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Author: Susan L. Collins
Title: In the Aggregate: A Quantitative Study of the Impact of Interdisciplinary Full Text Databases on Historical Research
Publication Info: Ann Arbor, MI: MPublishing, University of Michigan Library
April 2003
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Source: In the Aggregate: A Quantitative Study of the Impact of Interdisciplinary Full Text Databases on Historical Research
Susan L. Collins


vol. 6, no. 1, April 2003
Article Type: Article
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.3310410.0006.102

In the Aggregate: A Quantitative Study of the Impact of Interdisciplinary Full Text Databases on Historical Research

Susan L. Collins

Hunt Library, Carnegie Mellon University, sc24@andrew.cmu.edu

.01 Abstract

Interdisciplinary full text databases can be used as a resource to increase the number of journal articles that historians are able to access. Using the resources of the Carnegie Mellon University Libraries as a case study, the author quantitatively demonstrates this point using the journals indexed in America: History and Life and Historical Abstracts, the journal holdings of the Carnegie Mellon University Libraries, and the full text resources in Expanded Academic ASAP™ and ProQuest Research Library™. While journal holdings can be supplemented in this way, it will, however, demand that historical researchers become adept in the use of aggregator management tools, aggregator databases, or, perhaps, both.

.02 Introduction

Since 1964, historians have had access to two unique resources for historical research, ABC-CLIO's America: History and Life and Historical Abstracts. Available electronically since 1975, these products were unique in being the only databases dedicated solely to the indexing and abstracting of the historical journal literature. [1] Highly regarded, they offer the unique ability not only to search citations and abstracts culled from over 1,700 journals, but also to do searches of unique value and interest to historians. The "Time Period" search, for example, permits researchers to limit searches to as fine a date distinction as a decade or a combination of decades, making them an invaluable resource for anyone doing historical research.  [2]

Available on the Web since 1998, these databases now provide additional benefits, such as links to the full text of articles in JSTOR, as well as the History Cooperative, and most recently, Project Muse, for any institution or individual with subscriptions to those services. [3] For many researchers, historical research continues to become a desktop delivery service.

.03 Statement of Issues

Even with these links and the usual print journal subscriptions, however, many libraries still will not be able to provide access to all the journal articles of interest to their users, no less all the journals indexed in the historical databases. Researchers have long augmented the journal collections of their home institutions by using interlibrary loan services. By becoming aware of the availability of full text resources in other electronic products to which they may have access, however, researchers can expand the journal articles available to them at no added cost.

In addition to subject specific databases like America: History and Life and Historical Abstracts, many university, college, and public libraries offer access to other database products from vendors such as the GaleGroup, ProQuest, and EBSCO. These vendors produce interdisciplinary databases such as the Expanded Academic ASAP™, ProQuest Research Library™, or EBSCOhost Academic Search Elite. The appeal of these products is that they cover a wide array of subjects, and so can be of use to researchers in many different fields. Each also offers not only indexing and abstracting of journal articles, but access to some full text as well. Because of this, they are known as aggregator databases, for they are an aggregation or collection of full text resources. [4] Historians and librarians, by increasing their knowledge of the full text historical journals in these aggregator databases, could begin to use these resources as full text delivery systems. This article investigates how faculty and students at Carnegie Mellon could increase their access to historical journal articles that are indexed and abstracted in America: History and Life or Historical Abstracts, but are provided full text in the aggregator databases to which the Carnegie Mellon University Libraries subscribes.

In addition to many other electronic resources, the Carnegie Mellon University Libraries subscribe to the Web versions of America: History and Life and Historical Abstracts as well as JSTOR, Project Muse, the History Cooperative, ProQuest Research Library™, and Expanded Academic ASAP™ through Info Trac Web. All are accessible via IP authentication. Carnegie Mellon faculty, students and staff, therefore, not only have access to two databases dedicated to historical research, several online journal providers, but also two general academic databases with full text resources. Bibliographic records for JSTOR, Project Muse and the History Cooperative resources appear in Cameo, the Carnegie Mellon University Libraries' online catalog, as do some other online journal collections, for each of these provides the entire journal as an online entity and thus can be approached as one would a print resource. [5] For this reason, these resources are excluded from the study. Currently, however, records and links do not appear in Cameo for the journals in the aggregator databases. These databases present a unique problem for bibliographic control not only because of the sheer volume of full text journals included, but also because the databases were originally designed for bibliographic searching, not necessarily as online journals per se as with the other online journal collection products. [6] It is these products that are the crux of the study.

.04 Methodology

Lists of the journals included in all these products are readily available. From the database website, ABC-CLIO provides a list of titles indexed in America: History & Life and Historical Abstracts, with the dates of indexing coverage as well. The aggregator database vendors also provide journal lists either via links from their product or from their homepage sites, with dates of indexing coverage, as well as dates of full text availability. [7] By comparing these lists, it is possible to see what journals indexed in ABC-CLIO are available with full text in each of the other products, as well as any overlap of coverage between the aggregators. These lists can then be compared to our other journal holdings to understand the additional journal article access these aggregators provide.

The vendors often provide their journals lists in a variety of formats (Excel, HTML, PDF) as well as a variety of content options (all titles, full text only, etc). In this case, the lists of the full text journals were obtained from each aggregator vendor in Excel format. A different font was used for each vendor, and then the lists were merged and sorted by title. The journal titles were then checked against those indexed in ABC-CLIO databases, using the HTML version from the ABC-CLIO database website, with the indexing date ranges noted. Omitted from the analysis were those journal titles not currently being indexed by ABC-CLIO. Also excluded from the study were any journal titles for which the full text availability did not overlap with ABC-CLIO indexing dates, since the point is to be able to search in the historical databases and then find the full text of those articles in the aggregator databases. [8] Sorting the merged list by journal title facilitated the checking of the titles against the ABC-CLIO journal list and our online catalog, for a duplicate title only had to be checked once. That list was then sorted so that titles to which CMU did not subscribe could be extracted and studied further. From this it was possible to study the full text aggregator databases as a venue for full text retrieval of articles cited in the historical databases that would augment, not replace, either the paper or electronic (JSTOR, Project Muse) holdings of Carnegie Mellon University. It was also possible to get a count of duplicate and unique titles. Once the journal list had been compared to ABC-CLIO indexing and marked for our holdings and sorted, separate journal lists were recreated for each of the two vendors for further analysis.

.05 Findings

Expanded Academic ASAP™ has a total of 1,822 full text titles. Of those, 151 were indexed in the two historical databases from ABC-CLIO. Checking those titles against the holdings of the Carnegie Mellon University Libraries reveals that there are forty-eight titles to which the Libraries never subscribed. Of those, five have incomplete indexing in the ABC-CLIO databases, and are thus not considered in this study. Another four have incomplete full text available in the Expanded Academic ASAP™. This leaves thirty-nine new titles indexed in either America: History and Life or Historical Abstracts for which full text articles can be found in the Expanded Academic ASAP™. An additional fifteen titles augmented partial holdings, for here the full text in the aggregator database supplemented what is already in the Libraries' collections. Thus access to the articles from an additional fifty-four journals could be gained by using the full text in the Expanded Academic ASAP™. [9]

The ProQuest Research Library™ analysis revealed similar findings. The database includes 1,760 full text titles, of which 159 are indexed in the ABC-CLIO databases. Of those, there are fifty-three are titles to which Carnegie Mellon didn't subscribe to at all. Seventeen of those had either limited indexing and/or limited full text, leaving thirty-six new journal titles with full text articles. Another nineteen titles added to the partial holdings already in the collection. In total, then, the full text articles from fifty-five titles could be accessed. [10]

From this it is clear that access to either of these full text resources adds to the journal holdings of the Libraries. Using both gives immediate access to the full text articles of ninety unique journals to which there would otherwise be no subscriptions. Of these, sixty-five are unique journal titles to which the Libraries never subscribed, while twenty-five unique journal titles added to partial holdings already in the collection. There is overlap, however, for both databases had ten journals for which there were never subscriptions in common and nine journals in common for which the Libraries had partial contents. [11]

It should be noted that while new articles from these journals are being constantly added to the databases, the exact date spans of the contents of these journals vary considerably. In the Expanded Academic ASAP™, for example, fourteen of these titles have eight years or more full text articles available, in other words, the start dates of the full text range from 1989-1994. Six titles have five years of full text articles available, with full text articles beginning in 1997. Four of these titles have four years of full text available, for the starting date of the full text is in 1998. Three titles have three years of full text available, with the full text beginning in 1999. Six titles provide two years of full text covering 2000 to the present, while another six have one year of full text available, for the full text began in 2001. [12]

For the thirty-six new journal articles provided by ProQuest Research Library™, nine have eight years of full text articles available; in other words, the full text starts in 1994. Five have seven years of full text, for their full text starts in 1995. Another nine titles have six years of full text articles available, since their full text begins in 1996. Six titles provide five years of full text articles, and another six provide four, with their full text starting in 1997 and 1998 respectively. One journal provides three years of full text articles, for its full text availability began in 1999. [13]

While ten of the new full text journals were in both databases, the years of coverage varied. Five of the titles had longer full text ranges in the ProQuest Research Library™ database, while five had more years available in full text in Expanded Academic ASAP™. Thus, it is important for researchers to not only be aware of the fact that some journal articles indexed in ABC-CLIO databases may be available full text in aggregator databases, but also to know that coverage variation exists as well. [14]

For those journals for which the Libraries already had some issues, the full text articles in ProQuest Research Library™, and Expanded Academic ASAP™ provided an opportunity to augment holdings. There were twenty-five unique titles in the aggregator databases that added additional journal coverage to what the Libraries already had in print, with nine titles in both databases. [15] Many of these had been cancelled as a result of budgetary issues rather than a clear change in curriculum focus, so the opportunity to gain additional issues is of special importance to the collection. In fact, combining the articles from the aggregator databases and the issues already in the collection, the Libraries gained access to the complete journal contents of fourteen journals. Six of these are titles that are in both databases, and either full text database provides enough coverage to complete the partial holdings currently in the collection. [16]

Of the other eleven unique titles that added to the partial holdings with ongoing full text, two titles added an additional two years of coverage, three titles added an additional four years of full text, two titles added an additional five years of coverage, one title added six years of full text articles, and another added eight years of full text article coverage. Interestingly, another two of these titles were in both databases with the full text access differing in coverage by two years for one title (seven years of coverage versus nine) and three years for another (ten years of coverage versus seven years). [17]

As all librarians know, however, the total number of journals provided means little if they are not relevant to the research interests of their users. An examination of the titles to which users would gain access indicates that many would be directly relevant to the teaching and research interests of Carnegie Mellon's History Department. For example, of the thirteen unique titles journals that would complete the impartial holdings of journals, nine are directly relevant to supporting the research and teaching of history at Carnegie Mellon. [18]

For the full text articles for which the Libraries never had journal subscriptions and to which there now is access, about nineteen of the thirty-nine of the Expanded Academic ASAP™ journals are directly relevant to teaching and research at Carnegie Mellon. Of the thirty-six in ProQuest Research Library™, fourteen are directly relevant to classes taught by the History Department. While it is impossible to predict the chances of any journal article in a particular journal being totally relevant or irrelevant to any researcher, especially given the added retrieval capabilities of online searching, it is clear that Carnegie Mellon students and faculty would benefit from the full text journal articles in the aggregator databases which are also indexed in America: History and Life and Historical Abstracts. [19]

.06 Other considerations

While it is clear that collection strength can be increased with aggregator databases, there are, however, other issues to consider. Vendors provide the full text as a result of contracts with third parties, i. e., the journal publishers, and thus these are considered "volatile." In other words, there is no guarantee that a particular vendor will continue to provide the full text of a particular journal. Continued access will be based on contractual negotiations with the journal producer, and can cease at any time. Also, many of these databases have "embargoes" or publisher-requested delays, that is, the full text is not available for a specified length of time. Embargoes vary from journal to journal and from database to database. Thus, timely access to particular articles can able affected. Unlike some online journals, it should be noted that these aggregator databases only provide the full text of articles. As bibliographic resources, they do not necessarily provide a replication of the journal itself, but a means of getting at the authored material in the journals for which the database producers have obtained the rights to reproduce electronically. Delivery of the full text can vary in format from HTML to PDF or both. [20]

These findings have implications for anyone doing historical research. How is a researcher to know which journals may be found where, and know how to retrieve the information? At Carnegie Mellon, for example, since no records for aggregate journals appear in our catalog, students and faculty can easily be unaware of the augmented and additional journals articles that are available through these aggregator databases. To address this, our library homepage has a link to an informational page on full-text collections that in turn links to a Full Text Journal page. In addition to listing the full text journal collections accessible at Carnegie Mellon, it also provides a link to Openly Jake. A free resource, Openly Jake, allows anyone to search a journal title and find where it was indexed full text, and for what dates. [21] While using Jake, however, users must be able to identify the online product that has the full text as one to which Carnegie Mellon subscribes, then to locate any of the Libraries' Web pages that offer database links and to connect to that product and do a productive search to find the article.

Another solution is in the creation of the individual subject research pages. The University Libraries' History research website, for example, has a Journals page that indicates journal full text availability as well as a link for the database in the full text can be found. [22] There are, however, limitations with this approach. The History: Journals page does not include every historically oriented journal to which the University Libraries have access. Researchers must also be aware of it, for it is about four clicks down from the University Libraries' homepage. As with Openly Jake, its approach is also a break from traditional bibliographic instruction which stresses using a library's catalog as a means for finding a library's holdings. Finally, the journal page approach and Openly Jake require that researchers connect to a particular database and be able to perform an effective search. Each of the aggregator databases provides a multitude of ways in which to search for a known item. While historians would have an exact citation from the historical databases, searching for it in one of the full text databases, depending on the searching skills of the researcher, could be challenging. At any rate, it would be incumbent upon them to develop knowledge of and skills in searching databases other than the traditional historical ones.

Fortunately, the idea of using aggregator databases to augment journal collections is not a new one. Many libraries are either developing products or turning to commercial products to manage the full text resources that are in aggregator resources. Some of these products provide journal lists with date coverage, while others will directly connect to the article. Database producers, too, are developing ways to facilitate the administration of their aggregator contents by providing MARC tag data or predefined links to work with other resources. [23] In order to take advantage of this, however, historians will be required to acquire and maintain their skill sets whether commercial products or home developed solutions are utilized to help them locate relevant full text articles.

.07 Conclusion

Aggregator databases can undoubtedly increase collection strength vis-à-vis the journals indexed in America: History and Life and Historical Abstracts. Additional research is needed to assess the effectiveness and extensiveness of aggregator databases as full text delivery systems. For example, it would be interesting to determine the number of historically relevant journals in the aggregator databases that are not indexed in the ABC-CLIO products. In any case, the burden of realizing additional collection resources within aggregator databases may fall increasingly on historians, either in terms of mastering new aggregator management products or in developing aggregator database searching skills, or perhaps, both.

.08 Works Cited

1. Historical Abstracts began in 1953, followed by America: History and Life in 1963. Both became available electronically on Dialog in 1975 (Files 39 and 38 respectively), and were available on CD-ROM in 1991. Ron Boehm, 'IT Interview: ABC-CLIO ABC-CLIO Stresses Customer-Based Products,' interview by Paula J. Hane, Information Today, 18:1 (January, 2001): p. 12-16.

2. Joyce Duncan Falk, "Using Electronic Sources of Information," in Teaching Bibliographic Skills in History: A Sourcebook for Historians and Librarian ,' ed. by Charles A. D'Aniello. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993), p. 235.

3. On October 22, 2001 ABC-CLIO announced that it would be linking Historical Abstracts and America: History and Life to the Arts and Science I and II Collections of JSTOR . 'ABC-CLIO announces Links with JSTOR.' Available: http://www.abc-clio.com/academic/pressroom/press.asp?contentid=89 (Accessed 8-6-02). Plans to establish links to the History Cooperative were announced January 3, 2002. 'ABC-CLIO announces Links with History Cooperative.' Available: http://www.abc-clio.com/academic/pressroom/press.asp?contentid=134 (Accessed 8-06-02). Intentions to link with Project Muse followed on February 26, 2002. 'ABC-CLIO Announces Another Linking Partner: Project Muse.' Available: http://www.abc-clio.com/academic/pressroom/press.asp?contentid=159 (Accessed 8-6-02).

04. For definitions of aggregator databases, see: Joan M. Reitz, ed. ODLIS: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science, 2002 , s. v. 'aggregator.'' Available: http://vax.wcsu.edu/library/odlis.html (Accessed 8-6-02); Karen Calhoun and Bill Kara 'Aggregation or Aggravation? Optimizing Access to Full-Text Journals' ALCTS Newsletter Online: From Gateway to Catalog #15 Available: http://www.ala.org/alcts/alcts_news/gateway/gateway15.html (Accessed August 8, 2001)

05. Also appearing in the Carnegie Mellon online catalog are records for journals from OCLC's Electronic Collections Online and Cambridge Journals Online. For other full text journal collections, which may be of lesser interest to historians, and a list of titles, see: Carnegie Mellon University Libraries: Full-text Journals. Available: http://www.library.cmu.edu/Search/alphaj.html (Accessed 8-6-02).

06. For a discussion of some of the problems and solutions regarding aggregator database see: Calhoun and Kara "Aggregation or Aggravation? Optimizing Access to Full-Text Journals."

07. The html version of ABC-CLIO's journal list is available online at http://sb2.abc-clio.com:8080/complop.html . ProQuest database title lists can be selected from http://www.ProQuest.com/division/tl-title.shtml . Title lists for GaleGroup products can be obtained online from roup.com/servlet/HTMLFileServlet?region=7&imprint=000&fileName=catalog/title.htm . Lists were accessed and downloaded for this study in March 2002. No differentiation was made in terms of the delivery of the full text, i. e., PDF or ASCII.

08. In this study, these are referred to as "incomplete indexing" or "limited full text." Some journals did have 'incomplete indexing,' yet were included in the study, since the 'interruptions'were outside the dates of full text availability, for example: Perspectives on Political Science with indexing dates: 1990-91, 93-present and full text availability 10/1/1997-present.

09. Titles to which we never subscribed and with incomplete ABC-CLIO indexing with full text in Expanded Academic ASAP ™ and eliminated from the study:

  1. Africa Today
  2. Harvard Theological Review
  3. Migration World Magazine
  4. Social Science Journal
  5. Sociology

Titles to which we never subscribed with limited full text on Expanded Academic ASAP ™ and thus eliminated from the study:

  1. American History
  2. Canadian Public Administration
  3. East Asia: an International Quarterly
  4. Journal of Communication Inquiry

List of the 39 new journals titles from Expanded Academic ASAP ™:

  1. Accounting Historians Journal
  2. Air Power History
  3. American Review of Canadian Studies
  4. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ)
  5. Australian Journal of Political Science
  6. Australian Journal of Politics and History
  7. Biography
  8. Business History
  9. California History
  10. Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal
  11. Canadian Journal of Sociology
  12. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology
  13. Chinese America: History and Perspectives
  14. Christian History
  15. Church History
  16. East European Politics and Societies
  17. East European Quarterly
  18. Hemingway Review
  19. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television
  20. Historical Studies
  21. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences
  22. Journal of Asian and African Studies
  23. Journal of Contemporary Asia
  24. Journal of Development Studies
  25. Journal of Ecumenical Studies
  26. Journal of Pacific History
  27. Journal of Religion
  28. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies
  29. Michigan Historical Review
  30. Midwest Quarterly
  31. National Interest
  32. Nineteenth-Century French Studies
  33. Oral History Review
  34. Polity
  35. Race and Class
  36. Religion and American Culture
  37. Teaching History: A Journal of Methods
  38. Western Journal of Black Studies
  39. White House Studies

List of the 15 journals Expanded Academic ASAP ™ that augment our partial holdings:

  1. African American Review
  2. American Antiquity
  3. American Journal of Economics and Sociology
  4. Americas
  5. Canadian Journal of History
  6. Economic Geography
  7. Ethnography
  8. Geographical Journal
  9. International Migration Review
  10. Journal of Negro History
  11. Journal of Palestine Studies
  12. Journal of Popular Film and Television
  13. Nine Latin American Politics and Society
  14. Nineteenth-Century Literature
  15. Southern Cultures

10. Titles to which Carnegie Mellon never subscribed, with full text in ProQuest Research Library ™ but with incomplete ABC-CLIO indexing and thus eliminated from the study:

  1. Military Review
  2. Military History
  3. Military Images
  4. Salmagundi

Titles to which we never subscribed with limited full text ProQuest Research Library™ and thus eliminated from the study:

  1. Australian Journal of International Affairs
  2. Australian Journal of Political Science
  3. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
  4. East Asia: and International Quarterly
  5. European Review of History
  6. Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television
  7. Journal of Contemporary China
  8. Journal of Ethnic Studies
  9. Politics and Society
  10. Studies in Comparative International Development
  11. Third World Quarterly

Titles to which we never subscribed and that were not indexed completely, and did not have ongoing full text coverage in ProQuest Research Library ™ and therefore eliminated from the study:

  1. Japan Quarterly
  2. Sociology: the Journal of the British Sociological Association

List of the 36 new journal titles from ProQuest Research Library ™

  1. Air & Space Smithsonian
  2. Air Power History
  3. Alabama Review
  4. American Asian Review
  5. American History
  6. American Politics Research
  7. Arab Studies Quarterly
  8. Arkansas Historical Quarterly
  9. Canadian Geographic
  10. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, The
  11. Canadian Slavonic Papers
  12. Catholic Historical Review, The
  13. Church History
  14. East European Quarterly
  15. Historian (London)
  16. Journal of Canadian Studies
  17. Journal of Church and State
  18. Journal of Contemporary Asia
  19. Journal of Development Studies, The
  20. Journal of European Studies
  21. Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies, The
  22. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly
  23. Journalism History
  24. Middle Eastern Studies
  25. Midwest Quarterly, The
  26. Mississippi Quarterly, The
  27. Muslim World, The
  28. National Interest, The
  29. Naval History
  30. Perspectives on Political Science
  31. Presidential Studies Quarterly
  32. Scandinavian Studies
  33. Social Justice
  34. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, The
  35. Western Folklore
  36. Western Journal of Black Studies

List of the 19 journals from ProQuest Research Library™ that add to our partial holdings:

  1. African American Review
  2. American Heritage
  3. American Speech
  4. Americas
  5. Canadian Journal of History
  6. Civil War Times Illustrated
  7. Economic Geography
  8. Ethnography
  9. History of Political Economy
  10. International Migration Review
  11. Journal of American Folklore
  12. Journal of Black Studies
  13. Journal of Negro Education
  14. Journal of Negro History
  15. Journal of Popular Film and Television
  16. Journal of the Early Republic
  17. Latin American Politics and Society
  18. Middle East Journal
  19. Modern Times

11. List of new full text journals from both aggregator databases:

  1. Accounting Historians Journal
  2. Air & Space Smithsonian
  3. Air Power History
  4. Alabama Review
  5. American Asian Review
  6. American History
  7. American Politics Research
  8. American Review of Canadian Studies
  9. Arab Studies Quarterly
  10. Arkansas Historical Quarterly
  11. Australian Journal of Political Science
  12. Australian Journal of Politics and History
  13. Biography
  14. Business History
  15. California History
  16. Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal
  17. Canadian Geographic
  18. Canadian Journal of Sociology
  19. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology
  20. Canadian Slavonic Papers
  21. Catholic Historical Review, The
  22. Chinese America: History and Perspectives
  23. Christian History
  24. Church History
  25. East European Politics and Societies
  26. East European Quarterly
  27. Hemingway Review
  28. Historian (London)
  29. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television
  30. Historical Studies
  31. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences
  32. Journal of Asian and African Studies
  33. Journal of Canadian Studies
  34. Journal of Church and State
  35. Journal of Contemporary Asia
  36. Journal of Development Studies
  37. Journal of Ecumenical Studies
  38. Journal of European Studies
  39. Journal of Pacific History
  40. Journal of Religion
  41. Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies, The
  42. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies
  43. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly
  44. Journalism History
  45. Michigan Historical Review
  46. Middle Eastern Studies
  47. Midwest Quarterly
  48. Mississippi Quarterly, The
  49. Muslim World, The
  50. National Interest
  51. Naval History
  52. Nineteenth-Century French Studies
  53. Oral History Review
  54. Perspectives on Political Science
  55. Polity
  56. Presidential Studies Quarterly
  57. Race and Class
  58. Religion and American Culture
  59. Scandinavian Studies
  60. Social Justice
  61. Teaching History: A Journal of Methods
  62. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, The
  63. Western Folklore
  64. Western Journal of Black Studies
  65. White House Studies

List of new full text journals that extend our partial holdings, from both aggregator databases:

  1. African American Review
  2. American Antiquity
  3. American Heritage
  4. American Journal of Economics and Sociology
  5. American Speech
  6. Americas
  7. Canadian Journal of History
  8. Civil War Times Illustrated
  9. Economic Geography
  10. Ethnography
  11. Geographical Journal
  12. History of Political Economy
  13. International Migration Review
  14. Journal of American Folklore
  15. Journal of Black Studies
  16. Journal of Negro History
  17. Journal of Negro Education
  18. Journal of Palestine Studies
  19. Journal of Popular Film and Television
  20. Journal of the Early Republic
  21. Latin American Politics and Society
  22. Middle East Journal
  23. Modern Times
  24. Nineteenth-Century Literature
  25. Southern Cultures

List of new full text journals that appear in both aggregator databases:

  1. Air Power History
  2. Arab Studies Quarterly
  3. Canadian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology
  4. Church History
  5. East European Quarterly
  6. Journal of Contemporary Asia
  7. Journal of Development Studies
  8. Midwest Quarterly
  9. National Interest
  10. Western Journal of Black Studies

List of new full text journals that appear in both aggregator databases that augment our partial holdings:

  1. African American Review
  2. Americas
  3. Canadian Journal of History
  4. Economic Geography
  5. Ethnography
  6. International Migration Review
  7. Journal of Negro History
  8. Journal of Popular Film and Television
  9. Latin American Politics and Society

12. Date ranges of new full text journals in Expanded Academic ASAP™ Journals with 8 or more years of full text articles available:

  1. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 1989/8->
  2. Journal of Development Studies 1991/1->
  3. Business History 1991/10->
  4. Journal of Ecumenical Studies 1991/6->
  5. Oral History Review 1992/3->
  6. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 1993/1->
  7. Midwest Quarterly 1993/1->
  8. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 1993/3->
  9. National Interest 1993/3->
  10. East European Politics and Societies 1994/3->
  11. East European Quarterly 1994/6->
  12. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 1994/6->
  13. Journal of Asian and African Studies 1994/7->
  14. Hemingway Review 1994/9->

Journals with 5 years of full text articles available:

  1. Journal of Religion 1997/1->
  2. Race and Class 1997/1->
  3. Religion and American Culture 1997/1->
  4. Journal of Contemporary Asia 1997/3->
  5. Polity 1997/3->
  6. Journal of Pacific History 1997/6->

Journals with 4 years of full text articles available:

  1. Christian History 1998/2->
  2. Australian Journal of Political Science 1998/3->
  3. Australian Journal of Politics and History 1998/3->
  4. Western Journal of Black Studies 1998/3->

Journals with 3 years of full text articles available:

  1. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 1999/3->
  2. Michigan Historical Review 1999/3->
  3. Church History 1999/9->

Journals with 2 years of full text articles available:

  1. American Review of Canadian Studies 2000/12->
  2. California History 2000/12->
  3. Nineteenth-Century French Studies 2000/3->
  4. Teaching History: A Journal of Methods 2000/3->
  5. Air Power History 2000/9->
  6. Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal 2000/9->

Journals with 1 year of full text articles available:

  1. Biography 2001/1->
  2. Canadian Journal of Sociology 2001/1->
  3. Chinese America: History and Perspectives 2001/1->
  4. Historical Studies 2001/1->
  5. White House Studies 2001/1->
  6. Accounting Historians Journal 2001/6->

13. Date ranges of new full text journals in ProQuest Research Library ™: Journals with 8 years of full text articles:

  1. Arab Studies Quarterly 1994/1->
  2. Canadian Geographic 1994/1->
  3. East European Quarterly 1994/1->
  4. Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies, The 1994/1->
  5. Journalism History 1994/1->
  6. Presidential Studies Quarterly 1994/1->
  7. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, The 1994/1->
  8. Church History 1994/3->
  9. Journal of European Studies 1994/3->

Journals with seven years of full text available:

  1. Middle Eastern Studies 1995/1->
  2. Midwest Quarterly, The 1995/1->
  3. Catholic Historical Review, The 1995/10->
  4. Journal of Development Studies, The 1995/2->
  5. Naval History 1995/9->

Journals with six years of full text articles available:

  1. Air & Space Smithsonian 1996/1->
  2. Air Power History 1996/1->
  3. American Politics Research 1996/1->
  4. Journal of Contemporary Asia 1996/1->
  5. Mississippi Quarterly, The 1996/1->
  6. National Interest, The 1996/1->
  7. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 1996/10->
  8. Western Folklore (1963-93, 97-) 1996/4->
  9. Canadian Slavonic Papers 1996/9->

Journals with 5 years of full text articles available:

  1. Social Justice 1997/1->
  2. Perspectives on Political Science (1990-91, 93-) 1997/10->
  3. American History 1997/5->
  4. Journal of Church and State 1997/6->
  5. Scandinavian Studies 1997/6->
  6. Muslim World, The 1997/7->

Journals with 4 years of full text articles available:

  1. American Asian Review 1998/1->
  2. Historian (London) 1998/1->
  3. Journal of Canadian Studies 1998/1->
  4. Western Journal of Black Studies 1998/1->
  5. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, The 1998/11->
  6. Alabama Review 1998/4->

Journal with 3 years of full text articles available:

  1. Arkansas Historical Quarterly 1999/1->

14. Coverage variation of the new full text journals that are in both databases: Journals with longer full text coverage in ProQuest Research Library ™:

Pro. Res. Lib. ™ full text range Ex.Aca.ASAP ™ full text range

  1. Air Power History 1/96-> 12/00->
  2. Church History 3/94-> 9/99->
  3. East European Quarterly 1/94-> 6/94->
  4. Journal of Contemporary Asia 1/96-> 3/97->
  5. Western Journal of Black Studies 1/98-> 3/98->

Journals with longer full text coverage in Expanded Academic ASAP ™

Pro. Res. Lib. ™ full text range Ex.Aca.ASAP ™ full text range

  1. Arab Studies Quarterly 1/94-> 1/93->
  2. Canadian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2/92-> 8/89->
  3. Jounal of Development Studies 2/95-> 1/91->
  4. Midwest Quarterly 1/95-> 1/93->
  5. National Interest 1/96-> 3/93->

15. List of journals from both aggregator databases that added to our partial holdings: Titles unique to ProQuest Research Library ™

  1. American Heritage
  2. American Speech
  3. Civil War Times Illustrated
  4. History of Political Economy
  5. Journal of American Folklore
  6. Journal of Black Studies
  7. Journal of Negro Education
  8. Journal of the Early Republic
  9. Middle East Journal
  10. Modern Times

Titles unique to Expanded Academic ASAP ™

  1. American Antiquity
  2. American Journal of Economics and Sociology
  3. Geographical Journal
  4. Journal of Palestine Studies
  5. Nineteenth-Century Literature
  6. Southern Cultures

Titles in both:

  1. African American Review
  2. Americas
  3. Canadian Journal of History
  4. Economic Geography
  5. Ethnography
  6. International Migration Review
  7. Journal of Negro History
  8. Journal of Popular Film and Television
  9. Latin American Politics and Society

16. The following journals added enough to our partial holdings to gain complete access to:

  1. African American Review
  2. American Antiquity
  3. American Journal of Economics and Sociology
  4. Americas (English edition)
  5. Canadian Journal of History
  6. Economic Geography
  7. International Migration Review
  8. Journal of Black Studies
  9. Journal of Negro Education
  10. Journal of Negro History
  11. Journal of Palestine Studies
  12. Latin American Politics and Society
  13. Middle East Journal
  14. Nineteenth-Century Literature

Titles in both aggregator database that completed our print holdings, and either database could be used to complete our print holdings:

  1. African American Review
  2. Americas
  3. Economic Geography
  4. International Migration Review
  5. Journal of Negro History
  6. Latin American Politics and Society

17. Titles adding ongoing full text to our partial holdings: Adding 2 years of full text articles to our holdings:

  1. Southern Cultures — Increased holdings about 2 years 2/98->
  2. Journal of American Folklore — increased holdings about 2 years 4/1/99->

Adding 4 years of full text articles to our holdings:

  1. Civil War Times Illustrated — increased holdings about 4 years 3/1/98->
  2. Journal of the Early Republic — increased holdings about 4 years 1/97->
  3. Modern Times — increased holdings about 4 years 4/1/98->

Adding 5 years of full text articles to our holdings:

  1. American Speech — increased holdings about 5 years 1/1/97->
  2. History of Political Economy — increased holdings about 5 years 1/1/97->

Adding 6 years of full text articles to our holdings:

  1. American Heritage — increased holdings about 6 years 9/1/96->

Adding 8 years of full text articles to our holdings:

  1. Geographic Journal — increased holdings about 8 years 7/94->

Two titles in both aggregator databases:

  1. Ethnology — increased holdings about 7 years with Proquest 1/95-> — increased holdings about 9 years with Exp. Ac. 1/93->
  2. Journal of Popular Film and Television — increased holdings about 7 years with Proquest 1/95-> — increased holdings about about 10 years with Exp. Ac. 6/92->

18. Completing our holdings and directly relevant to research and teaching at Carnegie Mellon:

  1. African American Review
  2. Americas (English edition)
  3. International Migration Review
  4. Journal of Black Studies
  5. Journal of Negro Education
  6. Journal of Negro History
  7. Journal of Palestine Studies
  8. Latin American Politics and Society
  9. Middle East Journal

19. Relevancy was determined by correlating a title to a particular course of study, i. e, either a major, minor or class. Links to the teaching and research interests of Carnegie Mellon's Department of History, as well as the course catalog, can be found at Carnegie Mellon: The Department of History Available: http://www.history.cmu.edu/ (Accessed 9-6-02).

Names of new journals directly relevant to teaching and research: Expanded Academic ASAP ™

  1. Air Power History
  2. Arab Studies Quarterly
  3. Business History
  4. Chinese America: History and Perspectives
  5. Christian History
  6. Church History
  7. East European Politics and Societies
  8. East European Quarterly
  9. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television
  10. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences
  11. Journal of Asian and African Studies
  12. Journal of Contemporary Asia
  13. Journal of Ecumenical Studies
  14. Journal of Pacific History
  15. Journal of Religion
  16. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies
  17. National Interest
  18. Race and Class
  19. Religion and American Culture ProQuest Research Library ™
    1. Air and Space Smithsonian
    2. Air Power History
    3. Asian American Review
    4. Arab Studies Quarterly
    5. Catholic Historical Review
    6. Church History
    7. East European Quarterly
    8. Historian
    9. Journal of Church and State
    10. Journal of Contemporary Asia
    11. Journal of European Studies
    12. Middle Eastern Studies
    13. Muslim World
    14. National Interest

20. For a literature review of the replacement of print with electronic format, see Christa Easton, "Doubly Bold-Replacing Print Journals with Electronic Versions," Serials Review , v. 27, no. 3/4 (2001): 97-101. For a discussion of the impact of full-text databases on collections, see: David J. Brier and Vickery K. Lebbin, "Evaluating Title Coverage of Full text Periodical Databases," Journal of Academic Librarianship , v. 25 no. 6 (Nov. 1999): 473-8; Sam Brooks, "Integration of Information Resources and Collection Development Strategy," Journal of Academic Librarianship , v. 27, no. 4 (July 2001): 316-319; Calhoun and Kara, "Aggregation or Aggravation? Optimizing Access to Full-Text Journals."

21. Carnegie Mellon University Libraries: Full-text Journals . Available: http://www.library.cmu.edu/Search/alphaj.html (Accessed 8-6-02).

For Information on Openly Jake, see: "All about jake:" Available: http://jake.med.yale.edu/docs/about.html (Accessed 8-6-02) as well as Daniel Chudnov, Cynthia Crooke, and Kimberly Parker, "Jake: Overview and Status Report," Serials Review , v. 26, no. 4 (2000): 12-17. Also available from http://jake.med.yale.edu/docs/jake-overview-serrev.pdf (Accessed 8-6-02)

22. Sue Collins, Carnegie Mellon University Libraries: History: Journals . Available: http://www.library.cmu.edu/Research/Humanities/History/journals.html (Accessed 8-29-02)

23. For different approaches to managing access to the full text resources in aggregator journals see: Robert N. Bland and Timothy Carstens, and Mark A. Stoffan, "Automation of Aggregator Title Access with MARC Processing," Serials Review , v. 28, no. 2 (2002): 108-112; Elaine Lois Day, "Access to Periodical Titles in Full Text Databases," Virginia Libraries , v. 46, no. 1 (Jan./Feb./Mar. 2000): 10-12; Les Hawkins, "Title Access to Full Text Journal Content Available in Aggregator Services," Serials Review , v. 25, no. 4 (1999): 43-48; Lynda S. Kresge, "Toward Better Access to Full-text Aggregator Collections," Serials Librarian , v. 38, no. 3/4 (2000): 291-7; Erin Stalberg, "Bibliographic Access to Titles in Aggregator Databases: One Library's Experience," Serials Librarian , v. 39, no. 4 (2001): 19-24; (Accessed online via WilsonSelectPlus_FT 9-5-02). To see the support vendors are providing, see: ProQuest Information and Learning: Featured Products: Benefits of ProQuest® Available: http://www.il.ProQuest.com/ProQuest/features/feature-03/benefits.shtml (Accessed 9-5-02), esp. ProQuest Crosslinks ™ Available: http://www.il.ProQuest.com/ProQuest/features/feature-03/benefits.shtml#crosslinks (Accessed 9-5-02) and ProQuest MARC Records Available: http://www.il.ProQuest.com/ProQuest/features/feature-03/benefits.shtml#marc (Accessed 9-5-02); Thompson*Gale: Gale Databases: Download MARC856 and ASCII Records with InfoMarks ™ Available: http://www.gale.com/servlet/HTMLFileServlet?region=9&imprint=000&fileName=.... (Accessed 9-5-02), esp. Thompson*Gale: Downloading Marc856 Record Files with InfoMarks™ Available: http://www.gale.com/servlet/HTMLFileServlet?region=9&imprint=000&fileName=... (Accessed 9-5-02); For commercial solutions, see: Schneider, Karen G. "SFX; a Linkalicious Service," American Libraries , v. 32, no. 6 (June/July 2002): 118; Ex-Libris: SFX: Context-Sensitive Reference Linking Available: http://www.sfxit.com/ (Accessed 9-10-02); CrossRef Available: http://www.crossref.org/home.htm ( Accessed 9-10-02); Endeavor Available: http://www.endinfosys.com/ (Accessed 9-10-02)

Since writing this article, the Carnegie Mellon University Libraries have selected SFX as an access management tool.