 1864–88, by Charles Fairman for The Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise of the History of the United States Supreme Court. Page  [End Page 99]

Stephen W. Sears has written George B. McClellan: The Young Napoleon (Tickner & Fields). Reviewed by William C. Davis for the History Book Club Review in August, it was the editor's choice for that month.

An abridged edition of Why the South Lost the Civil War by Richard E. Beringer, Herman Hattaway, Archer Jones, and William N. Still, Jr., has been published by the University of Georgia Press, entitled The Elements of Confederate Defeat. John Rozier edited The Granite Farm Letters: The Civil War Correspondence of Edgeworth and Sallie Bird (University of Georgia Press).

Responding to the success of his first graphics book on World War II battlefields, John MacDonald has produced Great Battles of the Civil War (Macmillan), which features color maps of First Bull Run, Shiloh, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chattanooga, Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Atlanta, among others.

Florence Kern is the author of The United States Revenue Cutters in the Civil War (U.S. Government Printing Office).

Maxine Turner is the author of Navy Gray: A Story of the Confederate Navy on the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola Rivers (University of Alabama Press).

James I. Robinson, Jr., is the author of Soldiers Blue and Gray (University of North Carolina Press).

Facts on File has published Who Was Who in the Civil War by Stewart Sifakis.

Reid Mitchell's Civil War Soldiers: Their Expectations and Their Experiences (Viking was the History Book Club selection for November 1987.

The Old Quenzel Store, Port Tobacco, MD, has reprinted the Life, Trial and Adventures of John H. Surratt, the Conspirator.

Fiction

John Jakes finished his Civil War saga with Heaven and Hell: The Conclusion of the North and South Trilogy (Harcourt).

Connie Willis authored Lincoln's Dreams (Bantam) and Faustus has published Abraham Lincoln, the Illuminate (Exposition).

General

The three great Whigs are featured in Merrill D. Peterson's The Great Triumvirate: Webster, Clay, and Calhoun (Oxford), and Richard E. Ellis discusses The Union at Risk: Jacksonian Democracy, States' Page  [End Page 100] Rights and the Nullification Crisis, both published by Oxford University Press.

Fortunately for us, military historian John Keegan has an interest in the American Civil War and demonstrates this in his section on Ulysses S. Grant from The Mask of Command (Viking). In an interview with Herbert Mitgang for The New York Times (December 1, 1987), Keegan described his fascination with Grant and Lincoln, stating that theirs was the ideal relationship between military commander and president, especially since Grant understood the Constitution and its limits on military leadership with the President being superior in the chain of command. Lincoln reciprocated by leaving Grant alone.

O Freedom! Afro-American Emancipation Celebrations by William H. Wiggins, Jr. (University of Tennessee Press) describes how the anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation each year is independence day to blacks.

The University Press of Kentucky published John F. Hoadley's Origins of American Political Parties 1789–1803.

The Best School in the World by James L. Morrison, Jr., a history of West Point for the period 1833–1866, was published by Kent State University Press.

Kraus Reprint has republished the 52 volumes of the Southern Historical Society Papers. The Morningside Bookshop (260 Oak Street, Dayton, OH 45410) is also selling this series.

Crawford County Historical Society (848 N. Main Street, Meadville, PA 16335) has reprinted Ernest Miller's John Wilkes Booth in the Pennsylvania Oil Region.

Richard N. Current's latest contribution to scholarship is Those Terrible Carpetbaggers, a Reinterpretation (Oxford University Press). Current links ten men who exploited the newly freed slave and the conquered South in this History Book Club selection for May.

Charles G. Ellington authored The Trial of U. S. Grant, the Pacific Coast Years, 1852–1854 with a fine foreword by John Y. Simon.

Fred Schwengel, a former congressman and director of the U.S. Capitol Historical Society, has written The Republican Party: Its Heritage and History (Acropolis).

Richard H. Sewell has written A House Divided: Sectionalism and Civil War, 1848–1865 (Johns Hopkins). Professor Sewell refocuses attention on slavery as the "root of sectionalism" and the cause of civil war.

John Hebron Moore authored The Emergency of the Cotton Kingdom in the Old Southwest—Mississippi, 1770–1860 (LSU Press). Page  [End Page 101]

Robert W. Johannsen edited the second edition of Democracy on Trial: A Documentary History of American Life, 1845–1877 for the University of Illinois Press.

Eric Foner's excellent Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (Harper) was a History Book Club selection.

Herman Belz wrote the concluding essay, "Constitutionalism and the American Founding," in The Framing and Ratification of the Constitution (Macmillan).

Martin Crawford's book, The Anglo-American Crisis of the Mid-Nineteenth Century, the story of The Times Newspaper in America, has been published by the University of Georgia Press.

Frederick Douglass's My Bondings and My Freedom, edited with an introduction by William L. Andrews, has been published by the University of Illinois Press.

Thomas Brown is the author of Politics and Statesmanship: Essays on the American Whig Party (Columbia University Press).

Thomas E. Schott's Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia—A Biography was published by LSU Press.

David Hein authored A Student's View of the College of St. James on the Eve of the Civil War: The Letters of W. Wilkins Davis (1842–1866) (Edwin Mellen Press, P.O. Box 450, Lewiston, NY 14092).

The University of North Carolina Press has published, in pamphlet, The Confederate Image by Mark E. Neely, Jr., Harold Holzer, and Gabor S. Boritt.

UIP has published Fables, Foibles, and Foobles by Carl Sandburg and reprinted The Sangamon by Edgar Lee Masters and Carl Sandburg by Harry Golden.

North Callahan has written Carl Sandburg: His Life and Works for Pennsylvania State University Press.

Pamela Herr has authored Jessie Benton Fremont, American Woman of the 19th Century (Watts).

LSU Press has published Daniel E. Sutherland's The Confederate Carpetbaggers.

Retired Brigadier General Archibald Laird is the author of The Near-Great-Chronicle of the Vice-Presidents and Monuments Marking the Graves of the Presidents (Christopher).

John Niven's John C. Calhoun and the Price of Union, Drew Gilpin Faust's The Creation of Confederate Nationalism Ideology and Identity in the Civil War South, and Randall C. Jimerson's The Private Civil War: Popular Thought During the Sectional Conflict have been published by LSU Press.

Andrew Johnson and the Negro was written by David Warren Bowen (University of Tennessee Press). Page  [End Page 102]

Robert W. Johannsen's books of essays entitled The Frontier, the Union, and Stephen A. Douglas was published by the University of Illinois Press.

Papers

Special Volume No. 1 to the Papers of Andrew Johnson, entitled Advice After Appomattox: Letters to Andrew Johnson, 1865–1866, was edited by Brooks D. Simpson, Leroy P. Graf, and John Muldowny and published by the University of Tennessee Press.

Volumes XV and XVI of the highly respected Papers of Ulysses S. Grant were published by Southern Illinois University Press with John Y. Simon as editor. These volumes cover the period immediately after the war and follow General Grant to the end of 1866. The editor begins a new policy of excluding letters to General Grant (saving them for a microform supplement) as many represent applications for patronage from many men who had served in the war.

Volumes XVI and XVII of the Papers of John C. Calhoun, edited by Clyde N. Wilson, are available from the UNC Press.

LSU has published Volume VI of The Papers of Jefferson Davis, 1856–1860, with Lynda Lasswell Crist as editor and Mary Seaton Dix as co-editor.

Diaries

Arnold Gates's long-awaited book, The Rough Side of War: The Civil War Journal of Chesley A. Mosman First Lieutenant, Company D 59th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment 1862–1866, has been published by the author (168 Weyford Terrace, Garden City, NY 11530).

Nelson D. Lankford edited An Irishman in Dixie: Thomas Conolly's Diary of the Fall of the Confederacy for the University of South Carolina Press.

Reference

The Indiana Historical Society (315 West Ohio Street, Indianapolis, 46202) has published A Guide to Manuscript Collections of the Indiana Historical Society and Indiana State Library by Eric Pumroy and Paul Brockman.

J. R. Speirs of American Political Biography (39 Boggs Hill, Newtown, CT 06470) prepared Readers and Collectors Guide to the Biographies of the American Presidents. Page  [End Page 103]

Roger A. Fischer's Tippecanoe and Trinkets Too—The Material Culture of American Presidential Campaigns, 1828–1984 (University of Illinois Press) contains a major section on Lincoln.

World Almanac has produced The World Almanac of Presidential Facts by Lu Ann Paletta and Fred L. Worth. Unfortunately, the section on Lincoln is marred by several inaccuracies and omissions, which include the perpetuation of the Ann Rutledge engagement and the failure to mention one of Lincoln's law partnerships.

Colonel Robert Debs Heinl is the author of Dictionary of Military and Naval Quotations (Naval Institute Press), now in its seventh printing. The dedication page appropriately quotes Barbara Tuchman: "Nothing so comforts the military mind as the maxim of a great but dead General."

Gerald L. Cole prepared Civil War Eyewitnesses: An Annotated Bibliography of Books and Articles, 1955–1986 (University of South Carolina Press).

Joseph H. Crute, Jr., has compiled Units of the Confederate States Army (Derwent Books, Midlothian, VA).

Albert J. Menendez has produced the very useful Civil War Novels: An Annotated Bibliography (Garland).

Reviews

Ralph Geoffrey Newman reviewed the "Lincoln and Lincolniana" issue of Books at Brown, Volumes XXXI–XXXII, 1984–1985, and James A. Rawley reviewed Abraham Lincoln and the American Political Tradition (MA), edited by John L. Thomas, in the autumn 1987 issue of the Illinois Historical Journal. Both contain the papers and workshop contributions from Brown University in June 1984. The spring issue contained reviews by William Hanchett (Freedom by William Safire), David Herbert Donald (The Papers of Frederick Law Olmsted, Volume IV: Defending the Union: The Civil War and the U.S. Sanitary Commission, 1861–1863, edited by Jane Turner Censer), Robert P. Howard (Lincoln's Connections with the Illinois & Michigan Canal, His Return from Congress in '48, and His Invention by Wayne C. Temple), and William L. Burton (A Guide to Manuscript Collections of the Indiana Historical Society and Indiana State Library by Eric Pumroy).

The summer 1987 issue of the Register of the Kentucky Historical Society contained James A. Ramage's review of the Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War, edited by Patricia L. Faust. Michael C. C. Adams reviewed A Long Shadow: Jefferson Davis in the Final Days of the Confederacy by Michael B. Ballard. The 1987 winter Page  [End Page 104] issue of the Register contained Stephen Aron's review of The Great Triumvirate: Webster, Clay and Calhoun by Merrill D. Peterson, and James C. Klotter's review of Interpreting Southern History: Historiographical Essays in Honor of Sanford W. Higginbotham, edited by John B. Boles and Evelyn Thomas Nolen. The spring issue contained Emily A. Geer's review of Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography by Jean H. Baker, Robert P. Hay's review of First Ladies by Betty Boyd Caroli, Kermit L. Hall's review of The Presidency of James K. Polk by Paul H. Bergeron, Reginald Horsman's review of The Anglo-American Crisis of the Mid-Nineteenth Century: The Times in America, 1850–1862 by Martin Crawford, Randolph B. Campbell's review of The Panic of 1857 and the Coming of the Civil War by James L. Huston, Lowell H. Harrison's review of Embattled Courage: The Experience of Combat in the American Civil War by Gerald F. Linderman, and James A. Ramage's review of The Confederate Image: Prints of the Lost Cause by Mark E. Neely, Jr., Harold Holzer, and Gabor S. Boritt.

Kenneth B. Shover reviewed the Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War in the September 1987 issue of Civil War History. In the same issue, Reginald Horsman reviewed The Life and Times of Congressman John Quincy Adams by Leonard L. Richards. Robert E. Shalhope reviewed Kenneth S. Greenberg's Masters and Statesmen: The Political Culture of American Slavery. The March issue included Hans L. Trefousse's review of Salmon P. Chase: A Life in Politics by Frederick Blue, Willard B. Gatewood, Jr.'s review of The Sable Arm: Black Troops in the Union Army, 1861–1865 by Dudley Taylor Cornish with a foreword by Herman Hattaway, Ronald D. Rietveld's review of The Insanity File: The Case of Mary Todd Lincoln by Mark E. Neely, Jr., and R. Gerald McMurtry, Dudley T. Cornish's review of Mutiny on the Amistad: The Saga of a Slave Revolt and its Impact on American Abolition, Law, and Diplomacy by Howard Jones, Ted Tunnell's review of Tombee: Portrait of a Cotton Planter, the journal of Thomas B. Chaplin (1822–1890), edited by Theodore Rosengarten, and Virginia J. Lass's review of A Biography: Jessie Benton Fremont by Pamela Herr. Brooks D. Simpson reviewed Gaines M. Foster's Ghosts of the Confederacy: Defeat, the Lost Cause, and the Emergence of the New South, 1865 to 1913; Michael B. Chesson reviewed Irish Green & Union Blue: The Civil War Letters of Peter Welsh, edited by Lawrence Frederick Kohl with Margaret Cossé Richard; and William C. Harris reviewed The Fiery Trail: A Union Officer's Account of Sherman's Last Campaign, edited by Richard Harwell and Philip N. Racine. The June issue contained a review of Don E. Fehrenbacher's Lincoln in Text and Context: Collected Essays by George C. Rable, Page  [End Page 105] Emory M. Thomas's Travels to Hallowed Ground: A Historian's Journey to the American Civil War was reviewed by Allan R. Millett, James A. Ramage's Rebel Raider: The Life of John Hunt Morgan by Lawrence Frederick Kohl, William Glenn Robertson's Back Door to Richmond: The Bermuda Hundred Campaign, April–June, 1864 by James I. Robertson, Jr., Terry L. Jones's Lee's Tigers: The Louisiana Infantry and the Army of Northern Virginia by John G. Barrett, Malcolm Bell, Jr.'s Major Butler's Legacy: Five Generations of a Slaveholding Family by Loren Schweninger, Robert V. Bruce's The Launching of Modern American Science, 1846–1987 by Winton U. Solberg, The Papers of Jefferson Davis, Volume V, 1853–1855, edited by Lynda L. Crist and Mary S. Dix and reviewed by Herman Hattaway, Kentucky's Governors, 1792–1985, edited by Lowell H. Harrison and reviewed by Jerome G. Taylor, and Constantin Grebner's "We Were the Ninth": A History of the Ninth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, April 17, 1861 to June 7, 1864 reviewed by Frederick C. Luebke. The September issue contained reviews by Judith Saunders (Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography by Jean H. Baker), Charles Roystr (Lee's Tarnished Lieutenant: James Longstreet and His Place in Southern History by William Garrett Piston and James Longstreet: Lee's Warhorse by H. J. Eckenrode and Bryan Conrad, with a foreword by Gary W. Gallagher), John F. Marszalek (Port Hudson, Confederate Bastion on the Mississippi by Lawrence Lee Hewitt), Stanley Harrold (The Origins of the Republican Party, 1852–1856 by William E. Gienapp), Donna M. DeBlasio (Clara Barton: Professional Angel by Elizabeth Brown Pryor), Terry L. Seip (The Republican Party and the South, 1855–1877: The First Southern Strategy by Richard H. Abbott), and John M. Matthews (Joe Brown's Army: The Georgia State Line, 1862–1865 by William Harris Bragg).

Polly Longsworth reviewed Jean H. Baker's Mary Todd Lincoln in The New York Times Book Review September 13, 1987. Mark E. Neely, Jr., reviewed it in the October 1987 issue of Civil War Times Illustrated. William Safire's Freedom was reviewed September 24, 1987 by C. Vann Woodward for The New York Review of Books.

Joseph E. Suppiger reviewed Samuel A. Schreiner, Jr.'s The Trials of Mrs. Lincoln in the February issue of Civil War Times Illustrated.

John Gross reviewed Eli N. Evans's Judah P. Benjamin: The Jewish Confederate in The New York Times Book Review February 5.

Gabor S. Boritt reviewed Abraham Lincoln and the American Political Tradition in February in the Journal of Southern History and Richard E. Beringer reviewed The American Civil War and the Atlas for the American Civil War in the same issue. Also in February were Frank E. Vandiver's review of Rebel Raider; Thomas B. Alexander's review Page  [End Page 106] of Volume 7 of The Papers of Andrew Johnson 1864–1865; Michael B. Ballard's review of The Man Who Tried to Burn New York; and Joseph T. Glatthaar's review of The Fiery Trial: A Union Officer's Account of Sherman's Last Campaigns; Patrick G. Gerster's review of A Long Shadow: Jefferson Davis in the Final Days of the Confederacy; and Edward Pessen's review of The Papers of Frederick Law Olmsted Volume 4: Defending the Union: The Civil War and the U.S. Sanitary Commission, 1861–1863. In May, Betty Fladeland reviewed Volume II of The Black Abolitionist Papers: Canada, 1830–1865, edited by C. Peter Rippley and others; Larry Gara reviewed Mutiny on the Amistad by Howard Jones; Rick A. Bode reviewed Class and Tennessee's Confederate Generation by Fred A. Bailey; James I. Robinson, Jr. reviewed Siege Train: The Journal of the Confederate Artillerymen in the Defense of Charlestown, edited by Warren Ripley; and Otto H. Olsen reviewed Carpetbagger of Conscience: A Biography of John Emory Bryant by Ruth Currie-McDaniel. August saw reviews by LaWanda Cox (Lincoln in Text and Context: Collected Essays by Don E. Fehrenbacher), Andrew Michael Manis (The American Tradition of Liberty, 1800–1860: From Jefferson to Lincoln by J. W. Cooke), A. B. Assensoh (Sojourners in Search of Freedom: The Settlement of Liberia by Black Americans by James Wesley Smith), Anna Kastn Nelson (The Presidency of James K. Polk by Paul H. Bergeron), Robert F. Engs (Slavery's End in Tennessee, 1861–1865 by John Cimprich), Daniel E. Sutherland (Ghosts of the Confederacy: Defeat, the Lost Cause, and the Emergence of the New South, 1865–1913 by Gaines M. Foster), and Mary Seaton Dix (A Guide to Documentary Editing by Mary-Jo Kline).

Stephen W. Sears reviewed The Generals Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee February 21 in The New York Times Book Review, and on Feburary 28, Arthur Hertzberg reviewed Eli N. Evans's Judah P. Benjamin: The Jewish Confederate. Hertzberg pointed out that insight into the brilliant Benjamin's character and personality was difficult, if not impossible, because: (1) Benjamin acquired a "pose" or personality that even his best friends could not penetrate, and (2) he destroyed all of his private papers.

Mark E. Neely, Jr. reviewed Don E. Fehrenbacher's Lincoln in Text and Context: Collected Essays in the July 1987 issue of Lincoln Lore, and Michael Les Benedict reviewed this in the summer issue of the Illinois Historical Journal.

Hugh Brogan reviewed James M. McPherson's Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era February 14 in The New York Times Book Review.

Stephanie Loer reviewed Russell Freedman's Lincoln: A Photobiography in the Boston Sunday Globe March 6. Page  [End Page 107]

The Confederate Image by Mark E. Neely, Jr., Harold Holzer, and Gabor S. Boritt was reviewed by People March 14 (circulation four million).

Richard Snow's review of Gettysburg: The Second Day by Harry W. Pfanz appeared in The New York Times Book Review March 20.

Harold Holzer's balanced "preface" to the NBC miniseries Gore Vidal's Lincoln was in the Arts & Leisure section of the Sunday New York Times March 20, under the headline "A Filtered Portrait of Lincoln Comes to the Small Screen."

Maury Klein reviewed James McPherson's Battle Cry of Freedom March 27 for the Providence Sunday Journal. Harold Holzer's review appeared March 20 in the Chicago Tribune.

Phillip S. Paludan's highly favorable review of Don E. Fehrenbacher's Lincoln in Text and Context: Collected Essays appeared in the March issue of Reviews in American History as "Toward a Lincoln Conversation." The June issue contained Lois Scharf's review essay, "A House Divided: Mary Todd Lincoln and Her Family," in which she discussed Jean H. Baker's Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography and The Insanity File: The Case of Mary Todd Lincoln by Mark E. Neely, Jr., and R. Gerald McMurtry.

Lloyd A. Hunter reviewed Abraham Lincoln and the American Political Tradition, edited by John L. Thomas, in June for Indiana Magazine of History.

Ruth Bayard Smith reviewed Crowns of Thorns and Glory. Mary Todd Lincoln and Varina Howell Davis: The Two First Ladies of the Civil War by Gerry Van der Heuvel in The New York Times Book Review August 7.

The summer issue of Lincoln Herald contained reviews by Linda Levitt Turner (The Trials of Mrs. Lincoln by Samuel A. Schreiner, Jr.), Gary R. Planck (Lincoln, A Photobiography by Russell Freedman), Harold Holzer (Ernest Kinnoy's screenplay for Gore Vidal's Lincoln), Gary R. Planck (paperback edition of Mary Todd Lincoln: Her Life and Letters by Justin G. Turner and Linda Levitt Turner), and Larry E. Burgess (Salmon P. Chase: A Life in Politics by Frederick Blue).

People and Things

J. N. Moore of 319 Williams Ave., Daytona Beach, FL 32018, is searching for material relating to the Confederate Commissary-General, Lucius Bellinger Northrop (1811–94).

Joseph Nathanson, a New York gynecologist, bequeathed his Lin- Page  [End Page 108] coln collection to his alma mater, McGill University, Toronto. The collection, valued at $400,000, contains some 3,500 publications in 40 languages. Nathanson also gave a stipend of $25,000 to maintain the collection.

Dr. Petz delivered the Clarence M. Burton Memorial Lecture sponsored by the Historical Society of Michigan. His paper, "Michigan's Monumental Tributes to Abraham Lincoln," has been published by the Society.

Ralph Geoffrey Newman, Inc., opened an expanded bookshop at Lincoln's New Salem September 24, 1987. Cathryn R. Wood is manager.

The Abraham Lincoln Book Shop in Chicago celebrated its 50th year in business.

The Lincoln Group of New York marked the 10th anniversary of its founding.

The Lincoln Group of Boston celebrated its 50th anniversary on February 6.

Gentry Davis is the new superintendent of the Lincoln Home National Historic Site, Springfield, Illinois, succeeding James T. O'Toole, who entered the U.S. Department of the Interior's Manager Development Program in Washington.

George Painter, Jr., was elected president of the newly formed Lincoln Group of Illinois.

Gabor S. Boritt was elected president of the Lincoln Fellowship of Pennsylvania.

During the restoration of the Lincoln Home in Springfield, workers located fragments of documents within the wall under a mouse nest. Site historian George Painter is attempting to ascertain their full content.

Thanks to distinguished tour guide Jacob M. Sheads at Gettysburg National Military Park, statues for two Pennsylvania Civil War generals, Samuel Crawford and John Gibbon, were dedicated at separate ceremonies on the battlefield during the 125th anniversary year of this watershed conflict.

The February issue of Life contained a fine color photograph of Lincoln student Mario Cuomo, presidential noncandidate, reading the special Lincoln issue of Books at Brown.

Lincoln impersonator Harry Hahn was featured in Andrew M. Malcolm's Springfield Journal article, "Standing in for a Myth in the Land of Lincoln" (New York Times, February 15).

George Painter received a grant from the National Park Service under the Horace M. Albright Employee Development Fund for Page  [End Page 109] expanding Seventeen Years at Eighth and Jackson: The Lincoln Family in Their Springfield Home, which Painter co-authored with Thomas J. Dyba in 1985.

The Civil War Library and Museum, Philadelphia, has formed an advisory board.

The Nimitz-class aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Abraham Lincoln, was christened at Newport News, Virginia, February 13, with Captain Jack Dantone in command. The commissioning and acceptance by the U.S. Navy is expected to occur in November 1989.

Ray Weiss wrote about Lincoln iconographer Harold Holzer of Rye, New York, in the Gannett Westchester Newspaper February 12.

In February 1988, Capital City/ABC, Inc. had a feature article by Judith Lee about the ABC-TV audio engineer, Lincoln student, and president of the Lincoln Group of New York, Richard Sloan.

Thomas R. Turner of Bridgewater State College, vice-president of the Lincoln Group of Boston, delivered the fourth presidential lecture at that school, "The Folkmyth Lincoln."

Wayne Temple presented "The New Abraham Lincoln" at the Abe Lincoln Hi-12 Club in Springfield February 19.

The New York Times carried an article February 25, with a dateline of Vicksburg, entitled "Civil War '88: Too Many Battles, Too Few Troops," expressing the concern of those responsible for reenactments that there will be a shortage of "Confederate" and "Union" troops with the 125th anniversaries of the Battle of Gettysburg and the Battle of Champion Hill scheduled at about the same time.

The 19th annual pilgrimage of the Lincoln Trails Council, B.S.A., was held in Decatur, Illinois, February 13, with more than 500 Boy Scouts and their leaders participating.

The 55th Lincoln pilgrimage of the Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum, Fort Wayne, had as its theme "A. Lincoln—A Legacy of Integrity," and the Boy Scout patch reflected this model.

Despite the dwindling number of Lincoln groups over the years, there is encouragement with the formation of the International Lincoln Association in Idyllwild, California, founded by James Neil Hastings, Esq. (24775 Fern Valley Rd., Box 4, 92349).

Because of internal strife, Isham, Lincoln & Beale, the law firm co-founded by Robert Todd Lincoln, closed its doors after 116 years.

S. L. Carson stepped down as president of the Lincoln Group of the District of Columbia after serving three years in this post. Likewise, Frank J. Williams retired as president of the Lincoln Group of Boston after 12 years.

Sarah McNair Vosmeier joined the staff of the Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum in Fort Wayne. Page  [End Page 110]

George Craig, hardworking member of the Lincoln fraternity, was profiled in Newsday April 7.

The Civil War Library and Museum (1805 Pine St., Philadelphia, PA 19103) is raising funds to build a new library and museum.

Thomas F. Schwartz is editor of the Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association and Steven M. Wilson is the new curator of the Abraham Lincoln Museum at Lincoln Memorial University in Harrogate, Tennessee.

Florien H. Thayn is now the president of the Lincoln Group of Washington. The co-editors of The Lincolnian, published by that group, are Carolyn Quadarella (2303 Greenery Lane, #104, Silver Spring, MD 20906) and Paul Kallina (3818 N. Stafford St., Arlington, VA 22207).

Edwin McDowell's Book Notes June 3 in The New York Times brought cheer to those authors who are "Overdue, Undernoticed" as he discussed Robert V. Bruce and The Launching of Modern American Science, 1846–1876. Bruce was signed up to do this great work in 1962. It was finally published in 1987 when it received few reviews (although uniformly praiseworthy). Notwithstanding, Bruce, who is Professor Emeritus of History at Boston University and a past president of the Lincoln Group of Boston, received the Pulitzer Prize for his significant contribution.

Ford's Theater celebrated the 20th anniversary of its restoration February 19, and an article about it and the foundation that runs it appeared in The New York Times "Washington Talk" column February 19. Actor James Stewart offered a special tribute to Abraham Lincoln at the theater gala June 24.

Another completed restoration was the Blair House, America's number one hotel, where Abraham Lincoln was a frequent visitor. President and Mrs. Truman were forced to live there twice as the White House itself was rehabilitated. Appropriately, there is a Lincoln Room with a portrait of Abraham Lincoln by Edward D. Marchant.

Cullom Davis of Sangamon State University was named director of the Lincoln Legals Project after his predecessor, Roger D. Bridges, became director of the Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center in Fremont, Ohio.

Terry Alford was the instructor at Georgetown University's Continuing Education School for a five-week course entitled "The Lincoln Assassination" during the fall semester.

Necrology

Ardent Lincoln student and collector Joseph Richter died September 20, 1987. A distinguished trial counsel, he was for more than Page  [End Page 111] 50 years a student of Lincoln and a generous benefactor to all causes relating to the study of the President. In 1984 and again in 1987, Mr. Richter was responsible for obtaining funds from the Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation to underwrite the costs of two major Lincoln conferences.

Michael Shaara, author of the critically acclaimed book The Killer Angels, died May 7.

John Frank, folk sculptor of Abraham Lincoln, died September 10.

R. Gerald McMurtry, second director of the Lewis A. Warren Lincoln Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana, died October 29. In recognition of his long service, the library created the R. Gerald McMurtry Annual Lecture in 1977.

Works in Progress

Jennifer Lee, curator of the McLellan Lincoln Collection at the John Hay Library at Brown University, is planning to publish an edition of John Hay's White House diaries.

Robert W. Johannsen, James G. Randall Distinguished Professor of History at the University of Illinois, is working on a biography of President James K. Polk. He will deliver his Walter Lynwood Fleming Lectures at Louisiana State University this spring.

Ken Burns and Florintene Film Productions are at work on a five-part Civil War documentary.

James McPherson, Edwards Professor of American History at Princeton University, is compiling a book of essays entitled Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution. It will be published by Oxford in 1990.

The Lincoln Museum at Ford's Theater closed June 6 (D-Day) for a major redesign effort that will include more artifacts relating to the assassination and multimedia programs. This is much needed: wear and tear over the years has taken its toll. When the museum was constructed in the 1960s shortly after John F. Kennedy's death, the assassination of Abraham Lincoln was downplayed and the artifacts associated therewith were placed in a cubicle. Now with the passing of time, more of an effort will be made in presenting this dark drama, including a display of the hoods worn by the conspirators as they awaited trial.

Roy Basler, editor of the Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, has Page  [End Page 112] agreed to revise and update its supplement for Rutgers University Press.

David Donald is at work on a biography of Lincoln.

Hans L. Trefousse is preparing a dictionary of the Reconstruction period for Greenwood Press. His Andrew Johnson: A Biography (Norton) will appear in the spring.

Stephen B. Oates is completing a collective biography of the Civil War era and the intersecting lives of some 20 figures. The book will feature Abraham Lincoln, William Lloyd Garrison, Nat Turner, John Brown, Frederick Douglass, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, Jefferson Davis, Mary Boykin Chesnut, and Roger B. Taney.

This fall the Library of America will publish a two-volume collection of Abraham Lincoln's writings and speeches with annotations by Don E. Fehrenbacher.

The State of Illinois has appropriated sums to construct a dining and conference facility at New Salem that should be ready this summer. Funds have also been provided to build a visitors' center and auditorium at this major historic site.

The Lincoln Society (Suite 807, Palace Office Building, 346 Nanking E. Road Sec. 3, Taipei, Taiwan) will hold an international conference on Abraham Lincoln November 17–19, 1989.

Acknowledgments

Success of this annual article depends on contributions of information. For that, I especially wish to thank George M. Craig, secretary-treasurer of the Civil War Round Table of New York and the Lincoln Group of New York, Mark E. Neely, Jr., director of the Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum, Harold Holzer, and Thomas F. Schwartz, curator of the Lincoln Collection, Illinois State Historical Library.

I welcome any news concerning Abraham Lincoln for inclusion in the next issue of the Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. Write to the author at 300 Switch Road, Hope Valley, RI 02832. Page  [End Page 113]