|Author:||Lynn C. Westney|
|Title:||E-Journals: Inside and Out [vol. 6, no. 1]|
|Publication Info:||Ann Arbor, MI: MPublishing, University of Michigan Library
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E-Journals: Inside and Out [vol. 6, no. 1]
Lynn C. Westney
vol. 6, no. 1, April 2003
|Article Type:||E-Journals: Inside and Out|
E-Journals - Inside and Out
The acronym SDI stands for Selective Dissemination of Information in the field of Library and Information Science. The editor of this column on E-Journals has been a practicing academic reference librarian since 1983. Lynn C. Westney is an Associate Professor and a reference librarian at the University of Illinois at Chicago. In this column she selectively disseminates international information on the contents of freely accessible (no subscription required), e-journals, e-newsletters, and other e-publications. On occasion, relevant Web sites are included. Selectivity is the principle guideline for this column.
The Journal of the Association for History and Computing, JAHC, has as its focus the applications of computer and other electronic technologies into the historical profession which is interdisciplinary in several areas. The applications of new technologies, particularly within academe, have been the focus of research by scholars in many disciplines, especially in all aspects of education, history, library and information science, and philosophy. These applications are interdisciplinary rather than discipline-specific.
Historians must be open and receptive to the ideas presented in other journals and in other fields. An additional purpose of this column is to present to the readers of JAHC, the issues, controversies, and trends which are impacting interdisciplinary research within history and computing and allied disciplines as evidenced within current electronic publications.
Professor Westney brings to our attention a diversity of global e-publications of interest to historians and other scholars by providing a brief descriptive and evaluative annotation of each publication which she has chosen for inclusion. Through highlighting and reviewing individual articles which she has identified as appropriate for our purposes, this effort serves as an introductory vehicle for the selective dissemination of information for the members of AAHC, JAHC, and all others who visit our Web site.
Commentary and queries concerning this column should be addressed to: firstname.lastname@example.org
E-Journals and Electronic Publications
The selected entries are listed in alphabetical order by e-title.
The magazine has as its principal goal to report on information service developments and information networking issues worldwide, keeping the busy practitioner abreast of current digital library initiatives. It has reported in depth to the information community at large on progress and developments within the UK Electronic Libraries Programme since its inception, and now additionally reports on newer JISC-funded programmes and services. Ariadne is published every three months by UKOLN.
Describes the work of the Cultural Heritage Language Technologies consortium, a research group funded by the European Comission Information Society Technologies program and the United States National Science Foundation Digital Libraries Initiative.
The partners in Europe include The Newton Project and the Department of Computer Science, Imperial College, the Faculty of Classics, Cambridge University, the Istituto di Linguistica Computazionale del CNR, Pisa, and the Arnamagnaean Institute, University of Copenhagen. In the United States, the partners are the Classical Studies Program and Department of English, University of Missouri at Kansas City, The Perseus Project, Tufts University, The Stoa Consortium, University of Kentucky, Scandinavian Section, University of California at Los Angeles. The funding for this project has been provided by the National Science Foundation and the European Union International Digital Library Collaborative Research Program. The consortium has three major goals for its research. First, they want to adapt discoveries from the field of computational linguistics and information retrieval and visualization in ways that are specifically designed to help students and scholars in the humanities advance their work. Second, they hope to establish an international framework with open standards for the long-term preservation of data, the sharing of metadata, and interoperability between affiliated digital libraries. The ultimate goal of all of this work is to lower the barriers to reading Greek, Latin, and Old Norse texts in their original languages.
Presents a brief overview of the DAEDALUS Open Archives Project at the University of Glasgow. DAEDALUS is a three year JISC funded project under the FAIR Programme which will build a range of Open Archives Compliant (OAI) digital collections at the University of Glasgow. These collections will enable them to unlock access to a wide range of their institutional scholarly output. This output will include not only published and peer-reviewed papers but also administrative documents, research finding aids, pre-prints and theses.
DPC/PADI What's New in Digital Preservation
Visit the DACHS website at the Institute of Chinese Studies, University of Heidelberg: http://www.sino.uni-heidelberg.de/dachs/
Several papers are available describing the rationale, advantages and practical implementations of institutional repositories for capturing and preserving scholarly output. A report produced by the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) examines the benefits of developing institutional repositories and how the trend towards the self-publishing of primary research materials affects the roles of traditional scholarly publishers, academic libraries and specific faculties. An article by Roy Tennant in Library Journal provides an overview of several institutional initiatives, touching on software, implementations and metadata, and a new article about DSpace, a collaborative, open source repository project between MIT Libraries and Hewlett Packard Laboratories, features in the January 2003 issue of D-Lib Magazine.
The Case for Institutional Repositories: A SPARC Position Paper, by Raym Crow. Washington D.C., The Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition, 2002. Available in PDF format at: http://www.arl.org/sparc/IR/IR_Final_Release_102.pdf
"Institutional Repositories", by Roy Tennant, Library Journal, Vol. 127, September 15, 2002. http://libraryjournal.reviewsnews.com/index.asp?layout=articleArchive&articleid=CA242297
"DSpace: An Open Source Dynamic Digital Repository", D-Lib Magazine, by MacKenzie Smith et al., Vol. 9, January, 2003. http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january03/smith/01smith.html
The DSpace project Web site is at: http://dspace.org/.
University of Cambridge, Preserving our Past: a joint digital repository project for University and MIT, Press Release (February 10, 2003): http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/press/dpp/2003021001
A press release from the University of Cambridge announced a joint project between the Cambridge University Library and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries to establish a digital repository based on the DSpace software. The Cambridge system, to be known as 'DSpace@Cambridge, will have two main roles.
Firstly, it "has the ability to capture, index, store, disseminate and preserve digital material created by the academic community, including scholarly [sic] articles and pre-prints, theses, technical reports, archives and other textual material, together with different formats such as multimedia clips, interactive teaching programmes, datasets and databases. Secondly, it will provide a home for the increasing amount of material that is being digitised from the University Library's collections."
Another important development was the launch of DARE (Digital Academic Repositories), a collective initiative by universities in the Netherlands to make all of their research results digitally accessible. The initiative is a collaboration that includes the Koninklijke Bibliotheek [National Library of the Netherlands], the Koninklijke Neder landse Academie van Wetenschappen (KNAW) [Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences] and the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research]. Co-ordination is provided by the SURF Foundation, the ICT partnership organisation for higher education and research in the Netherlands.
Recent reviews of possible interest to readers of JAHC include:
Table of Contents:
- Variola Rex 1
- The Most Terrible of All the Ministers of Earth 22
- Heavenly Flowers 103
- Kiss of the Goddess 139
- The Spotted Death 164
- The Great fire 204
- A Destroying Angel 234
- Erythrotherapy and Eradication 295
- Chronology 311
- Notes 319
- Bibliographical Note 325
- References 329
It is infrequent that an author of a book is also a key player in a significant contemporary historical event. In the case of Dr. Donald Hopkins, this is the case. As a scientist with the Centers for Disease Control he played an important role in the eradication of smallpox. This classic work was first published in 1983. Now, with terrorism's threat and initial smallpox vaccinations occurring in the U.S., the timely republishing of this book is welcomed. Much of the research occurred at important medical libraries such as Harvard's Widener library, London's Wellcome Library of the History of Medicine, and libraries of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.
The first seven chapters focus on the historical progression of the disease and the last chapter tells how the disease was eradicated by the concerted efforts of the World Health Organization. The focus of the book is on historically important figures that died of smallpox. The author wisely chose these individuals because "because they were bound to be of more obvious consequence to history than the illnesses or deaths of numerous less influential folk." Among the notables who died of this disease were Emperor Gokwomyo of Japan, Louis XV, Marcus Aurelius, Ramses V, and Queen Mary II of England. The author almost painstakingly avoids the contemporary historical account of smallpox eradication, but it too is a vital link in the history of the disease.
This is the most concise history of the disease ever presented. Although a reprinting, the book holds up to new scrutiny and is timely owing to current world events. Aside from the narrative, the book includes a lengthy smallpox chronology (1500 B.C. to 1980), a thorough notes section, and a short biographical note. This is text that should be read by medical historians, epidemiologists, and public health officials. It is a worthy addition to any life science library.
Review #2316. On Second Thought" and Other Essays in the History of Medicine and Science, by Owsei Temkin.
Table of Contents:
- On Second Thought 1
- Part I. Ethics in Medicine
- What Does the Hippocratic Oath Say 21
- The Idea of respect for Life in the History of Medicine 29
- Some Moral Implications of the Concept of Disease 49
- Part II. The History of Science
- Science and Society in the Age of Copernicus 63
- Gall and the Phrenological Movement 87
- Historical Reflections on the Scientist's Virtue 131
- Part III. The History of Therapy and Nutrition
- Historical Aspects of Drug Therapy 151
- Galenicals and Galenism in the History of Medicine 165
- .Nutrition from Classical Antiquity to the Baroque 180
- .Comments on the German Edition of Rush's Account of the Yellow Fever 195
- Part IV. Miscellany
- .History and Prophecy 205
- .On the Reading of Medical Classics 219
- .The Study of the History of Medicine 231
- .Wunderlich versus Haeser 241
- .In Memory of Ludwig Edelstein 250
- Index 265
Owsei Temkin, M.D., was a prominent historian of medicine, professor, and former Director of the Institute of the History of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University. On Second Thought is his final collection of essays; he died in July 2002, just a few months shy of his 100th birthday.
This collection serves as a sequel to The Double Face of Janus (1977), another compilation of Temkin's essays. Some of the essays in this new volume present "second thoughts" on issues Temkin considered in his earlier work. Most of the essays have been previously published and range from the late 1940s to the early 1980s. The introductory chapter is new, and gives an overview and background of the other essays in the book. Chapter 1 also includes a fictional dialogue with an archetypal medical school dean, in which Temkin eloquently defends the value of having a history of medicine course in the curriculum. Chapter 2, "What Does the Hippocratic Oath Say?" is also original, presenting Temkin's new translation of the Oath and his perspective on its social context. The other chapters discuss historical medical ethics; topics in the history of science; origins of drug therapy and nutrition; and "A Miscellany" with chapters focusing mainly on the relevance of the history of medicine to medicine proper. The final chapter is an obituary of Temkin's friend and fellow historian Ludwig Edelstein.
Though the majority of essays in this book have been published elsewhere, only one, "The Idea of Respect for Life in the History of Medicine," has appeared in one of Temkin's own books. Libraries, which own the rest of Temkin's work, should not be concerned with duplication of material. Though many of the essays are several decades old, the content is not dated and is relevant to the history of medicine today. Temkin focuses on Western medicine, particularly ancient Greco-Roman and early modern European medicine. A few short, foreign-language quotations (usually German or Latin) lack translation and may bother some readers, but should not significantly hinder understanding. The style of writing is enjoyable, and arguments are presented clearly and convincingly. Temkin's long career and wide-ranging research provide valuable insights to historians of medicine, historians of science, and physicians.
Table of Contents:
- Biographical Essays 1
- Bibliography 399
- Entries by Field 401
- Entries by Country of Birth 406
- Entries by Country of Major Scientific Activity 410
- Entries by year of Birth 414
- Chronology 418
- Index 429
The International Encyclopedia of Women Scientists is a hardcover text from the well-respected Facts on File Science Library. Providing biographical information on 500 women from ancient Greece to the present, the book is a testament to the scientific achievements of women through the ages.
Written in everyday language, each entry begins with the scientist's name, birth/death dates, nationality and field of specialization. The essay portion of the entry ranges from 500 - 1,000 words and includes family information, education, achievements, positions held, awards and honors and any other pertinent data. Black and white photos accompany some entries. Accessing specific information is easy thanks to the variety of indexes. All entries are in alphabetical order by (best known) last name and are indexed by field of specialization, country of birth, country of major scientific activity, and year of birth. There is also a subject index as well as a bibliography.
This extremely readable book includes famous women like Dian Fossey and Margaret Mead as well as lesser-known names such as Marcia Kemper McNutt, a geophysicist and Karen Keskulla Ulenbeck, a mathematician. While one might argue that entries like Maria the Jewess and Heloise are not as scientifically grounded as other entries, they provide excellent insight into a woman's role in society as well as the cultural attitudes of their times.
One criticism is the overwhelming number of Americans included in the book. There are only eight Russians and eight Chinese entries while the United States holds approximately 300 of the 500 spots. It would be nice to have more recognition given on a global basis.
The International Encyclopedia of Women Scientists is highly recommended for public libraries, middle schools, high schools and academic libraries. It is a clearly written text with excellent detail and truly represents a wide range of scientific fields and accomplishments.
The LOC.GOV Wise Guide
In conjunction with the second National Book Festival, The Library of Congress launched the Wise Guide Web magazine. The purpose of this Web magazine is to introduce new users to the useful and educational resources available at The Library of Congress' Web site http://www.loc.gov The guide is refreshed monthly with links to various topics of interest.
"Creative Space: Fifty Years of Robert Blackburn's Printmaking Workshop" is an exhibition that features some 60 pieces of artwork from the Robert Blackburn Printmaking Workshop Archives and Collection, which is now on deposit at the Library of Congress. The exhibition, which opened Feb. 26, 2003, in the Library's Thomas Jefferson Building, includes a core selection of Blackburn's own work and a dazzling array of prints by collaborators and students, as well as friends and colleagues. Blackburn was the first master printer at Universal Limited Art Editions (ULAE), the lithographic venture founded by Tatyana and Maurice Grosman, based in West Islip, Long Island. At ULAE, he printed for an emerging generation of artists, including Larry Rivers, Grace Hartigan, Helen Frankenthaler and Robert Rauschenberg. His predilections and fluency with the medium contributed to the new "look" of these works, which would go on to define the American "graphics boom."
In 1936-38, federal workers documented more than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and made 500 black-and-white photographs of former slaves. These narratives were collected in the 1930s as part of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and assembled and microfilmed in 1941 as the 17-volume "Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves." This online collection, Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938, is a joint presentation of the Manuscript Division and the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress and includes more than 200 photographs from the Prints and Photographs Division that are now made available to the public for the first time.
The Naval War College Review
The Naval War College Review was established in 1948 by the Chief of Naval Personnel in order that officers of the Navy and Marine Corps might receive some of the educational benefits made available to resident students at the Naval War College. Titled Naval War College Information Service for Officers until the September 1952 issue, its distribution was at first authorized only to officers of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard in the grade of lieutenant commander (major) and above. Originally classified "Restricted," since January 1954 the Review has been unclassified; previous issues are now declassified as well. Thethoughts and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of the U.S. Navy Department or the Naval War College.
The Naval War College Review Index lists all articles published between the years of 1948 and 1991. Supplements appear annually in Winter editions starting in 1993. Full-text articles are available in HTML format.
The Naval War College Press (http://www.nwc.navy.mil) is a department of the Center for Naval Warfare Studies, which publishes a variety of works, including one of the leading quarterly journals on international security, defense, and naval matters, TheNaval War College Review. The Review, listed as "the government publication most frequently cited in the area of foreign affairs," by Government Information Quarterly (1990), makes available to policy makers and a broad international readership current thought on topics such as: strategy; operations; international law; defense economics; regional security studies; civil relations; history; doctrine; planning; war gaming; technology; coalition warfare; and operations other than war.
Vol. 56 , No. 2, Spring 2003
This article was written to mark the establishment of the new Maritime History Department at the Naval War College. Maritime and naval history serve the needs of several "audiences" in and around the Navy. However, the service's approach to naval history is "disjointed, sporadic, [and] inconsistent." Despite various initiatives and widespread interest, the Navy lacks an integrated policy for employing naval history, and high-level interest will be required to make history the valuable resource it could and should be.
The United States, the most carefree, happiest empire in history, now confronts the question of whether it can escape Rome's fate. The challenge can be localized, for a moment in Afghanistan, then in Iraq, but it is global in character. This nation has no choice but to exercise its imperial power, and how it does so will shape the emerging world order and test its own legitimacy as a democratic society.
Vol. 56, No. 1, Winter, 2003
The major problem with exile groups lies in the fact that they would have to be put in power by the United States and probably maintained there by American forces if they are to survive until a new constitutional regime can be established. With the exception of the Kurds, who cannot take over Baghdad on their own, the opposition's leadership and organization is outside Iraq.
DESERT STORM suggested that even at the climax of the Cold War, the military capabilities of Nato's European members were incommensurate with those of the United States. Another decade of insufficient defense spending in Europe has made the gap much larger. If the trend continues, Nato will become capable only of token contributions to out-of-area operations, and the United States will be without European security partners for major responsibilities in international security, especially in the Middle East and Asia.
"Clausewitz's Center of Gravity: It's Not What We Thought," by Lieutenant Colonel Antulio J. Echevarria II, U.S. Army.
The U.S. military labors under a misunderstanding of what Clausewitz meant by the "center of gravity"—in fact, from several such misunderstandings. Employed as intended, and in situations for which it was intended, the concept pays dividends; misapplied, it incurs serious risk and cost.
Proceedings of 'The New Information Order and the Future of theArchive, by Ellis Weinberger, Cambridge University Library; Richard Clayton, Computer Laboratory, Cambridge University; and Ross Anderson, Computer Laboratory, Cambridge University.
RLG DigiNews is a bimonthly Web-based newsletter intended to focus on issues of particular interest and value to managers of digital initiatives with a preservation component or rationale; provide filtered guidance and pointers to relevant projects to improve our awareness of evolving practices in image conversion and digital preservation; and announce publications (in any form) that will help staff attain a deeper understanding of digital issues.
Vol. 6, No. 6, December 15, 2002
For people who may live both physically and culturally distant from the majority culture in their immediate environment, information technology can provide a boost toward accessing and documenting their own heritage. As early adopters of the Web, Native Americans began using the Internet for e-commerce and cultural outreach in the early 1990s. The University of Michigan School of Information (SI), through internships and workshop classes held since 1997, has been exploring ways that digital technology can facilitate appropriate access and greater participation in cultural heritage documentation and presentation in tribal colleges and communities across the United States.
The Cultural Heritage Preservation Institute (CHPI) and its research component, the Digital Collective, were developed by SI Professor Maurita Peterson Holland and the author working with Native American community leaders, educators, cultural experts, and SI graduate students. These efforts culminated in 2001 with an international meeting in Hilo, Hawaii, of indigenous culture and technology specialists; library, museum, and archives professionals; funders; and digital library researchers. At this three-day meeting convened by SI, issues were discussed involving the use of information technology in preserving, documenting, and participating in indigenous cultures.
Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography
2 Electronic Books and Texts
3 Electronic Serials
4 General Works (Last update: 2/20/2003)
5 Legal Issues
6 Library Issues
7 New Publishing Models (Last update: 2/20/2003)
8 Publisher Issues (Last update: 2/20/2003)