The 25th International Congress of Papyrology took place at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor from July 29 to August 4, 2007. This was the second time that the Congress convened in Ann Arbor (following the 12th Congress in 1968) and the third in North America (the 16th Congress in 1980 met in New York). The history of papyrological research at the University of Michigan is long and rich. Founded by the visionary Francis W. Kelsey, the U of M papyrus collection has been the home of many great resident scholars: Arthur Boak, Campbell Bonner, Henry Sanders, John Winter, Orsamus Pearl, Roger Pack, William Worrel, Elinor Husselman, Herbert and Louise Youtie, and Ludwig Koenen. The collection has been the training ground for many other scholars: Peter Parsons, Gerald Browne, John Shelton, Ann Ellis Hanson, Tim Renner, Bill Brashear, Bob Daniel, Vincent MacCarren, Maryline Parca, and David Martinez, just to mention a few. It also became the second home for Piet Sijpesteijn.

    Of the approximately 150 papers delivered during the Congress, 80 are included in this publication. These Proceedings have been fully refereed, since each contribution was read both by the editor and two outside anonymous reviewers. To ensure quality and to avoid lapses in content and typography each contributor received at least two sets of proofs. The preparation of the Proceedings for publication was a tantalizing task that involved many content and technical experts to whom I am greatly indebted and express my sincerest thanks. Noah Frederick and Terry Szymanski converted all the files to New Athena Unicode. Our colleague Don Mastronarde (UC Berkeley) greatly facilitated our work by providing advice on Unicode matters and adding characters, especially for Demotic and Arabic transliterations. I wish to thank in particular my editorial assistant, Adam Hyatt, who undertook the daunting task of formatting all the contributions, communicating constantly with the contributors, dealing with myriads of issues of standardization and consistency, and producing the subject index.

    The publication of the Proceedings in two forms ("print-on-demand" and open access on the Internet) would have been impossible without the help of the Scholarly Publishing Office (SPO) at the University of Michigan Library (

    —Traianos Gagos

    Traianos Gagos finished the foregoing preface a few days before his death at the end of April, 2010. He had also reviewed and approved the final proofs of about half of the articles and the frontmatter, and had set up with the University of Michigan Library Scholarly Publishing Office the details for the electronic and print-on-demand publication of this volume. Under the direction of Traianos' assistant Adam Hyatt, this volume has been completed and brought to publication to appear in time for the XXVI International Congress of Papyrology in Geneva, according to Traianos' wishes. Special thanks to the University Library Scholarly Publication Office (especially Terri Geitgey, Jeremy Morse, and Rebecca Welzenbach) for their essential role in the publication of this volume, and to Paul Courant, University Librarian and Dean of Libraries, Peggy Daub, Director, Special Collections Library and Shannon Zachary, Head of the Department of Preservation and Conservation, for supporting the timely completion and publication of this volume under difficult circumstances. This volume is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Traianos Gagos.

    —Adam Hyatt, Arthur Verhoogt, Terry Wilfong