A. In the spring of 2007 Karl August Neuhausen of Bonn University presented me with the Herculanean collectanea of his former teacher Wolfgang Schmid, of which a part had previously belonged to Schmid's teacher, Christian Jensen. The purpose of this paper is to give a preliminary account of the material.

    B. The significance of Jensen and Schmid for Herculanean Papyrology

    Christian Jensen[1] was introduced by Siegfried Sudhaus[2] at Kiel University to a solid tradition of Herculanean scholarship, which went back to Franz Bücheler[3] and Hermann Usener.[4] These two outstanding classicists had encouraged several young scholars at Bonn University to prepare Teubner editions of Herculanean papyri.[5] Johannes Kemke edited Philodemus, De musica[6] and Alfred Körte published, as a part of his Metrodori Epicurei fragmenta, P.Herc. 831.[7] The most important achievement, however, was Siegfried Sudhaus' Philodemi volumina rhetorica, the largest Teubner edition of Philodemus ever prepared. Further work was also done on Philodemus' On Poems. August Hausrath edited the papyri which he had attributed to the second Book[8] and in 1895 the 22-year-old Gottfried Kentenich completed a Bonn Preisschrift of almost all the Philodemean papyri containing this work. [9]

    Jensen published the Teubner edition of Philodemus' Περὶ οἰκονομίας at the age of 23 and five years later Book 10 of Περὶκακιῶν. To this day, neither has been replaced.[10] His most outstanding Herculanean work, however, was his publication of the fifth Book of On Poems. He is also known for his edition of Hypereides and his work on Menander. His fellow student, Karl Wilke, moreover, published an edition of Polystrati Epicurei Περὶ ἀλόγουκαταφρονήσεως libellus in 1905, which had also been supervised by Sudhaus at Kiel University,[11] and in 1915 edited Philodemi De ira liber.

    Jensen's university career took him, after his Habilitation at Marburg in 1910, from a position as extraordinary professor at Königsberg to chairs at Jena, Königsberg, Kiel, Bonn and Berlin,[12] where he died of a heart attack in 1940.

    He supervised several doctoral theses on Herculanean papyri in the course of his career.[13] At Königsberg, Adolf Schober produced an edition of Philodemi De pietate pars prior, since recognized as the pars secunda by Dirk Obbink. Josef Heidmann, another of his pupils, edited a papyrus of Philodemus' On Poems (P.Herc. 1676).

    Jensen's most eminent pupil was Wolfgang Schmid, who before writing his dissertation on the so-called Ethica Comparetti[14] had already published an important study entitled Epikurs Kritik der platonischen Elementenlehre.[15] Though later extending his interests to late Latin and Christian literature, Schmid retained an active interest in Herculanean, Epicurean und Lucretian scholarship throughout his career. He was one of the founders of the Centro Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papiri Ercolanesi. [16]

    C. Schmid's retrieval of Jensen's Nachlass and the statement of Jensen's son Uwe

    The papers Neuhausen handed over to me were accompanied by a statement of Jensen's son Uwe written in 1980. It is evident that the text of this statement was composed by Wolfgang Schmid himself. We learn that Schmid retrieved a part of Jensen's Herculanean collectanea in 1943 from the basement of Jensen's bombed-out house in Berlin. The statement mentions the only known copy of Adolf Schober's handwritten dissertation on De pietate pars I.

    Much space is also given to the request that the readings, textual proposals and reconstructions contained in the papers must not be quoted if contradicted by the originals. There is an explicit remark about the numerous disagreements between Jensen's and Sbordone's reconstructions and it is quite clear that Schmid did not want Sbordone to gain possession of Jensen's texts.

    D. The contents of Jensen's and Schmid's Herculanean papers

    The most important material regards the following texts:

    • – Philodemus, On Poems (Kentenich, Jensen, Heidmann, and Schmid).
    • – Demetrius Laco, Protrepticus, P.Herc. 831 (Schmid).
    • – Philodemus, On Piety (Jensen and Schmid). [17]
    • – Philodemus, On Music (transcriptions by an unidentified person, with Jensen's additions).

    There is also some Herculanean material of minor philological importance consisting in copies of disegni of papyri with ethical writings.

    Various letters, which were written by Adolf Schober, Achille Vogliano, Raffaele Cantarella, Ernst Siegmann, Johannes Mewaldt and several others, and belonged to Jensen and Schmid, may be of a certain interest too. Finally, there is handwritten material for a commentary on Aristotle's Poetics collected by Hermann Mutschmann (1882–1918), the editor of Sextus Empiricus. Mutschmann finished his doctoral dissertation in 1906 under Sudhaus' colleague Paul Wendland, obtained the chair at Königsberg in 1913 and died in 1918 in the First World War.[18]

    E. Importance for Future Research

    Some of the letters may shed some light on historical matters, as for example those regarding the scholar Robert Philippson (1858–1942), who died in Theresienstadt.[19] I have prepared a list of these and started transcribing them. Some of them were written in Sütterlin.

    Herculanean scholarship is likely to draw some profit from the unpublished readings and conjectures. I have made a repertory of all the transcriptions, restorations and conjectures on Herculanean texts and related them to current editions. Unknown variants not obviously ruled out are presented in two different ways: the less complicated ones are reported literally, whereas the more complex cases are just indicated as "interesting." I have treated the whole collection in this way, with the only exception of Kentenich's manuscript, which requires special treatment, and the handwritten remarks in Gomperz's edition of Philodemus, On Piety, because Henrichs and Obbink had already been able to take Jensen's and Schober's texts of On Piety into account.

    1. In the last decade of his life, Wolfgang Schmid concentrated his efforts on the first part of Philodemus, On Piety, while he allowed Henrichs to work on the second part. The first part was edited by Dirk Obbink in 1996.[20] I have made a list of about 20 readings and proposals of Schmid which diverge from Obbink's edition.

    2. Wolfgang Schmid also worked on the Protrepticus by Demetrios Lakon, preserved in P.Herc. 831. A bound copy of Alfred Koerte's 1890 edition contains numerous notes, drawings of letters and comments on stratification.[21] Further readings and observations accompany the pages copied from the Collectio altera[22] in Schmid's Collation Notebook ("Kollationskladde") of September 1953.[23] Schmid used some of them in two publications.[24] His unpublished observations on the first ten columns as well as the thorough revision of col. 11 sent to Schmid by Albert Henrichs in 1971 may be useful too.

    3. Jensen's papers also contain some material on Philodemus, De musica. There are about 20 readings of papyrus 1497 by an unidentified German scholar which diverge from Neubecker's edition. Many of them have been superseded only very recently by Daniel Delattre's edition of Philodemus, De musica, Book 4.[25] There are also some transcriptions of those parts of Book 4 which are only preserved in the disegni, among which I found a certain number of unknown suggestions. Some of them may still be useful, while others are at least of doxographical interest.

    4. The most important material pertains to Philodemus, On Poems. Jensen had already expressed his hope soon to publish Book 4 of this work in 1923.[26] In 1969, Francesco Sbordone wrote in the preface to his edition of Book 4 that, according to information supplied to him by Wolfgang Schmid in a letter of 17 June 1942, a provisional text existed among Jensen's papers and added: "ma purtroppo ormai della biblioteca personale dello Jensen si sono perdute le tracce." [27]

      In the Nachlaß, however, Book 4 appeared in several versions. The first bears the date of 19–2–1929. Then there is a more complete transcription of the first columns. A further stage was reached in December 1933. Finally, there are three typewritten copies of the text. [28]

      Further documents reveal that Wolfgang Schmid himself was interested in working on Book 4. In May 1947, he wrote to Werner Jaeger that he had received the most important parts of Jensen's preliminary work from his widow in 1942 and retrieved the material in 1943 at the risk of his own life, ne iterum carbo fieret aurum Herculanense.[29] But he never told this to Sbordone.

    5. In other folders I came across more than 30 unknown proposals for the text of Philodemus, On Poems, Book 1, another 30 for that of Book 2, and some more proposals on papyri that belong to Book 5.

      I have checked them against current editions, but have not investigated their relationship with the text of the most important manuscript:

    6. Kentenich's Preisschrift of 1895. This manuscript passed from Usener to Sudhaus, from Sudhaus to Jensen and then from Jensen to Heidmann. Its extreme value was already known from Jensen's and Heidmann's editions. Jensen[30] quoted its title and gave the number of its pages as 273.

      Kentenich dealt with all the Philodemean texts on poetry except one.[31] After making several efforts to track down this Preisschrift, Richard Janko wrote in 2000: "My enquiries revealed no trace of Jensen's Nachlass. I believe that, tragically, Kentenich's manuscript is lost with it."[32] This tragedy, thanks to the deus ex machina, Karl August Neuhausen, has now been given a happy ending.

      Kentenich's manuscript had served as the basis of all German studies on Philodemus, On Poetry for half a century. The Arbeitsstelle für Papyrologie, Epigraphik und Numismatik in Cologne is proud to possess it together with the other valuable Herculanean material collected by Jensen and Schmid.

      There are plans to publish Kentenich's manuscript together with some other useful material and a register of the content of the Nachlass. In any case, future editors of the papyri are welcome to request files of the repertory which I have already prepared and, of course, to study the documents that interest them in Cologne.

    F. Synopsis:

      The "Bonn School" of Herculanean Studies:
    • Franz Bücheler (1837–1908)
    • Hermann Usener (1834–1905)
    • Siegfried Sudhaus (1863–1914)
    • Gottfried Kentenich (1873–1939)
      Editions of Herculanean papyri prepared by the "Bonn School" and its extensions
    • 1884 Philodemi De musica librorum quae exstant (Johannes Kemke)
    • 1889 Philodemi Περὶ ποιημάτων libri secundi quae videntur fragmenta (August Hausrath)
    • 1890 Metrodori Epicurei fragmenta, with P.Herc. 831 (Alfred Koerte)
    • 1892 and 1896 Philodemi volumina rhetorica (Siegfried Sudhaus)
    • 1895 Librorum Περὶ ποιημάτων volumina Herculanensia quantum fieri potest restituantur
    • (Gottfried Kentenich)
    • 1905 Polystrati Epicurei Περὶ ἀλόγου καταφρονήσεως libellus (Karl Wilke)
    • 1915 Philodemi De ira liber (Karl Wilke)
      Christian Jensen (20.7.1883–18.9.1940): Königsberg (1912); Jena (1913); Königsberg (1917); Kiel (1921); Bonn (1926); Berlin (1938)
    • 1907 Philodemi Περὶ οἰκονομίας qui dicitur libellus
    • 1911 Philodemi Περὶ κακιῶν liber decimus
    • 1923 Philodemos Über die Gedichte. Fünftes Buch
      Editions of Herculanean papyri by Jensen's pupils:
    • 1923 Adolf Schober, Philodemi De pietate pars prior (Diss. Königsberg: printed in CronErc
    • 18 [1988])
    • 1937 Josef Heidmann, Der Papyrus 1676 der herculanensischen Bibliothek. Philodemos, Über die
    • Gedichte (Diss. Bonn: printed in CronErc 1/1971)
    • 1939 Wolfgang Schmid, Ethica Epicurea. Pap. Herc. 1251 (Diss. Bonn)

    Wolfgang Schmid (3.7.1913–23.11.1980)


      1. On Jensen cf. Deubner 1942; Olivieri 1941; Mette 1980, 93f; Gigante 1988, 40–42.return to text

      2. On Sudhaus cf. Vollmer 1915; Mette 1980, 74 and 91.return to text

      3. On Franz Bücheler's importance for the Herculanean papyri cf. Gigante 1988, 20f.return to text

      4. Gigante 1976; Gigante 1978; Gigante 1988, 22–27; Capasso 1987.return to text

      5. See below, p. 295.return to text

      6. Mette 1980, 50; Gigante 1988, 27.return to text

      7. Mette 1980, 69. The papyrus has now been recognized as containing the Protrepticus of Demetrius Laco.return to text

      8. Mette 1980, 67.return to text

      9. Cf. J. Heidmann, "Der Papyrus 1676 der herkulanensischen Bibliothek. Philodemus über die Gedichte", CronErc 1 (1971) 90–111, ibid. 92.; Janko 2000, 43–45.return to text

      10. Only recently there appeared a partial edition of Philodemus, On Vices, Book 10 by Ranocchia 2007.return to text

      11. Cf. Mette 1980, 93; Gigante 1988, 56 (bibliography).return to text

      12. Mette 1980, 93f.return to text

      13. See below, p. 295. Another thesis written under Jensen's supervision is Knögel 1933. It contains an analysis of the 10th Book of Philodemus' On Vices (Περὶ κακιῶν), col. X–XXIV, the re-edition of col. X and XI and further new readings of the papyrus-text made by Jensen himself.return to text

      14. Now edited by Tsouna-McKirahan/Indelli 1995.return to text

      15. First published in 1936; reprinted in H. Erbse/J. Küppers 1984, 3–47.return to text

      16. On Wolfgang Schmid cf. Schetter 1981.return to text

      17. Unfortunately, the original of Adolf Schober's handwritten edition, said to be in Bonn in Uwe Jensen's statement of 1980 (and in Mette 1980, 94) is now missing. This is a great loss, in spite of the publication of Schober's Dissertation in CronErc 18 (1988). On the importance of the original manuscript cf. Obbink 1996, 614, on col. 82B: "Less unintentional in that printing was the omission throughout of Chr. Jensen's handwritten comments, and, more important, the discrepancies between his text and the readings recorded by the apographs, carefully documented and annotated by Schober in parallel columns throughout the original handwritten dissertation."return to text

      18. Mette 1980, 34.return to text

      19. Schmid 1948; Gigante 1988, 38–40 and 50–52 (bibliography).return to text

      20. Obbink 1996.return to text

      21. A. Koerte 1890, 531–591, at 571–591.return to text

      22. VH2 X 71–80return to text

      23. Schmid 1959, quoted from the reprint in Erbse/Küppers 1984, 75–93, at 85. Cf. Schmid 1955, 48, "... ich habe mich kürzlich der Aufgabe einer Neuvergleichung des Textes unterzogen; eigentlich war es eine erstmalige Kollation ...".return to text

      24. Schmid 1955, quoted from the reprint in Erbse / Küppers 1984, 48–74.return to text

      25. Delattre 2007.return to text

      26. Jensen 1923, p. VII n. 2.return to text

      27. F. Sbordone, in Richerche sui papiri ercolanesi, Vol. I (1969) 289.return to text

      28. In the autumn of 2007 Richard Janko, who is preparing an edition of Philodemus, On Poems IV, visited our Arbeitsstelle für Papyrologie, Epigraphik und Numismatik and found much useful information for his work in these documents.return to text

      29. A copy of this letter to Jaeger, dated 26–5–1947, was found in his Nachlass, and contains the following text: "was Jensens Vorarbeiten zu Philod. IV betrifft, so ist nur ein Teil (der wichtigere Teil) davon erhalten, den ich 1942 von Frau Prof. Jensen ... nach Hamburg ausgeliehen hatte. Ich habe ihn 1943 in jenen Katastrophentagen ... unter Lebensgefahr ... geborgen, ne iterum carbo fieret aurum Herculanense."return to text

      30. 1923 p. VII n. 4.return to text

      31. P.Herc. 1677return to text

      32. Janko 2000, 45. Contrary to what had been believed, Kentenich's manuscript had an apparatus criticus. It contains various notes of other scholars, including Jensen, Usener and Sudhaus.return to text

      Works Cited

      Capasso 1987    M. Capasso, "Gli studi ercolanesi di Hermann Usener nel suo carteggio inedito con Hermann Diels," in M. Capasso, Momenti della storia degli studi classici fra Ottocento e Novecento (Naples 1987) 104–136.
      Delattre 2007    D. Delattre, Philodème de Gadara. Sur la musique, Livre IV (2007).
      Deubner 1942    L. Deubner, "Gedächtnisrede auf Christian Jensen," Jahrbuch der Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1941) 193-195.
      Erbse/Küppers 1984    H. Erbse, J. Küppers (eds.), Wolfgang Schmid, Ausgewählte philologische Schriften (Berlin-New York 1984).
      Gigante 1976    M. Gigante, "Hermann Usener nella storia degli studi epicurei," CronErc 6 (1976) 5–14.
      Gigante 1978    M. Gigante, "Usener e i testi epicurei nei papiri ercolanesi," CronErc 8 (1978) 5–20.
      Gigante 1988    M. Gigante, La Germania e i papiri ercolanesi: vorgetragen am 9. Mai 1987. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Jahrgang 1988, Bericht 1 (Heidelberg 1988).
      Janko 2000    R. Janko, Philodemus, On Poems (Oxford 2000).
      Jensen 1923    Chr. Jensen, Philodemos Über die Gedichte, fünftes Buch (Berlin 1923).
      Knögel 1933     W. Knögel, Der Peripatetiker Ariston von Keos bei Philodem (Leipzig 1933).
      Koerte 1890    A. Koerte, "Metrodori Epicurei fragmenta," Jahrbücher für classische Philolologie. Suppl. 17 (1890) 531–597.
      Mette 1980    J. Mette, "Nekrolog einer Epoche. Hermann Usener und seine Schule. Ein wirkungsgeschichtlicher Rückblick auf die Jahre 1856–1979," Lustrum 22 (1980) 5–106.
      Obbink 1996    D. Obbink, Philodemus, On Piety. Part 1 (Oxford 1996).
      Olivieri 1941    A. Olivieri, "Christian Jensen," RAAN, NS 21 (1941) 21–26.
      Ranocchia 2007    G. Ranocchia, Aristone, Sul modo di liberare dalla Superbia nel decimo libro De vitiis di Filodemo (Florence 2007).
      Schetter 1981    W. Schetter, "Nachruf Wolfgang Schmid," Gnomon 53 (1981) 810–812.
      Schmid 1948    W. Schmid, "Nachruf Robert Philippson," ZPhF 3 (1948) 113–115.
      Schmid 1955    W. Schmid, "Die Netze des Seelenfängers. Zur Jagdmetaphorik im philosophischen Protreptikos des Demetrios Lakon (Pap. Herc. 831)," PP 10 (1955) 478–500.
      Schmid 1959    W. Schmid, "Aus der Arbeit an einem ethischen Traktat des Demetrios Lakon," in Epicurea in memoriam Hectoris Bignone: Miscellanea Philologica (Genoa 1959) 179–195.
      Tsouna-McKirahan/Indelli 1995    V. Tsouna-McKirahan and G. Indelli, Philodemus, On Choices and Avoidances. La Scuola di Epicuro 15 (Naples 1995).
      Vollmer 1915    Fr. Vollmer, "Nachruf Siegfried Sudhaus," Bursians Jahresberichte 173 (1915) 65–81.