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Author: D. Antonio Cantu
Title: An Internet Based Multiple Intelligences Model for Teaching High School History
Publication Info: Ann Arbor, MI: MPublishing, University of Michigan Library
November 1999
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Source: An Internet Based Multiple Intelligences Model for Teaching High School History
D. Antonio Cantu


vol. 2, no. 3, November 1999
Article Type: Computing in the K-12 Levels
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.3310410.0002.305

An Internet Based Multiple Intelligences Model for Teaching High School History

D. Antonio Cantu

dcantu@gw.bsu.edu

In 1983 Harvard University professor Howard Gardner sparked a revolution in education with the introduction of his multiple intelligences (MI) theory. This article provides an overview of Gardner's pluralistic definition of intelligence, as well as a brief history of the MI movement in American education. This serves as a conceptual backdrop for the introduction and analysis of an Internet based MI model, designed specifically for high school history teachers, which follows. The marrying of the traditional MI model with the Internet and World Wide Web, provides an engaging pedagogical approach that seems almost tailor-made for secondary history education.

.01 Introduction

In 1983 Howard Gardner, a Harvard University professor, introduced his theory of "multiple intelligences." Over fifteen years later, his original book, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, has been translated into twenty languages and countless "Multiple Intelligences (MI) schools" have been established throughout the United States. [1] Since that time, Gardner's original list of seven distinct forms of intelligence has grown to eight.

Today, Gardner's theory serves as one of the most effective curricular and instructional frameworks for classroom teachers to use in designing their lesson plans. While even the most ardent supporters of Multiple Intelligences would never claim this framework is a curricular or instructional panacea, Gardner's theory certainly provides one approach that at least attempts to address the multiple ways of learning and understanding that our students bring with them to the history classroom. [2]

Perhaps what is most surprising is that Gardner's initial intent was to, in his words, "[attack] the standard notion of intelligence as a single capacity with which an individual is born, and which proves difficult, if not impossible, to alter. In the place of this construct, I offered a more pluralistic cognitive universe." [3] The result, however, was "a revolution of sorts in classrooms around the world." [4] Gardner expected to "stir controversy among my fellow psychologists," which did occur, yet he was taken aback by the "largely and mostly positive reaction" to his theory by educators. [5]

As we sit on the cusp of a new millennium, high school history teachers struggle to keep pace with all of the demands placed upon them. The educational pendulum continues to swing back and forth, with educators patiently waiting to see what course they are expected to take. One of the appealing elements of the Multiple Intelligences framework is that it allows teachers to teach in a manner that does not ask them to sacrifice verbal and analytical skills for, what some might term, more affective or nontraditional forms of intelligence. [6] Instead, it provides a model for educators to provide students with a deeper understanding, which Gardner defines as "a sufficient grasp of concepts, principles, or skills so that you can bring them to bear on new problems and situations." [7]

The multiple intelligences framework seems ideal for history teachers who already provide students learning opportunities that involve maps, documents, political cartoons, broadsides, video and audio clips, and other forms of primary and secondary resources. In addition, computer technology and the Internet seem to only enhance the opportunity to combine these resources into comprehensive multiple intelligences lesson plans that can potentially address each of the eight student capacities for learning. [8] Gardner even refers to this marriage between technology and his MI theory as a "comfortable fit." [9]

.02 History of the Multiple Intelligences Movement in Education

Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences resulted from his work with brain-damaged patients in a Boston area hospital. [10] Over the years, he discovered that the brain appeared to possess several distinct abilities or intelligences. Eventually, he created a list of criteria in which to judge what constituted each of the types of intelligences he was attempting to identify. Gardner's eight criteria for determining what constitutes intelligence are as follows:

  1. Potential isolation by brain damage;
  2. Existence of idiot savant, prodigies, and other exceptional individuals;
  3. An identifiable core set of operations-basic kinds of information-processing operations or mechanisms that deal with one specific kind of input;
  4. A distinctive developmental history, along with a definite set of "end-state" performances;
  5. An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility;
  6. Support from experimental and psychological tasks;
  7. Support from psychometric findings; and
  8. Susceptibility to encoding from a symbol system. [11]

By the early 1980s, Gardner had identified seven intelligences that met his criteria. He unveiled his seven intelligences to the academic community in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. While he was prepared for the criticism his fellow psychologists would launch at him, he was quite surprised at the interest and warm reception it received from educators throughout the world. [12] By 1984, following his presentation at a New York education conference aptly named "The Coming Education Explosion," nearly all education practitioners and researchers throughout the United States were familiar with the MI theory and each of the seven intelligences outlined by its author. [13]

The 1980s witnessed the proliferation MI programs (e.g., Indianapolis' Key School, Saint Louis' New City School), and the publication of countless articles and books on the topic. [14] The director New City School best describes the impact Gardner's theory had on education:

Sure, Copernicus and Columbus caused paradigm shifts; so, too, did Charles Darwin, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Rachel Carson. Our thinking remains altered by their insights. But, much of what we termed paradigm shifts really were not shifts in paradigms at all. At best they were new treatments of familiar theories and practices. That is no less true in education. Rarely does an insight have the potential to change how we view students, teach, assess, and communicate with their parents. The theory of multiple intelligences (MI), however, does just that... .MI theory is a paradigm shift because it changes the way we look at students and their potentials. As a result, we view our roles and responsibilities quite differently. [15]

The impact of the revolution launched in 1983 by Gardner, intentionally or not, is still felt today. Every year more schools are added to the growing list of MI schools and hundreds of studies, articles and books continue to mark the educational landscape. Case in point of the continued popularity of Gardner's MI theory include the publication of a tenth anniversary publication of his Frames of Mind as well as the addition of an eighth intelligence or way of knowing, naturalist intelligence. [16] Through it all, Gardner has remained loyal to his original premise that MI is "not for the faint-hearted, nor for those in search of a quick fix." [17] Instead, it represents a model that places student understanding at the forefront of educational reform. Even Gardner will admit this sounds simplistic, he goes on to explain however, that "nearly every teacher I know-myself included-would claim to teach for understanding. In practice, it's really quite difficult, though... .Curiously, this failure is not so much deliberate as unwitting. Knowing how kids learn is key." [18] That is what the MI model provides for high school history teachers, a model that provides for deeper student understanding.

.03 Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Framework

Table 1: Summary of Gardner's Eight Intelligences [19]
Form of Intelligence Central Components
Logical/Mathematical Discern logical or numerical patterns; deductive reasoning
Verbal/Linguistic Use written and spoken language to express complex meaning
Visual/Spatial Perceive the visual world accurately; create mental images
Musical/Rhythmic Produce and appreciate forms of musical expressiveness
Body/Kinesthetic Control body movements and handle items skillfully
Naturalist Recognize patterns and distinctions in the natural world
Interpersonal Understand others; discern verbal and non-verbal cues
Intrapersonal Understand oneself; engage in self-reflection & metacognition

Gardner defines intelligence as the "capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings." [20] As mentioned previously, Gardner's MI theory includes eight distinct intelligences or ways of learning (defined in table 1). His theory of intelligence went well beyond the traditional focus on logical-mathematical and linguistic intelligence; all too often, the sole focus of standardized tests and classroom instruction. [21] Perhaps the goal of the multiple intelligences model can best be summed up by Sue Teele, University of California, Riverside:

... the theory of multiple intellegences provides different windows into the same room. We need to unleash the creative potential in all our schools to open as many windows as possible for every student to succeed. We must move forward together in a way that builds on our mutual strengths and respects our unique differences. [22]

Table 2: MI Instructional Strategies [23]
Form of Intelligence Teaching Activities
Logical/Mathematical Problem solving, investigation, experimentation, quesitoning
Verbal/Linguistic Discussion, narration, advanced organizers, writing activities
Visual/Spatial Imagery, map analysis, observation activities, construction of dioramas or posters
Musical/Rhythmic Simulations, song analysis, creative song writing, performances
Body/Kinesthetic Simulations, modeling, role playing, analyzing manipulatives
Naturalist Recognize and classify cultural and natural artifacts, data gathering in natural setting
Interpersonal Cooperative learning, peer teaching, brainstorming, shared inquiry
Intrapersonal Decision making, journal writing, self-discovery, independent learning projects

Just as there are certain characteristics germane to each of the eight intelligences identified by Gardner, so too are there specific teaching strategies that address each of these student ways of learning (see table 2). The introduction of MI activities into the classrooms of history teachers, however, must be accompanied with a change in how educators view student thinking. The following quote by a former high school English teacher, reflecting on his classroom experience, illustrates this point:

... if a teacher who lectures incessantly suddenly starts assigning journals, the introduction of journals into students' meaning-making repertoire will likely change very little else about the class unless the teacher makes an effort to make wholesale changes in the overriding conceptions of classroom process that govern life for teacher and students. [24]

.04 Internet Based Multiple Intelligences Model

The Internet and World Wide Web provide both an ideal resource and platform for multiple intelligences lesson plans. High school history teachers may now design lesson plans that incorporate Internet based materials into their multiple intelligences lessons. In addition, many of the classroom activities they produce may be placed on the Internet for student use. Both of these innovations enhance multiple intelligences lesson plans in a manner never imagined. Even Gardner believed the potential impact of computer technology would not be felt until the next century, 2013 to be exact. [25] The pedagogical impact of the Internet and World Wide Web is being experienced now, however, and the role it plays in providing for deeper student understanding through multiple intelligences teaching can also be realized today.

Table 3: Internet Based MI Activities [26]
Form of Intelligence Teaching Activities
Logical/Mathematical Analyze statistical historical data, create graphic representations of historical data, create hyperlinked timeline
Verbal/Linguistic Compose essays, poetry, etc. for publishing on web page, critique written resources through an annotated bibliography (hypertext)
Visual/Spatial Construct thematic web pages that include various visual images (e.g., posters, political cartoons, broadsides, photos, illustrations), construct hyperlinked timelines and maps
Musical/Rhythmic Analysis of song lyrics, composition of song lyrics, design and publish PowerPoint presentations which incorporate music and visual elements
Body/Kinesthetic Internet based simulations, cooperative web searches or web quests, role playing activities that incorporate Web resources, classroom presentations
Naturalist Design virtual landscapes, analyze computer simulated topographic battlefields, cities, maps, etc.
Interpersonal All of the above activities that might be designed to incorporate cooperative learning groups
Intrapersonal All of the above activities that might be completed through reflective individual projects

How do high school teachers combine the potential of the Internet with the promise of the multiple intelligences model? What rationale is there for implementing such a model? One necessary prerequisite for implementing this model is an understanding of both the MI model and the potential the Internet and World Wide Web hold for such a curricular design. Many of the activities which teachers might incorporate into Internet based MI lessons are outlined in Table 3. In addition, a sample lesson plan incorporating these two elements is included in Appendix A. While the key to implementation of this model is providing teachers with the necessary information and resources, it is just as important to recognize the incredible amount of time and sacrifice necessary to implement this model. Perhaps the key to the success of the MI model lies in the fact that it is not a prescriptive model, but instead an approach to teaching and learning that allows for individual interpretation, design and implementation.

Table 4: World Wide Web MI Resources [27]
Form of Intelligence Teaching Resources
Logical/Mathematical Charts, diagrams, government reports, statistical demographic and population data
Verbal/Linguistic Diary entries, government documents, personal narratives, historical documents, letters
Visual/Spatial Maps, diagrams, illustrations, battlefield representations, historical timelines
Musical/Rhythmic Lyrics or audio files of patriotic, protest, period and other historical music
Body/Kinesthetic Illustrations and descriptions of historical costumes, cooking, dance, etc. for role playing or simulation
Naturalist Illustrations, paintings, maps, personal narratives and photographs of historical and contemporary environments
Interpersonal All of the above resources that might be used in cooperative MI actvities
Intrapersonal All of the above resources that might be used in reflective, individual MI actvities

The Internet and World Wide Web present teachers with an entirely different dimension for implementing the MI model in their classroom. As mentioned previously, the Internet provides not only an invaluable resource for MI classroom activities, it also serves as an excellent pedagogical platform for launching such lessons. [28] Many of the resources on the World Wide Web which can be introduced into MI history lessons are outlined in Table 4. In addition to these resources, teachers may also use the following Internet instructional tools to address each of the eight student ways of learning:

  • E-Mail. Students and teachers can use e-mail to share multimedia and textual data relevant to MI activities they are working. Not only can this enhance interpersonal activities, providing another dimension, but it can also be used for teacher-student communication concerning intrapersonal and verbal/linguistic products such as essays or journal entries.
  • Chat Rooms. Class chat rooms can be ideal means for sharing information or checking on the progress of classroom MI projects. While this is an especially useful tool for addressing interpersonal learning needs, it can be used to assist with activities representative of each of the other seven intelligences.
  • Individual Web Sites. Designing and publishing individual web sites to showcase student projects from activities representing each of the eight intelligences is another ideal pedagogical tool for implementing the MI model. In addition to textual data, graphics, images, audio and video clips, students can include hypermedia and hypertext links to other resources on the World Wide Web on their individual web pages.
  • Class Web Sites. Teachers may choose to synthesize student products into a course or class web page. In addition to providing a means for comparison, these web sites also serve as excellent examples for future classes attempting to complete MI activities. [29]

.05 Implications for History Education

Howard Gardner has often used history to illustrate the potential of his model, remarking that there "is no reason why everyone has to learn history... in the same way." [30] Gardner often uses the study of the American Revolution to illustrate the MI approach to history education:

All of us have studied the American Revolution, for example. And some of us have studied it several times. But we almost always study it from the point of view of U.S. history: The Tories are bad, the colonists are good, and in the end goodness triumphs. Read about the American Revolution from the British perspective, though, and things appear quite different: The American Revolution isn't a revolution, it's a rebellion-a revolt of those dastardly colonists. ... In other words, if you approach a topic from different perspectives, you get a much richer view about what the American Revolution, or Yankee Uprising, was really like. [31]

Three benefits result from this type of MI teaching strategy. [32] First, because not all students learn in the same way, teachers are able to meet the needs of more students in their class. Second, the students realize that historians, teachers and students view history from a variety of perspectives and they learn more about how to evaluate and analyze historical evidence. Finally, the MI model allows for students to demonstrate understanding in a variety of ways, to include individual web pages, Internet annotated bibliographies, hyperlinked maps or timelines, and student generated PowerPoint presentations and Internet links pages. [33]

Already, there are thematic and constructivist adaptations of this model available for high school history teachers to use as further examples for their classroom use. [34] While there are no guarantees provided with any curricular or instructional model, the Internet based MI model represents an approach that seems ideally designed for those teachers desiring to provide content driven, thematic, powerful and meaningful history education for their students. [35] Certainly, no other model attempts to address all eight intelligences. Nor does any model take as comprehensive an approach to utilizing the Internet and World Wide Web.

.06 Future Research

While the Internet based MI model addresses many of the needs of both history teachers and students, many questions remain unanswered. In addition, there seems to be a lack of longitudinal studies and empirical data to illustrate the impact of the model on standardized test scores. [36] Other research questions and foci which need to be addressed include the following:

  • Teacher Pedagogical Beliefs. What role does teacher interpretation of the MI theory play in implementation and success?
  • Holistic versus Specialized Approach. Does a holistic approach in all lessons produce better academic results than specialized or partial implementation?
  • Group versus Individual. Do individual or group oriented approaches produce better academic results?
  • Traditional versus MI History Education. Does the MI approach to history education have a greater impact on student performance in college/university level history courses?
  • Internet versus Traditional MI Models. Is MI learning and teaching enhanced through utilization of the Internet and World Wide Web?
  • Additional Types of Intelligences. Do other types of intelligences exist?

.07 Conclusion

The promise of marrying technology with the MI model is one that can be realized today, nearly fifteen years before MI founder Howard Gardner's original 2013 forecast. [37] The Internet based MI model, however, is just that, a model. It is designed to give high school educators the flexibility to adapt it for use in their classroom to meet individual needs. Such a model serves as a "bare-bones framework for interaction, a skeleton to be fleshed out by individual school communities at their own pace, in their own time, using their own resources." [38] Teachers hold the key to unlocking student understanding. This model simply provides history teachers and students with two powerful means for achieving that goal.

.08 Notes

1. Howard Gardner, Frames of the Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (New York: Basic Books, 1983).

2. Thomas R. Hoerr, "Focusing on the Personal Intelligences as a Basis for Success," NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583 (November 1996): 36.

3. Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice (New York: Basic Books, 1993), 249; Howard Gardner, "Multiple Intelligences as a Catalyst," English Journal 84, no. 8 (December 1995): 16.

4. Ibid, 250-251; Kathy Checkley, "The First Seven... and the Eighth: A Conversation with Howard Gardner," Educational Leadership 55, no. 1 (September 1997): 8.

5. Howard Gardner, "Probing More Deeply Into the Theory of Multiple Intelligences," NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583 (November 1996): 1; Howard Gardner, "Reflections on Multiple Intelligences: Myths and Messages," Phi Delta Kappan 77, no. 3 (November 1995): 201.

6. Jean Sausele Knodt, "A Think Tank Cultivates Kids," Educational Leadership 55, no. 1 (September 1997): 37; Andrew S. Latham, "Quantifying MI's Gains," Educational Leadership 55, no.1 September 1997): 84.

7. Howard Gardner, "Educating for Understanding," The American School Board Journal 180, no. 7 (July1993): 21.

8. Garet Nelson, "Internet/ Web-Based Instruction and Multiple Intelligences," Educational Media International 35, no. 2 (June 1998): 90.

9. Howard Gardner, "Multiple Intelligences as a Partner in School Improvements," Educational Leadership 55, no. 1 (September 1997): 21.

10. Thomas R. Hoerr, "Introducing the Theory of Multiple Intelligences," NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583, (November 1996): 9.

11. Ibid.

12. Howard Gardner, "Multiple Intelligences as a Catalyst," 16.

13. David Lazear, Seven Ways of Teaching: The Artistry of Teaching with Multiple Intelligences (Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing, 1991), v-vi.

14. Thomas R. Hoerr, Implementing Multiple Intelligences: The New City School Experience (Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1996); David Lazear, Seven Ways ofTeaching: The Artistry of Teaching with Multiple Intelligences, vi-vii.

15. Thomas R. Hoerr, "Introducing the Theory of Multiple Intelligences," 8.

16. Maggie Meyer, "The GREENing of Learning: Using the Eighth Intelligence," Educational Leadership 55, no.1 (September 1997).

17. Howard Gardner, "Multiple Intelligences as a Partner in School Improvement," 20.

18. Howard Gardner, "Educating for Understanding," 21.

19. Linda Campbell, Bruce Campbell, and Dee Dickinson, Teaching & Learning Through Multiple Intelligences (Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1996, xvi-xvii; Nina Mjagkij and D. Antonio Cantu, " 'The Public Be Damned!' A Thematic and Multiple Intelligences Approach to Teaching the Gilded Age," OAH Magazine of History 13, no. 4, (Summer 1999): 57.

20. Howard Gardner, "Six Afterthoughts: Comments on 'Varieties of Intellectual Talent' " Journal of Creative Behavior 31, no. 2 (1997): 120; Howard Gardner and Thomas Hatch, "Multiple Intelligences Go to School," Educational Researcher 18, no. 8 (November 1989): 5.

21. Howard Gardner and Thomas Hatch, "Multiple Intelligences Go to School," 6; Sue Teele, "Redesigning the Educational System to Enable All Students to Succeed," NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583 (November 1996): 65.

22. Sue Teele, "Redesigning the Educational System to Enable All Students to Succeed," 75.

23. Carolyn Chapman, If the Shoe Fits... How to Develop Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom (Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing, 1993); Maggie Meyer, "The GREENing of Learning: Using the Eighth Intelligence;" Ellen Weber, "Creative Communities in High School: An Interactive Learning and Teaching Approach," NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583 (November 1996): 80.

24. Peter Smagorinsky, "Multiple Intelligences in the English Class: An Overview," English Journal 84, no. 8 (December 1995): 25.

25. Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice, 251.

26. Sally Bergman, A Multiple Intelligences Road to a Quality Classroom (Palatine, IL: ISI/Skylight Publishing, 1995); Louisa Melton and Winston Pickett, Using Multiple Intelligences in Middle School Reading (Bloomigton, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1997); David Lazear, Seven Ways of Teaching: The Artistry of Teaching with Multiple Intelligences. Louise M. Soares, "Structure, Content, and Process in Teacher Training: The Relevance of Copernicus, Gardner, and Dewey," The Clearing House 71, no. 4 (March/April 1998): 219.

27. David G. Lazear, Teaching for Multiple Intelligences (Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1992); Karen Gutloff, ed., Multiple Intelligences (West Haven, CT: NEA Professional Library, 1996); David Lazear, Seven Ways of Teaching: The Artistry of Teaching with Multiple Intelligences.

28. Kathleen M. Noonan, "Untangling the Web: The Use of the World Wide Web as a Pedagogical Tool in History Courses," The History Teacher 31, no. 2 (February 1998): 205.

29. Garet Nelson, "Internet/Web-Based Instruction and Multiple Intelligences."

30. Wendy Ecklund Lambert, "From Crockett to Tubman: Investigating Historical Perspectives," Educational Leadership 55, no. 1 (September 1997): 52.

31. Howard Gardner, "Educating for Understanding," 24.

32. Howard Gardner, "Reflections on Multiple Intelligences: Myths and Messages," 208.

33. Michelle D. Walker, "Multiple Intelligences and the World Wide Web: A New Approach to Teaching About the War," OAH Magazine of History 12, no.3 (Spring 1998); Nina Mjagkij and D. Antonio Cantu, " 'The Public Be Damned!' A Thematic and Multiple Intelligences Approach to Teaching the Gilded Age."

34. Ibid.

35. Sue Teele, "Redesigning the Educational System to Enable All Students to Succeed," 68.

36. Andrew S. Latham, "Quantifying MI's Gains," 84-85.

37. Shirley E. Jordan, "Multiple Intelligences: Seven Keys to Opening Closed Minds," NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583 (November 1996): 35.

38. Ellen Weber, "Creative Communities in High School: An Interactive Learning and Teaching Approach," 77.

.09 Bibliography

Bergman, Sally. A Multiple Intelligences Road to a Quality Classroom (Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing, 1995).

Campbell, Linda, Bruce Campbell, and Dee Dickenson. Teaching & Learning Through Multiple Intelligences. (Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1996).

Chapman, Carolyn. If the Shoe Fits... How to Develop Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. (Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing, 1993).

Checkley, Kathy. "The First Seven... and the Eighth: A Conversation with Howard Gardner." Educational Leadership 55, no. 1 (September 1997): 8-13.

Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. (New York: Basic Books, 1983).

———-. Multiple Intelligenences: The Theory in Practice. (New York: Basic Books, 1993).

———-. "Educating for Understanding." The American School Board Journal 180, no. 7 (July 1993): 20-24.

———-. "Multiple Intelligences as a Catalyst." English Journal 84, no. 8 (December 1995): 16-18.

———-. "Reflections on Multiple Intelligences: Myths and Messages." Phi Delta Kappan 77, no. 3 (November 1995): 200-03.

———-. "Probing More Deeply Into the Theory of Multiple Intelligences." NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583 (November 1996): 1-7.

———-. "Multiple Intelligences as a Partner in School Improvement." Educational Leadership 55, no. 1 (September 1997): 20-21.

———-. "Six Afterthoughts: Comments on 'Varieties of Intellectual Talent." Journal of Creative Behavior 31, no. 2 (1997): 120-24.

Gardner, Howard and Thomas Hatch. "Multiple Intelligences Go to School." Educational Researcher 18, no. 8 (November 1989): 4-9.

Gutloff, Karen, ed. Multiple Intelligences. (West Haven, CT: NEA Professional Library, 1996).

Hoerr, Thomas R. "Introducing the Theory of Multiple Intelligences." NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583 (November 1996): 8-10.

———-. "Focusing on the Personal Intelligences as a Basis for Success." NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583 (November 1996): 36-42.

———-. Implementing Multiple Intelligences: The New City School Experience. (Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1996).

Jordan, Shirley E. "Multiple Intelligences: Seven Keys to Opening Closed Minds." NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583 (November 1996): 29-35.

Knodt, Jean Sausele. "A Think Tank Cultivates Kids." Educational Leadership 55, no. 1 (September 1997): 35-37.

Lambert, Wendy Ecklund. "From Crockett to Tubman: Investigating Historical Perspectives." Educational Leadership 55, no. 1 (September 1997): 52.

Latham, Andrew S. "Quantifying MI's Gains." Educational Leadership 55, no. 1 (September 1997): 84-85.

Lazear, David. Seven Ways of Teaching: The Artistry of Teaching with Multiple Intelligences. (Palantine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing, 1991).

———-. Teaching for Multiple Intelligences. (Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1992).

Melton, Louisa and Winston Pickett. Using Multiple Intelligences in Middle School Reading. (Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1997).

Meyer, Maggie. "The GREENing of Learning: Using the Eighth Intelligence," Educational Leadership 55, no. 1 (September 1997): 32-34.

Mjagkij, Nina and D. Antonio Cantu. " 'The Public Be Damned!' A Thematic and Multiple Intelligences Approach to Teaching the Gilded Age." OAH Magazine of History 13, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 56-60.

Nelson, Garet. "Internet/Web-Based Instruction and Multiple Intelligences." Educational Media International 35, no. 2 (June 1998): 90-94.

Noonan, Kathleen M. "Untangling the Web: The Use of the World Wide Web as a Pedagogical Tool in History Courses." The History Teacher 31, no. 2 (February 1998): 205-19.

Smagorinsky, Peter. "Multiple Intelligences in the English Class: An Overview." English Journal 84, no. 8 (December 1995): 19-26.

Soares, Louise M. "Structure, Content, and Process in Teacher Training: The Relevance of Copernicus, Gardner, and Dewey." The Clearing House 71, no. 4 (March/April 1998): 217-220.

Teele, Sue. "Redesigning the Educational System to Enable All Students to Succeed." NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583 (November 1996): 65-75.

Walker, Michelle D. "Multiple Intelligences and the World Wide Web: A New Approach to Teaching About the War." OAH Magazine of History 12, no. 3 (Spring 1998): 44-47.

Weber, Ellen. "Creative Communities in High School: An Interactive Learning and Teaching Approach." NASSP Bulletin 80, no. 583 (November 1996): 76-86.

.10 Appendix A

Multiple Intelligences Lesson Plan Framework

Internet Based Multiple Intelligences Lesson Plan

Introduction
Course Time Materials

Content Concept Map

[figure]

Curriculum Vee Heuristic

[figure]

Procedures

  1. 1. 
  2. 2. 
  3. 3. 
  4. 4. 
  5. 5. 

Application

 

Logical/Mathematical Intelligence

  • Background/Introduction: 
  • Prompt: 
  • Student Activity Guidelines: 

Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence

  • Background/Introduction: 
  • Prompt: 
  • Student Activity Guidelines: 

Visual/Spatial Intelligence

  • Background/Introduction: 
  • Prompt: 
  • Student Activity Guidelines: 

Musical/Rythmic Intelligence

  • Background/Introduction: 
  • Prompt: 
  • Student Activity Guidelines: 

Body/Kinesthetic Intelligence

  • Background/Introduction: 
  • Prompt: 
  • Student Activity Guidelines: 

Naturalist Intelligence

  • Background/Introduction: 
  • Prompt: 
  • Student Activity Guidelines: 

Interpersonal Intelligence

  • Background/Introduction: 
  • Prompt: 
  • Student Activity Guidelines: 

Intrapersonal Intelligence

  • Background/Introduction: 
  • Prompt: 
  • Student Activity Guidelines: 

Bibliography

  • Print: 
  • Electronic: 

D. Antonio Cantu

Assistant Professor
Department of History
Ball State University
Muncie, IN 47306