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175th Anniversary Activities

February 12, 1984 will be the 175th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's birth. U.S. Senator H. Chafee (R., R.I.) introduced S.J. Resolution 118 for the creation of a commission, with a modest budget, to commemorate the anniversary year. At press time, the resolution was in the Committee on the Judiciary awaiting additional sponsors and action. Please write to your senators and members of Congress to inquire as to the status of this legislation and urge sponsorship and passage of this most worthwhile proposal. Support should be a bi-partisan effort as Lincoln has become more than just the first Republican president. He continues to lead every poll taken of American president. (Professor Robert K. Murray conducted a poll of 1,997 historians during 1983. Of the 970 who responded, Abraham Lincoln came in first, followed by Franklin Roosevelt, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson.) Some members of Congress may be reluctant to create another commission and may question the need of celebrating someone's 175th brithday. This commission would, however, attract many volunteers who are willing to place Lincoln before the people as an example of what our leadership can be. Many of us will not be around in the year 2009 to celebrate the 200th anniversary.

Brown University and the Lincoln Group of Boston have planned a series of events for 1984. These include an exhibition of the treasures of the McLellan Lincoln Collection at The John Hay Library of Special Collections in the Spring, an exhibition catalog, a guide and history of the McLellan Lincoln Collection, and a conference entitled "Lincoln and the American Political Tradition—A Symposium of Lincoln's Role in American Political Culture" on June 7, 8 and 9, 1984. In addition, Professor John Hope Franklin, James B. Duke Professor of History of Duke University, has agreed to deliver a paper at Brown Page  [End Page 49] University on Novemeber 17, 1984. Papers at the Brown University symposium will include Don E. Fehrenbacher's "The Words of Lincoln", Professor James M. McPherson's "Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution," Professor William E. Gienapp's "Who Voted For Lincoln?", Professor Michael F. Holt's "Lincoln and the Politics of Union", and a paper by Professor Robert H. Wiebe. Commentators will be Professors Robert V. Bruce, Gordon Wood, and Richard N. Current. A banquet on June 8th will feature Stephen B. Oates who will deliver his "Abraham Lincoln, Republican in the White House." Workshops include "What's Left to Collect About Lincoln?" with Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr., and Frank J. Williams, "Lincoln Dollars and Cents: Popular Culture, Commercialization and the Sixteenth President" by Richard J. S. and Kellie Gutman, "Lincoln Print Portraits for the Collector and Connoisseur" by Harold Holzer and "Conservation of Civil War Era Photos" by Roberta Sautter. Those interested in attending should contact this author at 2 Williams Street, Providence, Rhode Island, 02903. To assist in the preparation and execution of these activities as well as explore how best to use the outstanding Lincoln materials at Brown, the university created a Lincoln Advisory Committee of which your author is chair. Other members include Dr. Clement M. Silvestro, Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr., Harold Holzer, Richard J. S. and Kellie Gutman, Professor John L. Thomas, Ms. Jennifer B. Lee, curator of the McLellan Lincoln Collection, Professor Robert V. Bruce and Mr. Samuel A. Streit, assistant university librarian for Special Collections.

An exhibition of Lincoln political prints, "The Lincoln Image: Abraham Lincoln and the Popular Print" prepared by Harold Holzer, Gabor S. Boritt and Mark E. Neely, Jr., will open at Gettysburg college on February 12, 1984. In September, the Holzer, Boritt and Neely N. T. exhibit will travel to Brown University completing its tour in Fort Wayne. Scribners will publish The Lincoln Image: ... in February. It promises to be the best introduction to political prints.

At the initiation of its director, Dr. Clement M. Silvestro, the Museum of Our National Heritage in Lexington, Massachusetts, will have an exhibition entitled "The Controversial Mr. Lincoln" from October 30, 1983 through April 15, 1984. The exhibition will center on four areas of the president's life: Lincoln the politician, Lincoln and emancipation, Lincoln as commander-in-chief and Lincoln the president. Illinois Benedictine Col- Page  [End Page 50] lege of Lisle, Illinois, will celebrate the 175th anniversary with an exhibition featuring the scale model replica of Lincoln's Springfield home constructed by Thomas J. Dyba, a Lincoln seminar and, hopefully, the formation of a Lincoln collectors society, which will be based at the college. Wabash Valley College of Mt. Carmel, Illinois, will have a Lincoln festival with an exhibit from January 30 through February 24, 1984.

Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois, will have an exhibit to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the Lincoln-Douglas debates commencing October 8, 1984. The exhibit will include Lincoln's own scrapbook of the stenographer's reports of the debates on loan from the Library of Congress. The Indiana State Museum is also planning an exhibition in honor of the anniversary and plans are underway for a major exhibition of Lincoln's image in print by the San Diego Museum of Art.

Professor G. S. Borritt, director of the Civil War Institute, Gettysburg College, is planning a Lincoln symposium for mid-September 1984. For this purpose, Professor Boritt has established a program committee; the members include Professor Richard N. Current, Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr., and this author. Both Civil War Times Illustrated and the new Blue & Gray Magazine are planning special Lincoln issues for February 1984.

Lincoln Group Activities

The Tenth Annual Abraham Lincoln Symposium was held on February 12, 1983 at the Old State Capitol, Springfield, Illinois, with papers by Eugene H. Berwanger ("Lincoln's Constitutional Dilemma: Emancipation and Black Suffrage") and Mark E. Neely, Jr. ("The Lincoln Administration and Arbitrary Arrest: A Reconsideration"). Comments were by Professor Harold M. Hyman. Wiliam Safire presented his paper, "Lincoln's Pundits: If Today's Columnists Were Writing in Lincoln's Time," via telephonic recording because inclement weather in the Washington, D.C., area prevented his appearance. Volume IV of the Papers of the Abraham Lincoln Association was distributed to the association membership in February. The Eleventh Annual Symposium on February 12, 1984 will feature papers reassessing Lincoln after 175 years and will be presented by Professors Richard N. Current and Kenneth M. Stampp. The address at the annual banquet will be given by Senator Mark Hatfield.

The Lincoln Group of Boston was privileged to hear the follow- Page  [End Page 51] ing papers during the year: "Artemus Ward Will Speak A Piece" by Edmund Hands, "Lincoln in New England" by Professor and Mrs. Robert N. Larson, "The Musical Note in Lincoln's Life" by Weldon Petz, "Ambivalence, Ambiguity and Contradiction: Abolitionists and the Issue of Non-Violence" by Professor Richard O. Curry, "The Civil War Manuscripts in the F. J. Dreer Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania" by Professor Joseph George, "Lincoln's Assassination and Booth as Depicted in the Theatre Arts" by Richard Sloan, and "Lincoln's 1860 Tour Through New England" by William F. Hanna.

On February 12th Professor Don E. Fehrenbacher delivered his "The Death of Lincoln" at the Lincoln Memorial Shrine, Redlands, California. At that time, members and guests received Dr. Larry E. Burgess' Encountering the Lincoln Scholarly Zareba: The Reading Public, The Lincoln Scholar and Lord Charnwood as this year's keepsake. Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr. presented his "Lincoln and the Constitution" at the annual Lincoln dinner of the Lincoln Group of Washington, D.C., on February 16th. Other programs of the D.C. Lincoln Group included an exhibition prepared by Joan Lee Chaconas, "Mr. Lincoln's Washington"; Dr. Herman J. Viola's "Lincoln and the Indians"; Professor Joseph George's "The Days Are Not Yet 'Dark'"; Louis J. Weichmann's "Later Years," which was a sequel to his paper given before the Lincoln Group of Boston on February 5; Howard C. Westwood's "The Audience For The Gettysburg Address"; and Professor Paul J. Beaver's "Lincoln in Illinois".

Ambassador L. Bruce Laingen, who as American charge d'affaires in Iran, was the ranking U.S. Diplomat held hostage there, presented remarks on Lincoln and freedom at the annual meeting in February. Professor John Hope Franklin presented his "Lincoln's Evolving View of Freedom" at the annual meeting of the Lincoln Club of Delaware on February 10. The Lincoln Club of Delaware is planning to increase the display area of the Lincoln Collection at the Goodstay Center, University of Delaware, and is looking for donations to assist in this worthwhile project. Those interested are asked to contact the Lincoln Club, P.O. Box 1854, Wilmington, Delaware. Your author presented his "Lincoln and the Politics of Morality" before the Civil War Round Table of New York on February 9. Programs of the Lincoln Group of New York included Professor Charles Strozier on Lincoln's personality; Mr. Grant Romer, curator of the Photographic Collection at Eastman House, Rochester, New York, in an illustrated talk con- Page  [End Page 52] cerning the methods used in determining whether or not certain daguerreotypes are in fact those of Lincoln; Richard and Kellie Gutman's sixteen-minute three-projector slide show entitled "The Assassin's Act," which received the Bronze Award in the documentary category at "Image '82," the second largest multi-image festival in the world; and this author who presented his paper "Lincoln The Lawyer."

Professor John Y. Simon, executive director of the Ulysses S. Grant Association and editor of the splendid Papers of Ulysses S. Grant, delivered his paper on the Grant-Lincoln relationship at the 40th annual meeting of the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin on April 17. Members of this Fellowship received the bulletin of the 39th annual meeting entitled Lincoln and the Constitution by Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr. The annual Lincoln Day observance by the Lincoln Commission of the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church was held on April 10 with a presentation by Dr. Arthur R. McKay entitled "A. Lincoln: Our Eternal Contemporary."

The Inauguration Day program to commemorate the inauguration of Governor James Thompson of Illinois was held on January 10 at the First Presbyterian Church, Springfield, Illinois — the Lincoln family Church. The program featured an article about the church and the Lincolns by Dr. Wayne C. Temple. Dr. John K. Lattimer spoke at Ford's Theater on April 15 before a joint meeting of the Lincoln Group of Washington, D.C. and the Surratt Society on medical and ballistic details of Lincoln's assassination. Dr. Lattimer also spoke before the Central Illinois Medical History Club and the Department of Medical Humanities of Southern Illinois University School of Medicine on October 7th.

Ralph G. Newman, book man, raconteur, author, and student of Lincoln, delivered the sixth annual R. Gerald McMurtry Lecture on May 19th. His Preserving Lincoln for the Ages: Collectors, Collecting and Our Sixteenth President, has been published by the Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum. Professor Herman Belz will deliver the seventh annual lecture on May 10, 1984 entitled "Lincoln and the Constitution: The Dictatorship Question Reconsidered." This great repository of Lincoln material now has among its treasures the file, formerly owned by Robert Todd Lincoln, on Mary Todd Lincoln's insanity trial containing all of the relevant documentation of this sad affair. The Dr. Samuel A. Mudd Society dedicated the home of Dr. Mudd at ceremonies on October 20th. Page  [End Page 53]

The 22nd annual Robert Fortenbaugh Memorial Lecture was delivered on November 19 at Gettysburg College with Professor David Brion Davis who delivered his "The Emancipation Moment." Professor James M. McPherson will deliver the lecture on November 19, 1984. The 21st annual lecture Lincoln's Philosophic Vision by Jacques Barzun, has been published by Gettysburg College. Professor Thomas R. Turner, author of Beware The People Weeping ..., delivered his "Writing Assassination History" at N. Harris Community College, Houston, Texas, on April 9. Professor John Y. Simon delivered his "The Paradox of Ulysses S. Grant" at the 1983 Boone's Day celebration on June 7 at the Old Capitol, Frankfort, Kentucky, and Gary R. Planck, Esq., delivered his "A. C. Richards Revisited" at Ford's Theater on November 11th. Mr. Planck, of 901 Palmer Avenue, Winter Park, Florida 32789, is attempting to form a Lincoln Group in his area.

Conferences

Vanderbilt University School of Law and the University of Southern Mississippi sponsored a conference on the legal history of the South from February 3–5 at Long Beach, Mississippi. Papers included Eugene Genovese's "The Law of Slavery" and Lawrence M. Friedman's "The Law Between the States: Some Thoughts on Southern Legal History." Jerry Russell's Civil War Round Table Associates presented the 2nd annual national forum on Lincoln and the Union, April 14–16, at Springfield, Illinois. Papers included Dr. Wayne C. Temple's "Captain A. Lincoln in the Militia" and his "Builders and Remodelers of Lincoln's Home". Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr. presented the banquet address. The 3rd national forum on Lincoln and the Union will be held in Washington during April 1984 and will include a tour of Lincoln's Washington. The Civil War Round Table Associates 9th annual Congress of Civil War Round Tables was held on October 6–9 at Charleston, South Carolina and included papers by Dr. Richard McMurry ("Could the South Have Won the War?"), Dr. Grady McWhiney ("The Confederacy's First Shot"), and the banquet addresses by Mr. Ed Bearss, chief historian of the National Park Service, and William C. "Jack" Davis, president of the National Historical Society and former editor of Civil War Times Illustrated. Mr. Davis spoke on "The Siege of Charleston." The Coles County Historical Society spon- Page  [End Page 54] sored an Abraham Lincoln Symposium on April 16th at Eastern Illinois University in Charleston. Speakers were Basil Moore, Lloyd Ostendorf and Robert Sterling. Ralph Y. McGinnis served as chairman. The Civil War Round Table presented the 1st annual Nevins-Freeman Assembly with an address by Professor John Hope Franklin and papers by Alan T. Nolan, Karen Osborne and Wayne C. Temple. Also included was a panel discussion "Civil Rights and the Civil War" with Professor Franklin, Elmer Gertz, Frank L. Klement and Professor John Y. Simon. Marshall D. Krolick was moderator.

The First Civil War Institute was conducted at Gettysburg College from June 26–July 2 under the directorship of Professor G. S. Boritt. Papers included Williams C. Davis' "The Civil War — The Long view," Robert L. Bloom's "The Gettysburg Campaign: Then and Now," William A. Frassanito's "Gettysburg: A Journey in Time," Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s "Abraham Lincoln: The Looming Presence," Adam Borit and Gabor S. Boritt's "The President Who Was To Die In 1866: Lincoln And The Marfan Syndrome," Dr. John K. Lattimer's "The President Who Died In 1865: Medical and Ballistic Questions Surrounding the Lincoln Assassination" and Harold Holzer's "Lincoln and the Artists." Renowned tour director, Col. Jacob Sheads, led a tour of the battlefield. Professor Robert W. Johannsen, J. G. Randall Distinguished Professor of History at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana presented a most comprehensive report of the forty-eighth annual meeting of the Southern Historical Association in the February 1983 issue of The Journal of Southern History. Included were comments on the session "Abraham Lincoln on Race, Slavery and Emancipation" which was reported in last year's "Lincolniana in 1982." A report of the fourth annual conference of the Society for Historians of the Early Republic appeared in the Winter 1982 issue of the Journal of the Early Republic and discussed Major L. Wilson's "Fathers and Sons: Van Buren versus Lincoln in the Perpetuation of Republican Institutions." Prof. James P. Shenton delivered his "Abe Lincoln to Ronald Reagan — A Long Road Between" on November 3rd as part of Endicott College's, The Lincoln Forum. The 49th annual meeting of the Southern Historical Association was held on November 9, 10, 11 & 12 and included LaWanda Cox's Lincoln and Black Freedom: A Study in Presidential Leadership. Jacque Voegeli presided and panelists were Hans L. Trefousse, Don E. Fehrenbacher and Russell F. Weigley. Prof. Cox was given a chance to respond. Page  [End Page 55]

Boy Scouts

The Scouts have long taken Lincoln as their own and each year many scouting councils conduct pilgrimages in Lincoln's honor. The Abraham Lincoln Council of Springfield, Illinois, sponsored two Lincoln pilgrimages, on April 24 and Arpil 29, to the tomb of Mr. Lincoln at Oak Ridge Cemetery. Included were Girl Scouts and members of Camp Fire. For the occasion a special patch and shoulder strip were made available. This council also sponsors The Lincoln Trail which requires a hike of 21 miles through Lincoln country in Illinois and a book report by each applicant. Successful competion entitles the applicant to a Lincoln medal. The Lincoln Trails Council of Decatur, Illinois, likewise presented a patch for those who successfully made its 1983 Lincoln pilgrimage. This council has also prepared a jacket patch depicting the four statues of Lincoln located in Decatur.

The Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum 1983 attendance award for those Scouts visiting a Lincoln shrine included a portrait of "The President" by sculptor A. L. Van den Bergen located in Racine, Wisconsin. The 50th annual Lincoln pilgrimage was sponsored by Lincoln National Life Insurance Company in Fort Wayne, and a special patch was presented. Old Kentucky Home Council in Louisville, Kentucky, sponsors the Kentucky Lincoln Trail and the Lincoln Memorial Trail. Arrowhead Council B.S.A. of Champaign, Illinois, sponsors the Lincoln Circuit Trail representing a 16-mile hike. Other sponsors of pilrimages are The American Historical Trail, Inc., the Lincoln Pilgrimage in the District of Columbia; the Trail Committee of Jacksonville, Illinois, the Lincoln-Douglas Heritage Trail; and the Lincoln Homesite Trail, Inc. of Decatur — The Lincoln Homesite Trail.

Editorials

In February 1982, the Associated Press in search of "something new" spread the allegation that Lincoln suffered from the genetic disorder known as "marfan syndrome," a theory never proven. The UPI in 1983, in another search for new items, relied on Professor Robert Alotta of Grand Valley State College and published an article carried by many newspapers at the time of Lincoln's birthday citing Mr. Alotta's theory that Lincoln was clearly a "dictator" for closing down newspapers and Page  [End Page 56] suspending the writ of habeas corpus whereby a prisoner has a change to have the legality of his imprisonment challenged in court. In addition, Alotta stated that Lincoln was a minority president having been elected with only 40 percent of the popular vote and that Lincoln was really a "segregationist,'' not the emancipator for issuing his Emancipation Proclamations. Alotta argues that the proclamation only freed slaves who were in the Confederate States and not those slaves who were in the border states which remained loyal to the Union. This is another attempt to try to denigrate Lincoln's reputation without placing the fact within the context of Lincoln's time.

Lincoln won a clear majority of the electoral votes and would have still been elected if all other votes were cast for another candidate. Alotta fails to account for the fact that the U.S. Constitution does allow for the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus in "cases of rebellion." Lincoln never directly had a hand in closing newspapers. These were actually closed by his over-zealous subordinates and when Lincoln discovered what had occurred, he modified the actions. In fact, newspapers did engage in treasonable activity, including the publication of military intelligence that could and was used by the "enemy."

Pages have been written on Lincoln's views of race. The fact remains that he was far ahead of most people of his time and as the leader of the United States, did not fail to rise to the occasion. The three documents forming the Emancipation Proclamation triad were drafted not only for military advantage — if any — but to send a clear signal to friend and foe alike that slavery was doomed in the United States. Lincoln went out of his way to endorse the passage of the congressional resolution for the 13th Amendment which would ultimately abolish slavery once and for all. He even signed the resolution. Alotta forgets that at the time of the issuance of the Emancipation of Proclamation, slavery was still protected under the terms of the Constitution. Dr. Martin Luther King in his "I Have a Dream" speech gave full faith and credit to the meaning and substance of the Proclamation "... as a great beacon of hope to millions of Negro slaves." For UPI and AP to run unsubstantiated stories such as these is not only a disservice to Lincoln, but to the quality of news presentation in our country.

David Shriebman wrote a most eloquent editorial on the Lincoln Memorial in the February 12th issue of The New York Times. The annual Lincoln editorial from The State Journal-Register ap- Page  [End Page 57] peared in its February 11th issue. William S. McFeely, author of the excellent Grant: A Biography, wrote "The Civil War's Lure" for The New York Times editorial page on July 4th. Lincoln's concern about invading a neighboring nation articulated when he was a congressman appeared in The New York Times editorial on July 26th entitled "Yankees, Bats and Nicaragua." Richard L. Strout's "The 'House Divided' Debates: Lincoln's Living Legacy" appeared in The Courier-News on February 11th. And Lincoln's name continually is raised in the ongoing discussion of the revision of the canon of ethics promulgated by the American Bar Association as a standard for adoption by the bar associations and state supreme courts. How would Lincoln feel about protecting, as "privileged," a client or former client's activity if such activity were criminal. Francis X. Cline's survey of presidential religious habits "Presidents and Churchgoing, A Sensitive Subject" appeared in The New York Times on March 23rd. William F. Buckley, Jr., in The New York Daily News on March 22, compared Lincoln's belief in a strong defense to President Reagan's policy. This author's editorial "Abraham Lincoln and the Politics of Ethics" appeared in the Summer 1983 issue of the Lincoln Herald.

Awards

Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr. received the Barondess Award for his outstanding The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia at the awards banquet of the Civil War Round Table of New York on February 9th. Stephen B. Oates received the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Book Award and the Christopher Award for his biography of Martin Luther King, Let The Trumpet Sound.... Ralph G. Newman, celebrating 50 years as a book man, was named a laureate to the Lincoln Academy of Illinois on April 30th. Lincoln College on May 7th conferred honorary degrees on publisher, Malcolm S. Forbes, sometime collector of Lincolniana, and Professor Robert W. Johannsen, J. G. Randall Distinguished Professor of History. Dr. Richard McMurry received the Fletcher Pratt Award for his John Bell Hood.... The Lincoln Foundation of Northeast Missouri State University sponsored the Seventh Annual Schwengel Lincoln Contest.

"Lincoln: The Presidential Years, Issues and Personalities, 1861–1865" was the topic for the 1982–1983 Lincoln Era Essays Awards. The awards are supported by a grant to the Indiana Page  [End Page 58] University Foundation by the Frank L. Jones Estate and were presented on May 13th. The project is conducted under the leadership of Mr. C. Frederick Risinger, coordinator for School Social Studies, 2805 East 10th St., Bloomington, 47405. The papers for the 1st Annual Essay Contest were published by the Oakleaf Lincoln Collection, Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington.

Dr. John Hope Franklin received the Nevins-Freeman Award of the Civil War Round Table at its 1st Annual Nevins-Freeman Assembly on June 11th. Dr. Wayne C. Temple received the Round Table's Distinguished Service Award. Volumes nine and ten of The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant received The Museum of The Confederacy's 1982 Founders Award on June 3, 1983.

The Arts

The Lincoln Memorial Shrine, Redlands, California, held an exhibition of special Lincoln exhibits and recent gifts at the shrine on February 6th. An exhibition of giant portraits of Abraham Lincoln by artist, Chuck Levitan, were on display at the New York University Graduate School of Business from February 1–28. These drawings by Mr. Levitan, who is the proprietor of Chuck Levitan Gallery, 42 Grand Street, New York, 10013, were studies for a modern portrait concept entitled "Lincoln Split" produced by Mr. Levitan during the Bicentennial. Your author knows now of only one cartoonist who never fails to remember Lincoln on his birthday. This is Jim Dobbins of The Union Leader, Manchester, New Hampshire. Mr. Dobbins' Lincoln contribution appeared in that paper's issue of February 11th. The 40th Anniversary of the Armed Services Editions, those cheaply printed paperbacks distributed to the U.S. Armed Forces during World War II, was celebrated at the Library of Congress on February 17th. Arnold Gates, author of the former "Gates Report" published in the Civil War Times Illustrated, told the symposium how he carried a copy of Carl Sandburg's Storm Over The Land in his helmet while he served in the Battle of Saipan.

Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis sponsored Our American Cousin, the play Lincoln was watching at Ford's Theater on the evening of April 14, 1865, at its University Theater in April. In conjunction therewith, the 1930 film Abraham Lincoln, produced by D. W. Griffith, was shown starring Walter Houston as Lincoln. A presentation about Lincoln's interest in Page  [End Page 59] the theater and discussion of Our American Cousin as drama featured Mark E. Neely, Jr. and Walter Meserve. Cold Harbor, a play about Ulysses S. Grant, and written by Dale Worsley, opened briefly at the Public Theater in New York on March 9th. Three plays appeared relating to John Wilkes Booth — Clinton Case's An Evening With John Wilkes Booth, Cris Dickerson's John Wilkes Booth and Nelson F. Ritschel's Assassin. William Safire, an admirer of Lincoln, featured Lincoln and his use of language in his weekly column in The New York Times Magazine on August 14th. As part of the German tricentennial celebration, a special exhibit of items relating to Carl Schurz, was held in the Library of Congress. Schurz, a famous German-American, was a strong supporter of Lincoln and the Union during the war, serving as Lincoln's ambassador to Spain, as a brigadier general, and, later, as a U.S. senator and secretary of the interior.

An exhibition "The American Image" which is drawn from the photographic collections of the National Archives, was on view at the International Center of Photography, New York City, during August and September. Selected from the more than five million photographs housed in the Archives, the photographers represented include Timothy O'Sullivan. Actor/playwrite Gary Bullock is presenting his two act A. Lincoln through Universal Speakers Agency, 235 Bear Hill Rd., Waltham, Ma. 02215. Fritz Eichenberg, in my opinion the world's foremost engraver, made the wood engraving for Rainbows Are Made: Poems By Carl Sandburg (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich). Taken from Sandburg's The People, Yes, the poems are accompanied by these excellent illustrations which not only feature Sandburg, but even include one of Lincoln. The John Hay Library of Special Collections, Brown University, has announced that 10,000 titles from its Harris Collection of American Poetry and Plays will be microfilmed by the Northeast Documents Conservation Center in Andover, Massachusetts. This collection contains many plays relating to the Lincoln years.

James Montgomery Flagg, artist and illustrator who was a contemporary and competitor of Charles Dana Gibson, made a very large painting of Lincoln reflecting at a window of the Executive Mansion while waiting for news of the Second Battle of Manassas. This Lincoln portrait, owned by the Frank and Virginia Williams Collection of Lincolniana, was used as an opening chapter illustration in the Charles Merrill Publishing Company (936 Eastwind Drive, Westerville, Ohio 43081) social Page  [End Page 60] studies textbook entitled The American Tradition which was published in 1983. Flagg, who liked to use himself as a model for the Lincoln portraits, was the creator of the World War I "I Want You" recruiting poster. Robert Wilson's international opera The Civil Wars: A Tree is Best Measured When it is Down is in production at several locations throughout the world. It is intended that the various components of this "opera" will come together for three 12-hour performances in June 1984 in conjunction with the Los Angeles Olympic Games. March 22, 1984 will be the first performance of Act V of this production in New York. For further information, one should write to The Byrd Hoffman Foundation, 147 Spring Street, New York 10012. The Summer/Fall 1983 issue of Theater (Yale School of Drama) featured this production.

Lincoln National Life Insurance Company, 1300 South Clinton Street, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46801, is distributing a Lincoln montage by Fred Otnes entitled "This Country ... Belongs to the People." This company also reprinted as a pamphlet Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s Escape From The Frontier: Lincoln's Peculiar Relationship With Indiana. The National Flag Foundation, Flag Plaza, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219, has available a large or small print of "One Hundred Years Ago." This is a painting by Willcox of U.S. flags which when held at a distance reveals a Lincoln portrait. Lloyd Ostendorf, today's most prominent Lincoln artist and illustrator, has published a brochure about the availability of his work. It is available from him at 225 Lookout Drive, Dayton, Ohio 45419. The Effanbee Sales Organization, 200 Fifth Avenue, Room 420, New York 10010, has produced dolls of Abraham Lincoln entitled "The Great Emancipator" and George Washington "The Father of Our Country." Spring Hill Nurseries, 110 West Elm Street, Tipp City, Ohio 45371, has available "Mister Lincoln" tree roses and "Honest Abe" mini-tree roses. The Hitchcock Chair Co., Riverton, Connecticut, has handcrafted, in a limited edition of 500, "The Abraham Lincoln Chair" depicting the birthplace of Lincoln. River Shore, Ltd., Caledonia, Michigan 49316, now has "Lincoln the Student," a portrait on porcelain based on Norman Rockwell's painting. The White House staff announced that one of two planned aircraft carriers will be named the "Abraham Lincoln." Auctions of printed material relating to Lincoln were held by Leslie Hindman Auctioneers, Chicago, on September 25th and by Sotheby's (N.Y.) on October 26th. Page  [End Page 61]

Numismatics

The President's Day Silver and Gold Pieces Commemorative Designs, 175 Maple Street, Marlboro, Massachusetts 01752, has announced the availability of the 1983 medal created by Frank Gasparro, former chief engraver of the United States, which features Washington and Lincoln. The United States Mint, in announcing the availability of the national medal honoring President Ronald Reagan in February, reminds us that a medal of Abraham Lincoln is still available in either the 3-inch or 1 5/16-inch size for $10.00 and $1.00 respectively. Orders should be sent to the Bureau of the Mint, 55 Mint Street, San Francisco, California 94175. All 39 of the nation's chief executives are included in this series. Other Lincoln and Civil War related medals are available from the United States Mint. Illinois "dollars" featuring Lincoln are still available from Presidential Art Medals, Inc., 222 West National Road, Vandalia, Ohio 45377.

Philatelic

The United States Postal Service has announced a new presidential stamp series of 1986. This was done in part to satisfy the proponents of a special commemorative stamp to honor Martin Van Buren on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of his birth. There have been many who have requested the United States Postal Service issue a special commemorative for Lincoln on the occasion of his 175th birthday this year, but at press time no indication has been given that one will appear. A four-cent stamp honoring Carl Schurz, campaigner for Lincoln's election in 1860, was issued on June 3rd. A three-cent stamp honoring Lincoln's "Beau ideal of a statesman," Henry Clay, was issued on July 13th. A twenty-cent stamp honoring the Medal of Honor created during Lincoln's administration was issued on June 7th. In commemoration of the 125th anniversary of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates, Rampant Lion Hobby Press of 5358 Bloomingdale Avenue, Chicago 60639, issued on November 30th twenty vari-colored cacheted covers mounted on specially prepared album sheets and designed by Theodore S. Charrney.

Manuscripts

A rare printed copy of the Emancipation Proclamation signed Page  [End Page 62] by President Lincoln was found hanging on the wall of the office of the president of Lincoln Christian College and Seminary. James Hickey, curator of the Lincoln Collection at the Illinois State Historical Library, authenticated the document. It is one of only ten known to exist. It was one of 48 offered for sale at the Great Central Sanitary Fair in Philadelphia in June, 1864. Janet Haldane of Perthshire, Scotland, returned a 122-year-old letter from Abraham Lincoln to Columbia University. Lincoln's letter in the hand of his secretary, John Hay, but signed by the President, was written to Columbia's president, Charles King, on June 26, 1861, thanking the college for awarding him an honorary degree. Lincoln interpreted the award of this degree as a symbol of support and thanked the president of Columbia for the "manifestation of confidence and good will." The letter was displayed at Butler Library on the university campus.

Newsletters and Indices

The demise of "The Gates Report: The Civil War Today" in Civil War Times Illustrated was a sad event. All of us looked forward to the Lincoln and Civil War news shared by Arnold Gates. A new journal Lincoln Cents, The Journal of Lincoln Cents Collectors (Dr. Sol Taylor, Editor, P.O. Box 5465, North Hollywood, California 91616) has commenced publication. Jerry L. Russell's Civil War Round Table Associates (P.O. Box 7388, Little Rock, Arkansas 72217) continues to give updated news on the preservation of our Civil War battlefields, as well as reports on the numerous conferences sponsored by it. A new roster of Civil War Round Tables and related organizations/publications was published in the spring by Mr. Russell. American Heritage (10 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, New York 10020) has published a 28-year index covering all prior issues. Likewise, Indiana Magazine of History, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, published a general index for Volumes LI–LXXV (1955–1979). Lincoln Lore, 1300 Southern Clinton Street, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46801, published its index for 1981 in its December 1981 issue. Other articles authored by Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr., in Lincoln Lore included "The Insanity Defense in Lincoln's Illinois," "President Lincoln and the Insanity Defense," "A 'No Confidence' Vote on the Lincoln Administration?," "Prisons and Politics in the Election of 1864," "Vindication," and a revealing look at the late Dr. Louis A. Warren in the two memorial issues prepared for the first Page  [End Page 63] director of the Louis A. Warren Library and Museum. The Lincoln Newsletter included reports of current activities on Lincoln and Paul Beaver's thoughts on Lincoln from "The Diary of a Civil War Soldier." Articles in The Surratt Society News (Surratt House, Clinton, Maryland 20735) included "Twin Tales of Military Injustice, Why Was Mrs. Surratt's Home Raided on the Night of April 14–15, 1865?," and "The Surratts' Physician — A Story of His Own."

The Lincolnian, published by the Lincoln Group of Washington, D.C., 7415 Flora Street, Springfield, Virginia 22150, and edited by George Landes, featured Joan Chaconas' "The Oldroyd Collection," Edward Steers, Jr.'s "To Remove the Stain of Innocent Blood From the Land," George Kackley's "The Tie That Binds," Edward Steers, Jr.'s "The Flag That Cradeled the Dying President's Head," and Joan Chaconas' "Historic Fort-McNair." The Lincoln Chronicle, edited by Thomas J. Dyba, Illinois Bendictine College, Lisle, Illinois 60532, contained an obituary of George L. Cashman, former curator of the Lincoln Tomb in Springfield, and expanded chronology of the Lincoln home along with reports of commemorative services at Lincoln's Tomb on April 15th, and the Scouts 38th Annual Pilgrimage to the Tomb on April 24th. Gary R. Planck continues with his excellent "Lincoln News Digest" in Lincoln Herald, Harrogate, Tennessee 37752.

Periodicals

The Summer 1982 issue of Lincoln Herald contained Part VI of Joseph E. Suppiger's "The Intimate Lincoln" and Stewart Leibeiger's "Lincoln's 'White Elephants': The Trent Affair." The Fall 1982 issue contained Howard C. Westwood's "The Audience For The Gettysburg Address," Jeffrey S. King's "President Lincoln as the Great White Father," Charles L. Woodall's "Lincoln's Religion and the Denominations" and Part VII of Joseph E. Suppiger's "The Intimate Lincoln." The Winter 1982 issue contained Wayne C. Temple's "Lincoln in the Governor's Chambers of the Illinois State House," Maurine Pacenta Taylor's "President Lincoln and the Press: An Important Chapter in the History of Presidential Press Relations," Mark L. Siegel's "The Flight of John Wilkes Booth and the Corpse Brought From Garrett's Farm" and Part VIII of Joseph E. Suppiger's "The Intimate Lincoln — Lawyer and Politician." Part Page  [End Page 64] IX, "The Intimate Lincoln — The Making of a President" appeared in the Spring 1983 issue with David Hein's "Lincoln and Political Decision-Making" and Part I of Nelson R. Burr's "Abraham Lincoln: Western Star Over Connecticut — The Night Express to New York." Professor John David Smith discussed the two Lincoln sculptures of William Zorach: "The Railsplitter" (a copy of which is in the Frank and Virginia Williams Collection of Lincolniana) and "Lincoln — The Emancipator" (a copy of which is at The Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum). James Gilreath's "The Puzzle of the First Southern Printing of the Emancipation Proclamation" also appeared in this issue.

"The Roughest Kind of Campaigning: Letters of Sergeant Edward Wightman, Third New York Volunteers, May–July 1864," edited by Edward G. Longacre, appeared in the December 1982 issue of Civil War History. Keith Wilson's "Thomas Webster and the 'Free Military School for Applicants for Commands of Colored Troops'" and Judith Lee Hallock's "The Role of the Community in Civil War Desertion" appeared in the June 1983 issue of Civil War History. The March 1983 issue included Harold E. Mahan's "The Arsenal of History: The Official Records of the War of the Rebellion" and "'On the Qui Vive for the Long Letter': Washington Letters From a Navy Wife, 1861" edited by Virginia Jeans Laas. "John Mason Peck on Illinois Slavery" edited by Roger D. Bridges appeared in the Autumn 1982 issue of the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. David Lightner's "Abraham Lincoln and the Ideal of Equality" and James T. Hickey's "A Family Album: The Dressers of Springfield" were in the winter 1982 issue of the Journal...."'My Dear Mr. W': Mary Lincoln Writes to Alexander Williamson," also by James T. Hickey, appeared in the Spring 1983 issue of the Journal....

"The Civil War Diary of Chaplain Stephen C. Bowers" appeared in the June 1983 issue of the Indiana Magazine of History. Victor B. Howard's "Lincoln's Slave Policy in Kentucky: A Study of Pragmatic Strategy" appeared in the Summer 1982 issue of The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society. The excellent "Southern History in Periodicals, 1982: A Selected Bibliography" appeared in the May 1983 issue of The Journal of Southern History.

Harold Holzer's "'If I Had Another Face, Do You Think I'd Wear This One?'" appeared in the February/March 1983 issue of American Heritage. In beautiful color, the Lincoln portraits con- Page  [End Page 65] tained therein were based upon a paper delivered by Mr. Holzer before the Abraham Lincoln Association. As Lincoln continues to top the poll as the best American president, Mary Todd Lincoln is regarded as "the most unpopular first lady" in Beatrice K. Hofstadter's "How to be First Lady" in the September 1983 issue of American Heritage. Harold Holzer's annual contribution to the Antique Trader Weekly appeared in the February 9 issue entitled "Lincoln in Death, Bigger Than Life." Mr. Holzer also authored "Collecting's First Family" (about the Malcolm S. Forbes family) in the March/April 1983 issue of Americana. Also by Mr. Holzer is "The Most Colossal Sculpture in the World" (Mt. Rushmore) in the March 1983 issue of MD. The January/February issue of Americana featured James L. Swanson's Abraham Lincoln Book Shop, a celebration of Ralph G. Newman's 50th anniversary as a book man. The May/June issue had Nancy M. Lee's "Lincoln's Hildene" about Robert Todd Lincoln's summer home in Manchester, Vermont. Other articles about Hildene include Richard H. Stewart's "The Lincoln Link" in the August 3 issue of The Boston Globe, Betty Rivera's "A House Full of History Nestled in Vermont Hills" in The Providence Sunday Journal Arts and Travel Section for August 14th and Harold Halzer's "The Other 'Land of Lincoln'" in the Gannett Westchester Newspapers on September 4th. Those interested in information about Hildene and about assisting in its ongoing restoration should write to the Friends of Hildene, Inc., Manchester, Vermont 05254. Phil Brenman's "Top Parapsychologists Awed by Ghostly Contact With Mrs. Lincoln" appeared in the August 3 issue of the National Examiner. M. W. Newman's "A Lincoln Collector's Labor of Love" about Tom Dyba's scale model of the Lincoln Springfield home appeared in the March/April 1983 issue of the Franklin Mint Almanac. Clark Spencer's article "Tom Dyba Cuts Lincoln's Home Down to Size" appeared in The State Journal-Register on February 13th. Thomas C. Hayden's "Abraham Lincoln and the Formation of the Republican Party in New Hampshire" appeared in the Winter 1983 issue of The Phillips Exeter Bulletin. Constance Head's "John Wilkes Booth as a Hero Figure" appeared in the Fall 1982 issue of Journal of American Culture. Mary Hawley's article on Lloyd Ostendorf and his Abraham Lincoln Collection appeared in Ohio for April 1983. The Village Teacher, the voice of the Edison Institute, Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village, contained Debra Kern's "Logan County Courthouse: A Day in Court" about the courthouse Page  [End Page 66] which is a part of the Village. The annual Lincoln issue of Illinois Times for February 10–16 contained "The Legend of Lincoln" which included "Lincoln's Death and Transfiguration," "The Battle for the Body," "The Glorification of Fido and Old Bob" and "What It's Like to Look Like Lincoln." The Lincoln National Life Insurance Company has published a new brochure entitled Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.

The April 1983 of American History Illustrated contained Allison Lockwood's "Life of Kate Chase Sprague." Ed Magnuson of Time magazine authored a masterful survey of famous forgers (May 16, 1983) in discussing the fraudulent Hitler diaries. Reference was made to the major Lincoln forgery which appeared in the Atlantic Monthly, December 1928, in which Wilma Frances Minor purportedly uncovered letters between Lincoln and Ann Rutledge. Joan Muraro's "Lincoln Eyed California for Retirement, So They Say" appeared in the February 11 issue of The State Journal-Register. The travel section of the Sunday New York Times for July 24 contained Noel Perrin's "Touring the Saint Gauden's Sculpture Park." Barbara Rehm's "The Lincoln Legend Thrives" appeared in the February 6 issue of the Daily News.

This author's article "Lincolniana in 1982" appeared in the February issue of Hobbies magazine. Andrew L. Yarrow's "Charleston's Fort Sumter" was in the July 10 issue of the Sunday New York Times. Guy Di Carlo, Jr., editor of The Dispatch (Civil War Round Table of N.Y.) has prepared a 30th Anniversary history of this very active Round Table.

Charles F. Cooney's "Nothing More Than A Whorehouse: The Treasury — 1864" and Howard Pupowski's "Granddaddy of the Greenback: The Union's Jay Cooke" were in the December 1982 issue of Civil War Times Illustrated. Richard M. McMurry's "On the Road to the Sea: Sherman's Savannah Campaign" appeared in Civil War Times Illustrated for January 1983. The February 1983 issue featured Robert H. Joynt's "Commander Lincoln at Norfolk: A Port Captured." The entire May 1983 issue was devoted to "The Second Battle of Manassas." An excerpt of Stephen Sears' well received "Landscape Turned Red: Antietam" appeared in the June 1983 issue. Phillip B. Kunhardt Jr.'s "Lincoln of Gettysburg" was featured in the October issue of LIFE. It is extracted from his forthcoming book A New Birth of Freedom: Lincoln at Gettysburg (Little, Brown). Page  [End Page 67]

Books

William Hanchett's historiographic study of the assassination theories, The Lincoln Murder Conspiracies..., long in coming but well worth the wait, has been published by the University of Illinois Press and is a History Book Club selection. Many of Richard N. Current's Lincoln essays appeared in his Speaking of Abraham Lincoln — The Man and His Meaning For Our Times (University of Illinois). William F. Hanna authored Abraham Among the Yankees: Abraham Lincoln's 1848 Visit to Massachusetts (Old Colony Historical Society, Taunton, Mass.). In honor of its publication, the Historical Society held a reception on September 22 with a slide presentation by the author entitled "Lincoln: A Pictorial Sketch." The Lincoln Home Project, Illinois Benedictine College, Lisle, Illinois 60532, published Thomas J. Dyba's Seventeen Years at Eighth and Jackson. For young readers, Troll Associates (320 Rt. 17, Mahwah, New Jersey 07430) published Keith Brandt's "Abe Lincoln: The Young Years" with illustrations by John Lawn. Gary W. Cardinale's dissertation, An Analysis of the Conflict Management Style of Abraham Lincoln, is now available on microfiche, microfilm or paper copy from University Microfilms, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106. Abraham Lincoln: Great Emancipator by Augusta Stevenson was published by Bobbs-Merrill. Dr. Donggill Kim of Seoul, Korea, a former member of the Lincoln Group of Boston, has published his sixteenth book, Abraham Lincoln: An Oriental Interpretation (Jung Woo-Sa, Seoul). Excellent contributions appeared in The Selected Essays of T. Harry Williams with a biographical introduction by Estelle Williams (LSU). Abraham Lincoln Fact Book and Teacher's Guide by Gerald Sanders (Eastern Acorn Press) is available from Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial, Lincoln City, Indiana 47552. Heathcote Publications has published J. Donald Hawkins' Famous Statements, Speeches and Stories of Abraham Lincoln. Stephen B. Oates' "The Nature of True Biography" appeared in James M. Veninga's The Biographer's Gift (Texas A&M University Press). It is a discussion of an author's relationship with his subjects. In Professor Oates' case, it includes his quartet on John Brown, Nat Turner, Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King. Giesela Hersch with the assistance of Lisa E. Landau, compiled and annotated the excellent catalog Lincolniana about the Lincoln collection housed at the U. Thomas Miller Rare Book Room, Irwin Library, Butler University. A new reprint of Herndon's Life of Lincoln with an in- Page  [End Page 68] troduction by Henry Steele Commager is available from Da Capo Press, Inc. (233 Spring Street, New York 10013). Dr. Sol Taylor, a well known numismatic researcher has written and published his new book entitled The Standard Guide to the Lincoln Cent (P.O. Box 5465, North Hollywood, California 91616). Assassination material published included Gordon Samples' Lust For Fame (McFarland & Company, Inc., Box 611, Jefferson, N.C. 28640) and James W. Clarke's American Assassins: The Darker Side of Politics (Princeton). Hans L. Trefousse's "Lincoln and Johnson" appeared in the festschrift Society in Change: Studies in Honor of Bela K. Kiraly, Eastern European Monographs CXXXII, Boulder, Colorado. The View From Eternity by Vaughan Shelton (Forbes Nichols, P.O. Box 996, Pocatello, Idaho) discusses Ruth Shelton's clairvoyant revelations on the Lincoln assassination.

The best biography of the year was John Niven's Martin Van Buren: The Romantic Age of American Politics, a History Book Club selection (Oxford). Also a History Book Club selection is Paul C. Nagel's Descent From Glory, a discussion of four generations of the Adams Family (Oxford). More information about the Adams family is contained in the three volumes of The Letters of Henry Adams, edited by J.C. Levenson, Ernest Samuels, Charles Vandersce and Viola Hopkins Winner (The Belknap Press-Harvard). There is an excellent review of these from William S. McFeely in the March 6 issue of the New York Times Book Review. Wayne C. Temple's Stephen A. Douglas Freemason is available from the Masonic Supply Co., P.O. Box 3306, Bloomington, Illinois 61701. For a study of the living patterns of United States presidents, see Where The American Presidents Lived by Ellyn R. Kern (Cottontail Publications, P.O. Box B44761, Indianapolis, IN 46204). The post-war story of "Blackjack" Logan is told in James Pickett Jones' John A. Logan Stalwart Republican From Illinois (University Presses of Florida). Volume VI of The Papers of Andrew Johnson 1862–1864 (University of Tennessee) and Volume IV of The Papers of Jefferson Davis 1849–1852 (LSU) are also available.

The first of five volumes planned by the Freedman and Southern Society Project of the University of Maryland appeared as Freedom, A Documentary History of Emancipation 1861–1867, Selected From The Holdings of The National Archives of The United States, Series II: The Black Military Experience, edited by Ira Berlin, Joseph P. Reidy and Leslie S. Roland, associate editors (Cambridge). An excellent discussion of the "black military experience" is contained in C. Vann Woodward's review of the book in the February 13 issue of the New York Times Book Review. Page  [End Page 69]

Carl A. Degler's discussion of Southerners who opposed the majority during the mid-1800's entitled The Other South — Southern Dissenters in The 19th Century has been reprinted by Northeastern University Press, Box 116, Boston, Massachusetts 02117. Maclay & Associate, P.O. Box 16253, Baltimore, Maryland 20210, has reprinted Baltimore and the 19th of April, 1861 by George William Brown, Charles Hamilton's magnificent opus American Autographs, a two-volume boxed set containing more than 2,000 illustrations, was published by the University of Oklahoma Press and contains a thorough examination of Lincoln forgeries. University Microfilms International has issued a new catalog, Presidents: A Catalog of the Doctoral Dissertations. The Kentucky Historical Society, P.O. Box H, Frankfort, Kentucky, published Kentucky Profiles: Biographical Essays in Honor of Holman Hamilton, edited by James C. Klotter and Peter J. Sehlinger.

The best Civil War book of the year was William A. Frassanito's Grant and Lee: The Virginia Campaigns 1864–1865 in which Frassanito completes his trilogy on the photographic coverage of major campaigns in the Eastern theater. A History Book Club selection, the book was reviewed by William C. Davis in the History Book Club Review for June. William C. Davis' Stand In The Day of Battle, Volume II of his The Imperiled Union, was published by Doubleday. Davis surveys the events of 1862 and 1863 in the second volume of his trilogy on the war. The beautiful, comprehensive and original photographic history of the Civil War, The Image of War: 1861–1865, continued with the publication of Volume Four, Fighting For Time, and Volume Five, The South Beseiged both edited by William C. Davis. William C. Darrah (2235 Baltimore Pike, Gettysburg, PA 17325) wrote and published Cartes de Visite in 19th Century Photography, a most comprehensive study of this photographic format. Time-Life Books, Inc. (Alexandria, Virginia 22314) published the first three volumes of the history of the Civil War, Brother Against Brother and First Blood, both by William C. Davis and The Blockade — Runners and Raiders. Another good book on the Battle of Antietam is Stephen W. Sears' Landscape Turned Red: ... (Ticknor & Fields). Richard McMurry authored John Bell Hood and The War For Southern Independence (University Press of Kentucky). Thomas L. Connelly and Barbara L. Bellows co-authored God and General Longstreet-The Lost Cause and the Southern Mind (LSU). Michael Barton presented a most interesting study in his Goodmen: The Character of Civil War Soldiers (Penn. State). Broadfoot's Bookmark, Wendell, North Carolina 27591, has reprinted Page  [End Page 70] Richard B. Harwell's The Confederate Hundred—an excellent bibliography of the best books on the Confederacy. Also reprinted was Professor Harwell's Cornerstones of Confederate Collecting. Herman Hattaway and Archer Jones wrote A Military History of the Civil War: How the North Won (University of Illinois Press), which was a main selection of the History Book Club. Presidio Press (31 Pamaron Way, Novato, California 94947) published Military Uniforms in America, Volume III — Long Endured: The Civil War Period, 1852–1867, edited by Col. John R. Elting and Michael J. McAfee. Prepared by The Company of Military Historians, this volume in the series of the same name is the first comprehensive and detailed account of U.S. Armed Forces uniforms. Formerly issued as individual prints, one can now have all of the Civil War prints in one volume. The Book of the Month Club, Inc. issued a handsome boxed edition of Bruce Catton's A Stillness at Appomattox. The long awaited Library of America (Viking) includes Whitman Poetry and Prose with notes and selections by Justin Kaplan.

Clarence E. Walker authored A Rock In A Weary Land — The African Methodist Episcopal Church During The Civil War and Reconstruction (LSU). LSU also published Eric Foner's Nothing But Freedom — Emancipation and its Legacy. This excellent writer and scholar examines what occurred after emancipation in the South using a comparative approach with the experience of Haiti. University Press of America (P.O. Box 19101, Washington 20036) published J. Michael Quill's Prelude To The Radicals: The North and Reconstruction During 1865 which is an attempt to examine the Northern mind during the early months of Reconstruction. James C. Mohr edited The Cormany Diaries: A Northern Family in the Civil War (University of Pittsburgh Press). The ninth and final volume of The Diary of Calvin Fletcher was published by the Indiana Historical Society (315 W. Ohio St., Indianapolis 46202). In conjunction with the publication, the society held an exhibit of "Calvin Fletcher's Indiana" in September and October and, on September 18th, a Calvin Fletcher program of dramatic readings.

Authors' Queries

Jean H. Baker of the Department of History, Goucher College, Towson, Maryland 21204, wishes to hear from anyone with information about Mary Todd Lincoln for a biography she is planning. She is also interested in reactions to Mrs. Lincoln in the Page  [End Page 71] years after Lincoln's assassination. Barbara Bellford of the Graduate School of Journalism, Columbia University, New York 10027, wishes information on Ishbel Ross, author and reporter for the New York Herald Tribune. Ms. Ross wrote The President's Wife, Mary Todd Lincoln (Putnam).

Tours

The New York Times on Sunday, July 3rd, contained Andrew H. Malcolm's "Historic Illinois Trails to Lincoln Country and Cruises on the Mississippi." Joan L. Chaconas and Edward Steers, Jr. formed Marker Tours (9102 Cheltenham Drive, Brandywine, Maryland 20613). Among the tours offered are "Mr. Lincoln's Washington", "John Wilkes Booth Escape Route Tour," "Washington Underground" and "The Lincoln Heritage Trail."

Reviews

Gabor S. Boritt's excellent review "Mrs. Cox's Affair With Mr. Lincoln" of LaWanda Cox's Lincoln and Black Freedom: A Study in Presidential Leadership (University of South Carolina) appeared in the March 1983 issue of Reviews in American History. Thomas Keneally, author of the excellent Confederates (Harper & Row) gave an excellent review of Stephen W. Sears' Landscape Turned Red: ... in the New York Times Book Review for August 7. The March 1983 issue of The Journal of American History contained James M. McPhersons' complimentary review of Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (McGraw-Hill); Thomas J. Pressly's review of Beware The People Weeping: ... by Thomas Reed Turner (LSU); and Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s review of Abraham Lincoln: The Quest For Immortality by Dwight G. Anderson (Knopf). Daniel P. Younger's excellent review of John Wilkes Booth Himself by Richard J. S. and Kellie O. Gutman (Hired Hand Press, P.O. Box 426, Dover, Massachusetts 02030) appeared in Volume IV, No. 4 of Views: The Journal of Photography in New England.

Addenda

With the plethora of information which your author sifts through each year, he is bound to miss some and for that and to the contributors who where overlooked, your author apologizes. Page  [End Page 72] Missing from last year's article but worthy of note are Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s "Lincoln Won The Civil War But He Lost Fort Wayne" which appeared in the Fort Wayne News-Sentinel on November 13, 1982. A rededication of The Lincoln Room of the University Library at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, occurred on February 17, 1982. Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr. presented his paper "After the Big Five: The Past and Present of Lincoln Collecting." This paper will be published by The American Book Collector. The February 11–17, 1982 issue of Illinois Times presented "Looking at the Legacy" which contained articles on New Salem, the plot to steal Lincoln's body and the restoration and preservation of the Lincoln home area. Drawings from the American Heritage Century Collection of Civil War Art were on exhibit at the National Academy of Design in New York, November 4 through November 18, 1982. Dr. Wayne C. Temple gave the Convocation Lecture at Illinois College on February 18, 1982. His paper "Lincoln as a Lecturer on 'Discoveries, Inventions and Improvements'" was published in full by the Jacksonville Journal Courier on May 23, 1982. The February 14, 1982 issue of the New York Times travel section contained "On the Path of Abe Lincoln" with articles by Herbert Mitgang, Stephen B. Oates and Harold Holzer. The Winter 1979 issue of Presidential Studies Quarterly contained Stephen B. Oates' "'The Man of Our Redemption': Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation of the Slaves" and Richard N. Current's "The Lincoln Presidents." Robert Loewenberg's excellent article "That Graver Firebell: A Reconsideration of the Debate Over Slavery from the Standpoint of Lincoln" appeared in the Summer 1982 issue of the St. John's Review. George M. Fredrickson's excellent discussion of Lincoln and the use of psychohistory as demonstrated in Charles B. Strozier's Lincoln's Quest For Union: Public and Private Meanings (Basic Books) and Dwight G. Anderson's Abraham Lincoln: The Quest For Immortality (Knopf) appeared in the July 15, 1982 issue of The New York Review of Books. The March 1982 issue of American History Illustrated contained Fred L. Schultz's "Bruce Catton's The Blue and the Gray...."

Necrology

Dr. Louis A. Warren, Lincoln scholar and founder of the museum and library which bears his name in Fort Wayne, Indiana, died at the age of ninety-eight on June 22nd. George L. Page  [End Page 73] Cashman, curator of the Lincoln Tomb for more than twenty-five years and active in the Springfield Civil War Round Table, died on March 27th. Raymond Massey, the actor, known for his portrayal of Lincoln in Robert Sherwood's Abe Lincoln in Illinois, died on July 29th. Richard Fitzpatrick, loyal contributing member of the Lincoln Group of Boston and editor of Recall, the newsletter of the Civil War Round Table of Greater Boston, died on March 9th.

Works In Progress

Robert V. Bruce has completed his manuscript for his volume on science as part of The Impact of the Civil War Series. It is titled The Scientific Enterprise in America, 1846–1876 and will be published by Knopf in 1985. William Safire is at work on a book which will feature Lincoln. The Insanity File: The Case of Mary Todd Lincoln authored by Mark E. Neely, Jr. and R. Gerald McMurtry is expected to be published in 1984. Stephen B. Oates' "Yours Truly, A. Lincoln" will appear in the February 1984 issue of Civil War Times Illustrated. Professor Oates' Abraham Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myth will be published by Harper & Row in 1984. Weldon Petz's "They Are Still Remembered" about Lincoln in Michigan will appear in a forthcoming history of that state. John Hubbell, distinguished editor of Civil War Histroy, is editing the Encyclopedia of the Union for Greenwood Press. Robert P. Howard, distinguished newspaperman and author of Illinois history, has authored a paper shedding new light on Lincoln's ethics and political behavior. His "Abraham Lincoln, Governor William H. Bissell and Perjury" will appear in the Spring 1984 Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society as will Richard O. Curry's "Subconscious Caesarism: A Critique of Recent Scholarly Attempts to Put 'Honest Abe' on the Analyst's Couch."

Acknowledgment: The author wishes to thank Hobbies magazine and its editor, Mrs. Fran Graham, for permission to use information from his article which will appear in the February 1984 issue of Hobbies.

Editor's Note: Mr. Williams would welcome any news concerning Abraham Lincoln to be considered for publication in the next issue of the Papers.... You may write to him at: RFD, Hope Valley Road, Hope Valley, Rhode Island 02832. Page  [End Page 74]