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175th Anniversary Activities

Abraham Lincoln's 175th birthday on February 12 came and went with a variety of programs, exhibits, conferences and publications ranging from the modest to the elaborate. These celebratory events were private affairs initiated and sponsored by Lincoln Groups, colleges and universities. There was no celebration from the federal government. In fact, the president's Lincoln Day statement omitted the mention of the significance of this birthday of Mr. Lincoln. Only Representative Frank J. Guarini of New Jersey commented on the occasion in the February 8 issue of the Congressional Record. The annual wreathlaying ceremony at the Lincoln Memorial brought an under secretary of the Department of the Interior as a representative of the executive branch of our government.

Portrait taken by Mathew B. Brady, February 9,
1864
Portrait taken by Mathew B. Brady, February 9, 1864Page  [End Page 28]

There is still no national holiday for Lincoln. Senator John H. Chafee's resolution, despite having sufficient cosponsors, failed to be considered in the United States Senate due to the supreme irony that the Congress was anxious to adjourn for its "Lincoln's Birthday Recess" and did not have time to consider recognition of Lincoln's 175th birthday. In fact, some members of the Congress did not believe that this event was important enough to establish a commission, and others believed that the projected 200 billion dollar U. S. budget deficit prevented the appropriation of the modest ($200,000) funds requested. Nonetheless, the lack of governmental support and activity did not diminish the enthusiasm of those who participated in the numerous activities produced to commemorate our 16th president.

Lincoln Group Activities

The 11th Annual Symposium of the Abraham Lincoln Association was held on February 12 at the Old State Capitol in Springfield, Illinois. The theme, The Assessment of Lincoln — 175 Years Later, was presented by papers delivered by Richard N. Current, Page  [End Page 29] "Lincoln After 175 Years" and Kenneth M. Stampp, "My Life with Lincoln." Professor John Y. Simon presided. It was in teresting to note that Professor Stampp had revised his view of Lincoln since his days in graduate school. Originally disdainful of the Lincoln myth and image, Professor Stampp has come to appreciate the true depth of Lincoln as a statesman and president.

The evening banquet presided over by outgoing president, Dr. Floyd S. Barringer, featured an address by Senator Mark O. Hatfield (R. Oregon) concerning another well known senator from Oregon — Lincoln's friend, Edward D. Baker. Dr. Barringer received the Logan Hay medal for his years of service to the association and Judge Harlington Wood, Jr. was elected as president of the association. Volume 5 of the Papers of the Abraham Lincoln Association was distributed to the membership in February, and it was announced that an index for the first five volumes of the Papers would be published.

The Lincoln Group of Boston sponsored, with the Libraries of Brown University, several events throughout the year made possible by generous grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation. These included the conference on June 7, 8 and 9, "Lincoln and Political Tradition — A Symposium on Lincoln's Role in American Political Culture," with papers by Don E. Fehrenbacher, "The Words of Lincoln"; James M. McPherson, "Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution"; Michael F. Holt, "Lincoln and the Politics of Union"; William E. Gienapp, "Who Voted for Lincoln"; and Robert H. Weibe, "Lincoln's Democracy." Comments were delivered by Professors Robert V. Bruce, Richard N. Current and Gordon S. Wood. Lincoln biographer, Stephen B. Oates, delivered his "Abraham Lincoln, Republican in the White House" at the banquet. Workshops were presented by Harold Holzer, "Lincoln Print Portraits for the Collector and Connoisseur"; Roberta Sautter, "Preservation of Civil War Era Prints and Photographs"; Mark E. Neely, Jr. and Frank J. Williams, "Collecting Lincoln: What's left to collect?" and Richard J. S. and Kelli Gutman, "Lincoln Dollars and Cents: Popular Culture, Commercialization and the 16th President." The conference was followed by a concert of music of the Civil War period presented by the Hutchinson Family Singers.

Harold Holzer, Gabor S. Boritt and Mark E. Neely, Jr. presented "Changing the Lincoln Image" on October 13, and Professor John Hope Franklin presented "Lincoln's Evolving View of Freedom" on November 17. William Safire will present Page  [End Page 30] his "The Real Lincoln" on February 9, 1985. Other Lincoln Group meetings included a paper by John Y. Simon entitled "House Divided: Lincoln and His Father" and an organ recital by Lincoln Group member Richard Hill of 1859 music (October 20) and Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s "The Insanity File: The Case of Mary Todd Lincoln" on February 4. Also delivered on that day was Kenneth A. Bernard's "How America and the World Commemorated the 150th Birthday of Abraham Lincoln." Distributed to the members was an updated directory of the Group and member Sylvia Larson's compilation, with the support of Bridgewater State College, of The Contents of the Arthur Lloyd Hoyden Scrapbooks in the Lincoln Group archives.

The Lincoln Memorial Association heard Dr. Paul M. Zall discuss "Lincoln Laughing" on February 12. His paper was published and distributed to the members who also received a copy of the pamphlet "The Death of Lincoln," the 1983 lecture by Pulitzer Prize winning historian Don E. Fehrenbacher. The annual dinner of the Lincoln Group of the District of Columbia featured Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr., who delivered his "The Insanity File: Mary Todd Lincoln Declared Insane." Dr. David Hein presented "Possible Influences on Lincoln's Theological Outlook" on September 18 and Professor Joseph George delivered his "Civil War Manuscripts in the Dreer Collection" at the October 16 meeting. The Group held its 3rd Annual Auction of Lincoln Items on December 20.

On February 9, Professor James M. McPherson delivered his "Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution" before the annual dinner-meeting of the Lincoln Club of Delaware. This group also opened the newly-renovated Lincoln rooms at the Goodstay Center of the University of Delaware in Wilmington on February 12 and sponsored an outing to Gettysburg on May 19. Programs of the Lincoln Group of New York included "The Lincoln Image: Abraham Lincoln & the Popular Print" with Harold Holzer, Gabor S. Boritt and Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr., Richard Sloan's multi-media presentation entitled "Lincoln's Assassination & John Wilkes Booth as Depicted in the Theater Arts" and Lloyd Ostendorf on Lincoln photographs.

Dr. Frank L. Clement, a past president of the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin, delivered his "Seven Who Witnessed Lincoln's Gettysburg Address" before that group on April 15. The prior year's paper "Lincoln and Grant" by John Y. Simon was distributed to the members of the Fellowship as Historical Bulletin No. 39. The Honorable Fred Schwengel, president of the Page  [End Page 31] U.S. Capitol Historical Society delivered the address at the Annual Lincoln Day Observance of the Lincoln Commission of the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church on April 8.

Early Home of Abraham Lincoln, Elizabethtown,
Hardin Co., Kentucky
Early Home of Abraham Lincoln, Elizabethtown, Hardin Co., Kentucky

John A. Lloyd delivered the 18th annual address on Abraham Lincoln to the Queen City Optimists Club on February 11. The 119th Annual Dinner of the Lincoln Association of Jersey City featured, as guest speaker, the Honorable Albert Angrisani, former United States assistant secretary of labor. Judge J. Leonard Hornstein stepped down as president of this — the oldest Lincoln Group in America. He was succeeded by Judge Henry B. McFarland. The Lincoln Fellowship of Pennsylvania held its annual luncheon meeting in Gettysburg on November 19, 1983, the 125th anniversary of Lincoln's Gettysburg declaration. Guest speaker was William Frassanito. Prior to the luncheon, ceremonies were held at the Soldier's National Cemetery with Lincoln actor James Getty delivering the Gettysburg Address. The 50th Annual National Pilgrimage of the American Legion and its auxilliary organizations to the Lincoln tomb took place on February 12. A reprint of the program for the first pilgrimage on February 12, 1935, was distributed to those in attendance.

Professor Herman Belz delivered the 7th Annual R. Gerald Page  [End Page 32] McMurtry Lecture on May 9. His "Was Lincoln A Dictator? The Dictatorship Question Reconsidered" has been published by the Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum. Professor Belz contends, persuasively, that Lincoln was faithful to the Constitution. The 23rd Annual Robert Fortenbaugh Memorial Lecture was delivered on November 19 at Gettysburg College with a paper by Professor James M. McPherson discussing Lincoln's strategy on unconditional surrender. The 22nd Annual Lecture "The Emancipation Moment" by David Brion Davis was published.

Professor Henry Steele Commager delivered a Lincoln address on February 19 before a standing-room-only crowd at the Museum of our National Heritage, Lexington, Massachusetts. Richard J. S. Gutman delivered an illustrated lecture, "The Assassination of Lincoln" at the Museum on March 25. Dr. Wayne C. Temple, deputy director of the Illinois State Archives delivered lectures concerning the construction of the Lincoln home before the Sangamon County Historical Society, the Civil War Round Table of Springfield, the Illinois State-wide Convention of High-Twelve Clubs and at the Lincoln Home National Historic Site. Dr. Temple published a broadside "Letter from A. Lincoln to Governor William H. Bissell, March 22, 1854," in which Lincoln seeks a pardon for a father and son convicted of stealing hogs despite the defendants' guilt in the matter. Lincoln's plea is reproduced. The governor pardoned both of the convicted felons. The broadside was distributed to those who attended the Illinois State Fair in August.

Kenneth A. Bernard, president-emeritus of the Lincoln Group of Boston, delivered his slide lecture, "View of Lincoln Which You Have Never Seen," at the Eastham (Cape Cod) Town Hall on February 21. The inaugural United States Lecture in the new Lincoln-Juarez Series was held in the Coolidge Auditorium of the Library of Congress on June 21. His eminence, Ambassador Antonio Gomez Robledo, presented the Juarez Lecture. The series was established by U. S. Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Mexican Secretary of Foreign Relations Bernardo Sepulveda in 1983 to enhance cultural exchanges between the two countries and to honor two of these countries' greatest patriots — Abraham Lincoln and Benito Juarez. Librarian of Congress Daniel J. Booristin opened the series in Mexico City on February 16 with the Lincoln Lecture entitled "In the Quest of History." Page  [End Page 33]

Conferences

Gettysburg College conducted "Lincoln — 175: Where We Are and Whither We Are Tending in Lincoln Scholarship," between September 14 and 16. Harold Holzer, Gabor S. Boritt and Mark E. Neely, Jr. started the activities with their presentation "The Lincoln Image." Comments were by Marcus Cunliffe and Wendy Wick Reaves. David A. Nichols delivered his "Lincoln and the Indians" with comments by William S. McFeely and Hans L. Trefousse; LaWanda Cox delivered "Lincoln and Black Freedom with comments by Stephen B. Oates and Armstead L. Robinson. Lloyd Ostendorf delivered his "James R. Mellon's The Face of Lincoln: An Appraisal." Comments were by Harold Holzer.

Other papers included Glen E. Thurow's "Abraham Lincoln: An American Political Religion" with comments by David Hein and John F. Wilson; George B. Forgie's "Patricide in the House Divided" with comments by Kenneth M. Stampp and Major L. Wilson; Dwight G. Anderson's "Lincoln and the Quest for Immortality" with comments by Robert V. Bruce and Marcus Cunliffe; Gabor S. Boritt's "Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream" with comments by M. E. Bradford and Philip S. Paludan; Charles B. Strozier's "Lincoln's Quest for Union" with comments by Jean Baker and Herman Belz; Thomas Reed Turner's "Beware of the People Weeping" with comments by James W. Clarke and Harold M. Hyman; William Hanchett's "The Lincoln Murder Conspiracies" with comments by Michael F. Holt and James M. McPherson; and papers by Don E. Fehrenbacher, Richard N. Current and William S. McFeely concerning "The Biographers: Oates, Handlin and Vidal." P. M. Zall delivered the banquet address on "Abe Lincoln Laughing" with comments by Mark E. Neely, Jr. and Norman A. Graebner. A well received interpretation of Lincoln by actor Charleton Heston followed.

Illinois Benedictine College commemorated the 175th anniversary with an exhibit and seminar entitled "Lincoln at Home" on February 12. On February 7 Wabash Valley College presented its "Lincoln Symposium" featuring John Y. Simon who delivered his "House Divided: Lincoln and His Father," Charles B. Strozier who presented his "Friendship on the Frontier: Lincoln and Joshua Speed" and Mark E. Neely, Jr. who presented "The Lincoln Image: Abraham Lincoln and the Popular Print."

The Civil War Institute at Gettysburg College (June 24–30, Page  [End Page 34] 1984) featured a paper by Stephen B. Oates, "Lincoln at Gettysburg," and a guided tour of the exhibit "The Lincoln Image" with Harold Holzer, Gabor S. Boritt and Mark E. Neely, Jr. Richard N. Current delivered his "Reconstruction After the War: Scholarship in Our Times" and John K. Lattimer delivered his "The Lincoln and Kennedy Assassinations: Medical and Ballistic Comparisons."

In anticipation of the approaching bicentennial of the United States Constitution, the Indiana Association of Historians with the Indiana Historical Society will sponsor a series of six lectures dealing with significant Indiana cases involving the Constitution. The topic of the first lecture, in January, 1985, will be Ex parte Milligan. This relates to the issue of military jurisdiction to try civilians in areas not under military control. David Hein, assistant professor of religion and philosophy at Hood College presented his "Lincoln in the 1850's: Freedom and Responsibility" at the University of Southern Mississippi's conference on Religion and Political Activism held on April 4. Endicott College's fourth annual Lincoln Forum featured "Why Lincoln Withstands the Revisionists" by Dr. Abram L. Sachar on November 1.

Editorials — "Getting Right With Lincoln"

In his Lincoln Reconsidered (Knoph), David Donald tells us how "Every four years Republican hopefuls sought — and presumably secured — Lincoln's endorsement." Politicians everywhere, be they Republican or Democrat, seek to identify with Lincoln, especially in an election year. 1984 is no exception, and editorials are full of such comparisons with Lincoln, the Republican Party as it existed then and now, as well as the candidates attempting to wear the Lincoln mantle. In Illinois, U. S. senatorial contender, Representative Paul Simon, a Lincoln scholar himself, chose Lincoln-Douglas Square in Alton, Illinois, to propose a modern version of the Lincoln-Douglas debates with his opponent, U. S. Senator Charles H. Percy. George F. Will includes the Lincoln-Douglas debates as one of the ten books in his summer reading list, as he believes they are "... an introduction to the mind of the greatest statesman in the history of democracy...."

In "Washington Talk" of the New York Times for March 8 the reporter cites Every Four Years (Smithsonian) remarking that Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s article on Lincoln points out that the president Page  [End Page 35] "... had absolutely no executive or administrative experience." The New York Times of March 20 stated that presidential contender Gary Hart is a distant cousin of five former White House residents, including Abraham Lincoln which, as it turned out, did not help this candidate's aspiration.

James C. Clark, in his article "Lincoln: Perfect Candidate for Media" which appeared in The Sunday Oregonian on August 19, believes that Lincoln would have been the perfect media presidential candidate: "He was the master of what is known today as a photo opportunity, as his speeches were brief and quotable."

Democratic presidential candidate Walter Mondale was quoted in the New York Daily News on August 25 as referring to the Lincoln-Douglas debates when Lincoln complained that his opponent (Senator Douglas) was a "cuttle fish" — a squid-like creature Lincoln said defended itself by spewing an inky fluid so it cannot be seen by predators. Then Mr. Mondale referred to his Republican opponent as a "cuttle fish." Michael Killian, a columnist for the Chicago Tribune believes that Lincoln would be disturbed at the Republican ideology and platform today because, according to Killian, the Republican Party now includes two "bad elements" that were anathema to the Republicans of Lincoln's day. These are the "bigots" who hide under the label "religious fundamentalists," the heirs to the "Know-nothings" of Lincoln's day; and the states' righters who oppose federalism, constitutionalism and the belief in the moral efficacy of government. Killian includes President Reagan in this last group.

What to do? Theodore C. Sorensen, a New York attorney and former special counsel to President Kennedy, wrote an intriguing book entitled A Different Kind of Presidency in which he suggests a coalition presidency citing the Lincoln administration as an example because Lincoln picked or allowed Andrew Johnson, a loyal pro-Union Democrat, to run as his vice-presidential teammate and countenanced a mixed political cabinet. The Veteran's Day editorial in the New York Times on November 11, 1983 cites the Gettysburg Address indicating that you cannot improve on Lincoln's verse in which he gave "lasting honor to all veterans," and former Republican representative from Alabama, John Buchanan, expressed his concern in the New York Times of August 13 entitled "The Republicans' Amnesia" that this party was moving so far to the right that it was abandoning its roots and traditions of civil rights for minority members, equal rights for women and constitutional liberties for Americans. Lincoln, of course, is cited as the leader of these struggles to gain equality, Page  [End Page 36] preserve the Union and lead the fight for civil rights.

The coup de grâce for the year goes to the dispute raging in Maryland over the proposal to change the official state song, Maryland, My Maryland which reads in part:

"The despot's heel is on thy shore,
Maryland, my Maryland!
His torch is at thy temple door,
Maryland, my Maryland!"
The despot referred to is Abraham Lincoln and relates to Union troops shooting at pro-Confederate demonstrators in Baltimore as the troops tried to pass through to Washington. Some Marylanders insist that Lincoln still should be regarded as a despot. Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr., editor of Lincoln Lore, entered the fray with his August issue "Maryland, My Maryland," and William Safire in his essay "Patriotic Gore," which appeared in the New York Times on March 16, believes that the state anthem should be left alone because "Lincoln's decisions can stand second-guessing from a century away, and it will not harm our school children to wonder why, long ago, patriotic gore flecked the streets of Baltimore."

Awards

Philip B. Kunhardt, Jr. received the Barondess/Lincoln Award of the Civil War Round Table of New York for his A New Birth of Freedom — Lincoln at Gettysburg (Little, Brown and Company). Mr. Kunhardt is the grandson of famed Lincoln photographic collector Frederick Hill Meserve. He collaborated with his mother, Dorothy Meserve Kunhardt, in writing Twenty Days, a much admired photographic history of the assassination. Richard B. Harwell received the Nevins-Freeman Award from the Civil War Round Table of Chicago on September 15. Professor Harwell delivered his paper "Margaret Mitchell as a Historian" at the second Nevins-Freeman Assembly held on that date.

The early years of Abraham Lincoln was the theme for the third annual Lincoln Era Essay Contest under the sponsorship of the Indiana University Foundation and made possible through a grant by the Frank L. Jones Estate. Mr. C. Frederick Risinger of 2805 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, 47405, is the supervisor of the project. The winning essays were published by the Oakleaf Lincoln Collection, Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington. Page  [End Page 37] The Lincoln Foundation of Northeast Missouri State University sponsored the 8th annual Schwengel Lincoln Contest.

Lincoln Home National Historic Site

The four-block area encompassing the Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield which is operated by the National Park Service deserves special mention because of the numerous activities being conducted there. Under the leadership of George L. Painter, historian for the site, visitors were able to hear Mr. Painter describe "The Lincoln Family and Their Furnishings" (March 11); "The Real Lincoln? — A Dramatized Interview with Lincoln's Law Partner and Biographer, William H. Herndon," March 18; Dr. Mark E. Neely's "The Irrelevance of Mercy: Lincoln and the Problem of Arbitrary Arrest," on March 25; "Meet the Lincolns" with the Springfield Junior League on April 8; "A Visual Presentation of Lincoln Memorial Garden and Nature Center," on April 21; a performance of the Illinois National Guard Band on May 20; "Building a Model of the Lincoln Home" with Thomas Dyba on June 17; a performance of the Springfield Municipal Band on June 24; a demonstration of Lincoln sculpturing by John Frank on July 1; a program of "Lincoln's Favorite Ballads, Dances, and Patriotic Songs" on July 4; and "Reproducing Lincoln Family Furniture" with Mr. David Warren on September 23.

Exhibits

"The Controversial Mr. Lincoln," an exhibition of more than 150 items associated with Abraham Lincoln, including the original Emancipation Proclamation issued January 1, 1863, and the Second Inaugural Address on March 4, 1865, in Lincoln's hand, continued at the Museum of our National Heritage until April 15. A handsome exhibition catalogue prepared for this event may still be available by writing to the Museum at 33 Marrett Road, Lexington, 02173. The exhibition "Lincoln and the American Political Tradition" at the John Hay Library, Brown University, opened on June 7. An exhibition catalogue and poster prepared by Jennifer Lee, curator of the McLellan Lincoln Collection are available by writing to her at Brown University, Box A, Providence, 02912. Page  [End Page 38]

The major exhibition of Lincoln engravings and lithographs entitled "The Lincoln Image: Abraham Lincoln and the Popular Print" opened at Gettysburg College on February 12. The exhibition then traveled to Brown University in September and ended its tour at the Fort Wayne (Ind.) Museum of Art in November. The very refreshing and instructive book of the same name was authored by Harold Holzer, Gabor S. Boritt and Mark E. Neely, Jr. (Charles Scribner's Sons). The exhibit was featured in Americana (Geoffrey C. Ward, January/February 1984), Civil War Times Illustrated (Fred L. Schultz, with an excerpt from the book in the February issue) and in an article by the authors in the February 8 issue of The Antique Trader Weekly. An excerpt also appeared in Imprint (Spring 1984).

Endicott College, Beverly, Massachusetts, held a special reception and exhibition of the Lincoln-Wahlstrom Collection at its Fitz Memorial Library on February 12. Herbert Mitgang in his article for the New York Times on February 13 told about the special Lincoln exhibit on display at the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York City. An exhibition of inventions including Lincoln's device for lifting boats over shoals was on view at the Cooper-Hewitt Museum in that city. An article on these patent models by George Nelson entitled "Patent Models: Big Ideas in Small Packages" appeared in the February issue of Smithsonian.

Special Collections exhibits at the Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University, included "Abraham Lincoln." Boston University houses the Stone and Bullard Lincoln Collections. Illinois Benedictine College opened its Lincoln exhibit on February 12 with the first public showing of a one-twelfth scale replica of the Lincoln family home in Springfield. This model has been under construction for over thirteen years by Thomas J. Dyba. Mr. Dyba who has spent more than 7500 hours of work on the project is the publisher of the newsletter entitled The Lincoln Chronicle. The Champaign (Ill.) Public Library held an exhibit in commemoration of the anniversary and distributed a list of Lincoln books by Champaign-Urbana authors which are available at the library. The list was compiled by Roland A. White. "Packaging Presidents: Memorabilia from Campaigns Past" opened on September 23 at the Hudson River Museum in Yonkers. A 70-page catalogue was produced to accompany this exhibition. Page  [End Page 39]

The Arts

Photographer George A. Tice produced the best photographic volume of the year with his Lincoln (Rutgers). The making of it took Mr. Tice to fifteen states where he took pictures depicting Lincoln's influence from the trivial to the more dignified. Prints of Mr. Tice's work were on exhibition at the Witkin Gallery in New York, and copies of the prints may be obtained from Mr. Tice by writing to him at 323 Gill Lane, Apt. 9B, Iselin, New Jersey, 08830. The National Historical Society Series The Image of War: 1861–1865 concluded with Volume VI: The End of An Era (Doubleday).

Thanks to Acting Curator Frank Hebblethwaite, Ford's Theatre is sponsoring lectures which included Dr. John K. Lattimer's reconstruction of the assassination on April 14, 1865, and Dr. Mark E. Neely Jr.'s discussion of the Emancipation Proclamation.

Financial constraints precluded the world premier of Robert Wilson's gargantuan The CIVIL WarS at the Los Angeles Olympics. The complete five-act, twelve-hour opera may never be presented as originally planned, but the New York Opera Repertory Theater gave a concert performance of the last act ("The Italian Section") with music by Philip Glass. Included in the cast were Garibaldi, a snow owl, Mary Lincoln, Hercules, Robert E. Lee and a space ship. On a more permanent basis, one takes pleasure in reading how Aaron Copland came to compose his Lincoln Portrait contained in the first volume of his autobiography Copland, 1900 through 1942 (St. Martin's/Marek). An excerpt appeared in the September 9 issue of the New York Times Magazine. This major musical work, a thirteen-minute piece for speaker and full orchestra, was composed at the request of Andre Kostelanetz who suggested early in World War II that Copland write a patriotic work — "a musical portrait of a great American." Lincoln Portrait was the result. This now classic and stirring work was banned from performance at the Eisenhower inauguration because of the allegation that Copland had once been a Communist. Likewise, Vincent Perschetti's A Lincoln Address was not performed, as originally scheduled, at the second inauguration of Richard Nixon because we were still at war in Viet Nam and the administration feared that Lincoln's words about war and its results in his Second Inaugural would be too disconcerting.

The Great American People Show began its ninth year in new Salem State Park with its trilogy, Even We Here, Your Obedient Ser- Page  [End Page 40] vant, A. Lincoln and Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight. Gary Bullock has authored A. Lincoln: A One-Man Drama in Two Acts and portrays the president (Universal Speakers Agency, Inc., 235 Bear Hill Road, Suite 203, Waltham, Massachusetts, 02154). Richard Blake (Box 9424, Scotsdale, Arizona, 85252) and James A. Getty of Gettysburg continue to perform as Lincoln in their outstanding one-man performances.

Charles H. Tarbox (P. O. Box 77568, Dockweiler Station, Los Angeles, California, 90007) has available three Lincoln movies of the silent era. These are the Edison film Abraham Lincoln with Frank McGlynn as Lincoln, Lincoln's Clemency made by Pathe Freres and Lincoln for the Defense made by Pilot Films. These are available in 16mm, and Mr. Tarbox hopes to have them available soon in video. One recent release is not welcome. The Lincoln Conspiracy is now available in video; this production is not the way to learn history, and in fact is spurious, at best, in its presentation of the assassination story.

Susan G. Berk of Uncommon Boston, Ltd., has been presenting, in conjunction with the Copley Plaza Hotel, a Lincoln weekend featuring escorted tours of the Lincoln-related memorabilia in Boston. The Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum has chosen sculptor Max Kalish's Lincoln at Gettysburg, located in Cleveland, as its portrait for the 1984 attendance award certificate presented to Boy Scouts who participate in a Lincoln Pilgrimage on February 12. Lincoln College of Lincoln, Illinois, is reproducing copies of Merrell Gage's statue Lincoln, the Student, which adorns the campus, to give to those who are major donors to the college.

David A. Warren (Suite 1317, Six N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 60602) has established himself as a fine craftsman in the construction of furnishings relating to the Lincoln family. In fact, his articles concerning Lincoln furniture have appeared from time to time in Popular Mechanics— the latest entry is "Build Lincoln's Rocking Chair" in February. Mr. Warren would be glad to provide detailed plans for the home woodworker, or his studio will manufacture the item for you.

Theme Prints, Ltd. (P. O. Box 123, Bayside, New York, 11361) is specializing in full color reproductions of Civil War art, including prints of Abraham Lincoln. A handsome reproduction of the Norman Rockwell print entitled "Abraham Lincoln and Mathew Brady" is available from the Martin Grayson's Studio, 18 Cardinal Court, Rogers, Arkansas, 72756. The U. S. Historical Society, First and Main Streets, Richmond, Virginia, Page  [End Page 41] 23219, has produced excellent but expensive dolls of Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln. A well-written pamphlet on the Lincolns by Harold Holzer accompanies the set.

For all of us who are concerned about the preservation of the Oldroyd Lincoln Collection formerly at Ford's Theatre, good news came from the National Parks & Conservation Association. The National Capital Region of the National Parks Service finally has a repository for this collection and hundreds of thousands of other historical and archaeological objects located in Glen Dale, Maryland. The Abraham Lincoln Memorial Garden at Lake Springfield (Ill.) has launched a major fund-raising drive to assist in creating an endowment to continue the living memorial to Abraham Lincoln, originally designed in the 1930s by Jens Jenson, internationally known landscape architect.

Commemoration of Lincoln's Birthday, Youngstown,
Ohio Vindicator, 1938
Commemoration of Lincoln's Birthday, Youngstown, Ohio Vindicator, 1938Page  [End Page 42]

Philatelic and Numismatics

Despite the efforts of Lincoln groups and Lincoln students everywhere, the United States Postal Service did not issue a special commemorative stamp on the occasion of the 175th anniversary of Lincoln's birth. Fortuitously, however, two commemorative stamps intended for other anniversaries featured Lincoln. A twenty-cent stamp honoring the 50th anniversary of the National Archives featured a design by Michael David Brown of Rockville, Maryland, using silhouettes of Presidents Washington and Lincoln. The stamp was issued on April 16. On October 16, a twenty-cent stamp entitled "A Nation of Readers" was issued at the Library of Congress and features a design by Bradbury Thompson adapted from a Mathew Brady photograph of Lincoln and his son "Tad." This portrait has been described as Lincoln reading to his son, yet the volume shown in Brady's photograph, from which this design was taken, was a photographic album of cartes-de-visite that Lincoln was perusing in the Brady studio at the time the photograph was taken. Theodore S. Charrney of Rampant Lion Hobby Press (5358 Bloomingdale Avenue, Chicago, 60639) has produced, in a limited edition of 350 copies, twenty commemorative covers relating to the Lincoln-Douglas Debates.

The United States Mint (55 Mint Street, San Francisco, 94175) has once again produced uncirculated sets of U. S. coins, including the Lincoln penny issued from the minting facilities in Denver and Philadelphia. Krause Publications of Iola, Wisconsin, commissioned former chief sculptor-engraver of the U. S. Mint, Frank Gasbarro, to design a new medal commemorating the 25th anniversary of the Lincoln memorial cent. The medal available only to subscribers of Numismatic News features President Lincoln standing in the foreground with the Lincoln Memorial behind him in the distance. The reverse features a close-up view of the Lincoln statue within the Memorial with the words "With Charity For All."

Auctions

While the inflationary rate has diminished greatly, the price of items relating to Abraham Lincoln continues to rise at an everastounding rate. Pushing all else and others aside, the Lincoln auction market continues to be dominated by Malcolm S. Forbes, Page  [End Page 43] publisher of Forbes Magazine. Eclipsing his own record-setting price of $48,400 for a letter written by Lincoln to his wife on April 2, 1865, purchased in 1983, Forbes paid $231,000 for a handwritten speech delivered by Lincoln (his last) from the balcony of the Executive Mansion on April 11, 1865. Having paid $128 per word for the approximately 1800 word document, Mr. Forbes said, "I think it's a bargain." Originally estimated at about $100,000, this manuscript was sold with a Walt Whitman autographed manuscript of his "O Captain! My Captain!" at the William Doyle Galleries on May 17. The latter was purchased for the John Hay Library of Special Collections at Brown University by Mrs. John Hay Whitney, as the Whitman manuscript had been requested by John Hay, one of Lincoln's secretaries and a Brown graduate.

A daguerreotype of Lincoln sold for $17,600 on June 10 at Winter Associates, Plainville, Connecticut. The price is reputedly the top price ever attained for a Lincoln image at auction. This auction house held another sale on October 28 featuring a rare signed Lincoln photograph. In addition to its sale of manuscript Americana featuring Lincoln items on May 23, Sotheby's conducted another sale featuring Lincoln items on October 31 in which was included a check to "Colored man with one leg" signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1863. Leslie Hindman Auctioneers of 225 West Ohio Street, Chicago, 60610, held auctions of Lincoln material on January 15, April 15 and October 14. Daniel F. Kelleher Co., Inc., Ten Post Office Square, Boston, 02109, had similar auctions on February 28 and October 3.

Manuscripts

An exhibit of the second draft of the Gettysburg Address in Lincoln's hand at the Visitor's Center of the Gettysburg National Military Park continues and is made possible by an agreement between the Library of Congress and the National Park Service. Beautifully presented, this purported first revision of Lincoln's declaration is on view with a portrait of Lincoln by Francis Bicknell Carpenter made in 1864. Carpenter, a portrait painter, is best known for his "First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation" which hangs in the United States Capitol. A descriptive brochure of this exhibit is available from Gettysburg National Military Park. A Lincoln letter missing for 64 years was found in the archives of the Springfield Marine Bank. The letter had been Page  [End Page 44] placed with some estate papers in 1920. Lincoln's letter was addressed to several Springfield (Ill.) men concerning the appointment of federal officials.

Periodicals

Elbert L. Watson is the editor of The Lincoln Times, (Travellor Enterprises, P. O. Box 1092, Indianapolis, 46206). The third issue appeared in September, along with an insert commemorating the Gettysburg Address. Major Joe Malcolm (Box 856, Colonial Heights, Virginia, 23834) continues to edit the Civil War Press Corps containing many newsworthy items on Lincoln and the Civil War.

Lincoln Lore issues included a review of George Tice's Lincoln, "Fun and Fellowship: The Amenities of Early Lincoln Collecting" (from the author's article in the November–December 1983 issue of the American Book Collector), "Lincoln's Death," "The Embarrassing Case of Dr. Blanchard: A Newly Discovered Lincoln Document," "Lincoln and John Lothrop Motley" and a special issue (February) in color on The Lincoln Image.

Joseph George's "Where is Booth Hiding?" appeared in the November–December 1983 issue of The Lincolnian. Other articles appearing in this fine publication of the Lincoln Group of Washington, D. C., include Dr. Ralph K. Brooks's "Dry Tortugas," Edward Steer, Jr.'s "President Lincoln's Summer White House — The 'President's Villa' or 'Anderson Cottage'?", Richard E. Sloan's "Remembering Stanley Kimmel," Homer L. Calkin's "Foundry Methodist Church and Abraham Lincoln," and a memorial issue to George H. Landes, Jr., past president of the Lincoln Group of Washington, D.C., and a former editor of the Lincolnian. Paul Beaver's "Lincoln, Latham and the Speech on Sectionalism" appeared in the Summer issue of Lincoln Newsletter which Mr. Beaver edits. Contributing Editor Richard Sloan, president of the Lincoln Group of New York, continues to contribute many newsworthy items to this publication of Lincoln College. This author's annual article on Lincoln for Hobbies appeared in February. George L. Painter's article "Future Projects at Lincoln Home National Historic Site" appeared in the August 29 issue of The Lincoln Chronicle.

Gary R. Planck, Esq., continues his comprehensive "Lincoln News Digest" in each of the quarterly issues of Lincoln Herald. The Winter 1983 issue included David Hein's "The Calvinistic Page  [End Page 45] Tenor of Abraham Lincoln's Religious Thought," Constance Head's "John Wilkes Booth 1864: Prologue to Assassination," Arthur F. Loux's "The Accident-Prone John Wilkes Booth," Joseph George, Jr.'s "H. B. St. Marie and His Role in the Arrest of John H. Surratt," David Hein's "The Significance for Lincoln Studies of Lewis Saum's Work on Antebellum Culture: A Review Article" and Harold Holzer's "The Print from Littlefield's 'Cartoon'." Joseph E. Suppiger's concluding part XII of The Intimate Lincoln entitled "The 16th President, 1864–1865" also appeared in this issue. Nelson R. Burr's Abraham Lincoln: Western Star Over Connecticut, Parts 3, 4 and 5 appeared in the Winter 1983, Spring 1984 and Summer 1984 issues. The Spring issue also included David Hein's "Research on Lincoln's Religious Beliefs and Practices: A Bibliographical Essay" and Douglas G. Campbell's "In Memory of Virtue: A Study of Illinoisans' Designs for the Lincoln Tomb." Other Lincoln-related articles in the Summer issue included Howard C. Westwood's "Lincoln's Position on Black Enlistments," Harold Holzer's "Did Currier & Ives Pirate a Lincoln Emancipation Print?" and Lloyd Ostendorf's "Photographs from the Past."

The Spring issue of the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society featured James T. Hickey's "Lincolniana: The Lincoln Account at the Corneau & Diller Drug Store, 1849–1861, a Springfield Tradition" and Richard O. Curry's review essay "Conscious or Subconscious Caesariasm?: A Critique of Recent Scholarly Attempts to Put Abraham Lincoln on the Analyst's Couch." Richard O. Curry and Lawrence B. Goodheart coauthored "Ambiguity, Ambivalence, and Contradiction: Garrisonian Abolitionists and the Problem of Violence vs. Nonviolence" for the January issue of Journal of Libertarian Studies.

David Herbert Donald's review essay on "The Papers of Henry Clay ..." appeared in the Winter 1984 issue of The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society. Betty Brandon gave us a full report of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Southern Historical Association in the February issue of The Journal of Southern History. The helpful "Southern History in Periodicals, 1983: A Selected Bibliography" appeared in the May issue. Paul J. Hess's "Alvin P. Hovey and Abraham Lincoln's 'Broken Promises': The Politics of Promotion" appeared in the March issue of Indiana Magazine of History. The Spring 1983 issue of Maryland Historical Magazine contained John C. Brennan's "John Wilkes Booth's Enigmatic Brother, Joseph." Judge Henry B. McFarland's "Abraham Lincoln and the Illinois Bar" appeared in the Page  [End Page 46] February 9 issue of the New Jersey Law Journal. Daniel W. Crofts' "Re-electing Lincoln: The Struggle in Newark" appeared in the March issue of Civil War History.

Anne Harris Henry's "Abraham Lincoln: Notes on Small Cards" appeared in the Winter 1984 issue of Manuscripts. "Francis Bicknell Carpenter (1830–1900): Painter of Abraham Lincoln and His Circle," by Harold Holzer, Gabor S. Boritt and Mark E. Neely, Jr., appeared in the Spring issue of The American Art Journal. Edgar Bracco's "Lincoln's Secret: A Cave Beneath Honest Abe's Memorial Comes to Light" appeared in the Sunday News (N.Y.) on February 12. Hans L. Trefousse's "Carl Schurz's Legacy" appeared in the New York Times as did Herbert Mitgang's "After 175 Years, They Still Pursue Lincoln" (February 12 issue of the New York Times Book Review section) and "An American Tradition" (September 2) about the Lincoln-Douglas Debates.

The annual Lincoln issue of Illinois Times (February 9–15, 1984) featured James Krohe's "Mrs. Lincoln: Shrew or Victim?" Lloyd Ostendorf's "Journey to Greatness" appeared in the Magazine of the Dayton Daily News on February 5.

The first issue of Among Friends published by the Friends of the Library of Brown University was full of Lincoln information relating to the symposium held in June, the exhibit and the purchase of the Whitman manuscript. Likewise, Anne Diffily's "No Ordinary Man" about the exhibit and the McLellan Lincoln Collection appeared in the September issue of the Brown Alumni Monthly.

While President Reagan's Lincoln Day message failed to mention the significance of the 175th birthday, his Thanksgiving Proclamation, issued on November 12, 1983, was full of references to President Lincoln, who 120 years earlier had begun the annual Thanksgiving Proclamation.

The special Lincoln issue (February) of Civil War Times Illustrated featured Stephen B. Oates's "Lincoln: The Man, the Myth," Abra C. Pettijohn's "Shaking Hands With Lincoln: A Memoir" and "Lincoln's Birthplace: His Old Kentucky Home." Stephen B. Oates helped inaugurate the first issue of Timeline, a publication of the Ohio Historical Society, in October with his "Lincoln and Stanton: An Uncommon Friendship."

The March Lincoln issue of Blue & Gray Magazine included Stephen B. Oates's "Abraham Lincoln: Total Warrier," Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s "Our Second Declaration of Independence: An Interpretation of the Emancipation Proclamation," Harold Page  [End Page 47] Holzer's "Lincoln at the Front: Abraham Lincoln Visits the Battlefield of the Civil War" and Robin P. Roth's "The Other Mary."

Harold Holzer, in addition to his significant contribution to The Lincoln Image ... prepared a profile of your author which appeared in the July issue of Blue & Gray Magazine. Other articles by Mr. Holzer included "The Man Who Made Lincoln Look Beautiful" in the February issue of Yankee; '"Hildene': Vermont Home of Robert Todd Lincoln" in the February 15 issue of The Antique Trader Weekly, with his "Lincoln Mailbag" also in that issue; "Looking for Lincoln: From Log Cabin to White House to White Mountains" (with photographs by Joseph C. Farber) in the August 15 issue of The Antique Trader Weekly; "Lincoln's Stunted Family Tree" in the February issue of MD; and "Mathew Brady, An Unretouched Portrait" in the September 1983 issue of MD. Roger Long's "Kate ... [Chase] None Outshone Her" appeared in the May issue of Blue & Gray Magazine.

Canon Richard T. Feller's "The Abraham Lincoln Bay" in the Spring issue of Cathedral Age tells about the final completion of the memorial at Washington's National Cathedral with Walter Hancock's statue of Lincoln.

The February issue of Illinois History once again was devoted to Abraham Lincoln. Gerald W. Sanders of the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial in Lincoln City, Indiana, wrote "Learning by Littles" for this issue.

Books and Pamphlets

The most controversial Lincoln book of the year is, of course, Gore Vidal's Lincoln (Random House). What is it? History? Fiction? Historical Fiction? Despite many reviewers' claims to the contrary notwithstanding, it clearly cannot stand as history or even "historical fiction." It is fiction! Excerpted in the May issue of The Atlantic Monthly and in the June issue of GQ, a summer Book of the Month Club selection and printed initially in an edition of 200,000 copies, the book provokes much comment. Even the reviewers have it wrong. An example is Walter Clemons who in the June 11 issue of Newsweek has the unmitigated gall to state that "... in this matter Vidal is the more careful historian" than Stephen B. Oates who in his Abraham Lincoln: the Man Behind the Myths (Harper & Row) takes Vidai to task for alleging through the character of William Herndon that Lincoln suffered from Page  [End Page 48]

Lincoln Symposium sponsored by Lincoln Sesquicentennial
Commission and the Library of Congress, February 11, 1960. Panel
includes Kenneth A. Bernard, Richard N. Current, Allan Nevins,
Clyde Walton and Norman A. Graebner
Lincoln Symposium sponsored by Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission and the Library of Congress, February 11, 1960. Panel includes Kenneth A. Bernard, Richard N. Current, Allan Nevins, Clyde Walton and Norman A. GraebnerPage  [End Page 49]
syphilis. How Vidal can be considered the better historian than Oates in a work of fiction eludes me. In any case, the allegation that Lincoln suffered from a social disease was, as Geoffrey Ward pointed out in his even-handed American Heritage review of the book (Aug.–Sept.), disproven over twenty years ago.

Be that as it may, it appears that Abraham Lincoln "got to the author" in that Vidal's portrait of the president is certainly more sympathetic than his essay on Lincoln, the statesman, which appeared in 1980. Yet, Lincoln remains even in Vidal's book an enigma, so Vidal attempts to explain him through the characters surrounding Lincoln. Vidal handles the syphilis episode in a fashion which of necessity must be discounted — through the walk-on part of Billy Herndon who in a bar explains to John Hay his belief that Lincoln did in fact suffer from this social disease. The circumstances of this protrayal would lead one to discount it in any case.

The controversy notwithstanding, several hundred reviews appeared, the Franklin Library produced the volume in a signed first edition and the publisher, for $75 each, prepared a boxed limited edition signed by the author. In addition, John E. Stanchak converses with Gore Vidal in the October issue of Civil War Times Illustrated. With all this said, the book is still "a good read." The Book of the Month Club sent, as a bonus, a selection of Lincoln's writings, Abraham Lincoln: Mystic Chords of Memory, to those who ordered this book.

Stephen B. Oates's redux, on the other hand, is respectable history. His Abraham Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myths (History Book Club Selection) tells those things about Lincoln that the author could not so clearly state in his excellent Lincoln biography With Malice Toward None ..., which has now been printed in Polish and French editions. The Biographer's Gift: Life Histories and Humanism edited by James F. Veninga (Texas A&M University Press) features a discussion by Mr. Oates on his feelings as he wrote his Lincoln biography.

Another major publishing event was, of course, The Lincoln Image: Abraham Lincoln and the Popular Print (Charles Scribner's Sons) already referred to above and authored by Harold Holzer, Gabor S. Boritt and Mark E. Neely, Jr. The book has received uniformly good reviews, especially as it is such a significant contribution to the study of Lincoln through the then existing media — engravings and lithographs.

Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s much needed The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia has been printed in soft cover by Da Capo Press. Robert Page  [End Page 50] W. Johannsen's essay "Lincoln, Liberty and Equality" was published in Liberty and Equality Under the Constitution by Project '87 and the National Humanities Center with John Agresto as editor. Roy P. Basler, former executive secretary of the Abraham Lincoln Association and retired chief of the manuscript division, Library of Congress, published 12 years ago a wonderful pamphlet, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in Translation, which is still available from the Library of Congress. Dr. Basler comments that he wanted to give foreign visitors to Washington "an opportunity to come to grips with Lincoln's expression of the essence of American democracy rendered in their mother tongues."

The University Press of America published Essays on Lincoln's Faith and Politics authored by Hans J. Morgenthau and David Hein. Eastern Acorn Press, the publishing imprint of the Eastern National Park and Monument Association, published a monograph, Abraham Lincoln, containing five articles which first appeared in American History Illustrated and Civil War Times Illustrated. B. C. Corrigan has authored Tailgating the Lincoln-Douglas Debates and copies can be ordered from him at 1038 W. State Street, Apt. 5, Jacksonville, Illinois, 62650. Marker Tours (9102 Cheltenham Dr., Brandywine, Maryland, 20613) has published The Escape & Capture of John Wilkes Booth by Edward Steers, Jr., which was illustrated by Joan Lee Chaconas. H. Draper Hunt, professor of history at the University of Southern Maine, delivered the Walter E. Russell Endowed Chair Lecture in 1984 entitled "Lincoln the President: Learner and Mentor, 1854–1865" which has been published in pamphlet form. Professor Hunt likewise delivered the 1983 lecture, "Educating a President: Abraham Lincoln and Learning, 1809–1854." Both pamphlets are available from the University of Southern Maine, Portland.

George L. Kackley's interesting compilation "Notable Persons at Oak Hill Cemetery, Civil War Period" is available from him at 3001 R Street, N. W., Washington, 20007. Nelson R. Burr's United States Senator James Dickson: 1814–1873 Episcopalian Anti-Slavery Statesman has been published in pamphlet form and is available from the Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Hildene, the summer home of Robert Todd Lincoln, has published "The Rebirth of Hildene," a progress report of the first six years of this foundation's activities in restoring Mr. Lincoln's home. William F. Stark's Along the Black Hawk Trail is available from the author (5538 North Pauline's Wood Drive, Nashotah, Wisconsin, 53058). Abrams has published Herman J. Viola's The National Archives of the United States on the occasion of Page  [End Page 51] the National Archives' 50th Anniversary. Virginius Dabney has authored The Last Review: The Confederate Reunion, Richmond, 1932 (Algonquin Books, Chapel Hill, North Carolina).

James Lee McDonough's Chattanooga: A Death Grip on the Confederacy (University of Tennessee Press) was a History Book Club selection in November, as was David Brion Davis' Slavery and Human Progress (Oxford). The Library of America (14 E. 60th Street, New York, 10022) published Stephen Crane's Prose and Poetry. Lincoln author and 19th century journalist Ida Tarbell was the subject of Kathleen Brady's biography (Putnam). The University Press of Kentucky published Black Liberation in Kentucky by Victor B. Howard. The Charleston slave plot was the subject of John Lofton's Denmark Vesey's Revolt: The Slave Plot that Lit the Fuse to Fort Sumter (Kent State University Press). Carl Sandburg's unfinished sequel, Ever the Winds of Chance, to his youthful autobiography, Always the Young Strangers, was published by the University of Illinois Press. A fun work of fiction by William Wegand, The Chester A. Arthur Conspiracy (Dial), made its debut this year, as did Tom Wicker's substantial Unto This Hour (Viking). David Nevin's work of fiction Dream West (Putnam), like the Wicker piece, received excellent reviews.

Eric Foner authored Nothing But Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy (Louisiana State University Press). Texas A&M University Press produced Essays on American Antebellum Politics, 1840–1860 edited by Stephen E. Maizlish and John J. Kushma. LSU published John Seymour Erwin's Like Some Green Laurel: Letters of Margaret Johnson Erwin, 1821–1863, the veracity of which was successfully challenged by historian John Y. Simon in a ten-page article which appeared in the Journal of American History.

Stephen E. Maizlish's The Triumph of Sectionalism: The Transformation of Ohio Politics, 1844–1856 was published by the Kent State University Press, as was Earl J. Hess's A German in the Yankee Fatherland: The Civil War Letters of Henry A. Kircher.

An abridged edition of the well-received The Children of Pride by Robert Manson Myers was published by Yale University Press. The University Press of Mississippi published The Old South in the Crucible of War, edited by Harry P. Owens and James J. Cooke.

In this election year Paul F. Boller, Jr.'s Presidential Campaigns (Oxford) made its appearance and was reviewed by George E. Reedy in the New York Times Book Review on July 16.

Most significant was the publication of Volumes 11 and 12 of The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant covering the period from June 1, 1864 to November 15, 1864. These excellent volumes were edited by Page  [End Page 52] John Y. Simon, director of the Ulysses S. Grant Association and professor of history at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Gene Smith's Lee and Grant was an alternate of the Book of the Month Club. James Lee McDonough and Thomas L. Connelly authored Five Tragic Hours: The Battle of Franklin (The University of Tennessee Press). The Civil War in Maryland by Daniel Carroll Toomey is available from the author at P.O. Box 143, Harmans, Maryland, 21077. Walter L. Buenger's Secession and the Union in Texas is available from the University of Texas Press.

Eastern Acorn Press has published an excellent monograph entitled Life in Civil War America by Maury Klein. Broadfoot Publishing Company has updated its Civil War Books: A Price Checklist (Route 3, Box 318, Wendell, North Carolina, 27591).

Reviews

Herman Hattaway's review of Volume 3 of The Papers of Jefferson Davis appeared in the June 1984 issue of Civil War History as did Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s review of Volume 5 of The Image of War 1861–1865: The South Beseiged. Max E. Shively's review of the two psychobiographies on Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln: The Quest for Immortality (Dwight G. Anderson) and Lincoln's Quest for Union: Public and Private Meanings (Charles B. Strozier) appeared in the Spring 1984 issue of The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, as did James Russell Harris's review of Volume 4 of The Image of War 1861–1865: Fighting for Time. In the same issue, Richard J. Sommers reviewed Stephen W. Sears's Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam.

Thomas Reed Turner reviewed William Hanchett's excellent The Lincoln Murder Conspiracies in the August issue of The Journal of Southern History. In the same issue, Janet Sharp Hermann reviewed Eric Foner's Nothing But Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy. Dr. Floyd S. Barringer, former president of the Abraham Lincoln Association, reviewed John K. Lattimer's Kennedy and Lincoln: Medical and Ballistic Comparisons of Their Assassinations in the Summer 1984 issue of the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Charles B. Strozier in the same issue reviewed Herndon's Life of Lincoln: The History and Personal Recollections of Abraham Lincoln, as originally written by William H. Herndon and Jesse Weik; with Introduction and Notes by Paul M. Angle in a New Introduction by Henry Steele Commager. William L. Downard reviewed a new printing of Chicago Giant: A Biography of "Long John" Went- Page  [End Page 53] worth by Don E. Fehrenbacher, and Sella B. Morrison reviewed Andy Van Meter's Always My Friend: A History of the State Journal-Register in Springfield.

James M. McPherson reviewed William Hanchett's The Lincoln Murder Conspiracy in the March issue of Civil War History. Frank L. Buirne also reviewed Herman Hattaway's and Archer Jones's How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. David Lindsey reviewed the Civil War Almanac edited by John S. Bowman, and Mark E. Neely, Jr. reviewed Volume 4 of The Image of War Fighting for Time. Harold D. Woodman reviewed Page Smith's Trial by Fire: A People's History of the Civil War and Reconstruction in the March issue of Indiana Magazine of History. Emma Lou Thornbrough reviewed Victor B. Howard's Black Liberation in Kentucky: Emancipation and Freedom 1862–1884. Ludwell H. Johnson, III reviewed Volume 4 of The Papers of Jefferson Davis in the May issue of the Journal of Southern History and Thomas B. Alexander reviewed Volume 6 of The Papers of Andrew Johnson.

Harry L. Watson reviewed Jean H. Baker's Affairs of Party: The Political Culture of Northern Democrats in the Mid-19th Century in the February issue of the Journal of Southern History. Bruce J. Dinges's review of William C. Davis' second volume of his The Imperiled Union: 1861–1865: Stand in the Day of Battle was also reviewed. Carolyn E. DeLatte's review of The Selected Essays of T. Harry Williams appeared in the Winter 1984 issue of The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society with Thomas J. Dyba's review of P. M. Zall's Abe Lincoln Laughing: Humerous Antecdotes from Original Sources by and about Abraham Lincoln.

Constance Head reviewed Gordon Sample's Lust for Fame: The Stage Career of John Wilkes Booth in the Winter 1983 issue of Lincoln Herald. Gary R. Planck reviewed the Da Capo Press edition of Herndon's Life of Lincoln and Thomas Reed Turner's excellent book Beware the People Weeping: Public Opinion and the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln in the same issue. Michael W. Kauffman reviewed William Hanchett's The Lincoln Murder Conspiracies in the Summer 1984 issue of Lincoln Herald. In the Spring 1984 issue, Constance Head reviewed William Wiegand's The Chester A. Arthur Conspiracy and Gary R. Planck reviewed B. C. Corrigan's Tailgating the Lincoln-Douglas Debates and Escape and Capture of John Wilkes Booth by Edward Steers, Jr. Page  [End Page 54]

Necrology

Lincoln student and collector George H. Landers, Jr., who for many years edited The Lincolnian and was a past president of the Lincoln Group of Washington, D.C., died on June 5. Author Philip Van Doren Stern died on July 31. He was the editor of The Life and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln collector William Kaland passed away on December 25, 1983. Raymond Massey, actor and sometime portrayer of Abraham Lincoln, died on July 20.

Works in Progress

Don Fehrenbacher's prior Lincoln essays should be in the hands of his publisher in 1985 for publication in book form. William Gienapp's Origins of the Republican Party 1852–1856 should be published by Oxford University Press in 1985. The papers delivered at the conference "Lincoln and the American Political Tradition — A Symposium of Lincoln's Role in American Political Culture" are expected to be published in 1985, as are the papers delivered at Gettysburg College on the occasion of the conference "Lincoln — 175." Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr. is at work on his new book Mystic Chords of Memory: Lincoln, the Constitution and the Union. Books at Brown, an annual publication of the Friends of the Library of Brown University, will publish the workshop papers delivered at the Brown Lincoln symposium along with an updated history of the McLellan Lincoln Collection as its Winter 1985 issue.

The Library of America is planning to publish a volume of Lincoln's writings in the fall of 1987. Professor S. McFeeley is the editor. Volumes 13 and 14 of the Papers of Ulysses S. Grant will appear in 1985 on the anniversary of the centennial of the general's death. The National Portrait Gallery is preparing an exhibit on the occasion of this anniversary. Vaughan Shelton's new work, along with William Schiller, entitled "Who Killed Lewis Powell?" should be published in 1985. The Rev. William J. Wolfe, author of Lincoln's Religion, is at work on a new book relating to the morality of Abraham Lincoln. Page  [End Page 55]

Acknowledgment: The author wishes to thank George M. Craig, chairman of the Barondess/Lincoln Award Committee of the Civil War Round Table of New York, Inc., and an active officer in both the Civil War Round Table and the Lincoln Group of New York, for his distribution of Lincoln-related items throughout the year which assist in rounding out this article.

Editor's Note: Mr. Williams would welcome any news concerning Abraham Lincoln to be considered for publication in the next issue of the Papers .... You may write to him at: RFD, Hope Valley Road, Hope Valley, Rhode Island, 02832. Page  [End Page 56]