Gesenius' Hebrew grammar: 17th ed., with numerous corrections and additions, by dr. E. Rödiger. Tr. by T. J. Conant ... With grammatical exercises and a chrestomathy, by the translator.
Gesenius, Wilhelm, 1786-1842., Conant, Thomas Jefferson, tr. 1802-1891,, Roediger, Emil, ed. 1801-1874.

Page  [unnumbered] IrnRSffyOFMICUr~ T I I E I FI I. Fred Glass, Jr*

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Page  IV Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, ly D. APPLETON & COMPANY, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of News Yorl

Page  V TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. THE fourteenth edition of the Hebrew Grammar of Gesenius is now offered to the public by the translator of the eleventh edition, by whom this work was first made accessible to students in the English language. The conviction expressed in his preface to that edition, that its publica. tion in this country would subserve the interests of Hebrew literature has been fully sustained by the result. After a full trial of the merts of this work, both in America and in England,* its republication is now demanded in its.latest and most improved form. The writer believes it to be no more than justice to him, that he should be allowed to answer this demand; and to enjoy any advantages resulting from the increasing popularity of a work, the merits of which have become known through his labours. Of the general character of this grammar it is now unnecessary to speak. It passed through thirteen editions with continual improvements from the author's own hand. The fourteenth edition was prepared, after the death of Gesenius, by his friend and former pupil Prof. Rsdiger, one of the most accurate oriental scholars of the age, who for some time lectured on Hebrew Grammar in the University at Halle, with the work of Gesenius for his text-book. Traces of his accurate scholarship are found, in the form of corrections and additions, in every part of the work; and some portions have been rewritten, but on the same general philological principles and in the same spirit as the preceding editions. In the sections on the important subject of the Hebrew tenses he has substituted, injudiciously I think, the terms Perfect and Imperfect for Praeterite and * The translation appeared in 1839, and an accurate reprint of it was soon after published in London.

Page  VI TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. Future, and has given in ~ 123 a corresponding modification to the ex. pression of the original import of these tenses. So subtile and refined a distinction cannot have been the original conception of these forms. The obvious and strongly marked division of time into Past and Future was doubtless the primary one; and from this simple and clearly ori ginal import of the two forms, Gesenius has, with admirable skill, derived their various secondary and related uses, and shown how nat. urally the latter spring from the former. Rodiger, by adapting his nomenclature to the secondary instead of the primary signification and uses of a tense, has given an unphilosophical view of the relation of the primary and secondary to each other, and rendered that relation obscure to the inquirer.* Whether these strictures are deemed just or not, al. will doubtless admit the propriety of retaining in the translation the names of the tenses in common use; those adopted by Rodiger being unknown to the lexicons and other works which the student must use in connexion with the grammar. This remark applies also to the terms conversive and consecutive. Those who may prefer to follow Rodiger, have only to substitute Perfect and Imperfect for Praeterite and Future, and consecutive for conversive. The Exercises, which follow the translation, are designed to facilitate the study of the grammar. They were prepared after several years' observation, as a teacher, of the difficulties which embarrass the student in his first attempt to learn an oriental language. They have been used with great advantage by a teacher under my direction during the last seven years, and by teachers in other Institutions.-The principles of reading and orthography, of inflexion, &c., are necessarily scattered through numerous sections and subdivisions in the grammar. A judiciois summary of these principles, grouping together those points which mutually illustrate each other, will save much of the student's time and labour, and give him a clearer impression of the whole than he can obtain by his own unassisted study of the grammar. A comparison of Sect. II. and Sect. VII. of the Exercises with the ~~ of the grammar there referred to, will show the utility of such a mode of treating the subject. Occasionally, several statements in the grammar are con. * I have added therefore, at the end of the volume, Gesenius' general statemeit of the import of the two tense-forms, on which he bases his treatment of the subject in the succeeding ~~, as given also in the fourteenth edition. Gesenius' view of the original form of the Heb. article is given and commented on by Rodiger, (~ 35, Rem. 1,) whose reasons for differing from him are not satisfactory to me. He does not attempt to account for its punctuation, although it is, according to his own view, an integrdl part of the form.

Page  VII TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. vil densed into one more comprehensive expression, in a form more convenient for the student's use. The principles of inflexion, imperfectly given in ~ 27, 3 (as in all Hebrew grammars) are fully stated and illustrated in Sect. V. With a knowledge of these principles, the student will find no difficulty in the otherwise perplexing subject of the inflexion of nouns and verbs. It is recommended to those who may use this work in their instruc tions, that only the ~~ of the grammar placed in brackets at the head of each Section of the Exercises should be studied, or even read, before the subject of that Section is made perfectly familiar. By this course, each portion of the grammar is indelibly fixed in the memory as the student advances. The promiscuous examples furnish at the same time a useful exercise, and a test of the student's progress. The exercises in analysis (Sect. IX.) should be thoroughly understood, and impressed on the memory, before the study of the first lessons in translating is com. menced. Such characteristic peculiarities of the language are too im. portant to be left for occasional examination, where they may chance to occur in reading; and a knowledge of them is presupposed in the sub. sequent notes. The notes to the Chrestomathy have been prepared on the plan which every teacher of experience will appreciate, of reprinting nothing which is contained in the grammar;-and what is equally important, of repeating nothing which has once been stated and learned. On a dif. ferent plan, the same amount of information might easily have been extended over a hundred pages, and with no other effect than to retard the real proficiency of the learner.-The Exercises and Chrestomathy have been carefully revised, and the numerous references, in which it is be. lieved not an error remains, have been adapted to this edition of the grammar. It is due to myself to state the circumstances which have led to my connexion with the publication of this edition. Soon after the appearance of the fourteenth edition, a translation ot it was published in England, and was announced for republication in this country. Another translation had already been announced as nearly ready for the press, by a distinguished scholar of this country, without any consultation with me, or any intimation that an improved edition of the work, which I had first brought to the notice of the American public, would be acceptable from me. As nothing was to be hoped for in a competition with two rival publications of the same work, 1 could only quietly suffer myself to be superseded. In the mean time a copy of the English publication was sent me, and

Page  VIII .o. I111 TRANSLATOR' PREFACE. I observed in the translator's preface an acknowledgment of " very val. uable aid received from Prof. Conant's excellent translation of the eleventh edition." On examining the book to see'what aid I had rendered in preparing an edition which was about to supersede my own, I found that wherever in the original the two editions coincide, as in by far the greater part of the work, my translation had been reprinted word for word (with here and there a change too trivial to be noticed except for its infelicity), including corrections and additions silently made from Ge. senius' other works, and notes bearing the mark of the translator. Had the English editor professedly republished my translation, adding the improvements of the subsequent editions and prefixing the title-page under which it now appears, he would have done justice to himself and to me. The American publishers had the whole work already in type; but having satisfied themselves of the correctness of the above statement by a comparison of the two editions, they proposed an honourable adjustment with the original publishers, and by a liberal compensation secured their right to the work. The English editor has, with great diligence and fidelity, incorporated every modification of the editions subsequent to the eleventh, even to the most minute suggestion. Some defects of taste will be observed in the portions which he has translated. One page (the 92d) I have found it necessary to retranslate, and have corrected the phraseology in some others, where it could conveniently be done in the plates. After a very careful revision of the whole, I have noted at the end of the volume every instance in which the meaning of the original appears to be in any degree obscured. Most of the notes which now bear the signature Tr., and passages inserted in brackets, add nothing to the value of the book; but will do no injury, as they are carefully distinguished from the original matter. The note: to ~112 should have been expunged; but the omission there noticed will not be mistaken for an oversight of preceding grammarians. The Chrestomathy and notes prepared by Dr. Davies, being in type when the above mentioned arrangement was made, are retained by desire of the publishers, and will increase the amount of reading matter in Hebrew. His notes I have not examined, farther than to ascertain that his method is not such as, when a teacher of Hebrew, I found best adapted to intelligent students. Some, however, may find them useful, especially those who study the language without a teacher. The superintendence of this edition was confided to Mr. William W. Turner, Hebrew Instructor in Union Theological Seminary, whose accuracy, and experience in the publication of similar works, are a

Page  IX TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. IU sufficient guaranty for the proper execution of the trust. It is but just to him to add, that he was responsible only for a correct reprint of the English copy. In beauty and correctness of typographical execution. this work surpasses any Hebrew grammar that has been published in this country, and is highly creditable to the piess from which it is issued. I would here express my acknowledgments to the publishers for their honourable treatment of my claims; and the hope that this, with the facilities here furnished for the elementary study of the Hebrew language, may commend their edition of the work to the favourable notice of teachers. T. J. CONANT. MADISON UNIVERSITY, I HAMILTON, N. Y. October, 1846

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Page  11 INTRODUCTION..17 Sjection 1. Of' the Shemnitish Languagres in General... ibid. 2. History of the Hebrew as a Living Language...22 3. Works on the Grammar of the Hebrew Language. 28 4. Division and Arrangrement of' Grammar... 30 PART 1.-OF THE ELEMENTS. CHAPTER 1.-Of Reading and Orthography. 5. Of' the Consonants, their Forms and Names.. 31 6. Pronunciation and Division of' Consonants...33 7. Of' the Vowels in General, Vowel-Letters, and Vowel-Signs. 37 8. Of' the Vowel-Signs...39 9. Character and Value of' the several Vowels.. 42 10. 01' the Half-Vowels and the Syllable-Divider ($hlva)..48 1i. 'Signs which affect the Reading of'Consonants -. 50 1'2. Of' Dagrhesh in General, and Daghesh Forte in Particular.ibid. 13. Daglhesh Lene...... 51 14. Mappiq and Raphe......52 15. Of'the Accents... ibid. 16. Mappiq and Methegh.....55 17. Qeri and Kethibh..... 56 CHAPTER Il.-Peculiarities and Changre8of Letters; ofSyllables and the 7bne. 19. In General..... 56 19. Changes of' Consonants.... 57 20. Doubling of' Consonants.....59 21. Aspiration and the Removal of'it by Daghesh Lene.. 61 22. Peculiarities of' the Gutturals..62 23. Of the Feebleness of' the Breathings bt and h 65 24. Changes of the Feeble Letters I and..67 25. Unchangeable Vowels.. 69 26. Or' Syllables and their Influence on the Quantity of' Vowels. 70 27. Changes of Vowels, especially in Respect to their Quantity. 73 28. Rise of New Vowels and Syllables 77.. 29. Of the Tone; Changes of the Tone; and of the Pause. 78

Page  12 12 CONTENTS. PART II.-OF FORMS AND INFLEXIONS, OR OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Section Page 30. Of the Stem-Words and Roots (Biliterals, Triliterals, Quadriliterals)...... 81 31. Of Grammatical Structure..... 85 CHAPTER I.-Of the Pronoun. 32. Of the Personal or Separate Pronoun... 86 33. Suffix Pronoun...... 88 34. The Demonstrative Pronoun... 90 35. The Article. 91 36. The Relative Pronoun..... 92 37 The Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns... 93 CHAPTER II.-Of the Verb. 38-41. General View.. 94 I. Of the Regular Verb. 42. In General..... 98 A. Of the Ground-Form, or Kal. 43. Its Form and Signification.... ibid. 44. Preterite of Kal aid its Inflexion.... 99 45. Of the Infinitive...... 101 46. Of the Imperative..... 102 47. Of the Future and its Inflexion. 103 48. Lengthening and Shortening of the Future and Imperative. (Jussive and Cohortative Forms).... 105 48 b. Preterite and Future with Vav Conversive.. 107 49. Of the Participle..... 109 B. Derived Conjugations. 50. Niphal....... 110 51. Piel and Pual......112 52. Hiphil and Hophal... 114 53. Hithpael....117 54. Unusual Conjugations. 118 55. Quadriliterals..... 120 C. Regular Verb with Pronominal Suffixes. 56. In General... ibid. 57. The Suffix of the Verb.. 121 58. The Preterite with Pronominal Suffixes. 123 59. Future with Pronominal Suffixes. 125 60. Infinitive, Imperative, and Participle with Suffixes. ibid.

Page  13 CONTENTS. 13 Section II~~1. Of the Irregular Verb. A. Verbs with Gutturals. 61. in General.. 126 62. Verbs Pe Guttural. E. g. 4hIV,to stand, Parad. D. 127 63. Verbs Ayin Guttural. E. g. t2ftto slaughter. Parad. E.. 128 64. Verbs Lamedh Guttural. e. g. rib3, to send. Parad. F.. 129 B. Contracted Verbs. 65. Verbs fo. E. g. ZM,to approach. Parad. H.. 130 66. Verbs ~.E. g. =0 Parad. G... 132 C. Feeble Verbs (Verba Q~uiescentia). 67. Feeble Verbs tA. E. g. bn4, to eat.. Parad. I... 135 68. Feeble Verbs ~.First Class, or Verbs originally ~.E. 0% to dwell. Parad. K..... 136 69. Feeble Verbs ~.Second Class, or Verbs properly '41. E. g. '"u"to be good. Parad. L... 139 70. Verbs ~".Third Class, or Contracted Verbs..140 71. Feeble Verbs )".V. E. g. W'nto rise up. Parad. M.. ibid. 72. Verbs I'W. E. g. 1=, to discern. Parad. N.... 143 73. Verbs tNb. E. g. wen to find. Parad. 0... 145 74. Verbs sb E. g. M'D, to reveal. Parad. P... 146 75. Verbs doubly anomalous..... 151 76. Relation of the Irregular Verbs to one another. 152 77. Defective Verbs...... 153 CHAPTER III.-Of the Noun. 78. General View...154 79. Of Forms which mark the Gender of Nouns.. 155 80. Derivation of Nouns.....157 81. Primitive Nouns.. * 158 82. Of Verbal Nouns in General. ibid. 83. Nouns derived from the Regular Verb.. 159 84. Nouns derived from the Irregular Verb..162 85. Denominative Nouns... 164 86. Of the Plural....165 -86b. Of the Duial...... 167 87. The Genitive and the Construct State...168 88. Traces of Ancient Case-Endings [Paragogic Letters] 170 89. The Noun with Pronominal Suffixes....173 90. Vowel Changes in the Noun. 176 91. Paradigms of Masculine Nouns....177 92. Vowel-Changes in the Formation of ]Feminine Nouns. 184 93. Paradigms of Feminine Nouns....185 94. List of the Irregular Nouns.... 188'

Page  14 14 CONTENTS. 0ectios Ta^9 95. Numerals. I. Cardinal Numbers.. 189 96. Numerals. II. Ordinal Numbers.. 192 CHAPTER IV.-Of the Particles. 97. Qeneral View.... 193 98. Adverbs..... 195 99. Prepositions... 196 100. Prefix Prepositions... 197 101. Preposition with Suffixes and with the Plural Form.. 198 102. Conjunctions...... 201 103. Interjections...... 202 PART III.-SYNTAX. CHAPTER I.-Syntax of the Noun. 104. Relation of the Substantive to the Adjective,-of the Abstract to the Concrete..... 204 105. Use of the Genders......205 106. Of the Plural, and of Collective Nouns.. 208 107. Use of the Article......211 108. Ditto...... 213 109. Ditto.......214 110. Tie Substantive with the Adjective... 215 111. O!' Apposition...... 216 112. Of the Genitive.. ibid. 113. Expression of the Genitive by Circumlocution...218 114. Farther Use of the Construct State... 219 115. Expression of tie other Cases.... 220 116. Use of the Accusative.... 221 117. Modes of expressing the Comparative and Superlative.. 222 118. Syntax of the Numerals..... 223 CHAPTER 1I.-Syntax of the Pronoun 119. Use of the Personal Pronoun..... 225 120. Of the Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns.. 228 121. Relative Pronoun and Relative Clauses... 229 122. Mode of expressing those Pronouns for which the Hebrew has no Proper Forms.... 231 CHAPTER III.-Syntax of the Verb. 123. Use of the Tenses in General.. 232 124. The use of the Preterite... 233 125. Use of the Future....36 126. Use of the Lengthened and Shortened Future (Cohortative and Jussive)....... 239 239

Page  15 CONTENTS. 15 Section p 126b. Use of the Future with Vav Conversive... 240 127. Of the Imperative.... 242 128. Use of the Infinitive Absolute.... 243 129. Infinitive Construct...... 246 130. Connexion of the Infinitive Construct with Subject and Object 247 131. Use of the Participle.... 249 132. Construction of the Participle.... 250 133. Expression of the Optative..... 251 134. Persons of the Verb..... ibid. 135. Verbs with the Accusative... 293 136. Verbs with two Accusatives.... 255 137. Verbs with Prepositions y....256 y 138. Constructio Prgnan..... ibid. 139. Construction of two Verbs to express one Idea.. 257 140. Construction of Passive Verbs... 259 CHAPTER IV.-Connexion of the Subject with the Predicate. 141. Manner of expressing the Copula..... 261 142. Arrangement of Words in a Sentence; Case Absolute. 262 143. Relation of the Subject and Predicate in respect to Gender and Number...... 263 144. Ditto....... 265 145. Construction of Compound Subjects.. 266 CHAPTER V.-Use of the Particles. 146. In General......; 267 147. Of the Adverbs...... 268 148. Construction of Adverbs.... 270 149. Of Words which express Negation... ibid. 150. Of Interrogative Words and Sentences.. 272 151. Of the Prepositions.... 274 152. Of the Conjunctions... 279 153. Of the Interjections... 283

Page  16 16 I A COMPARATIVE TABLE OF ANCIENT ALPHABETS. RABBINIC. 7 1 P p I 3 3 1 P?! HE- 8AMARIBREW. TAN. 3b on T r s P A m I v V b n 9 1i -m 11 A" ANCIENT HEBREW. 11 9 A 8 * * * y L y P. 0 1 App 9 L W w Xt 1I PH(ENICIAN. 9 7 1 z ^ o 0 I f 4 9 B F I AI V A 1( T I 0 h1 I M^ A + I 0 1 "Z 9A / T ANCIENT GREEK. GREEK. GREEK. A B r E (F) Z H 0 I K M M 0 11 I - W w Y h 1 -. I

Page  17 INTRODUCTION. SECT. 1. OF THE SHEMITISII LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 1. THE Hebrew tongue is only one of the membelrs of a large fanily of languages in Western Asia, which was native in lPalestine, Pluhnicia, Syria, Mesop)otalnia, Babylonia, and Arabia, i. e. in the countries from the Mediterranean to the Tigris, and front the Armenian mountains to the south coast of Arabia. But this family spread itself in early antiquity from Arabia over AEthiopia, and by means of Phlenician colonies, over many islands and shores of the Mediterranean, but especially over the whole Cartlhaginian coast.* There is no name, sanctioned by long usage, for the nations and languages united in this family. The name Shemites, Shemitish langluages (suggested by Gen. x. 21, &c., where most of tile nations using these tongues are derived from Shem) is, lhowever, generally received at present, and may well be retained in the absence of a better.t 2. Tllis Shemitish class of languages consists of three principal divisions: a) The Arabic, which has its seat in the south of the territory of the Shlemites. To this belongs the zIthiopic as a branch of the southern Arabic (Himyaritic). b) The Ara * Even in Numidia the Phoenician language has been found in inscriptions on monuments and coins (see Gesenius's Paldographische Studien, s. 67 ff. and Monumenta Phcenicia, p. 182, &c.); but we may question whether it ever obtained much currency among the Numidian population. t From Shem were derived (Gen. x. 21, &c.) the Aramaean and Arabian races as well as the Hebrew, but not the iEthiopians and Canaanites (Phoenicians) who are derived from Ham (vs. 6, 15, &c.): on the contrary, among the Shemites are put (v. 22) also the Elamites and Assyrians, whose language was not of the class now called Shemitish. 2

Page  18 is INTRODUCTION.. mcean in the north and north-east. It is called ASyriac, in the form in which it appears in the Christian Aramwan literature, but Okaldee, as it exists in the Ararawan writings of Jews. To these writings belong some later portions of the Old Testament, viz. Ezra iv. 8-vi. 18,7 and vii. 12-26; Dan. ii. 4-vii. 2S.* To the Chaldee is closely allied the Samaritan., both exhibiting a frequent admixture of Hebrew forms. The Aramacan of the Natsora~ans (John's (lisCij)les, Sabiit) is a very degenerate dialect, b)ut the vernacular Syriac of the present day is still more corrupt.t c) The Ilkbrewt, with which the Oanaanitislh and Phwnician (Punic) standls in close connexion. The above languages stand to each other in much the same relation, as those of the Germianic family (Gothic, ancient Northern, Danish, Swedish; I1igrh and LowT German in more ancient and more, modern forms,), or as those of the Slavic (Lithuanian, Lettish; ancient Slavic, Servian, Russian; Polish, Bohemian). They are now either wholly extinct, as the Plicenician; or they exist only in a degenerate form, as the Aramuean amongr the Syrian Christians in Mlesopotamnia and Kfirdistan, the iEthiopic, in the newer Abyssinian dlialects (rhigr6 Amharic), and also the Hebrew amiong a p~ortion of the Jew~s (although these in. their wvritings espeial std the reproduction ofteOldTetmn langruagre). The Akrabic is the only one that has not only kept to this day its original Cabode Arabia proper, but also spread itself on all sides into the districts of other tongues. The Shemitish family of languages was, bordered on the east and north by another still more widely ex tended, which spread itself; under most diverse forms, from India to the wvest of Europe, and which is called the Indo- Germanic, as embracing the Indian (Sansk'rit), ancient and modern Persian, Greek, Latin, Slavic, and Gothic, together with the other German 'langruages. With the ancient Egyptian, from which the Coptic is derived, the Shemitish came many ways into contact in very early times. Both have accordingly much in common, but the relation between them is not yet accurately defined.~ The Chinese, the Japanese, the Tartar, and other languages heave a fundamentally different character. *The most ancient passage, where Arameean words as such occur, is Gen. xxxi. 47. Comp. also the Arammean verse in Jer. x. II. t So called from T= as being flamrriaral': see Neander's Kirchengeschichte, 13.1., S. 646.-TR. See Rodiger in der Zeitschrift far die Kunde des Morgenlandes, B. II., S. 77 ff. 6 See Geseniue in d. A11g. Lit. Zeitung, 1839, No. 77, if., 1841, No. 40. Tis.

Page  19 ~ 1. SHEMITISH LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 3. The grammatical structure of the Shemitish languages has many peculiarities, which, taken together, constitute its special character, although many of them are found by themselves in other tongues. These peculiarities are: a) Among the consonants, which always form the body of these languages, are many gutturals of several grades; the vowels, having their origin in the three primary sounds (a, i, u), subserve more subordinate distinctions; b) most of the radical words consist of three consonants; c) the verb has only two tenses, but great regularity and analogy prevail in the formation of verbals; d) the noun has only two genders and a more simple indication of case; e) il the pronoun all oblique cases are indicated by appended forms (suffixa); f) scarcely any compounds appear in verbs or nouns (except proper names); g) in the syntax is found a simple combination of sentences, without much artificial subordination of members. 4. Also in respect to the lexicon, the Shemitish tongues vary essentially from the Indo-Germanic; yet they appear to have more in common here than in the grammar. A great number of stems and roots* resemble in sound those of the Indo-Germanic class. But if we exclude the expressions obviously borrowed (see below), we shall reduce the actual similarity, partly to words which imitate sounds (onomatopoetica), and partly to those in which the same or similar sense follows from the nature of the same sound, according to a universal law of human speech. Neither of which can establish a historic (gentilic) affinity, which cannot be proved without agreement also in grammatical structure.t Benfey ober das Verhaltniss der agypt. Sprache zum semit. Sprachstamme, Leipzig, 1844, 8vo. * For the use of the terms, stems and roots, see ~ 30, Remarks 1 and 2.-TR. t Gesenius has attempted, in the later editions of his Lexicon, and in his Thesaurus Linguae Hebrese, to exhibit the points of contact between the Shemitish and the Indo-Germanic languages, and others have carried this comparison farther, or taken it up in their own fashion. A remote connexion between these languages cannot be denied, and therefore a comparative investigation of them is of value for lexicography; but one needs great caution and a comprehensive knowledge of the relations of sounds in both families, in order to avoid error and deception in comparing them. In the present state of the investigation, there is almost as much merit in rejecting that which does not bear all the marks of affi.

Page  20 on ow INTRODUCTION. Onomnatopoetic roots, that are found~ also in Sanskrit, Greck, Latin, and German, are, e. g. 6-~ '7 ~sXo, lingo, Sanskrit, lih, Germ. lecken. [our lick, Welsh4 llio]; (kindred roots ~~s X11W~ E,d1)J, xv~ies Volvo [Welsh olwyn], Germ. qttellen and wallen, Engr. to well; r-Irl zaeyrnw [Welsh carl/us, craith], Persian khariden, Ital. grattare, French gralter, Eng. grate, scratch, Germ. kratzen; 'r ~- frango, Germ. brechen [our break, Welsh brech, briw], &c. An examnple somewhat different is am, ham (sam), gain, kamn, in the sense of together. Hence in Heb. tnx~$ (kindred word iMt. people, prop, an assembling), =V together with, (whence also), Arab. T= collect; Persian hem, hem eh, at once; Sansk. ama, with, Greek "pu ("pqco), [ `5p~o6 ("pilo.., ",uc~g), adhre UOL)'Oq Lat. cumn, cumnlbws, cuinclus [Welsh cymn Lat. cone], with the corresp)ondiIng sibilant Sansk. sain, Greek c5'T, lS,:t'T, zotr5'., Goth. sama, Germn. samint, saynnieln. [Yet Roidiger thinks, contrary to Gesenius, that much in this list is of very (doubtful affinity.] Essentially difle rent froin t1his rtore internal relationship between the languages,, is thje adoption of words by one out of another (b)orrowved words). Thus,,a) When Indian, Egyptian, and] Persian objects are called in Hebrew by their native namnes; e. g. nw (Egyptian yero) rivrer, thle Nile; 1 — (Egrypt. (c/Li) Nile-grass; 3oqPersian pleasure-garden, park ~ c/ricPersian gold coin. Several such words are fbond also in the Greek, as (Sansk(. kaspi) ape, xip~ro;, x~j%~o; t~i (Sanssk. karp~sa) cotton, xUt(qrUuo;, carbusaos; from In d. togti (Sansk. si/chi), peacocks. b) When Shemitish wordls for the produncts of Asia have passedl over to the Greeks along, with the things8; e. g.yin, o&rao-, byssuis; u1ardincense; y xus', vxur'u, canna, reed; xt"ou'o;', cuin-inume cumin. la. Tpe Slcimitish writingr had fromt the begrinning this striking imperfection, that only thie consonants (with which tile signification of the word always Coinnects itself) were given in the liue as real letters. Of t~me vowvels only tile longer ones, and nity, as in (liscovering whant many at first 'a-ppear to agree. And it is already an established result, that these itnro families of langutages do not stand in a sisterly or aniy clove relationship) to each other, and that the characteristic structure of both must be dissected before we can find the original parts which they possess in common. This comparative analysis, however, belongs to the Lexicon rather than to the Grammar. * That the Celtic dialects (not unlike the Shemitish in their relation to each other,7 namely, Welsh, Cornish. Armorican or dialect of Brittany; Gaelic, Erse; Manks) belong to the Indo-Germanic family admits of abundant proof; see Prichard': Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations, and Pictet de I'Affinit des Langues Celtiques avec le Sanscrit.-TR.

Page  21 1. SHEMITISH LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. even these not always, were represented by certain consonants (. 7). It was not till a later period tllat all the vowels were indicated by means of small signs (~ 8) attached to the letters (points or strokes above and below the line), but which were wholly omitted for more practised readers. These languages are written always from rigllt to left. The XEthiopic is the only exception; but its deviation from tlhe Shemnitish usage is probably an innovation by thle first missionaries who introduced Christianity into tlhat country, for its earlier mode of writing was, like the kindred southern Arabic (Ilimyaritic), also from right to left.* However dissimilar tile Shemitislh written characters may now appear, they have undoubtedly all come, by various modifications, from one and the samel original alphabet, of which tile truest copy now extant is tile Pliunician, from which also tile ancient Greek, and through it all other European, characters were derived. For a view of the Plienician alphabet and of the oriental and occidental characters immediately detrived therefrom, see Gesenii Alonunenta Pholnicia, Tabb. 1-5, comp. p. 15, &c., and his article Paldographie in Ersch und Gruber's Encyclopldie, with its proper illustration in Tat: 1. 6. In regard to the relative age of these languages, the oldest written works (~ 2) are found in Ilebrew; the Aramaran begins about the time of Cyrus (in tlec bool of Ezra); the Arabic not till the earliest centuries after Christ (Ilimyaritic inscriptions); the /Ethiopic version of tile Bible in the fourth century; and tile northern Arabic literature since tlie sixth century. But the progress of a language in the moutl of a people depends on causes quite distinct from tile expansion of a literature; and often the structure of a language is lmaterially altered, before it possesses a literature, by early contact with foreign tongues. So in the Shemitish department, tile Aramaean dialects exhibit the earliest and greatest decay, and next to them the IIcbrew-Canaanitish; the Arabic was the longest to maintain the natural fulness of its form, being preserved quiet and undisturbed among the secluded tribes of the desert, until the Mahomedan revolutions, when it suffered considerable decay. It was not till this much later period that the Arabic reached nearly the same point at which * See ROdiger in d. Zeitschrift f. d. Kunde des Morgenlandes, Bd. II. S. 332 &c., and his Notes to Wellsted's Reisen in Arabien (Halle, 184), II., 376: &c.

Page  22 22 INTRODUCTION. we find the Hebrew even as early as the times of the Old Testament. This accounts for the facts (which some, without reason, have considered surprising) that the ancient Hebrew in its grammatical structure agrees more with the modern Arabic than with the ancient, and that the latter, although it becomes historically known at a later period than the other Shemitish languages, yet takes, in many respects, a place among them similar to that which the Sanskrit occupies among the Indo-Gernanic. The Lithuanian, as compared with the other tongues properly called Slavic, shows how a language may preserve its fuller structure even in the midst of decaying sister tongues. So the Doric held fast with greater tenacity older sounds and forms; and so tile Friesic and Icelandic among the German and Northern languagtes. But even tle most steadfast and enduring structure in a language often deteriorates in single forms and inflexions, while, on the other hand, we find here and there, in the midst of universal decay, traces of the original and the ancient. Such is the case with the Shemitish languages. Even the Arabic has its chasms and its later growth; yet in general it is entitled to the precedence, particularly in its vowel system. To establish and work out these principles belongs to a comparative grammar of the Shemitish languages. But it follows from what has been advanced-1) that the Hebrew language, as it app)ears in the ancient sacred literature of the Jews, has suffered more considerably in its structure than the Arabic, which appears latter in our historical horizon; 2) that yet we cannot concede to the Arabic the priority in all respects; 3) tlat finally, it is a mistake to suppose, as some do, that the Aramnean, or. account of its simplicity (occasioned by tlrangement of structure and cur tailing of forms), exhibits in the most original form the speech of the Shemites. On the character, literature, grammars, and lexicons of these languages, see Gesenic's Prefhce to Ileb. IIlndlrtrterbuch, from 2d to 4th edition. [Translated in the American Biblical Repository, vol. iii.] SECT. 2. HISTORY OF THE HEBREW AS A LIVING LANGUAGE. See Gesenius's Geschichle der lebri.bchen Sprache und Schrift. Leipzig, 1815. ~~ 5-18. 1. This language was the mother tongue of the Hebrew or Israelitish people, during the period of their independence. The name, Hebrew language (n. 'ti, ytoc~66c r' 'EctaTW, P/3(cewiarl), does not occur in the Old Testament, and appears rather to have been the name in use among those who were not Israelites. It is called, Is. xix. 18 (poet.) language of Canaan

Page  23 ~ 2. HEBREW AS A LIVING LANGUAGE. 23 from the country in which it was spoken). In 2 Kings xviii. 26 (comp. Is. xxxvi. 11, 13), and Neh. xiii. 24, persons are said to speak n,~ o" Judaice, in the Jews' language, in accordance with the later usage which arose after the removal of the ten tribes, when the name Jew was extended to the whole nation (Jer., Neh., Esth.). Of the names Hebrews (0.S), 'J;valol, Ilebrcei) and Israelites (b~;3. CsO), the latter is a patronymic, and was applied by the people to themselves; the former was the name by which they were known among foreigners, on which account it is scarcely used in the Old Testament, except when they are distinguished from another people (Gen. xl. 15; xliii. 32), or when persons who are not Israelites are introduced as speaking (Gen. xxxix. 14,17; xli. 12; comp. the Lex. under 3?.). The Greeks and Romans, as Pausanias, Josephus, Tacitus, use only the name Hebrews. It is properly an appellative, meaning what is beyond, people from the country on the other side, and it is formed by the addition of the derivative syllable - (~ 85, No. 5) from 'r a land on the other side, applied especially to a country beyond the Euphrates. This appellation was probably given to the tribes who, under Abralam, migrated from regions east of the Euphrates into the land of Canaan. See Gen. xiv. 13. The Hebrew genealogists explain it, as a patronymic, by sons of Eber. Gen. x. 21. Num. xxiv. 24. In the writings of the New Testament, the term Iebrew (e[Qai'rl, John v. 2; xix. 13, 17, 20; ifal'gs SZt^xToc, Acts xxi. 40; xxii. 2; xxvi. 14) was also applied to what was tlen the vernacular language of Palestine (see No. 5 of this section), in distinction from the Greek. Josephus, who died about 95 A. D., understands by it the ancient Hebrew as well as the verna. cular of his time. The name lingua sancta was first given to the ancient Hebrew in the Chaldee versions of the Old Testament, because it was the language of the sacred books, in distinction from the Chaldee, the popular language, which was called lingua profena. 2. In the oldest written monuments of this language, contained in the Pentateuch, we find it in nearly the same form in which it appears down to the Babylonish exile, and even later; and we have no historical documents of an earlier date, by which we can investigate its origin and formation. So far as we can trace its history, Canaan was its home; it was essentially tile language of the Canaanitish or Phoenician* race, by whom Pa * ADO, ~.S_ is the native name both of the Canaanitish tribes in Palestine, and of those who dwelt at the foot of Lebanon and on the Syrian coast, whom we call Phoenicians, while they are called IrT on their own coins. Also the people of Carthage gave themselves the same name.

Page  24 24 INTRODUCTION. lestine was inhabited before the immigration of Abraham's posterity, became the adopted language of his descendants, was with them transferred to Egypt and brought back to Canaan. That the Canaanitish tribes in Palestine spoke the language now called Hebrew, is proved by the names of persons and places; e. g. r.- sbQ king of righteousness; 't r'1pl book-town. No less do the remaining fragments of the Phoenician and Punic language agree with thle Hebrew. These are found, partly, in their own peculiar character (~ 1, 5) in inscriptions (about 70 in number) and on coins (see copies in Gcsenii Mlonumenta Ph/enicia, T. III. tabb. 6-48, and the explanations oil pp. 90-328), and partly in ancient Greek and Latin authors, as, for instance, in Plauti 1Paielmds, 5, 1. 2, where an entire piece is preserved. From the forimer source we ascertain the native orthography, an lfrom the latter the pronunciation; so that from both together we get a distinct notion of this lang;uage, anid of its relation to the Hebrew. The most important (dviatioris in the orthography and iifl'exion of words are: 1) an almost constant omission of the vowel-letters (~ 7, 2); e.g. r: for rn' hoiwe; bp for ^:p voice; 2) the feminine ending in n (ath) even in the a;solute state ( ~ 79, 2); 3) tlhe article expressed as often by t as hy;n ( 35). More striking are tle dleviations in pronunciation, especially in Ploi(o, wlre tlhe is gene rally sounded as u; e.g. i::, s/fet (judge); Ji bt, sahlus (tllree); I', 7rts — i t (head); and where we lind y oliten in place of slhort i tarlt e; e.g. 'n, ynnynnu (ecce cur); r., yth; and o for e; c.g. j.', Mlocar (comp.:.: LXX. MoC;). See a collection of the gramnlmatical peculiarities in Mon. Phainicia, p. 430, &c. 3. Tile remains of tliis language, which are extant in the Old Testament, clablle us to distingulish but two periods in its history. Tlhe first, wlhicll may be called its golden age, extends to tile close of tlec Ialhylollisll exile; at wllicl epoch the second, or silver ate, coillcenlces. 'The former elnbraces tlhe larger portion of the books of the Old 'Testaellrent; viz., of prose writings (historical), the Pentatetllch, Judgest(, alltll, Sallelt, Kings; of poetical writings, the Psalmls (w itll tlc exception of a few later ones), the Proverbs of Solomon, ('anticles, Job; of tlle earlier prophets, in the following clllroologlical order: —Joel, \Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Mical, Nallum, Zcplhaniall, l[allakklk, Ohadialh, Jerenliah, Ezekiel. The writilgs of tile last two, wllo lived and taught just before the commlenclemenit and (ldring tlie first years of the captivity, as well as the latter part of tlIe book of Isaialh (cllapters 40-66, togelher

Page  25 ~ 2. HEBREW AS A LIVING LANGUAGE. 25 with some of the earlier chapters*), stand on the borders of both the golden and the silver age. The point of time at which we should date the commencement of this period. and of Hebrew literature in general, is certainly as early as Moses, even if the Pentateuch did not proceed from him in its present tbor. For the history of the language, and for our present object, it is sufficient to remark, that the Pentateuch certainly contains some peculiarities ot'language which have the appearance of archaisms. When these books were composed, the words,.;-, he (~ 32, Rem. 6), and ' 3: young lman, were still of the common gender, and used also for she, and young woman (like o nail; and 7 nretl). Some harsh forms of words, e. g. p'%, ipx, which are common in these books, are exchanged in others for the softer ones, P-!, P-:). On the other hand, in Jeremiah and Ezekiel are found decided traces of the Aramean colouring which distinguishes the language of the second or silver age. See No. 5. 4. Although the different writers and books llave certainly their peculiarities, yet we discover in them no such diversities of style, as will materially aid us in tracing the history of tlhe language during this period. In respect to several of tlenm, moreover, especially the anonymous historical books, the date of cotmposition cannot be definitively settled. But thle language of poetry is everywhere distinguished from prose, not only by a rhythm consisting in measured parallel members, but also by peculiar words, forms, and signilfications of words, and constructions in syntax; although this distinction is not so strongly marked as it is, for example, in Greek. Of these poetical idioms, however, the greater part occur in the kindred languages, especially the Arameean, as the common forms of expression, and are, probably, to be historically regarded partly as archaisms, which were retained in poetry, and partly as enrichments, which the poets who knew Aramtcan transferred into the HIebrew.t The prophets, moreover, in respect to language and rhythm, are to be * For an able defence of the genuineness of the latter part of Isaiah, see Hengstenberg's Christology of the Old Test., vol. i, p. 398 full., of Keith's translation, or in American Bib. Repository, vol. i., p. 700, &c.; also Havernick's Einleitung ins Alte Testament, ~~ 217-220. That of the Pentateuch has also been successfully vindicated by many distinguished critics. See a valuable article on the subject in the American Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. ii., No. 6.-TR. t That in Isaiah's time (2d half of the 8th century before Christ) the more educated Hebrews, at least the officers of state, understood Aramsean is expressly mentioned in 2 Kings xviii. 26; comp. Is. xxxvi. 11.

Page  26 26 INTRODUCTION. regarded generally as poets, except that in their poetical dis. courses the sentences run on to greater length, and the parallelism is less measured and regular, than in the writings of those who are properly styled poets. The writings of the later prophets exhibit less and less of this poetic character, until their style scarcely differs from prose. On the rhythm of Hebrew poetry, see especially De Wette's Commentar fiber die Psalmen, Einleitung, ~ 7,* (4th edition, Heidelberg, 1836). [The subject is briefly treated in the Reading Book at the end of this Grammar. See also Ewald's Poet. Bucher des A. Bundes, Th. I., and Nordheimer's Heb. Grammar, ~~ 1120-1130.] Of poetical words, for which others are used in prose, the following are examples, viz. WiNa t-= N man; ni-==t, path; 1t-i =.Ki to come; 4tA==q word. Under poetical significations of words may be ranked the use of certain poetical epithets for substantives; e. g. Ist. strong one, for God; '3.f, do. for bullock, horse; M:hb alba, for luna; trntm unicus, that which is dearest, for life. Examples of poetical forms are, the longer or plural forms of prepositionsof place (~ 101); e.g. s -==-, bS=.-, 2= —; the letters '-, 1, appended to the noun (~88); the suffixes im, a-", r' —, for:, A-, t;nn.(~ 32); the plural ending f' — for ~F-. (~ 6, 1). Among the peculiarities of Syntax, are, the far less frequent use of the article, of the relative, and of the sign of the accusative rX; the use of the construct state even before prepositions, and of the apocopated future in the signification of the common future (~ 48, 4); and in general a forcible brevity of expression. 5. The second or silver age of the Hebrew language and literature, extending from the return of the Jews from the exile to the time of the Maccabees, about 160 years before Christ, is chiefly distinguished by an approximation to the Aramean or Chaldee dialect. To the use of this dialect, so nearly related to the Hebrew, the Jews easily accustomed themselves while in Babylonia; and after their return it became the popular language, exerting a constantly increasing influence on the ancient Hebrew as the language of books, in prose as well as poetry, and at last banishing it from the mouth of the people. Yet the Hebrew continued to be known and written by learned Jews. The relation of the two languages, as they existed together during this period, may be well illustrated by that of the High and Low German in Lower Saxony, or still better by that of the High German and the popular dialects in Southern Germany and Switzerland; for in these cases the * Translated in the Biblical Repository, No. IX.-Ta.

Page  27 ~ 2. HEBREW AS A LIVING LANGUAGE. 27 popular dialect exerts more or less influence on the High German, both oral and written, of cultivated society. It is a false impression, derived from a misinterpretation of Neh. viii. 8, that the Jews, during their exile, had wholly forgotten their ancient language, and were obliged to learn its meaning from the priests and scribes. The writings of the Old Testament which belong to this second period, and in all of which this Chaldee colouring appears, though in different degrees, are the following, viz.,-1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther; the prophetical books of Jonah,* Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Daniel; of the poetical writings, Ecclesiastes, and the later Psalms. These books are also, as literary works, decidedly inferior to those of an earlier date; though this period is not wanting in compositions, which, in purity of language and poetic merit, scarcely yield to the productions of the golden age; e. g. several of the later Psalms (cxx. &c., cxxxvii., cxxxix.). To this later form of the language, as affected by the influence of the Chaldee, belong, Words, for which others are used by the earlier writers; e. g. "pt time = r; b.p to take = rn5; iO end = y; to _ to rule = 75. Significations of words; e. g. '7at (to say) to command; Mt (to answer) to commence speaking. Peculiarities of grammar; e. g. the frequent scriptio plena of i and '-, as '14. (elsewhere ll.), and even ttpli for Vlp, 'in for in; the interchange of n- and Xt- final; the very frequent use of substantives in 'i, 1-, rn, &c. We are not to regard as Chaldaisms all the peculiarities of these later writers. Some of them are not found in Chaldee, and seem to have belonged to the Hebrew popular dialect, especially in northern Palestine, where, perhaps, Judges and Canticles [and Jonah] were composed; and hence we may account for the use in these more ancient books of '* for ~its (~ 36), which obtained also in Phoenician. The few solitary Chaldaisms which occur in the writings of the golden age, may be accounted for by the fact, that these books passed through the hands of copyists whose language was the Chaldee. Remark 1. Of peculiarities of dialect, only a few slight traces are found. Thus from Judges xii. 6, it appears that the Ephraimites always pronounced U as b or o; and in Neh. xiii. 23, 24, the dialect of Ashdod (of the Philistines) is mentioned. 2. It is not to be supposed that the remnants which we possess of Hebrew literature contain all the treasures of the ancient language, whict must have been more copious and richer than now appears in the canonical * See a defence of the earlier date and the genuineness of Jonah in tHvernick's Einleitung ins J. Test., ~~ 242-247. —T.

Page  28 28 INTRODUCTION. books of the Old Testament, which are only a part of the national literature of the ancient Hebrews. SECT. 3. WORKS ON THE GRAMMAR OF THE HEBREW LANGUAGE (Gesenius's Gesch. der hebr. Sprache, ~~ 19-39.) After the extinction of the Hebrew as a spoken language, and the nearly contemporaneous collection of the books of the Old Testament, the Jews applied themselves to the preparation of translations of this their sacred codex, and to the criticism and interpretation of its text. The oldest version is that into Greek by the so-called Seventy interpreters (LXX). It was executed by several translators, and at different periods of time. The work was begun with the translation of the Pentateuch, under Ptolemy Philadelphus, at Alexandria. It was designed to meet the wants of Jews residing in Alexandria and other Grecian cities, and was made, in part, from knowledge of the Hebrew whilst it was yet a living language. At a later period, the Chaldee translations or Targums ('pttW., i. e. translations) were made in Palestine and Babylonia. The interpretations, drawn in part from alleged traditions, relate almost exclusively to civil and ritual laws, and to doctrinal theology. These, as well as the equally unscientific observations on various readings, are preserved in the Talmud, of which the first part (Mishna) was composed in the third century of the Christian era, the second part (Gemara) not till the sixth. The Mishna forms the commencement of the modern Hebrew literature, but the language of the Gemara has more a Chaldee colouring. 2. To the period of time between the conclusion of the Talmud, and the age of the first writers on the grammar of the language, belongs, chiefly, the application of vowel-signs to the text (~ 7, 3). Of the same period is the collection of critical observations called the Masora (, tb, traditio), by which the still received text of the Old Testament was settled, and from which it bears the name of the Masoretic text. The various readings of the Qeri are the most important portion of the Masora (~ 17). We must not confound the composition of the Masora with the furnishing of the sacred text with the points. The latter is a work of earlier date and much more ability than the former.

Page  29 ~ 3. WORKS ON THE GRAMMAR OF THE HEBREW., 29 3. The first attempts to illustrate the grammar of the lan. guage were made, after the example of the Arabian scholars, in the ninth century. What was done by Saadia (ob. 942) in this department is wholly lost. But there are still extant, in manuscript, the works of R. Judah Chayug (called also Abu Zakaria Yahya, about the year 1040) and R. Jona (Abulwalid Merwan ben Gannach, about 1050), composed in the Arabic language. Aided by these labours, Abraham ben Ezra (about 1150) and R. David Kimchi (1190-1200) acquired among Jewish scholars a classical reputation as the grammarians of the language. From these earliest writers on the subject are derived many of the methods of classification and of the technical terms which are still in part employed; e. g. the use of the forms and letters of the verb b5 (formerly employed as a paradigm) in designating the conjugations, and the different classes of irregular verbs; the voces memoriales, as &TC..S, &c.* 4. The father of Hebrew philology, among Christians, was the celebrated Reuchlin (ob. 1522), to whom Greek literature also is so much indebted. He, however, as well as the grammarians down to Joh. Buxtorf (ob. 1629), adhered closely to Jewish tradition. After the middle of the seventeenth century the field of view gradually widened; and the study of the kindred languages, through the labours, especially, of Alb. Schultens (ob. 1750) and N. W. Schr6der (ob. 1798), led to important results in the science of Hebrew grammar. To estimate correctly those works which have since appeared, and which are of permanent, scientific value, it is necessary to understand what is required of one who attempts to exhibit the grammar of an ancient language. This is, in general, 1) a correct observation and a systematic arrangement of all the phenomena of the language; 2) the explanation of these phenomena, partly by comparing them with one another and with analogous appearances in the kindred languages, partly from the general analogy and philosophy of language. The first may be called * On the origin and earliest history of Hebrew lexicography, see the preface of Gesenius to the 4th edition of his Heb. Handworterbuch. On the first grammarians, see also Sam. David Luzzatto' Prolegomeni ad una gramm. ragionata della lingua ebraica (Padova, 1836), p. 26 foil.

Page  30 30 INTRODUCTION. the historical, and the second the philosophical element in grammar. [The most valuable grammatical works areGesenius's Lehrgebaude der hebr. Sprache. Leipzig. 1817. Lee's Lectures on Hebrew Grammar. Lond. 1827. Latest edit. 1844. Ewald's Ausfahrliches Lehrbuch der heb. Sprache. Leipzig. 1844. Nordheimer's Critical Grammar of the Hebrew Language. 2 vols New-York. 1841. The best extant. Hupfeld's Ausfuhrliche hebr. Grammatik. Cassel. 1841. 1 Thl. 1 Abschnitt. Not yet finished.] SECT. 4. DIVISION AND ARRANGEMENT OF GRAMMAR. The division and arrangement of Hebrew grammar are suggested by the three elementary parts of every language; viz. 1) sounds expressed by letters, and their union into syllables; 2) words; and 3) sentences. The first part (which treats of the elements) contains, therefore, instruction respecting the sounds, and the representation of them by letters. It teaches the art of expressing the written signs by the sounds which they represent (orthoepy), and of writing words agreeably to established usage (orthography). It treats, moreover, of sounds as connected into syllables and words, and exhibits the laws according to which this connexion takes place. In the second part (which treats of grammatical forms and inflexions) words are regarded as formed into parts of speech. It treats, 1) of the formation of words, or the rise of the several parts of speech from the roots, or from one another; 2) of inflexions, i. e. of the various forms which words assume, according to their relation to other words, and to the sentence. The third part (syntax) shows, 1) how the various infiexions of the language serve to modify the original meaning of words, and how other modifications, for which the language furnishes no forms, are expressed by periphrasis; 2) assigns the laws by which the parts of speech are united into sentences (syntax in the stricter sense).

Page  31 PART FIRST. OF THE ELEMENTS. CHAPTER I. OF READING AND ORTHOGRAPHY. SEC;r. 5. OF THE CONSONANTS, THEIR FORMS AND NAMES. 1. THE Hebrew Alphabet consists of twenty-two consonants some of which have also the power of vowels (~ 7, 2). HEBREW ALPHABET.* Furm. Represent- Hebre Sounded as Signification of the names. NunmericLI edby name. value. Final. R b or ) b A-leph Ox 1: b, bh rT. Beth House 2 g, gh i Gi'-mel Camel 3 i d, dh rt Dd'-lth Door 4 n h n He Window 5 1 v II Vdv Hook 6 t z?T! Za'-yrn Weapon 7 n ch nMh Cheth Fence 8 U t vt7 Teth Snake 9 W y ~i Yodh Hand 10 7 k kkh F Kaph The hand bent 20 1 'r5 Ld'-mdh Ox-goad 30: m t Mem Water 40 } 5 n Inn Nun Fish 50 s r.p.6 Sd'-mekh Prop 60 y or " r* A'-yrn Eye 70 t p, ph tm Pe Mouth 80:Z ts X Ts4-dhk' Fish-hook 90 P q. Qoph Back of the head 100: r t Resh Head 200 s sh, s r Shin Tooth 300 n t tth I Tav Cross 400 ' ~.:,:, _, * Fr the sounds of the consonants and vowels in this table, see ~ and note os 8.-Ts.

Page  32 32 PART I. ELEMENTS. 2. The letters now in use, with which the manuscripts of the Old Testament are written (called the Assyrian or square character), are not of the original form. On the coins of the Maccabean princes is found another character, which, at an earlier period, was probably in general use, and which bears a strong resemblance to the Samaritan and Phoenician letters (~ 1, 5). The square letter may also be traced back to the Phoenician; but it has most agreement with certain Aramaean inscriptions found in Egypt and at Palmyra.* 3. The five characters which have a different form at the end of a word (final letters), r, A, 1, D, ',t terminate (with the exception of 0,) in a perpendicular stroke directed downwards, whilst the common form has a horizontal connecting line, directed towards the following letter. 4. Hebrew is read from right to left. The division of a word at the end of a line is not allowed. To complete a line, certain letters (dilatabiles) are at times dilated. These are in our printed books the five following=, t, 7, m, i, (orin) 1. The figures of the letters were originally hasty and rude representations of visible objects, the names of which began with the sounds of the several characters; e. g. 1, 5, the rude figure of a camel's neck, denotes properly a camel (b. ='a- ), but as a letter only the initial 5; O prop. eye, 1P., stands only for Y, the initial letter of this word. In the Phoenician alphabet, the similarity of the figures to the object signified by the names may still be seen for the most part, and even in the square character it appears yet in some letters; e. g. I,, y,,. The most probable signification of each name is given in the alphabet. [For further information see the initial articles under the several letters in Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon.] However certain it is, on the one hand, that the Shemites were the first to adopt this alphabet, yet it is highly probable, on the other, that the Egyptian writing (the so-called phonetic hieroglyphics) suggested the principle though not the figures; for these hieroglyphic characters, likewise, indicate not the pictured object itself (as in the kyriologic hierogly* See the alphabets of these various forms in Gesenii Monumenta Phenicia, abb. 1-5. t These letters are supplied with vowels and pronounced together, thus yv~. Such voces memoriales were invented by the early Hebrew Grammarians to assist in remembering certain classes of letters.

Page  33 ~ 6. PRONUNCIATION. 33 phics), but the initial sound in its name; e. g. the hand, tot, indicates the letter t; the lion, laboi, the letter l.* 2. The order of the letters (the antiquity of which is clearly proved by the alphabetical poetic compositions in Ps. xxv., xxxiv., xxxvii., cxix. Lam. i.-iv.) certainly depended originally on a grammatical consideration of the sounds, as we may see from the occurrence in succession of the three softest labial, palatal, and dental sounds, viz.:,:, I, also of the three liquids, h, n,:, and other similar arrangements (see Lepsius's sprachvergleichende Abhandlungen, Berlin, 1836, No. 1); but yet other considerations and influences must also have had some effect upon it, for it is certainly not a mere accident, that two letters representing a hand ( Yodh and Kaph), also two exhibiting the head ( Qph and Resh), are put together, as is done also with several characters denoting objects which are connected (Mem and Nun, Ain and Pe). Both the names and the order of the letters (with a trifling alteration) passed over from the Phoenician into the Greek, in which the letters, from Alpha to T7u, correspond to the ancient alphabet. 3. The letters are used also for signs of number, as the Hebrews had no special arithmetical characters or ciphers. This numeral use [given in the table of the alphabet] did not, however, take place in the 0. T. text, but ip found first on coins of the Maccabees (middle of 2d cent. B. C.). It is now employed in the editions of the Bible for counting the chapters and verses. As in the numeral system of the Greeks, the units are denoted by the letters from R to t:, the tens by -S:, 100-400 by p-n. The hundreds, from 500-900, are sometimes denoted by the five final letters, thus, ' 500, t 600, ' 700, m 800, y 900; and sometimes by n= 400, with the addition of the remaining hundreds, as pn 500. In combining different numbers the greater is put first, as t'i 11, snp 121. Fifteen is marked by 'u = 9 + 6, and not by ns, because with these the name of God [rnan] commences. The thousands are denoted by the units with two dots above, as Xi 1000. 4. Abbreviations of words are not found in the text of the 0. T. On coins, however, they occur, and they are in common use by the later Jews. The sign of abbreviation is an oblique stroke, as 'iu for b~tiV, '0 for ".A: aliquis, 'I' for 'Itil et completio= et cetera [&c.], e or V' for r1ni. SECT. 6. PRONUNCIATION AND DIVISION OF CONSONANTS. 1. It is of the greatest importance to understand the original sound of every consonant, since very many grammatical pecu* See the works of Young, Champollion, and others on the Hieroglyphics. Lepsius exhibits the chief results in his Lettre a Mr. Rosellini sur l'alphabet hiiroglyphique. Rom. 1837. 8vo. Comp. Gesenius in der Allgem. Litt. Zeitung, 1839.. No. 77-81. Hitzig, die Erfindung des Alphabets. Zarich, 1840, foL J. 1. Ol hausen iber den Ursprung des Alphabets. Kiel, 1841. 8vo. 3

Page  34 34 PART I. ELEMENTS. liarities and changes (~ 18, &c.) are regulated and explained by the pronunciation. Our knowledge of this is derived partly from the pronunciation of the kindred dialects, particularly of the yet living Arabic, partly from observing the resemblance and interchange of letters in the Hebrew itself (~ 19), partly from the tradition of the Jews.* The pronunciation of the Jews of the present day is not uniform. The Polish and German Jews adopt the Syriac, while the Spanish and Portuguese Jews, whom most Christian scholars (after the example of Reuchlin) follow, more properly prefer the Arabic pronunciation. The manner in which the Seventy have written Hebrew proper names in Greek letters, furnishes an older tradition of greater weight. Several, however. of the Hebrew sounds they were unable to represent for want of corresponding characters in the Greek language; e. g.:', t, in which cases they had to make what shifts they could. 2. The following list embraces those consonants whose pronunciation requires special attention, exhibiting in connexion those which bear any resemblance in sound to each other. 1. Among the gutturals, S is the lightest, a scarcely audible breathing from the lungs, the spiritus lenis of the Greeks; similar to n, but softer. Even before a vowel, it is almost lost upon the ear (' —s, tusaQ) like the h in the French habit, hommne [or Eng. hour]. After a vowel it is often not heard at all, except in connexion with the preceding vowel sound, with which it combines its own (S4 mndtsd, ~ 23, 2). n before a vowel, is exactly our h (spiritus asper); after a vowel at the end of words, it may like X unite its sound with that of the preceding vowel (,af gold), or it may retain its character as a guttural (Ft_ gd-bhdh), which is regularly the case at the end of a syllable in the middle of a word, as in nm_" neh-piakh (~ 7, 2, and ~ 14).: is nearly related to x; and is a sound peculiar to the organs of the Shemitish race. Its hardest s'nind is that of a g slightly rattled in the throat, as 1,1t, LXX. 16o(),(,,;,t, I'_ra; it is elsewhere, like a, a gentle breathing, as in '5 i;, 'i; 'Apia, ax. In the mouth of the Arabian, the first often strikes the ear like a soft guttural r, the second as a *Important aid may also be derived from an accurate physiological observation of the whole system of sounds, and of their formation by the organs of speech. See on this subject Liskorius's Thcorie der Stimme, Leipzig, 1814, J. Muller's Handbuch der Physiologie, Bd. 1I. S. 179, &c., also Strodtmann's Anatomische Vorhalle zur Physiologie der Stimme und der Sprachlaute, Altona, 1S37. In its reference to grammar, see Ii. Hupfeld in Jahn's Jahrbucher f. Philologie, 1S29, H. 4, and H. E. Bindsil's Abhandlungen zur allgem. vergleichenden Sprachlehre (Hamb., 1838). I. Physiologie der Stimm- und Sprachlaute, S. 1. &c.

Page  35 ~ 6. PRONUNCIATION. 36 sort of vowel sound like a. It is the prevailing usage, at present, to pass over 3 as well as t in reading the language, and in writing its words with Roman or occidental letters, e. g. '5 Eli, pl.. Amalek. The best representation we could give of it in our letters would be gh or rg, as sDa_, something like arbagh, Srtv rgamora. The nasal gn or ng pronounciation of it by the Jews is quite false. r is the hardest of the guttural sounds. It is a guttural ch, as uttered by the Swiss [and Welsh], resembling the Spanish x and j. While the Hebrew was a living language this letter had two grades of sound, being uttered feebly in some words and more strongly in others.* 'I also the Hebrews frequently pronounced with a hoarse guttural sound, not as a lingual made by the vibration of the tongue. Hence it is not merely to be reckoned among the liquids (1, m, n, r), but, in several of its properties, it belongs also to the class of gutturals. (~ 22, 5.) 2. In sibilant sounds the Hebrew language is rich, more so than the kindred dialects, especially the Aramaan, which adopts instead of them the flat, lingual sounds. t and in were originally one letter t (pronounced without doubt like sh), and in unpointed Hebrew this is still the case. But as this sound was in many words very soft, approaching to that of s, the grammarians distinguished this double pronunciation by the diacritic point into O s8h (which occurs most frequently), and iv s. i: resembled 0 in pronunciation: it differed from this letter however, and was probably uttered more strongly, being nearly related to t5. Hence 'a to close up, and '5_' to reward, have different meanings, being distinct roots, as also bS_ to be foolish, and Sizi to be wise. At a later period this distinction was lost, and hence the Syrians employed only 0 for both, and the Arabians only i'. They also began to be interchanged even in the later Hebrew; as ':_ =M-'_ to hire, Ezr. iv. 5; S.tiD for tt.:O folly, Eccles. i. 17. t was like ds (hence in the Septuagint I), as t was fs. [It is best represented by our z.] 3. p and t differ essentially from 3 and r. The former (as also l) are uttered with strong articulation, and with a compression of the organs of speech in the back part of the mouth. 3. The six consonants, n, I,:, D, I, (rt_.,-t), have a twofold pronunciation:t 1) a harder, more slender sound * In the Arabic language, the peculiarities of which have been carefully noted by the grammarians, the hard and soft sounds of Y and n (as well as the different pronunciations of ', U:, ), are indicated by diacritic points. Two letters are thus made from each: from r the softer./din, and the harder A Ghain; from t the softer ha, and the harder- Kha. t Sound I as t, n as th in thick; ' as d, i dh as th in that; B asp, 1

Page  36 36 PART I. ELEMENTS. (tenuis), as b, g, d, k, p, t, and 2) a soft sound uttered with a gentle aspiration (aspirata). The harder sound is the original. It is found at the beginning of words and syllables, when there is no vowel immediately preceding, and it is indicated by a point in the letter (Daghesh lene), as e b (~ 13). The aspirated sound occurs after a vowel immediately preceding, and is denoted in manuscripts by Raphe (~ 14, 2), but in the printed text it is known by the absence of the Daghesh. In some of these letters (especially ~) the difference is less perceptible to our ear. The modern Greeks aspirate distinctly, y,, and the Danes d at the end of a word. The Greeks have two characters for the two sounds of the other letters of this class, as 3 x, X X, m Ir, D, P,T, rn a. For the cases exactly in which the one pronunciation or the other occurs, see ~ 21. The modern Jews sound the aspirated: as v, and the n nearly as 8, e.g. rt't reshis,::n rav. 4. After what has been said, the usual division of the consonants according to the organs of speech employed in uttering them, will be more intelligible and useful. The common division is as follows:a) Gutturals, r, n, A, N (rn) b) Palatals, p,:, ~, l (p?.) c) Linguals, t, r, I, with:, b (b.:. b ) d) Dentals or sibilants,:, X, 0, T (1et) e) Labials, I,:, ~, 1 (~.a) The letter ' partakes of the character of both the first and fourth classes. The liquids also,,:, i, which have in many respects a common character, are to be regarded as a separate class. In the Hebrew, as well as in all the Shemitish dialects, the strength and harshness of pronunciation, which characterized the earlier periods of the language, gradually gave way to more soft and feeble sounds. In this way many nice distinctions of the earlier pronunciation were neglected and lost. This appears, 1) in the preference of the softer letters; e. g. p2, p'_ (see ~ 2, 3, Rem.), Syr. pl.; 2) in the pronunciation of the same letter; ph orf; B as b,: bh as v; a and 5 both as g in go; D and: both as k. If one wishes to give the aspirated sound of 5 and 3, let him pronounce g and k, rolling the palate with the same breath.-Ta.

Page  37 ~ 7. THE VOWELS. 37 thus in Syriac: has always a feeble sound, while the Galileans uttered it as well as n like b; in lEthiopic tt has the sound of 8, rn that of h. SECT. 7. OF THE VOWELS IN GENERAL, VOWEL-LETTERS, AND VOWEL-SIGNS. 1. That the scale of five vowels, a, e, i, o, u, proceeds from the three primary vowel sounds A, I, U, is even more distinctly seen in the Hebrew, and other Shemitish tongues, than in other languages. E and O arose from the union of Iand U with a preceding short A, and are properly diphthongs contracted, e arising from ai, 6 from au, according to the following scheme*:A ai, a., 6 The more ancient Arabic has not the vowels / and 6, and always uses for them the diphthongs ai and au; e. g. I"S, Arabic bain, tai, Arab. yaum. It is only in the modern popular language that these diphthongs are contracted into one sound. The close relation of those sounds appears from a comparison of the Greek and Latin (e. g. Caesar, Kacaae; 9auot, Ion. &Pu), from the French pronunciation of ai and au [comp. in English ai in said, in naught], and from the German popular dialects (auch, 6ch]. 2. With this is connected the manner of indicating the vowel sounds in writing. As only three principal vowel sounds were distinguished, no others were designated in writing; and even these were represented not by appropriate signs, but by certain consonants employed for this purpose, whose feeble consonant power easily flowed into a vowel sound. Thus 1 (like the Lat. V and the old Ger. W) represented U and also O; 0 (like the Lat. i) represented I and E. The designation of A, the purest of all the vowels, an i of most frequent occurrence, was regularly amitted,t except at the end of a word, where long a was repre* For the sound of these vowels, see note on ~ 8.-Ta. t So in Sanscrit, the ancient Persian cuneiform writing, and Ethiopic, short z alone of all the vowels is not indicated by any sign, but the simple consonant is pronounced with this vowel.

Page  38 38 PART I. ELEMENTS. sented by:1, and sometimes by N.* These two letters stood also for long e and o. [The above four letters (forming the mnemonic '.I ehevi) are commonly called quiescent or feeble letters.] Even those two vowel-letters (1 and I) were used but sparingly, being employed only when the sounds which they represent were long.t In this case, also, they were sometimes omitted (~ 8, 4). Every thing else relating to the tone and quantity of the vowel sounds, whether a consonant should be pronounced with or without a vowel, and even whether 1 and > were to be regarded as vowels or consonants, the reader was to decide for himself. Thus for exmaple,:up might be read. qatal, qatel, qatol, q'tol, qotel, qittel, qattel, quttal; te, dabhar (a word), debher (a pestilence), dibber (he hath spoken), dabber (to speak), dobher (speaking), dubbar (it has been spoken); rla might be maveth (death), or mnuth, moth (to die); 1ee might be read bin, ben, bayin. How imperfect and indefinite such a mode of writing was is easily seen, yej during the whole period in which the Hebrew was a spoken language no other signs for vowels were employed. Reading was, therefore, a harder task than with our more adequate modes of writing, and much must have been supplied by the reader's knowledge of the living mother tongue. 3. But when the Hebrew ceased to be a spoken language, and the danger of losing the correct pronunciation, as well as the perplexity arising from this indefinite mode of writing, continually increased, the vowel-signs or points were invented, which minutely settled what had previously been left uncertain. Of the date of this invention we have no account; but a comparison of historical facts warrants the conclusion, that the vowel system * The close connexion between -, (t, and the A-sound. 1 and the U-sound, ' and the I-sound, admits of easy physiological explanation, if we attend to the formation of these sounds by the organs of speech. The vowel A is formed by opening the mouth without changing the position of the organs; so also nt and K. U is sounded in the fore part of the mouth, with the lips a little projecting and rounded; so also l-[our w]. And I is formed at the fore part of the palate; so also ' [our y]. E sounds at the back of the palate, between i and a; 0 in the under part of the mouth, between u and a. t The Phoenicians did not indicate even the long vowels, except in most rare eases, and their oldest monuments have scarcely any vowel-signs. See Man. Phaenicia, pp. 57, 58; and above ~ 2. 2.

Page  39 ~8. THE VOWEL-SIGNS. 39 was not completed till after the seventh century of the Christian era. It was the work of Jewish scholars, well skilled in the language, who, it is highly probable, copied the example of the Syrian and Arabian grammarians. See Gesch. d. hebr. Spr. S. 1S2 if. and Hupfeld in den tlheolog. Studien rend Ki-itiken, 1830, No. 3, where it is shown that the Talmud and Jerome make no mention ofrvowel-points. 4. This vowel system has, probably, for its basis the pronunciation of the Jews of Palestine; and its consistency, as well as the analogy of the kindred languages, fuirnishes strong proof of its correctness, at least as a whole. Its authors have laboured to exhib it by signs the minute gradations of the vowel sounds, carefully marking even half vowels and helping sounds, spontaneously adopted in all languages, yet seldom expressed in writing. To the same labours we owle the different marks by which the sound of the consonants themselves is modified (I11-14), and the accents (~l 15, 16). In Arabic and Syriac the vowel system is much more simple. In the former are three signs for vowels, according to the three primary vowelsounds; in the latter there are five, viz., a, e, i, o, U. It is possile that the Hebrew also had at an earlier period a more simple vowel system, but no actual traces of' it are found. SECT. 8. OF THE VOWEL-SIGNS.* 1. Of full vowels, besides which there are, also certain hialf vowels (~ 10, 1. 2), grammarians have generally reckoned ten, and divided them into five long and five short. As this division is simple and convenient for the learner, it is here presentedi L~ong Vowels. I Short Vowels. Qd'mets, a, M" yam. -Pdtta'ch, a, MI bath. -Tse-re, j, n she~m. - &ghol, el -1 b en. Chi'req long, i, I" bin. -7 Chi'r~q short, 1, 11 mtn. or Co'ltrn,0, ~i ql,01 Qd'mets-chatfi'ph, 6, -p17 Mb sobh. chi~q. *The vowels as represented in this translation are supposed to be sounded as follows:-a, or 4 like a in father;'*d like a in fat; 4 like a in fate; - or like e in,there; 6 like e in err; i like i in pique; i like i in pick; o or 6 like e in no; 6 like o in not; aZ like u in rule; t7i like u in full.-TR. t It is not given in the two latest editions of the original.-Tit.

Page  40 40 PART I. ELEMENTS. A more accurate and useful exhibition of the vowels, according to the three primary vowel sounds (~ 7', 1. 2), is the fol. lowing: First Class. For the A sound. a) -Qd'mets, z, a-, hi yadh, 0~ qdm. b) Pattdch, a, MI barth. c) IWIh'l it as in the first syllable of J:' mdilekh, where - has sprung from * i~,and also in union with 4 as,141:yadhai'kha, alWie g""'a like French ~ in mre [which fis like our e in there]. Second C'lass. For the I and E sound. a) and -. long Chi'req, i, tsddiPm I b) -: short Ohireq, f, ~-Z immo. r )~-and -Ts~dr with and without Yodh, e, r14 11 J beth, shem. B1d) - Seghd'l, obtuse, 'It.sipher, -11 shin, accented Third Class. For the U and 0 -sound. a).1 SfhIirrq, it', rl- mfith. U b) -~Qfbbi~'ts, it-, simply a shortening of AShureq, 'Ia L mfithi, but also ii r,~ ~- goid. rol. $ e) I and hd'lem, 6,;,p q651, d) (-) Qd'mets-chatti'ph, 6, -PM ch6q. e) also -,obtuse 4 so far as it springs from u or o, as in I= d lttem, 'n eth (from HN). The names of the vowels are, according to the usage of the Shemitish grammarians, almost all taken from the form and action of the mouth in uttering the sounds. Thus )'?-i1 signifies opening, "'1 (also 111) bursting (of the mouth), parW, gnashing, M~irl fulness, from its full tone (also ~ full mouth) p0poel 1~&ru',y closing (of the mouth). This last meaning belongs also to 1"~',; and the reason why long a and short o (~IMM ylin Qamets correptum) have the same sign and name is that theRabbins gave to Qamets the impure sound of o, like the Swedish U'.t The distinction between them is shown in ~ 9. Only Seghol @~i= cluster Of grapes) appears to. be named after itgform. *The Jewish grammarians call Seghol also "Ismall Patch1 t It has been conjectured that the signs for these vowels were. originally different (as 1 4, r 6) and became identical only through carelessness in writiag; -but such a difference cannot be proved, for these two marks are quite idea. tical, the former (1being only the original, and the second (7T) th modified form.

Page  41 ~ 8. THE VOWEL-SIGNS. 41 The names were, moreover, so formed that the sound of each vowel was heard in the first syllable; and in conformity to this, some write Sighol, Qomets-chatuph, Qiibbuts. 2. As appears in the above examples, the vowel-sign is regularly put under the consonant after which it is to be pronounced, I rs, ~ rd, m re,? ru, &c. There is an exception to this rule in Pattach, when it stands under a guttural at the end of a word (Pattach furtive, see ~ 22, 2, b), for it is then spoken before the consonant. We must also except Cholem (without Vav), which is put to the left over the letter, 9 ro. When Cholem (without Vav) and the diacritic point over Wt (i, U) come together, one dot serves for both, as s:t. so-ne for 'tiSri, n not ntbt moshe. i (with two points), when no vowel stands under it, is sho, as '=it) sho-mer; when no vowel goes before it, os, as dB91 yr-pos. The figure i is sometimes sounded ov, the 1 being a consonant with Cholem before it, as:i1b lo-ve (lending); and sometimes vo, the Cholem being read after the Vav, as ]ip a-von (sin) for 'l%. In very exact impressions a distinction is made thus: ' or, i vo, and i o. 3. The vowels of the first class [for the A sound] are, with Ihe exception of -'- in the middle and of TM-, X- at the end of a word, indicated only by vowel-signs (~ 7, 2); but in the two other classes [for the I and E sound and for the U and O sound] the long vowels are mostly expressed by vowel-letters, the ua-n certain sound of which is determined by the signs standing before or within them. Thus, may be determined by Chireq ( —), Tsere (>-), Segol (I-7). ' by Shureq (m) and Cholem (i).* In Arabic the long a is regularly indicated by the vowel-letter Alepl. (a"-) written in the text, so that in it three vowel-letters answer to the three vowel-classes. In Hebrew the relation is somewhat different (~ 9, 1, and ~ 23, 2). 4. When in the second and third classes the long vowel is * The vowel-sign which serves to determine the sound of the vowel-letter, is said to be homogeneous with that letter. Many, after the example of the Jewish grammarians, use here the expression, "the vowel-letter rests (quiesces) in the vowel-sign." Hence the letters " and 1 (with t and:M, see ~ 23) are called literae quiescibiles; when they serve as vowels, quiescentes, when they are consonants, mobiles. But the expression is not suitable: we should rather say, "The vowel-letter is sounded as this or that vowel, or stands in place of the vowel." The Vowel-letters are also called by grammarians, matres lectionis [since they partly serve as guides in reading the unpointed text].

Page  42 42 PART I. ELEMENTS. expressed without a vowel-letter, it is called scriptio defectiva, when with a vowel-letter, scriptio plena. Thus bip and.ip are written fully, rFn and Op defectively. The choice of the full or the defective mode of writing is not always arbitrary, as there are certain cases in which only the one or the other is admissible. Thus the full form is necessary at the end of a word, e. g..Iq ', ti)"?,.,.; but the defective is most usual when the vowel is preceded by the analogous vowel-letter as consonant, e. g.:l?. for 3?-. But in other cases much depended on the option of the transcribers, so that the same word is written in various ways, e. g. r'ipl Ezek. xvi. 60, 'ntip, Jer. xxiii. 4, where other editions have irpin. It may be observed, however, a) That the defective writing is used chiefly, though not constantly, when the word has increased at the end, and the vowel of the penultima has lost somewhat of its stress in consequence of the accent or tone of the word being moved forward [see ~ 29, 2], as p9.q._,:pr; bp, np,; butY, s3T; b) That in the later books of the Old Testament the full form, in the earlier the defective, is more usual.* 5. In the kindred dialects, when a vowel-letter has before it a vowel-sign that is not kindred or homogeneous, a diphthong is formed, e.g. -; au, -eu, e, -, ai. But in Hebrew, according to the pronunciation handed down by the Jews, 1 and " retain here their consonant sound, so that we get av, ev, ay,t e. g. l vdv, n gev, n chay,. i goy. In sound 1-T is the same with 1-, namely, dv, as d'"M debharcv. The LXX. give generally in these cases an actual diphthong, as in the Arabic, and this must be considered as an earlier mode of pronunciation; the modern Jewish pronunciation is, on the other hand, similar to the modern Greek, in which au, sv sound like av, ev. In the manuscripts Yodh and Vav are, in this case, even marked with Mappiq (~ 14, 1). SECT. 9. CHARACTER AND VALUE OF THE SEVERAL VOWELS. Although these signs appear numerous, they do not wholly suffice to indicate the various modifications of the vowel sounds * The same historical relation may be shown in the Phoenician and Arabic, -in- the latter especially by means of the older Koran MSS. and the writing on coins. t The y in this case should be sounded as much as possible like y in yet, not as in nay. —T.

Page  43 ~ 9. CHARACTER OF THE SEVERAL VOWELS. 43 in respect to length and shortness, sharpness and extension. It may be observed farther, that the indication of the sound by these signs cannot be called always perfectly appropriate. We therefore give here, for the better understanding of this matter, a short commentary on the character and value of the several vowels, especially in respect to length and shortness; but at the same time their changeableness (~~ 25, 27) will be noticed in passing. I. First Class. A sound. 1. Qamets is always long a, but yet it is in its nature of two sorts: 1) The essentially long and unchangeable 4, for which the Arabic has a-, as Arm kethabh (writing),:t ganndbh (thief), ] qadn (he stood), written at times trp. 2) The prolonged a of prosody,* both in the tone-syllable and close before or after it. This sound always comes out of short a, and is found in an open syllable (i. e. one ending with a vowel, see ~ 26, 2), e. g. b?, bqi', tlps, and also in a closed (i. e. one ending with a consonant), as 'T, C0hb. In the closed syllable, however, it can stand only when this has the tonet Ad, 0tf; but in the open, it is especially frequent before the tone-syllable,, iT, it,.;?p?, &5. When the tone is moved forward or lessened, this vowel becomes, in the former case, short a (Pattach), and in the latter, vocal S3heva (~ 27, 3), '1, ' (d'bhcr);?n, oD (chakham); bb?', dbt?. Under the final letter of a word, only Qamets can stand (nb~p.,?i), but in this position it is often indicated by i (mr, nsER). 2. Pattach, or the shorter a, stands properly only in a closed syllable with and without the tone (bi_, t1:tp). Most of the cases where it now stands in an open syllable ('I:, atl), had the syllable originally closed (4_, ft, see ~ 28, 4). On the union of Pattach with bt (t —) see ~23, 2: on a as a helping sound (Pattachfurtive), see ~ 22, 2, b. 3. Seghol (a, e) belongs chiefly to the second class of vowels, * See ~ 25.-Ta. t When the tone is marked in this book, the sign ' is put over the first let. ter.of the syllable, see ~ 15, I, 3.-TR.

Page  44 44 PART I. ELEMENTS. but now and then, according to its origin, to the first or the third class. It belongs to the first, when it is a modification of a (like German Gast, Gdste [comp. Celtic bardh, pl. beirdh]), e. g. rf from... Although an obtuse sound, it can stand in the tonesyllable, as in the first syllable of pit tsiadq, and even in the gravest tone-syllable at the end of a clause or sentence (in pause). II. Second Class. I and E sound. 4. The long i is most commonly expressed by the letter " (a fully written Chireq 4-.); but even when this is not the case, it makes no essential difference provided the vowel is long by nature (~ 8, 4), e. g. pas pl.::p.7; B? pl. t. Whether a defectively written Chireq is long, may be best known from the grammatical origin and character of the form, but often also from the character of the syllable (~ 26) or from the position of Methegh (~ 16, 2) at its side, as in.WP. 5, The short Chireq (always written without I) is specially frequent in sharpened syllables (bp, 'Y.)', and in closed unaccented syllables (bbp ). Not seldom it comes from a by shortening, as in 4M.. (my daughter) from Mt, 4W from t, bp out of bUp. Sometimes also it is a mere helping vowel, as in 'A. for Arc (~28, 4). The Jewish and the older grammarians call everyfully written Chireq Chireq magnum, and every defectively written one, Chireq parvum. In respect to the sound, this is a wrong distinction. 6. The longest e, Tsere with Yodh (..), comes from the diphthong ai ~- (~ 7, 1), which also stands for it in Arabic and Syriac, as ^b? (palace) in Ar. and Syr. haikal. It is therefore a very long and unchangeable vowel, longer even than ', since it approaches the quantity of a diphthong. This -. is but seldom written defectively (9*3 for 72 Is. iii. 8), and then it retains the same value. At the end of a word '- and '- must be written fully: most rare is the form rtip (~ 44, Rem. 4). 7. The Tsere without Yodh is the long e of the second rank, which stands only in and close by the tone-syllable, like the Qamets above in No. 1, 2. Like that, it stands in either an * For this sharp i the LXX mostly use r, S. 'Epsuaavovr).. o

Page  45 ~ 9. CHARACTER OF THE SEVERAL VOWELS. 4B open or a closed syllable, the former in the tone-syllable or before it ('.D.,:ih!), the latter only in the tone-syllable (11, Xb). 8. The Seghol, so far as it belongs to the second class, is most generally a short obtuse e sound got by shortening the (-), -1' from 1 (son). It arises also out of the shortest e (vocal Sheva, ~ 10, 1), when this is heightened in pronunciation by the tone, as Wll for 'AWl, anb for er1n; and besides it appears as an involuntary helping sound, 5TD for D9O, ab for af (~ 28, 4). The Seghol with Yodh ('-) is a long but yet obtuse a (a of the French) formed out of ai,,t? g"elna, and hence it belongs rather to the first class. See more on the rise of Seghol out of other vowels in ~ 27, Rem. 1, 2, 4. III. Third Class. U and 0 sound. 9. In the third class we find quite the same relation as in the second. In the u sound we have: 1) the long uf, whether a) fully written. Shureq, (answering to the -_ of the second class), e. g. 5b1T (dwelling), or b) defectively written without Vav - (analogous to the long - of the second class), Qibbuts, namely, that which stands for Shureq, and which might more properly be called defective Shureq ( 1T,.nV?), being in fact a long vowel like Shureq, and only an orthographic shortening for the same; 2) The short i, the proper Qibbuts (analogous to the short Chireq), in an unaccented closed syllable, and especially in a sharpened one, as jbri (table),,j? bedchamber). For the latter the LXX put o, e. g. bis, 'OollUap, but it by no means follows that this is the true pronunciation, though they also express Chireq by e. Equally incorrect was the former custom of giving to both sorts of Qibbuts the sound 0. Sometimes also the short u in a sharpened syllable is expressed by %, e.g. I1==^. 10. The O sound stands in the same relation to U, as E to lin the second class. It has four gradations: 1) the longest 6, got from the diphthong au (~ 7, 1), and mostly written in full i (Cholem plenum), as 6t (whip), Arab. saut,,'*b (evil) from -It:; sometimes it is written defectively, as i'tf (thy bullock), from 'b; 2) The long 6, which has sprung from an original 4 [comp. Germ. alt= Eng. old], usually written fully in a tone-syllable and defectively in a toneless one, as hp Arab.. and Chald. q4tel, s15t Arab. and Chald. bldh, plur. 7f.585;

Page  46 46 PART I. ELEMENTS. 3) The tone-long 0, which is a lengthening of short o or u by the tone, and which becomes short again on its removal, as ii (all), -~ (kl1), i:~ (kullum), bbp,:?p, -15? (in this last instance it is shortened to vocal Sheva, yiqtelu). In this case the Cholem is fully written only by way of exception. 4) The Qamets chatuph ( —), always short and in the same relation to Cholem as the Seghol of the second class to the Tsere, '~ k5l1, 1pt_ vdy-ya-q6m. On the distinction between this and Qamets see below in this section. 11. The Seghol belongs here also, so far as it arises out of u or o (No. 3), e. g. in 029,:ri_. On the half-vowels see the next section. 12. In the following table we give a scale of the vowel-sounds in each of the three classes, with respect to their quantity, from the greatest length to the utmost shortness. The table does not indeed suffice to exhibit all vowel transitions which occur in the language, but yet it furnishes a view of those in more frequent use. First Class. A. - longest 4 (Arabic R~7). - tone-lengthened a (from short a or-.) in and by the tone-syllable. - short a. - obtuse A. Greatest shortening to — a or -6 in an open, and to - i in a closed syllable. Second Class. land E. Third Class. U and 0. '- c diphthongal (from ' 6 diphthongal (from ai). au). "- c (from ai). ' or - 6 changed from - or -- long i. - tone-lengthened e (from - Z or -obtuse e) in and immediately before the tone-syllable. - short i. -obtuse e. Greatest shortening to.- or _e in an open syllable, besides the - or - in the closed. 2. ~ or - long a. - tone-lengthened 0 (from- 6 or -) in the tone-syllable. short i, specially in a sharpened syllable. - short 6. - obtuse e. Greatest shortening to ~ or _e in an open syllable, besides the shortor - 6 in the closed. ON THE DISTINCTION OF QAMETS AND QAMETS-CHATUPH.* As an instance of the inappropriatepess of the vowel indication we may notice the fact, that a (Qamets) and 6 (Qamets* This portion must, in order to be fully understood, be studied in connexion with what is said on the syllables in ~ 26, and on Methegb ina 16, 2. [In

Page  47 ~9. CHARACTER OF THE SEVERAL VOWELS. 4 47 chatuph) are both indicated by the same sign (T,), e. g. Vp qa1m, -~ k~il.' For distinguishing between them fet the beginner, who does not yet know the grammatical derivation of the words he has to read (for this knowledge is the surest guide), follow these two rules: 1. The sign (r-) is 6 in a closed syllable which has. not the tone [or accent]; for such a syllable cannot have a long vowel (~26, 3). Examples of various sorts are: a) When a simple Sheva follows, dividing syllables, as in rtMt chokh-md (wisdom), Ini= zdkh-ra; with a Mlethegh, on the contrary, the (-r) is a, and closes the syllable, but then the following She va is a hair-vowel ('vocal Sheva) as M'= za-k/hera, according to ~ 16, 2. b) When Dagh~esh forte follows, as tlnn b6it~in (houses), %5 chz6n- ngni (pity me); also ='n b6lte'kh6m (notwithstanding the M'ethegh, which stands by every vowel in the ant e-penultima). c) When Maqqeph follows (~ 16, 1), as kdl-haadhdnz (all men). d) When the unaccented closed syllable is final, as va ryq m (and he stood up).-There are somne cases where 42 in the final syllable loses its tone by Maqqeph (~ 16, 1) and yet remains unchanged, e. g. rVr-MM) Esth. iv. 5; '4rtt~ Gen. iv. 25. Methegh usually stands in these cases.t In cases like ra$6I'l, ra lMinna, where the (,.) has the tone, it is a7, according to ~ 26, 5. 2. The sign (7r) as short 6 in an open syllable is far less frequent, and belongs to the exceptions in ~ 26, 3. It occurs a) when Ciihateph- Qarnets follows, as I p&o-lo (his deed); b) when another Qarnets-chatuph follows, as IT. p6-61'-kha (thy deed); c) in two anomalous words, where it stands merely for (T:), which are found so even in manuscripts, viz. VI6,1 q6-dhashint (sanctuaries) and sh6-rashim (roots). In these cases (,) is followed by Methmeggh, although it is 6, since Methegh always 'stands in the second syllable before the tone. The exceptions that occur can be determined only by the grammatical derivation, as the original it is all printed in small type, but its importance justifies the change we have made.] *For the cause of this see p. 40. t But not always, where it ought to be, e. g. Ps. xvi. 5;1Iv. 19. 22. Thtl oug~ht here to be considered and divided as an open syllable!E'i appears from ~ 26, 7. r ~ This case is connected with the foregoing, so far as the second Qamets-cha.. tuphi is sprung from Chat ephQameta.

Page  48 48 48 ~~~PART I. ELEMENTS. 'UtZ in the ship (read: ballni) I Kings ix. 27, with the article included; on the contrary ~t 'nrlz b6ch0ri aph (in anger's glow) Ex. xi. 8, without the article. SECT. 10. OF THE HALF-VOWELS AND THE SYLLABLE-DIVIDER (SHF-VA). 1. Besides the full vowels, of which ~ 9 chiefly treats, the Hebrew has also a series of very slight vowel-sounds, which may be called half-vowvels.* We may regard them in general as extreme shortenings, perhaps mere traces, of fuller and distincter vowel-sounds in an earlier period of the language. To them belongs the sign -:,which indicates the shortest, slightest, and most indistinct half-vowel, something like an obscure-.half 6. It is called ~Sh'va,t and also simple,Sheva to distinguish it from the composite (see below No. 2), and vocal ASkeva (AS1heva mobile) to distinguish it from the silent (8heva quiescens), which is merely a divider of syllables (see below No. 3). This last can occur only under a consonant closing the syllable, and is thus distinguished from the vocal Sheva, whose place is under a consonant begin. fling the syllable, whether a) at the beginning of the word, as b qeto, b6'nZ memalle, or b) in the middle of the word, as lbp q6-t'la, *t~ 7ik-telii *Lt9p qit-telit. So also in cases like 1-# ha-lliit (which stands for le'' ha l~leb21), ~1. amnt~sa ch (for 't~), farther ~t'# ha-m'sh~il Judges ix. 2 (where the interrogative 10 makes a syllable by itself), "Zb ma-l6Ich. In the last #xamples the Sheva sound is specially slight, in consequence of a very short syllable preceding. The sound 6 may be regarded as representing vocal She-va, although it is certain that it often accorded in sound with other vowels. - The LXX express it by s, even '1, viri Xrqotifl,, 6~r & inlot'a fee y %0m~ 'aqov'l, but very often they give it a sound to accord with the following vowel, as t:7t Zo~ops W~~t~Zk~~V, II! Zal0i4A ii *In "the table ~ 9, 12 the half-vowels have already been exhibited for the sake of a completer view. tThe name b0is best explained as equivalent to WOft nothsngnesseti pus. The vowel points in this word are transposed in oider to have foremost the sign (-)indicated by the term, according to a principle followed also in the' names of vowels. (See ~ 8, 1). This law obtains in the -Phcenician language, e. g. 1I~z Malara, vl~qz

Page  49 ~9. HALF-VOWELS AND SYLLABLE DIVIDER. 4 49 [ar account of the pronunciation of Sh~va is given also by the Jewis-h grammarians of the middle ages.* flow the Sh~va sound springs from the slight or hasty utterance of a stronger vowel, we may see in rIV1 (for which also 'Mn occurs, see No. 2) from barakha, as this wvord also sounds in Arabic. This language has regularly for vocal Shlva %p ordinary short vowel. The vocal Sheva is too weak to stand in a closed syllable; but yet it can with the consonant before it form a hasty open syllable, as appears from the use of Methegh (see 116, 2), and also from the fact, that it can become an accented -, as '1i" from '11. 2. With the simple vocal ASheva is connected the. so-called composite ASh~va or Chateph (rapid), i. e. a Sh'va attended by a short vowel to indicate that we should sound it as a half it, 11, or 6i. We have, answering to the three principal vowel-sounds (7,1), the following three: (-)Chateph-Pattach, as in h'i~tr chamor (ass). (-)Chateph-&eghol, as in w~b 'inor (to say). (.)Chateph- Qamets, as in *7 ch'li (sickness). The Chatephs, at least the two foriner,' stand chiefly under the four gutturals (~ 22, 3), the utterance of which naturally causes the annexed half-vowel to be more distinctly sounded. Rem. Only ( -: ) and (.: ) occur uuder letters which are not gutturals. The Chateph-Pattach stands for simple vocal ~Sh,'sa, but without any fixed law, especially a) under a doubled letter, since the doubling causes a distincter utterance of the vocal Sheva, sometimes also where the sign of doubling has fallen away, 4:M for ~'2Gen. ix. 14. 111~bri Judges xvi. 16; b) after a long, vowel, e. g. =11 (gold of), but =1'11 Gen. ii. 12; YT~t (hear), but =51. Deut. v. 24, comp. Gen. xxvii. 26, 38. The Chtat eph-Qamets is less connected with the gutturals than the first two, and stands for simple vocal Sh~va when an 0-sound was originally in the syllable, and requires to be partly preserved, e. g. litl for NXI v'sio (~91, VI), It fortheusul Ez. xxxv. 6 from ~;"" his pate from lpp It is used also, like (),when Daghe-sh forte has fallen away, 11r'D for Mr'p Gen. ii. 23. In MI10 1 Kings xiii. 7 and ";)T Jer. xxii. 20 the choice of this composite Sh~va, is dependent on the following guttural and the preceding U-sound. 3. The sign of the simple ASh'va(-) serves also as a mere syllable-divider, without expressing any sound, and tiferefore gtsbulim (see Mon. Phrenicia, p. 436); it is found also in the Latin augments momordi., ptspugi, compare the Greek in 14imvqa, -m~vpu8dVog and the old form memnordi. See especially.Tuda CJhaytig in Tbn Ezra's Tsachoth, P. 3; Ge~eniuu'e JThr gebitude der heb. Spraclie. S. 68. 4

Page  50 50 PART I. ELEMENTS. called in this case silent Sheva (Sheva quiescens), answering to the Arabic Djesm. It stands in the midst of a word under every consonant that closes a syllable; at the end of wirds,.on the other hand, it is omitted, except in final I, e. g. j(ljng), and in the less frequent case where a word ends jw twooconsonants, as in 'T (nard), 1 (thot, fern.), t4( st killed), NIe, rW.^, &c. t Yet in the last examples ShCva under the last letter m't rather pass for vocal, since it is pretty clear that a final vowel has been shortened, e. g... att1 from 4 attA, tbn. from nop,, 3 i yishbe from hlStt,* &c. The Arabic actually has a short vowel in the analogous forms. In sl, borrowed from the Indian, this is less clear. uttp (truth) Prov. xxii. 21, seems to sound qosht. SECT. 11. SIGNS WHICH AFFECT THE READING OF CONSONANTS. In intimate connexion with the vowel points stand the reading-signs, which were probably adopted at the same time. Besides the diacritic point of t and t, a point is used in a letter in order to show that it has a stronger sound or is even doubled; and on the contrary a small horizontal stroke over a letter, as a sign that it has not the strong sound. The use of the point in the letter is threefold: a) as Daghesh forte or sign of doubling; b) as Daghesh lene or sign of hardening; c) as Mappiq, a sign that the vowel-letter (~ 7, 2), especially the n at the end of a word, has the sound of a consonant. The stroke over a letter, Raphe, is scarcely ever used in the printed text. SECT. 12. OF DAGHESH IN GENERAL, AND DAGHESH FORTE IN PARTICULAR. 1. Daghesh, a point written in the bosomt of a consonant, is employed for two purposes: a) to indicate the doubling of the So thought Juda Chayilg among the Jewish grammarians. t Daghesh in I is easily distinguished from Shureq, which never admits a vowel or Sheva under or before the 1. The Vav with Daghesh (.) ought to bave the point ndt so high up as the Vav with Shureq (. ). But this difference is often ineglected in typography.

Page  51 ~13. -DAGHESH LENE. 51 letter (Daghesh forte), e. g. ~V q -te b) the hardening of the aspirates, i. e. the removal of the aspiration (Daghesh lene). The root M'*i, from which ft- ig derived, in Syriac signifies to thrwt through, to bore throug (with a sharp iron). Hence the word Daghesh is commonly supposed to mean, with reference to its Hgure merely, 'a prick, a point. But the names of' all similar signqp aree.qpressive of their grammatical power; and in this c enarnqeof the sign refers both to its figure and its use. In grammaicllaiguetge U511 means, ') acere literam, to sharpen the letter by doubling it; 2) to harden, the letter by taking away its aspiration. Accordingly OA means sharp and hard, i.e. sign of' sharpening or hardening (like Mappiq, P"07 proferens, i. e. signum prolationi8), and it was expressed in writing by a mere prick of the stylus (punctume). In a manner somewhat analogous, letters and words are represented, in the criticism of' a text, as expunged (ex-puncla) by a point or pointed instrument (obeliscts) affixed to them. The opposite of Daghesh lene is 'il soft (Q 14,2). That T611', in grammatical language, is applied to a hard pronunciation of various kinds, appears from ~ 22, 4, Rem. I. 2. Its use as Daghesh forte, i. e. for doub ling a letter, is of.chief importance; (compare the iSicilicus of the ancient Latins, e. g. Lucui-us for Lucullus, and in German the stroke over m and n.) It is' wanting in the unpointed text, like the vowel and other signs. FG-r further particulars respecting its -uses and varieties, see ~ 20. SECT. 13. DAGHESH LENE. 1. Daghesh lene, the sign of hardening, belongs only to the aspirates (literce aspiratce) rVI (~ 6, 3). It takes away their aspiration, and restores their original slender or pure sounds (lit. ercetenus),e. g. J:~ miilelh, but i* malko; -11laphar, but b~~l yith-por; iV25 shatha, but 'MIVI yish-te.~ 2. Daghesh lene, as is shown in ~ 21, stands only at the beginning of words and syllables. It is thus easily distinguished from Daghesh forte, since in these cases the doubling of a letter is impossible. Thus the Daghesh is forte in tP' rabbim, but lene in v ighdal. 3. D~ag hforte in 'an aspirate not only doubles, it, but takes awsay aspiration, thus serving at once for bpth forte and lene, as Vbt ap-pi; HV- rak-koth. (Compare in German stechen and 3tecken, wachen and wecken).. 9

Page  52 M2 PART I. ELEMENTS. This is accounted for by the difficulty of doubling an aspirated letter in pronunciation. In confirmation of this rule we may refer to certain Ori ental words, which, in the earliest times, passed over into the Greek lan guage, as ma3 x tina (not x&cqpa), 'ft ac'rpeiQog. The doubling of a letter does not occur in Syriac, at least in the western dialects. Where it would be required, however, according to etymology and analogy, the aspiralion at least is removed: thus prt in Syriac is read apeq, for appeq. SECT. 14. MAPPIQ AND RAPHE. 1. Mappiq, like Daghesh, to which it is analogous, is a point in a letter. It belongs only to the vowel-letters I',, and Xt,, (literce quiescibiles), and shows that they are to be sounded with their full consonant power, instead pf serving as vowels. It is at present used only in final fl; e. g..g= ga-bhah (the h having its full sound), UWR ar-tsah (her land), 'in distinction from l dar-tsa (to the earth). Without doubt such a n was uttered with stronger aspiration, like the Arab. He at the end of the syllable, or like h in the German Schuh, which in common life is pronounced Schuch. The use of it in and under t,,, A, is confined to manuscripts, e. g..A (goy), I (qav). The name p'B. signifies producens, and indicates that the sound of the letter should be clearly expressed. The same sign was selected for this and for Daghesh, because the design was analogous, viz. to indicate the strong sound of the letter. Hence also Raphe is the opposite of both. 2. Raphe (nI) i. e. soft, written over the letter, is the opposite of both Daghesh and Mappiq, especially of Daghesh lene. In exact manuscripts an aspirate has generally either Daghesh lene or Raphe, e. g. it. mniilelch, 'l; but in printed editions of the Bible it is used only when the absence of Daghesh or Mappiq is to be expressly noted, e. g. 1;I5S_.. for t,12" Sn., Judges xvi. 16, and v. 28 (where Daghesh lene is absent), Mappiq in Job xxxi. 22. SECT. 15. OF THE ACCENTS. 1. The design of the accents in general is, to show the rhythmical members of the verses in the Old Testament text. But as such the use is two-fold, viz. a) to mark the tone-syllable in each word; b) to show the logical relation of each word to the

Page  53 ~15. THE ACCENTS. 5 VD U0 - whole sentence. In the former respect they serve as signs of the tone, in the latter as signs of interpunction. By the Jews, moreover, they are regarded as signs of cantillation, and are used as such in the recitation of 'the Scriptures in the Synagogues. This use of thenm also is connected with their general rhythmical design. 2. As signs for the tone, they are all perfectly equivalent, for there is but one kind of accent in Hebrew. In most words the tone is on the last syllable, more seldom on the penultima. In the first case the word ~is called mil-rd (Vb Chald., from below), e. g. ~t qatal; in the'second, mfl-e~l (b".V~ Chald., from above), e. g. 1~ md'lelch. On the third syllable from the end (antepenultima) the chief tone never stand's; but yet we often find there a secondary one, or by-tone, which is indicated by the Methegh (~ 16, 2). 3. The use of the accents as signs of interpunction is somewhat complicated, as they serve not merely to separate the members of a sentence,2 like our period, colon, and comma, but also as mnarks of connexion. Hence they form two classes, Distinctives (Domini) and Conjunctives (S'ervi). Some are, moreover. peculiar to the poetical books'* (Job, Psalms, and Proverbs), which have a stricter rhythm. The following is a list of them according to their value as signs of interpunction. A. Distinctives (Domini). I. Greatest Distinctives (Imperatores), which may be compared with our period and colon. 1. (-.) llbiiq (end), only at the end of the verse and always united with (:) ph-p&sfsq, which separates each verse, e. g. '7Wl 2. (-.) Athnach (respiration), generally in the middle of tht verse. 3. (Z M.erk& with Mahpakh.* II. Great Distinctives (Reges): 4. ( Siegholtatt: 5.() Zaqeph-qaton: 6. ()Zdqdph-gadhol: 7. — Tfphcha. II. Smaller (Duces). 8.(:) ReYbhia: 9.(- Zalrqatt: IV. Smallest (Comites): 15. (-Razer: 16. Q- QarnE.. phdr&: 17. ()Great T6liishd t: 18. (-)Gdiresh: 19.() Double- Ga'"resh: 20. ( i) Psiq, between the words. * These accents are marked in the following list with an asterisk.

Page  54 54 PART I. ELEMENTS. B. Conjunctives (Servi). 21. (-,) Merka: 22. (,) Munach: 23. (-) Double-Merka: 24. (.) Mahpakh: 25. (-) Qadhmae: 26. (-) Dlrga: 27. (v-) Yd'rach: 28. (-) Little- Tllish tt: 29. (-) Tfphcha: 30. (-) Merka with Zarqa *: 31. (9) Mahpakh with Zarqa. REMARKS ON THE ACCENTS. I. As Signs of the Tone. 1. As in Greek (comp. slsi and J u), words which are written wsh the same consonants and vowel-signs are often distinguished by the accent, e. g. a ba-nik (they built),.= b4nu (in us); tVD qdma (she stood up), n;I, qam4 (standing up, fer.) [Compare in English compact and c6m pact]. 2. As a rule the accents stand on the tone-syllable, and properly on its initial consonant. Some, however, stand only on the first letter of a word (prepositive), others only on the last letter (postpositive). The former are designated in the table by t, the latter by tt. These do not, therefore, clearly indicate the tone-syllable, which must be known some other way. Those marked with an asterisk are used only in the poetical books. 3. The place of the accent, when it is not on the final syllable, is indicated in this book by the sign (') e. g. nmbb qa-tal-ta. II. As Signs of Interpunction. 4. In respect to this use of the accents, every verse is regarded as a period, which closes with Silluq,* or in the figurative language of the grammarians, as a realm (ditio), which is governed by the great Distinctive at the end (Imperator). According as the verse is long or short, i. e. as the empire is large or small, varies the number of Domini of different grades, which form the larger and smaller divisions. 5. Conjunctives (Servi) unite only such words as are closely connected in sense, as a noun with an adjective, or with another noun in the genitive, &c. But two conjunctives cannot be employed together. If the sense requires that several words should be connected, it is done by Maqqeph (. 16, 1). 6. In very short verses few conjunctives are used, and sometimes none; a small distinctive, in the vicinity of a greater, having a connective power (servit domino majori). In very long verses, on the contrary, conjunctives are used for the smaller distinctives (fiunt legati dominoumn). 7. The choice of the conjunctive or distinctive depends on subtile laws of consecution, with which the learner need not trouble himself at present. It is sufficient for him to know the greater distinctives, which answer to * This has the same form with Methegh (~ 16, 2); but they are readily distinguished, as Silluq always stands on the last tone syllable of a verse, while Methegh never stands on the tone-syllable.

Page  55 ~ 6. MAQQEPH AND METHEGH. 55 our period, colon, and comma, though they often stand where a half comma is scarcely admissible. They are most important in the poetical books for dividing a verse into its members. SECT. 16. MAQQEPH AND METHEGH. These are both closely connected with the accents. 1. Maqqeph (tP_ binder) is a small horizontal stroke between two words, which thus become so united that, in respect to tone and interpunction, they are regarded as one, and have but one accent. Two, three, and four words may be united in this way, e. g.::'bD every man;.S-b-'tn every herb, Gen. i. 29; i^ —itr.- -ri all which to him (was), Gen. xxv. 5. Certain monosyllabic words like 1- to, "-r sign of the Acc., '.3 all, are almost always thus connected. But a longer word may also be joined to a monosyllable, e. g. n '-..t._ Gen. vi. 9; or two polysyllables, e. g. 2~-Mnr Gen. vii. 11. The use of it, moreover, depends chiefly on the principle, that two conjunctive accents cannot be written in succession. When the sense requires such a connexion, it is expressed by Maqqeph. 2. Methegh (Z? a bridle), a small perpendicular line on the left of a vowel, forms a kind of check upon the influence of the accents as marking the tone-syllable, and shows that the vowel, though not accented, should not be hastily passed over in pronunciation. It stands, therefore, regularly by the vowel of the antepenultima when the last syllable has the tone, whether that vowel be long, as ~f 9, In t, or short, as Vt0.2 qOdashim, 1:6.P. b6ttekhem. But this rule is to be understood according to the view, which regards the half-vowels (simple S.heva vocal and composite Sheva) as forming a syllable (~ 10, 1 and ~ 26); accordingly Methegh stands a) by the vowel which precedes a vocal Sheva (simple or composite),,tib qa-te-l,.term yi-r'-u,.T',,rS^, jiS, fts p6-~-l6, and b) by even the vocal Shcva itself M?'V3 Job v. 1. When it standsby Sheva, many Jewish grammarians call it Ga'ya t"VM, while others use this name in general for every Methegh. N. B. It is of special service to the beginner, as indicating (according to letter a above) the quantity of Qamets and Chireq before a Shiva. Thus ian rl z4-khlra the Methegh shows, that the (,) stands in the ante

Page  56 56 PART I. ELEMENTS. penultima, a 1 that the Shava is here vocal and forms a syllable; but the ( ) in an open syllable before (:) must be long (~ 26, 3), consequently Qamets not Qamets-chatuph. On the contrary nInT without Methegh is a dissyllable [z6kh-ra], and ( ) stands in a closed syllable, and is consequently short (Qamets-chatuph). Thus also a.xn' (they fear) with Methegh is a trisyllable with a long i, yi-re6-f; but.1. (they see) without it, a dissyllable with short i, yZr-u. See above the rule about Qamets and Qamets-chatuph in ~ 9 at the end. SECT. 17. QERI AND KETHIBH. The margin of the Bible exhibits a number of various readings of an early date (~ 3, 2) called.l (to be read), because in the view of the Jewish critics they are to be preferred to the reading of the text called W. (written). Those critics have therefore attached the vowel signs, appropriate to the marginal reading, to the corresponding word in the text. E. g. in Jer. xlii. 6 the text exhibits 1, the margin ap 'lnr. Here the vowels in the text belong to the word in the margin, which is to be pronounced ~M~; but in reading the text '1b, the proper vowels must be supplied, making.:. A small circle or asterisk over the word in the text always directs to the marginal reading. Respecting the critical value of the marginal readings; see Gesenius's Gesch. der hebr. Sprache, S. 50, 75. CHAPTER II. PECULIARITIES AND CHANGES OF LETTERS; OF SYLLABLES AND THE TONE. SECT. 18. IN order fully to comprehend the changes which words undergo in their various inflexions, it is necessary first to survey the general laws on which they depend. These general laws are founded partly on the peculiarities of certain letters and classes of letters, considered individually or as combined in syllables. and partly on certain usages of the language in reference to syllables and the tone.

Page  57 ~ 19. CHANGES OF CONSONANTS. 57 SECT. 19.! CHANGES OF CONSONANTS. The changes occasioned among consonants by the formation of words, inflexion, euphony, or certain influences connected with the history of the language, are commutation, assimilation, rejection and addition, transposition. 1. Commutation takes place most naturally among letters which are pronounced similarly, and by the aid of the same organs, e. g. ybR, Di_, T_ to exult; wfit, n ab, Aram. Mt to tire; D9- and 1p- (as plural endings); Tnb, n:_ to press; '0, 'i0 to close; aib., UD~ to escape. In process of time, and as the language approximated to the Arameean, hard and rough sounds were exchanged for softer ones, e. g. bft for 5.I to defile; pt for p2 to laugh; for the sibilants were substituted the corresponding flat sounds, as ' for T, U for 2, n for T. This interchange of consonants affects the original forms of words more than it does their grammatical inflexion; the consideration of it, therefore, belongs properly to the lexicon.* Examples occur, however, in the grammatical inflexion of words; viz. the interchange a) of r and: in Hithpael (~ 53), b) of I and " in verbs Pe Yodh (~ 68), as '1i for b51. 2. Assimilation usually takes place when one consonant standing before another; without an intervening vowel, would occasion a harshness in pronunciation, as illustris for inlustris; diffusus for disfusus; 6via/cctu&vco for 6vvica//civco. In Hebrew this occurs a) most frequently with: before most other consonants, especially the harder ones, e. g.:7.1 for W.^ from the east; MMT for T. from this;.t for I'r; n for?na. Before gutturals 5 is commonly.retained, as bnt he will possess; seldom before other letters, as o?~ thou hast dwelt. b) less frequently and only in certain cases, with b, I, 'm. E. g. n_? for n:; 'Ji.r for.i.r.n; -t for '1( (~ 36). In' all these cases, the assimilation is expressed by a Daghesh forte in the following letter. In a final consonant, however, as it cannot be doubled (~ 20, 3, a), Daghesh is not written, e. g. * See the first article on each letter in Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon,

Page  58 58 58 ~ 0 PART L. ELEMENTS. for ~-b or P r;Mt contr. MI.; MM- contr.?L; rVJ contr. t.Comp. wyd ti for 27vqjce51'g. In the last cases the assimilated letter has not Sheva bu) h epn vowel Segrhol (~ 28, 4), which, however, does not render the assimilation impracticable. In the way of assimilation we occasionally find a second weaker sound swallowed up by the stronger one before it; e. g. ltiu~ from Nbr,4t (158)) 1,w for 'a from him (1 101, 2). To this we may also reckon nb for =i) lhe surrounds (~ 66, 5). 3. The rejection or falling away of a consonant easily happens in the case of the feebly uttered vowel-letters X, ri " I, and also of the liquids. It happens, a) at the beginning of a word (aphd~resis), when such a feeble consonant'has no full vowel, and its sound is easily lost upon the ear, as 1l7= and 1-Mb (we); =6sit for nt-i; jz~ (give) for b) in the midst of a word (contraction), when such a feeble consonant is preceded by a Sheva, e. g. the prevailing form for $Mp for ~ 152, 1) c) at the end of words (apocope), e. g. *t for for sons, before the genitive wl. Bolder changes were made in the infancy of the language, particularly in casting away consonants at the end of a word; thus from ",~ was formed 1.~; from Fal =-; from ~'1, th (see ~ 97). Here belongs also the change of the feminine ending r-~ &tl to 'I a, (see ~ 44, 1, and ~ 79). 4. In other cases a harshness in pronunciation is prevented by the addition of X (Aleph prostheticum) with its vowel at the beginning of a word, e. g. ~iI and -V*T ar, furo VV (comp. Xt E m oufo 5. Transposition, in grammar, seldom occurs. An example of it is 'IM-t# for ntr — (~ 53, 2), because st is 'easier to sound than ths. Cases are more frequent in the province of the lexicon, as t-= and ItD lamb; '1$i and lr~i garment; they are chiefly confined, however, to the sibilants and liquids. Consonants also, especially the weaker, may at the end of a syllable be sofene t voels lke i~from g,,q, chevaux from cheval [comp. Eng. old = Dutch oudjj, e. g. nzn star from -M ti=I; Vith man from tU or Mit (where the Seghol is merely a helping vowel, see above No. 2).* *In the Punic, J*z malkh (king) is in this way contracted to mdkh., see Mon. Phemnicia, p. 431.

Page  59 ~20. DOUBLING OF CONSONANTS. 5 59 SECT. 20. DOUBLING OF CONSONANTS. 1. The doubling of a- letter by Daghesh forte takes place, and is essential, i. e. necessary to the form of the word (Daghesh essential), a) when the same letter is to be written twice in succession, without an intermediate vowel; thus for V~rl: we have I-S we hav e given; for~n MO I -i. I have set. b) in cases of assimilation (~19, 2), as 11-. for In both these instances it is called Daghesh compensative. c) when the doubling of a letter originally single is characteristic of a, grammatical form, e. g. he has learned, but h712 he has taught (Daghesh characteristic). The double consonant is actually and necessarily written twice, when-' ever a vowel sound, even the shortest (a vocal Sheva) comes between. Hence this is done a) when a long vowel precedes, nb which is read h.a-15Iim (~ 26, Rem.), lttn~; b) when a Daghesh has already been omitted, as 6b'-M hdi-lelu for 6~ hhI1el1u; c) when by composition the two consonants have come to stand together, but properly belong to two words, as 1;= (he blesse8 thee), '9:*l (they call me), where I and are suffixe's'; d) when the form has com~e from another which has a long vowel, as '~construct of agin Sometimes the same word is found in both the full form and the contracted, e. g. Wlfd Jer. v. 6, and mt5 Prov. xi. 3, Q~ri; 45 Ps. ix. 14, and 'M- Ps. iv. 2. 2. A consonant is sometimes doubled merely for the sake of euiphony. The use of Daghesh in such cases (Daghesh eupihonwc) is only occasional, as being less essential to the formc of words. It is employed, a) when- two words, of which the first ends in a vowel, are more closely united in pronunciation by doubling the initial consonant of the second (Daghesh forte conjunctive), as #a'I what is this? for fl 715M; 1M W qii-miits-tseit (arise! depart!) Gen. xix. 14; M' t*=~1 Deut. xxvii. 7'.* In some instances words thus united are contracted into one, as 11.' for 01V71, 0* for MZ — Mb Md what to you? Is. iii. 15. *Here belong such cases as't ft rIIt Ex. xv. 1, 21; so that tht assertion is not correct, that the first of the two words must be a monosyll"b; or accented on the penultima.

Page  60 60 60 ~~~PART I. ELEMENTS. Analogous 'to the above usage is the Neapolitan le ilagrime Ibr le lagrime, and (including the union of the two words in one) the Latin reddo for re-do, and the Italian alla for a la, della for de la. b) when the final consonant of a closed syllable, preceded by a short vowel, is doubled in order to sharpen the syllable still more, e. g. ".= for "= grapes, Deut. xxxii. 32. Compare Gen. xlix. 10, Ex. ii. 32 Is. lvii. 6, lviii. 3, Job xvii. 2, 1 Sam, Xxviii. 10, Ps. xlv. 10. Examples of this, however,~re comparatively rare, and without any regard to uniformity. Compare the followingforms as found in very ancient Greek inscrip.. twins, viz. U(Qwaanog, TE).acTal;UL, 4o-x)Atpr[1o (Bockh, Corpus Inscr. Gr. I. p. 42), and in German anndere, unnsere (for andere, un~ere) as written in the time of Luther. c) when it is inserted in the final tone-syllable of a sentence (~ 29, 4), in order that it may furnish a more firm support for the toee. g. VI for 1-1 they give, Ez. xxvii. 19,-*M' for ln' they waited, Job xxix. 21, Is. xxxiii. 12. 3. The Hebrews omitted, however, the doubling of a letter by Daghesh forte, in many cases where the analogy of the forms required it; viz. a).always at the end of a word, because there the syllable did not admit of sharpening. Thus the syllable all would, be pronounced, not as in German with a sharpened tone,* but like the English all, call, small. Instead, therefore, of doublingtI the consonant, they often lengthened the preceding vowel (~ 27, 2). E. g. 12 for 12; 12" for 1j"I. The exceptions are very rare, as VN thou, f, thou hast given, Ez. xvi. 33. 6) often at the end of a syllable, in the body of a word (where the doubling of a letter is less audible, as in Greek cLvro Howreric for clitXero); e. g. t~p 4po for Vip _In these cases it may be assumed as a rule, that the Daghesh remains in the letter with Sheva (which is then vocal, ~ 10, 1), and is never left out of the aspirates, because it materially affects their sound, e. g. M itnsBkhappera (not mr~i akhdphrd) Gen. xxxii. 21, ~rn Is. ii. 4, b,zjmrni, "M-I On the contrary, it is usuially omitted in the preformatives '~and * This distinction may be illustrated by the English words small compared with #wan, and boon compared with book.-TR. t The doubling of a final letter is also omitted in Latin, as fel (for fell) gen. feRll i, met gen. mellis; ancient German val (Fall) gen. valles.

Page  61 ~ 21. ASPIRATION AND ITS REMOVAL. 61 in Piel, as.nb', v.'ltn"; n:.r%. for ntz1zr; so also in %t1, and in cases like.tbrn for.bitt, Mn for an. In some cases a vowel or half-vowel was inserted to render the doubling of the letter more audible, e. g. w/ith you for 1t3.; Ii=a for net (~ 66, 4),... Is. Ixii. 2. c) In the gutturals (~ 22, 1). Rem. In the later books we sometimes find Daghesh omitted, and then compensation made by lengthening the preceding vowel (comp. mile for mille), as InnM he terrifies them for lnn. (Hab. ii. 17), threshing-sledges for Sain, 1 Chron. xxi. 23. SECT. 21. ASPIRATION AND THE REMOVAL OF IT BY DAGHESH LENE. The pure hard sound of the six aspirates (r tI ' ) with Daghesh lene inserted, is to be regarded, agreeably to the analogy which languages generally exhibit in this respect, as their original pronunciation, from which gradually arose the softer and weaker aspirated sound (~ 6, 3 and ~ 13).* The original hard pronunciation maintained itself in greatest purity, when it was the initial sound, and after a consonant; but when it followed a vowel-sound, or stood between two vowels, it was softened by partaking of the aspiration with which a vowel is uttered. Hence the aspirates take Daghesh lene: 1. At the beginning of words, when the preceding word ends with a vowelless consonant, as a?- dl-ken (therefore), 'I' VT ets pri (fruit tree); or at the beginning of a chapter or verse, or even of a minor division of a verse (consequently after a distinctive accent, ~ 15, 3), e. g. hrsW. in the beginning, Gen. i. I 'b I W.e it happened, when, Judges xi. 5; on the contrary ]7?"1? it was so, Gen. i. 7. Also a diphthong (~ 8, 5) so called, is here treated as ending in a consonant, e. g. sti Judges v. 15. 2. In the middle and at the end of words after silent Shva, i. e. at the beginning of a syllable, and in immediate connexion with a preceding vowelless consonant, e. g. ib?2 ye have killed, q~? he is heavy, g.d he drinks. On the contrary, after * Thus in Greek p and X were not at first included in the alphabet, and only the modern Greeks aspirate the letters A, y,.

Page  62 62 PART I. ELEMENTS. vocal Shhva they take the soft pronunciation, e. g. dwelling,,t, ~ she is heavy. Exceptions to No. 2 are: a) Forms which are made, by the addition or omission of letters, imome diately from other forms in which the aspirates had their soft sound. E. g. thet (not theta) from ptp; imb (not AlXE) formed immediately from:s::a (on the contrary '".b_ mal-kl, because it is formed directly from;" milk); tram (not 't~?) from ns. In these cases, that pronunciation of the word, to which the ear had become accustomed, was retained.* b) The form.btM, where we might expect the feeble pronunciation of n on account of the preceding vowel. But the original form was nr._%, and the relation of tr, notwithstanding the slight vowel-sound thrown in before it, was regarded as unchanged. Comp. ~ 28, 4. c) The: in the suffixes 1,,: —, 1:-, has always its feeble sound, because vocal Sheva is before it. d) Also the tone appears at times to affect the division of a word into syllables, and consequently the sound of the aspirates, thus rbo. Num. xxxii. 14, but Tr-ib. Ps. xl. 15; lnli (qbrbdn), but jl7, (in pause) Ez. xl. 43. e) Finally, certain classes of forms are to be noticed, e. g. rs.:b (malkhfath), r1T*.. That the hard or soft pronunciation of these letters did not affect the signification of words, affords no reason to doubt that such a distinction was made. Compare in Greek Eq,/, Telg. SECT. 22. PECULIARITIES OF THE GUTTURALS. The four gutturals X,,I, n, a, have certain properties in common, which result from their peculiar pronunciation; yet b and y, having a softer sound than n and n, differ from them in several respects. 1. The gutturals cannot be doubled in pronunciation, and therefore exclude Daghesh forte. To our organs also there is difficulty in doubling an aspiration. But the syllable preceding the letter which omits Daghesh appears longert in consequence of the omission; hence its vowel is commonly lengthened, especially before the feebler letters R and a, e. g. 1"'n the eye for?!1?.; t'? for 1. &, &c. The harder gutturals,l and 1 allowed a sharpening of the syllable, though orthography excluded * A particularly instructive case occurs in ~ 45, 3. t Comp. terra and the French terre; the Germ. Rolle and the French r6le.

Page  63 ~ 22. PECULIARITIES OF THE GUTTURALS. 63 Dagh. f. (as in German the ch in sicher, machen, has the sharp pronunciation without being written double), and hence these letters almost universally retain before them the short vowel, e. g. T.nif the month, bt.,t~ that. As these last forms are treated as though the guttural were doubled, the grammarians not inappropriately speak of them as having a Daghesh forte implicitum, occultum, or delitescens; e. g. Det. for tw.t brothers; wnf snares;.nn_ thorns. See more in ~ 27, Rem. 2. 2. They are accustomed to take a short A sound before them, because this vowel stands organically in close affinity to the gutturals. Hence, a) Before a guttural, Pattach is used instead of any other short vowel, as f, e (Chireq parvum, Seghol), and even for' the rhythmically long e and 6 (Tsere and Cholem); e. g. V.T seed for nTo, ot_ report for Vat. This preference was yet more decisive when the form with Pattach was the original one, or was used in common with another. Thus in the Imp. and Put. Kal of verbs; Mb. send, Mt.t (not n'btt); Pret. Piel. rit (not nit); 897 a youth, where Pattach in the first syllable is the original vowel; bIn. for 'bfT. b) But a strong and unchangeable vowel, as i, "-,.,(25, 1), and in many cases Tsere, was retained. Between it and the guttural, however, there was involuntarily uttered a hasty a (Pattach furtive), which was written under the guttural. This is found only in final syllables and never under K. E. g. _lM riach, Mbt shdC-lKach, "'I reach,.j rde,;1i=a gi. bhoah, tnt. hzsh-liach, &c. For the same reason the Swiss pronounces ich as iach, and the Arabian rt)n* mesiih, though neither writes the supplied vowel. [Analogous to to this is our use of a furtive e before r after long, I, X, and the diphthong ou; e. g. here (sounded her), fire (fir), pure (pafr), and our (ou'r).] The Pattach furtive falls away when the word receives an accession at the end, e. g. nr'I, n. 'i, where the n is made the beginning of the new syllable. The LXX write e instead of Pattach furtive, as n NzV&j. Rem. 1. The guttural sometimes exerts an influence on thefollowing vowel. But the examples of this usage are few, and are rather to be regarded as exceptions than as establishing a general rule, e. g. s. for '_i; bfi for bDb. The A sound is preferred wherever it would be admissible without the influence of the guttural, as in the Imp. and Fut. of verbs,

Page  64 64 64 ~~~PART I. ELEMENTS. e. g. Pil p~l,. If, however, another vowel serves at all to characterize the form, it is retained, as ~ r ~ not ~M11 2. Seghol is used instead of P~attach both before and under the guttural, but only in an initial syllable, as t~ri "b=rI- Without the guttural these forms would have Chireq in place of' Seghol. When the syllable is sharpened by Daghesh, the more slender and sharp Chireq is retained even under gutturals, as MIM r iumr; but when the character of the syllable is changed by the falling away of Da. ghesh, the Seghol, which is required by the guttural, returns, e. g. "i"Wi const. state;.Wi?1 3. Instead of simple ASheva vocal, the gutturals take a composite ASheva (~ 10, 2), e. g. *.I_:; 1PV 1 This is the most common use of the composite Shevas. 4. When a guttural stands at the end -of a (closed) syllable, in the midst of a word, and has under it the syllable-divider (silent sSheva, ~ 10, 3), then the division of syllables often takes place as usual, especially when that syllable has the tone, e (thou hast sent). But when the syllable stands before the tone, there is usually a softening of the sound by giving to the guttural a slight vowel (one of the composite iS~hvas), which has the same sound as the full vowel preceding as ZtI (also ntr) 'T~tM" also 1:*1) P17 (also P~r7); this composite Sh eva is changed into the short vowel with which it is compounded, whenever the following consonant loses its full vowel in consequence of an increase at the end of the word, e. g, I'Mr y6-6Obhedhf1 (from In), " yahizph~khi (from ~ Rem. 1. Simple She1va under the gutturals, the Grammarians call hard (tt1:i), and the composite SILevas in the same situation soft (mvn). See observations on verbs with gutturals (~~ 61-64). 2. Respecting the choice between the three composite Shevas it may be remarked, that a) IM, IT, Y, at the beginning of words prefer (-:), but bt (:) e. g. ~Ib I nm lnimbt. But when a word receives an accession at the end, or loses the tone, b also takes (-:), as 11~ to, VVI~ to you; ~b to eat but -~b Gen. iii. 11. Comp. ~ 27, Rem. 5. b) In the middle of' a word, the choice of a composite Sheva is regulated by the vowel (and its class) which another word of the same form, but without a guttural, would take before the SheOva; as Pret. Hiph. 'i"=11 (according to the form lI),Inf. iv'bi (conformed to "12), Pret. Hoph. imvmI (conformed to ri. For some further vowel chainges in connexion with guttural;~ see 27, Rem. 2. 5. The 'I, which the Hebrew uttered also as a guttural ( 6,

Page  65 ~ 23. FEEBLENESS OF I AND t. 6a 2, 1), shares with the other gutturals only the characteristics mentioned above in No. 1, and a part of those given in No. 2' viz. a) The exclusion of Daghesh forte; in which case the vowel before it is always lengthened, as SI for::,. for:1:. b) The use of Pattach* before it in preference to the other short vowels, though this is not so general as in the case of the other guttural sounds, e. g. fjl and he saw from,'WV; 8'19 for 'tf and he turned back, and for t'1 and he caused to turn back. Unfrequent exceptions to the principle given under letter a are rnv mOr-re, Prov. xiv. 10;:p shor-rekh, Ezek. xvi. 4, where ' is notwithstanding doubled (also in Arabic it admits of doubling, and the LXX write,in Z;Q "a). There are some other cases in which no lengthening of the vowel has taken place, as J7?7 (for rt]i) 2 Sam. xviii. 16. SECT. 23. OF THE FEEBLENESS OF THE BREATHINGS M AND M. 1. The M, a light and scarcely audible breathing in the throat, regularly loses its feeble power as a consonant (it quiesces), whenever it stands without a vowel at the end of a syllable. It then serves merely to prolong the preceding vowel (like the German h in sah), as M= he has found, ita he has filled, FW she, bt to find, btl. he; rlbtl,,tIfM t. This takes place after all vowels; but in this situation short vowels with few exceptions become long, as bSt for M=, 21W for rk?. 2. On the contrary M generally retains its power as a consonant and guttural in all cases where it begins a word or syllable, as.tC he has said, I:MM they have rejected, 5ib for to eat. Yet even in this position it sometimes loses its consonant sound, when it follows a short vowel or a half-vowel (vocal Shhva) in the middle of a word: for then the vowel under M is either shifted back so as to be united with the vowel before it into a long sound, as 'bX6 for 'bb6, Sai for lt, also dsl with d changed to 6) for:.; or it wholly displaces it, as in CI'- for MhCs. Neh. vi. 8, (ch6tim) for D'.tth (sinning) 1 Sam. xiv.. 33, V.hVI (two hundreds) for Vt? t, V1tt1 (heads) for D.ts, * The preference of r for the vowel a is seen also in Greek, e. g. in thr' feminine of adjectives ending in Qo;, as iQd&a for ~xqe from.X4o;. —T. 5

Page  66 66 PART I. ELEMENTS. Sometimes there is a still greater change in the word, as fi..ld1 for SSt,,'qb~t (business) for n*tb. Sometimes also the vowel before t remains short when it is a, e. g..qNl, 'sh. for %;Sbt, tN for hrf. 3. Instead of the M thus quiescing in Cholem, Tsere, and Chireq, we often find written, according to the nature of the sound, one of the vowel letters q and ', e. g. 'i. for '-9S (cistern), VV (buffalo) for =:, it41. (the first) for J'tiN Job viii. 8, comp. i for tb (not) 1 Sam. ii. 16 K'thibh; at the end of a word n also is written for a, as,rhn (he fills) for?7t Job viii. 21. 4. Finally, such an b sometimes falls altogether away, e. g. m.a (Iwentforth) for 4T1, tri.. (Iamfull), Job xxxii. 18, for rbt., b'it (I say) constantly for 'AR_, rtr5nb (to lay waste) 2 Kings xix. 25, for rt*l#N' Is. xxxvii. 26. Rem. 1. In Aramwean the K becomes a vowel much more readily than in Hebrew; but in Arabic, on the contrary, its power as a consonant is much firmer. According to Arabic orthography X serves also to indicate the lengthened A; but in Hebrew the examples are very rare, in which it is strictly a vowel-letter for the long A-sound, as nWp Hos. x. 14, for the usual op (he stood up). Hebrew orthography generally omits, in this case, the prolonging letter (~ 8, 3). 2. In Syriac X even at the beginning of words cannot be spoken with a half-vowel (vocal Shiva), but always receives a full vowel, usually E, as 5bs in Syr. ekhal. Accordingly in Hebrew also, instead of a composite Sheva it receives, in many words, the corresponding long vowel, as 'ITit girdle for 'ITx,:.s<N tents for Vt3ez, rni'N stalls for riv's. 3. We may call it an Arabism, or a mode of'writing common in Arabic, when at the end of.a word an K (without any sound) is added to a. (not being part of the root), as ts:bn for.:L1 (they go), Josh. x. 24, oi.2f (they are willing), Is. xxviii. 12. Similar are bta~ for p.r pure, Ws. for. if, sits for int. The case is different in.rn and WtI, see ~ 32, Rem. 6. 5. The; is stronger and firmer than a, and scarcely ever loses its aspiration (or quiesces) in the middle of a word;* also at the end it may remain a consonant, and then it takes Mappiq (~ 14, 1). Yet at times the consonant sound of the. at the end of a word is given up, and n (without Mappiq, or with Raphe * A very few examples are found in proper names, as btrinS, t1Sltn1 whieh are compounded of two words, and in many MSS. are also written in two separate words. One other case, thI-:sp Jer. xlvi. 20, is also in the printed text divided by Maqqeph, in order to bring the quiescent n at the end of a word

Page  67 6 24. CHANGES OF I AND ". 67 S) then remains only as representative of the final vowel, e. g. of (to her), Num. xxxii. 42, for:t; Job xxxi. 22; Ex. ix. 18. At the beginning of a syllable the n often disappears and is omitted in writing, as ap'. (in the morning) for.ll-,i,.s. (in the land) for rf0., rtllnr contracted jt'i. In these cases of contraction, the half-vowel (-,) before 1 is displaced by the full vowel under it. In other cases, however, the vowel under n is displaced by the one before it, as 0D (in them), from =11; or both are blended into a diphthong, as W'.1 (also,bllO) from V1.LD, 1'itp from Titp. Rem. According to this, the so called quiescent n at the end of a word stands, sometimes, in the place of the consonant,.. But usually it serves quite another purpose, namely, to represent final a, as also 0, e, and 4 (Seghol), e. g. nti,,tba, rfib, n1b.,. In connexion with o and G it is occasionally changd for ' and ' (fOK=St, ^ = hf Hos. vi. 9), and in all cases for K according to later Aramtean orthography, particularly in connexion with a, e. g. ytq (sleep), Ps. cxxvii. 2, for 3r t, ktla (toforget), Jer. xxiii. 39, for ni:, &c. SECT. 24. CHANGES OF THE FEEBLE LETTERS ' AND i. The 1 [the sound of which is probably between our w and v] and the * [our y] are as consonants so feeble and soft, approaching so near to the corresponding vowel-sounds u and i, that they easily flow into these vowels in certain conditions. On this depend, according to the relations of sounds and the character of the grammatical forms, still further changes which require a general notice in this place, but which will also be explained in detail wherever they occur in the inflexions of words. This is especially important for the form and inflexion of the feeble stems, in which a radical 1 or ' occurs (~ 68, &c., ~ 84, III.-VI.). 1. The cases where ' and 4 lose their power as consonants and flow into vowel-sounds, are principally only in the middle and end of words, their consonant-sound being nearly always heard at the beginning. These cases are chiefly the following: a) When q or l stands at the end of a syllable, immediately after a vowel. The feeble letter has' not strength enough, in this position, to maintain its consonant-sound. Thus =1 for otr or 1a:n; rs for Vi7; nMnII for V7'1;

Page  68 go UO 68 T~~~ART L. ELEMENTS. so also at the end of the word, e. g. *Nt y~sraeli (pro. perly, -1iy, hence fern. -liyya), 1hir (made, Job xli. 25, for 1)i. (comp. rviiir 1 Sam. xxv 18, Kethibh). After homogeneous vowels, particularly pure u and i, hI and " constantly quiesce *in these cases. But after a heterogeneous vowel they sound as consonants (according to ~ 8, 5), as *i~ quiet, Vi.May month, 4i nation, ben disclosed. But with short a, I and " mostly form a diphthongal 6 and 0, see below No. 2, b. b) Somewhat less frequently when a vocal,Sheva precedes, and such syllables are formed as qevom, bevo. Hence Mt for Ni,ZI for Inp But "' and hi always quiesce when they stand at the end of a word and are preceded by a Sh eva; as '11 for "Mb, (from "'It fruit for "'t c) Very seldom when the feeble letter has a full vowel both before and after it; as t~i for t~p I V for Conip. rparvum, contr. parum], mihi contr. ml', quum contr. cum. In Syriac, where these letters flow still more readily into vowel-sounds, is sounded, even at the beginning of words, merely as i, not as or '9 (like e for X); and so in the LXX li'iTt'v is written lIov~&, rrnMV, la a 0ic. Hence may be explained the Syriac usage, examples of which occur also in Hebrew, which transfers the vowel i, belonging to the feeble letter, to the preceding consonant, which should properly have simple Sheva.g 1i~~r?' for 1iirg'V Eccles. ii. 13, 6M:~ (in some editions) for.*II"9~ Job xxix. 21..2. When such a contraction has taken place, the vowel-letter quiesces regularly in a long vowel. Respecting the choice of this vowel, the following rules may be laid down: a) When the vowel, which an analogous form without the feeble letter would take, is homogeneous with the vowel-letter, it is retained and lengthened, as =Y for =b" (analogous form 211# (habitarefactus est) for ~ 6) When a short a stands before b, and hi,there arise diphthongal e and 6 (according to ~ 7,1); thus 2"'41 becomes 10'M; c)But when the vowel-sign is h eterogeneous, and at the same *Instances in which no contraction takes place after a short a are:),av I Chron. xii. 2; vil)1b Hos. vii. 12; "M~ Job iii. 26. At times both forms are found, as M~ and M~. evil; '9M(living), construct state 4M Analogous is the contraction of r117 death, constr. rMi, eye, constr.

Page  69 ~ 25. UNCHANGEABLE VOWELS. 69 time is an essential characteristic of the form, it controls the feeble letter, and changes it into one which is homogeneous with itself. Thus t'" becomes tm1"; t3r] becomes 0p q4m; i and it become,r5 and t it.* An original '- at the end of words becomes a) t- (for -. is never written at the end of a word), when the impure sound d must be used; e. g. r..i for? (~ 74, 1); nl' fom form for "^_X; ^ib field (poet.), common form,h'i.t b) h-, when the A-sound predominates, and is characteristic of the form; as bra, nih, nt for a., a, a. SECT. 25. UNCHANGEABLE VOWELS. What vowels in Hebrew are firm and unchangeable, can be known, with certainty and completeness, only from the nature of the grammatical forms and from a comparison with the Arabic, in which the vowel system appears purer and more original than in Hebrew. This holds, especially, of the essentially long vowels in distinction from those which are long only rhythmically, i. e. through the influence of the tone and of syllabication, and which having arisen out of short vowels readily become short again by a change in the position of the tone and in the division of the syllables. The beginner may be guided by the following specifications: 1. The essentially long and therefore unchangeable vowels of the second and third class, namely, i, t, e, 6, are regularly expressed among the consonants [or in the line] by their vowelletters, i and 6 by a, i and 6 by 1, with their appropriate vowelsigns, thus ',, - -, 1, as in bra anointed, bs9 palace, bT dwelling, bp voice. The defective mode of writing these vowels (~ 8, 4) may in general be regarded as an exception, e. g. nit for T't2, rnip voices for ribap, b5T for b.~T; so also may the contrary case, when now and then a merely rhythmical long vowel of these two classes is written fully, e. g. aYi for fAd?. 2. The unchangeable 4 has in Hebrew, as a rule, no repre. * The Arab writes in this case, etymologically, "'h., but speaks gala. So the LXX write ^0., Zva. But for lb~ is written in Arabic 1K6. t When any addition is made, at the end, to these forms in -7, the original 'L. is frequently restored. See ~ 91, 9, Rem.

Page  70 70 PART I. ELEMENTS. sentative among the consonants, though in Arabic it has, namely the bt, which occurs here but very seldom (~ 9, 1, ~ 23, 4, Rem. 1). For ascertaining this case, therefore, there is no guide but a knowledge of the forms, see ~ 83, Nos. 6, 13, 28. The numerous cases, where the t is connected with a foregoing vowel only by accident, do not belong here, e. g. bts he found, 5tol she found, bri tofind, my finding. 3, Unchangeable is also a short vowel in a sharpened syllable, followed by Daghesh forte, e. g,: 33 thief, likewise in every closed syllable, when another of the same kind follows, e. g. tJbt garment, ]i"= poor, 1I'M wilderness. 4. So are also the vowqls after which a Daghesh forte has been omitted on account of a guttural, according to ~ 22, 1 (forma dagessanda), e. g. 5brn for "-71n mountains of God; T'S for 7.3 he has been blessed. SECT. 26. OF SYLLABLES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE QUANTITY OF VOWELS. In order to survey the laws according to which the long and short vowels are chosen or exchanged one for another, it is necessary to learn the theory of the syllable, on which that choice and exchange depend. The syllable may then be viewed with reference, partly to its commencement (its initial sound) as in No. 1; and, partly, to its close (its final sound) as in Nos. 2-7. The latter view is of chief importance. 1. With regard to the commencement of the syllable it is to be observed, that every syllable must begin with a consonant; and there are no syllables in the language which begin with a vowel. The single exception is 1 (and), in certain cases for I, e. g. in 1b.* The word tm_ is no exception, because the b has here the force of a light breathing. 2. With regard to the close of the syllable, it may end a) With a vowel, and is then called an open or simple syllable, e. g. in n.btt the first and last are open. See No. 3. * It may be questioned whether.1 in the above position be a real exception; ought probably to be pronounced tuimalekh (not uimalkh), the 1 re. taining its feeble consonant sound before the Shureq.-Ta.

Page  71 ~ 26. SYLLABLES. 71 b) With a half-vowel or vocal Sheva, as p' in (.tq p'rl (fruit), ch' in Cn. chatsi (half), t" in.t2i qa-t-liU. Such we call half-syllables, see No. 4. c) With one consonant: a closed or mixed syllable, as the second in, p:b. See No. 5. Here belongs also the sharpened syllable, as the first in bAp qdt-tel, see No. 6. d) With two consonants, as rit5p. We shall now (in Nos. 3-7) treat in particular of the vowels that are used in these various kinds of syllables. 3. The open or simple syllables have, as a rule, a long vowel,* whether they have the tone, as, in thee, 'to book, tDp? sanctuary, or not, as bu, 3b5 heart,.*us they will fear. Usually there is a long vowel (Qamets, less frequently Tsere) in an open syllable before the tone (pretonic vowel, e. g. Wb, MP. 2,:5.t Short vowels in open syllables occur only in the following cases:a) In dissyllabic words formed by means of a helping-vowel (~ 28, 4) from monosyllables (Segholates), as 7ji, nd youth, ra. house, an, from.7~, ~_ n, h, rn. The reason is that the final helping-vowel is very short, and the word sounds almost as one syllable. Yet the first vowel is also lengthened, as in and another form for =:. (~ 74, Rem. 3, b); b) In certain forms of the suffixes, as '^?, 9 i. (from m1>i); c) Before the so-called He local, which has not the tone (~ 88, 2), e. g. MMb'I3 towards Carmel, T3u towards the wilderness. In all these cases the short vowel is supported by the chief tone of the word. Elsewhere it has at least the support of Methegh, namely * This is certainly a fundamental law in Hebrew, as its pronunciation is now indicated by the vowel-signs, but not a matter of absolute necessity, for other languages very often have short vowels in open syllables, as y,'vsto, Arab. q6 -tdld. At an earlier period the Hebrew, like the Arabic, most probably had short vowels in those open syllables in which the vowel was not essentially long; and the present pronunciation is derived in part from the solemn, slow, and chanting way of reading the Old Testament in the synagogues. t The Arab has for this pretonic vowel constantly a short vowel: the Chaldeean only a vocal Shera, "int to them,, 5tpj, aI, which is the case also in Hebrew, when the tone is shifted forward (~ 27, 3, a). But this pretonic vowel must not be regarded as if it had been adopted, perhaps in place of Sheva, on account of the tone on the following syllable; but it originally belongs to this place, and the circumstance of its standing before the tone-syllable only causes it to remain, whilst it is reduced to a vocal Sheva upon the shifting forward of the tone.

Page  72 72 PART I. ELEMENTS. d) In these connexions -, —, r —, as WU his taste, lb~d he wiz bind, S:t his deed; and e) In some other forms of the Segholates, as J36 po-olekha (thy deed), O.fg shu-rashZm (roots), comp. page 47. The first syllable in o:: n., Ihn, and similar forms, does not come under this, but under No. 6. below. 4. There is also a slighter sort of open syllables, consisting of one consonant and a half-vowel (or vocal Sheva, ~ 10, 1, 2). They are so short and so unfit to stand by themselves, that they constantly lean on the stronger syllable that follows, e. g. anb (cheek) I'chi,.I'T yil-m'dhu, *n (sickness) ch~li, ibof po-ald. The modern grammarians do not regard these as actual syllables, but always reckon them as part of that which immediately follows [thus they regard and as forming but one syllable lechi, and not two le-chi]. The half vowel is certainly not fit to serve as the final sound of a full syllable; and according to the pronunciation handed down to us, this syllable with Sheva is obviously of a different sort from the open syllable with full vowel (No. 3). But yet that half-vowel is in general but a shortening of an original long vowel, which is commonly still to be found in Arabic; and even the Jewish grammarians, from whom the vowels and accents came, have assigned to the union of a consonant with a halfvowel the value of a syllable, as appears from the use of Methegh (see ~ 16, 2, b). Such syllables may be called half-syllables. 5. The closed syllables, ending with one consonant, have necessarily, when without the tone, short vowels, both at the beginning and at the end of words,* as n1.. t queen, t.W understanding,,#u?7 wisdom; 010_ and he turned back,:J? and he set up, D'-I and he stood up. When waith the tone, they may have a long vowel as well as short, e. g. MDr he was wise, =n wise; yet of the short vowels only Pattach and Seghol have strength enough to stand in such a syllable having the tone.t Examples of long vowels, in the final syllable, are 'l,. p, b?; in the last but one, n0*..p, I Sjl. Examples of short vowels, bt:,:2,:T; in the penultima, r.b:P, 9t3pptj. *There are some exceptions, when a word loses the tone through Maqqeph, as rnt. —.r3 (kethabh), Esth. iv. 8. t See ~ 9, 2. Short Chireq (i) occurs only in the particles t. and.T which, however, are mostly toneless because followed by Maqqeph.

Page  73 ~ 27. CHANGES OF VOWELS. 73 6. A peculiar sort of closed syllables are the sharpened, i. e. those which end with the same consonant with which the following syllable begins, as '.. f*m-mi, i kiil-li. Like the other closed syllables, these have, when without the tone, short vowels, as in the examples just given; when with the tone, either short, as.m,.33.:, or long, as rn,,Tn. Sharpened syllables are wholly avoided at the end of words, see ~ 20, 3, letter a. 7. Closed syllables, ending with two consonants, occur only at the end of words, and have most naturally short vowels, as rib?_, tt_, yet sometimes also Tsere, as '7,?1. But compare ~ 10, 3. Most commonly this harshness is avoided by the use of a helping vowel (~ 28, 4). Rem. In the division into syllables, accordingly, a simple Shna after a short vowel belongs to the foregoing syllable and is quiescent, as nTQa mir-mia; but after a long vowel, to the following, and is vocal (~ 10, 1), as ritlp qote-la, bigbin h6-lelim. The composite Shva belongs always to the following syllable, as ji5b po-al6, even after a short vowel, as ivSu ti-4mO, i5hn 6-h~l6. SECT. 27. CHANGES OF VOWELS, ESPECIALLY IN RESPECT TO THEIR QUANTITY. As to the changes which the vowels undergo by the inflexion of words, we may lay down these fundamental principles, a) That they generally occur only in the last syllable and the last but one, very seldom in. the antepenultima, e. g. 't, ni.; Itn3T linz.y; Jiwnw COT. b) That they are usually made within the limits of one and the same vowel-class [~ 8]. Thus a may be shortened into 4 and a, e into I and e, 6 into d and ui; and with the same limitation the short vowels may become long. But such a change as turning a into u can never take place. The most material exception consists in the approximation of the first vowel-class to the second by attenuating Patlach into Chireq and Seghol, see below Rem. 2 and 3. So also in the origin of obtuse Seghol out of vowels belonging to all three classes, see Rem. 4. The vowels with the changes of which we are here chiefly concerned, are the whole of the short ones and as many of the' long as owe their length simply to the tone and rhythm, namely,

Page  74 74 PART I. ELEMENTS. Long vowels (by the influence of the tone). Corresponding short vowels -- ~ -a - - /, g - e _ d -, (Qamets chatuph) To these add the half-vowels or Shevas -, -, -,, as the utmost shortenings. Let the student compare here again what was said in ~ 9 on the character and value of the several vowels, and in ~ 25 on the unchangeable vowels. According to the principles laid down in ~ 26 the following changes occur:1. A tone-long vowel is changed into a kindred short one, when a closed syllable loses the tone (~ 26, 5). Thus when the tone is moved forwards, ' hand becomes ", as ST"r handof-Jehovah; 11 son, D$'sil son-of man; '. whole, Ota ' the whole-of-the-people; also when the tone is moved backwards, e. g. 1p?, 0]_; 5?,:7.~_. Farther, when an open syllable with a long vowel becomes by inflexion a closed one, e. g. 8'6 boo, mbooook; tp sanctuary, ~.' my sanctuary. In these cases Tsere (e) passes over into ASeghol (e) or Chireq (f), Cholem (o) into Qamets-chatuph (o). But when a closed syllable with a long vowel becomes a sharpened one, i. e. ending with a doubled consonant, Tsere is attenuated into Chireq, and Cholem into Qibbuts, as R mother, A.. my mother; ph statute, fem. n1n. The short vowels i and u are more pure, and.hence pass for shorter than e and 6. 2. On the contrary, a short vowel is changed into a corresponding long one:a) When a closed syllable, in which it stands, becomes an open one, i. e. when the word receives an accession, beginning with a vowel, to which the final consonant of the closed syllable is attached, as lp, i[p he has killed him; In, Plur..~1, give ye. b) When a syllable, which should be sharpened by Daghesh

Page  75 ~ 27. CHANGES OF VOWELS. 75 forte, has a guttural for its final consonant (see ~ 22, 1), or stands at the end of a word (see ~ 20, 3, a). c) When it meets with a feeble letter (~ 23, 1, 2; ~ 24, 2); as tl for tt he has found. d) When the syllable is in pause, i. e. is the tone-syllable of the last word in the clause (~ 29, 4). 3. When a word increases at the end, and the tone is at the same time shifted forward, all vowels (long and short) may, according to the division of syllables, either pass over into a halfvowel (vocal Sheva), or even wholly fall away, and make room for the mere syllable-divider (silent Shiva), e. g. Dt (name), pl. att (my name) and D:ntt (their names). Whether the vowel remains, or is changed into a half-vowel, or quite falls away (C,.it. t, Ad), and which of the two vowels in a monosyllable disappears, must be determined by the nature of the word; but in general it may be said, that in the inflexion of nouns the first vowel is usually shortened, as 'i" (dear), fenm.,n!? y'eqrd; in the inflexion of verbs, the second, as '. (he is dear), fern. 'nP yaqrad. Thus we have a half-vowel in place of a) Qarnets and Tsere in the first syllable (principally in the inflexion of nouns), as 1' word,; bqi great, fern. print; '1 heart, Ail marteart;. 'm.> she will return,,:~. * they (fer.) will return. b) The short or merely tone-long vowels, a, e, o, in the last syllable, especially in the infiexion of verbs, E. g. b?., fen.,titR qat'la; t.ip, plur.:D~.p q6t'lim; bbi,.tP yfqt"l1 The Seghol as a helping-vowel falls quite away (becomes silent Sheva), e. g.:ti (for '3), If there be no shifting of the tone, the vowel will remain notwithstanding the lengthening of the word, as,.1a.; bun, 6n'b. Where the tone is advanced two places, both the vowels of a dissyllabic word may be shortened so that the first becomes f and the second quite falls away. From ',1 we have in the plur.:a.i, and with a grave suffi^Ii. e. one that always has the tone] this becomes W;-.1 their words (comp. ~ 28, 1). On the shortening of a into I see especially in Rem. 3 below. * The vowel, which here disappears on the shifting of the tone forward, is the so-called pretonic vowel in an open syllable, concerning which see in ~ 9, 1, 2 and ~ 26, 3.

Page  76 76 76 ~~~~PART I. ELEMENTS. Some other vowel-changes, mostly with respect to quantity, are exhibited in the following remarks: Rem. 1. The diphthongal i 6 (from au), as also the 6 sprung from the firm 4 (~ 9, 10, 2), is longer than.1 fz; and hence, when the tone is moved forward, the former is often shortened into the latter. E. g. t~p~ Mml'z!~ (se e Pa rad igm, M. Niph.); toi flight) fem. MOIT w ith miff. 4 q p*irs sweet, fern. Mpn The.1stands sometimes even in a sharpened syllable, MV~I- Ps. cii. 5, Mr~ Ez. xx. 18. The same relation exists between 19 — and - On the contrary iz - is shortened into 6, which appears in the tonesyllable as a tone-long o (Cholem), but on the removal of the tone becomes again 6.(Qamets-chatuph), as VIP (he will rise), t:' (jussive: let him rise), t~'9 (and he rose up), see Parad. M. Kal. So also i- becomes a tone-long Tsere (e), and in the absence of the tone, ~Seghol (j), as "' (he will -get up), t~p (let him set up) Mr'9 (and he set up), see Parad. M. Hip h il. 2. From a Pattach (d) in a closed syllable there arises a Seghol (j), through a farther shortening or rather weakening of the sound. This happens, a) Sometimes when the tone hastens on to the following syllable, as:19 your hand for 1=4 1119b (prop. n.) for 'Iint~; especially wheii a Daghesh f is omitted in a letter which would regularly close a sharpened syllable, as JT: Ex. xxxiii. 3 for 1,-,I I destroy thee, ~brM Ezekiel for ~Xlj. (whom God strengthens). b) Necessarily and always when Daghesh forte is omitted in a guttural that has a Qamets under it. Thus always M - for M = (Mr -), e. g. I'iM his brothers for Til- from lnW9m; JpTMrM the vision; WMT~r false for tt.Z and so always with M1. With M and Y1 the Seghol is used only where a greater shortening is required on account of the distance of the tone, hec T for V9~IMM the mountains, but 'JI the mountain; ITV the misdeed, but noim the people. Before M 'and 11, where a short sharpened vowel cannot so easily stand (~ 22, 1), Qamets is almost constantly used, as nilt9 the fathrs, the~firmament; yet '9ztlrl num ego? c) In syllables properly ending with two consonants, e. g. =6 (also in Arabic pronounced killb) for which we get first %Z., and then with a helping Seghol (~ 28, 4) =~5 ~1 (jussive in Hiphil from 1M), then ~14 and finally VI 3. In a closed (and sharpened) syllable, which loses the tone, 4 is at limes attenuated into i, e. g. =V- your blood for =V1 JIM his measure for i'Ta; V.1~ I have begotten, nic I have begotten thee-t Comp. above t:141W4 * So the LXX also speak ME).1Lgih'x for p-b-n*. tAnalogous to this attenuating of 4, intov I is' the Latin tango, attingo,, laxsts, prolixus; and to that of 4 into 6 (in Rem. 2) the Latin carpo, decerpo; spargo, conspergo.

Page  77 ~28. RISE OF NEW VOWELS AND SYLLABLES. 7 77 4. The Seghol arises, besides the cases given above in Rem. 2, also a) From the weakening of it (Qamets) at the end of a word (comnp. Roma, French Rome; Arab. M04ri read khalift), as Mm and r72 what? (~ 37, 1) see similar examples in Pa. xx. 4; Is. lix. 5; Zech. ix. 5. b) Even from the weakening of u, as WI (you) from the original attum (Arab. antum), see ~ 32, Rem. 5; tM (to them) from the original Lahum. Comp. page 40. 5. Among the half-vowels, (-)is shorter and lighter than ()and the group ( —4ta ( —), e. g. tn~ Edom, 'I4bt Edomite; rMM truth in o his truth; t:~ hidden, plur. 7V'; - 3 SECT. 28. RISE OF NEW VOWELS AND SYLLABLES. 1. When a word begins with a half-syllable (~ 26, 4), i. e. with a consonant which has a half-vowel (vocal Sheva), and there comes another half-syllable before it, then this latter receives instead of the Sheva an ordinary short vowel, which is regularly f (Chireq), but with gutturals a (Pattach). E. g. b (to fall) nephol, with the preposition I not *= benephol, bu't ~b1binephA; so also ~b~ kninphtol for 5b-D -11 for 4-16 M1101 (whence '#1's" according to ~ 24, 1) for 11111'1 (ntum parum est?) hameat forUTZUM hameat. At times another division of syllables take's place, so that the second consonant gives up its half-vowel and forms a closed syllable with the first, as ~b lUn-pol Num. xiv. 3, n!,T' Jer. xvii. 2. Asimilar process occurs in the body of a word, as ~'1Zt'l rish'phe" and 4t~ rishpe, ll5 from ~t:140; yet here the initial vowel comes immediately from a full vowel, and is more like i in WI1in- (~ 27, 3). In Syriac, the usual vowel here is 4 (i), even in the absence of gutturals; in Chaldele it is the same as in Hebrew; the Arabic has always a firm short vowel for the vocal Sheva. 2. When the second of the two consonants is a guttural with composite,S~hva, then the first takes, instead of simple Sheva, the short vowel with which the other is compounded, so that we get the groups -~ - ~ e. g. how, 7 to serve, $5t to eat, *M in sickness, for 'IbD $b t The new vowel in such cases has Methegh according to 116, 2, a. 3. When the first Sh'va is composite and stands after an open syllable with a short vowel, then it is changed into the

Page  78 78 PART I. ELEMENTS. sh9rt vowel with which it is compounded, e. g. TI.t. yaddmdhti for '7T4 they will stand,. fM nehgph'kku for.,r.^ they have turned themselves, pob l pl"ekha (thy work). 4. At the end of words, syllables occur which close with two consonants (~ 10, 3, ~ 26, 7); yet this takes place only when the last of these is a consonant of strong sound, t, p, or an aspirate with its hard sound (tenuis), namely,.,.', -, n,* e. g. 3.'? lei him turn aside, ~P& and he watered, bti? thou f. hast killed, J, and he wept,?n let him rule, ItV and he took captive. This harsh combination of letters is, however, avoided in general by supplying between the two consonants a helping vowel, which is mostly Seghol, but Pattach under gutturals,t and Chireq after, e. g. for l for for '.;; np for; 5 fo; for niblt; n. for rl. Compare German Magd and the old form Mdged. These helping-vowels have not the tone, and they fall away whenever the word increases at the end. These helping-vowels have inappropriately been called furtive, a term which should be restricted to the Pattach sounded before a final guttural, according to ~ 22, 2, b. 5. Full vowels rise out of half-vowels also by reason of the Pause, see ~ 29, 4. SECT. 29. OF THE TONE; CHANGES OF THE TONE; AND OF THE PAUSE. 1. The principal tone, indicated by the accent (~ 15, 2), rests on the final syllable of most words, e. g. bM., 1; 'iet, 0:~}t * There is no instance of a similar use of ~ and ), which would in that case likewise require Daghesh. [But see Apin in Prov. xxx. 6.] t With the exception, however, of A, as btb wild ass, tt. fresh grass. On account of the feeble sound of the t the helping-vowel may also be omitted, as.ttn sin, Ki valley. t In this and the analogous examples (~ 64, 2) Daghesh lene remains in the final Tav, just as if no vowel preceded (~ 22, 2), in order to indicate that the helping Pattach has a very short sound, and at the same time to suggest mnbt as the original form. (Accordingly thou hast taken is distinguished also in pronunciation from ni.5 ad sumendum.) The false epithet furtive given to this helping-vowel, in connexion with the notion that such a vowel must be sounded before the consonant, caused the decided mistake which long had its defenders, namely, that tI. should be read shaldacht; although such words as nif, in: were always correctly sounded sh4cheth, ndchal not naachl.

Page  79 ~ 29. THE TONE AND ITS CHANGES. 79 (the last two examples have it even on additions to the root); less frequently on the penultima, as in Bit, 1?b_ night, 1P P Connected with the principal tone is Methegh, a kind of secondary accent (~ 16, 2). Small words which are united by Maqqeph with the following one, are destitute of the tone (~ 16, 1). It is not necessary here to single out the words accented on the penul. tima (voces penacutke); for the sake, however, of calling attention to these words, they chiefly are marked in this book with -, as sign of the tone. In Arabic the tone is more on the penultima, and even on the antepenultima. The Syrians accent mostly the penultima; and the Hebrew is pronounced thus, contrary to the accents, by the German and Polish Jews, e.g. = nri~b. breshis b6ro. 2; The original tone of a word frequently shifts its place on account of changes in the word itself, or in its relation to other words. If the word is increased at the end, the tone is thrown forward (descendit) one or two syllables according to the length of the addition, as.',:d t.: ':..3; Ubb,,i~; L?,2 ~n boit. For the consequent shortening of the vowels, see ~ 27, 1, 3. In one case the tone is thrown forward in consequence of accession at the beginning of the word. See ~ 44, Rem. 5, b. 3. On the contrary, the original tone is shifted from the final syllable to the penultima (ascendit), a) In certain cases where a syllable is prefixed, as t'ur he will say, '~'f; and he said;:. he will go, W:T and he went; np', P';i; even when the syllable is not closely attached to the word, as 1pin, O"rbg do not add. b) When a monosyllabic word, or one with the tone on the penultima follows (in order to avoid the meeting of two tonesyllables).* E. g. i. '..7t Job iii. 3, for 1n3 '5;j; D.s:Wh Is. xli. 7, for:?b t:in; Gen. i. 5; iii. 19; iv. 17; Job xxii. 28; Ps. xxi. 2. c) In pause. See No. 4. The meeting of two tone-syllables (letter b) is avoided in another way, viz. by writing the words with Maqqeph between them, in which case the * Even the prose of the Hebrews proceeds, according to the accentuation, in a kind of Iambic rhythm. That the authors of the system intended to secut this object is evident, particularly from the application of Methegh.

Page  80 80 PART I. ELEMENTS. first wholly loses the tone, as ot-r~MV_. The above method is adopted whenever the penultima is an open syllable with a long voweL Compare 6 47, Rem. 1, ~ 50, Rem. 3, ~ 51, Rem. 2. 4. Very essential changes of the tone, and consequently of the vowels, are effected by the Pause. By this term is meant the strong accentuation of the tone-syllable of the word which closes a period or member of a period, and on which the tone of the whole rests. This syllable is marked with one of the great distinctive accents, as T.'ts.,:t?. The changes are as follows: a) When the syllable in pause has a short vowel, it becomes long; as b,;; t., t?; A _, m bi`r; 7i t, Y ri. b) When a final tone syllable begins with two consonants (as,bi:le, see ~ 26, 4), the vocal Sheva under the first gives place to a full vowel; a more fitting position is thus secured for the tone, which is moved from the last syllable to the new penultima:. E. g. nbt,,nSb; nlS.g.,, nNb-; n.p.t, I p?.. The vowel selected is always that which had been dropped from the same syllable, in consequence of the lengthening of the word. Moreover, vocal Sheva in pause becomes Seghol, as rnb, Ar.; and a Chateph gives place to the analogous long vowel, as.n, ad; bn, hion. c) This tendency to place the tone on the penultima in pause, shows itself moreover in several words which then regularly retract the tone, as?., a5.;, w,,l r; I b, trsi; and in single cases, like tbi Ps. xxxvii. 20 for A., and also.IV Job vi. 3 for.tb from IrSb. The rule given under letter a respects principally Pattach and Seghol. Seghol is however strong enough to be retained in pause when the syllable closes with Dagheshforte, as nsup. Pattach is sometimes adopted in place of Seghol, as S.^, in pause i-!.;.^1.-, in pause 1.nrb Jud. xix. 20. Pattach even takes the place of Tsere in pause. Eg.:tt-r for:r Is. xlii. 22; Ibtn, in pause att: Is. vii. 6. r se

Page  81 PART SECOND. 01; FORMS AND INFLEXIONS, OR OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH. SECT. 30. OF TH1t STEM-WORDS AND ROOTS (BILITERALS, TRILITERALS, QUADRILITERALS). 1. THut stem-words of the Hebrew and of the other Shemitish languages have this peculiarity, that by far the most of them consist of three consonants, on which the meaning essentially depends, while its various modifications are expressed by changes in the vowels, e. g. 01_ he was red, t:& red, 13, man (prop. red one) Such a stem-word may be indifferently either a verb or a noun, and usually the language exhibits both together, as Bi' he has reigned, J:b. king. Yet it is customary and of practical utility for the beginner, to consider the third person singular of the Preterite, i. e. one of the most simple forms of the verb, as the stem-word, and the other forms of both the verb and the noun, together with most of the particles, as derived from it, e. g.?12 he was righteous, p;2 righteousness, pet righteous, &c. Sometimes the language, as handed down to us, exhibits only the verbal stem without a corresponding form for the noun, as b5P to stone, Pr? to bray; and occasionally the noun is found without the corresponding verb, e. g. ~a south Pt' nine. Yet it must be supposed that the language, as spoken, often had the forms now wanting [most of them being actually found in the cognate dialects]. Rem. 1. The Jewish grammarians call the stem-word, i.e. the third person singular of the preterite, the root, 5t9, for which the Latin term radix is often used; and hence the three consonants of the stem are called radical letters, in contradistinction from the servile letters [namely it,:, n, 1, I, M, 5,,, a, n, forming the mnemonic expression n:?l ntma In, Ethan, Moses, and Caleb] which are added in the derivation and infleuon of words. We however employ the term root in a different sense, as explained here in No. 2. 6

Page  82 f82 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. 2. Many etymologists give the'name root to the three stem-consonants viewed as vowelless and unpronounceable, from which the stems for both the verbs and the nouns are developed, as in the vegetable kingdom (from which the figurative expression is taken) the stems grow out of the concealed root. Thus for exampleRoot: As (to reign). Verb-stem: 't he has reigned. Noun-stem:.X king. This supposition of an unpronounceable root is, however, an abstraction too remote from the actual state of the language; and it is better, at least for the historical mode of treatment, to consider the concrete verb [3 pers. sing. pret.] as the stem-word. 3. These triliteral stems are generally of two syllables. But among them are reckoned also such as have for their middle letter a 1, which is uttered as a vowel (~ 24, 2, c), and thus reduces the form to one syllable, e.'g.:p for.lR. 2. The use of three consonants in the stems of the verbs and nouns is so prevalent a law in the Shemitish languages, that we must look upon it as a characteristic peculiarity of this family. Even such monosyllabic nouns as might be deemed originally monosyllables (biliteral roots), since they express the first, simplest, and commonest ideas, as Z$ father, W mother, tS brother, come under this law; thus we have G. my mother, as if derived from =t. Yet, on the other hand, stems with three consonants (triliteral roots) may be reduced to two consonants, which with a vowel uttered between, form a sort of root-syllable, from which again several triliteral stems with the same meaning have sprung up. Such root-syllables are called primary or biliteral roots. They are very easily made out when the stem has a feeble consonant or the same consonant in the second and third place. Thus, the stems 1:, '1.T, I, r have all the meaning to beat and to beat in pieces, and the two stronger letters 1 dakh [comp. Eng. thwack] constitute the monosyllabic root. The third stemconsonant also may be strong. To such a monosyllabic root there often belongs a whole series of triliteral stems, which have two radical letters and the fundamental idea in common. Only a few examples of this sort here:From the root yp, which imitates the sound of hewing, are derived immediately Yp, to cut off; then St r, s, n, with the kindred significations to shear, to mow, and metaph. to decide, to judge (hence 1'.p, Kadi, a judge). Related to this is the syllable wp, tp from which is derived.p3 to cut into; a5p. to sharpen; nr to pare. With a lingual instead of the sibilant, up, ~'p; hence ATop to cut down, to destroy;.ib to

Page  83 ~30. STEM-WORDS AND R.IOTS. 83 cut docnim to kill; 'ip to cut off, to shorten; ~T; to tear off, to pluck off; 'TI to cut asunder, to split. A softer form of this radical syllable is on; hence to cut off, to shear off; o= Syr. to sacri~fice, to skiy for sacrifice. Still softer are 11 and 'II; hence TV to mnow, to 8hear; ril to hew stones; VT YA ~v I IV to hew off, to cut off, to eat off, to graze; and so bti to cut, Y'h to cut off; compare also MI~, til. With the change of the palatal for the guttural sound, =M I 3 to hew stones and wooc4 ysytM1 MI t split, div~ide, VI! arrow (ia) VTIM to sharpen, V'4TM arrow, lightning also 2'I"11 to see (Lat. cernere, Germ. scheiden), and many others. The syllable Wt' expresses the humming sound made with the mouth,closed (vtito); hence )"t1, =M (=U), Arab. 'U1i' to hum, to buzz. To these add oltin to be dumb; W'Vl to become mute, to be astonised. The radical syllable V'n, of which 'both letters have a tremulous sound, means to tremble, in the stem-words i Sr, = 1 05!PI: then it is expreseive of what causes tremulous motion or agitation, as thunder (%l) the act of shattering, of breaking in pieces (Yr, 3M). Compare with these the radical syllable with the idea of elevation,curving upward (gibbous), 'it to break, -V, rib, to lick, to sup, under the articles =31' I'2%, 6 in Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon. From a further consideration of this subject we may draw the following observations:a) These roots are mere abstractions from stems in actual use, and are themselves not in use. They merely represent the hidden germs (semina) of the stems which appear in the language. Yet the latter have, now and then, so short a form that they exthibit only the elements of the root itself as W1 perfectusfuit, ~P light. b) Most of these monosyllabic roots are imitations of' natural sounds, and sometimes coincide with the roots of the Indo-Germanic stock. E. g. ~Vr [comp. Eng. tap], 'rivirT ('rtvrW), RVI Oa'rT (ou'?W), q~ [comp. Eng. c) The stems with hard, strong consonants are to be regarded, according to the general progress of language (~ 6, 4), as the oldest, while the feebler and softer consonants distinguish forms of a later period, which conseiquently are more frequently used for the derivative and metaphorical significations. E. g. tri and * to be smooth, to be shorn, to be bald; and even lh~ to be bare. Sometimes, however, the harder or softer sound is essential to the imitative character of the word, as ~6 to roll (spoken of a ball, of the rolling of waves), but 'itV2% more for a rough sound, as made in the act of scraping= aalqw, ave,, verro; '-% to cut stones or wood, requires a stronger sound than TT.1 to cut grasw, to mow. d) It appears also that those consonants which resemble each other in strength or feebleness, are commonly associated in the formation of rootsyllables, as yp, oZ, 1, 'I (never yn, VI~, ol p); Vic, it (seldom VI); Wp2_ '1t1 (not 01). Scarcely ever are the first two radicals the same (M7 or very similar (~$.On the contrary the last two are very often the same (~ 66).* Letters which are not found associated as radicals are easled incompatible.

Page  84 84 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. e) The tendency to substitute smooth for harsh sounds (see letter c) is sometimes so great that 1, n, r, especially when used as middle stem-letters, are even softened to vowels, as Shy, 0.tli to tread down, to thresh; Yr1, Y'.: (comp. ~bo), to press, and many others. Comp. salvare, French sauver; calidus, Ital. caldo, in Naples caudo, French chaud; falsus, falso, in Calabriafauzu, French faux; and the pronunciation of the English words talk, walk. Comp. ~ 19, 5, Rem. f) Often, however, the three stem-letters must all be regarded as original, since all are necessary to make the sound of the word expressive of the sense, e. g..:n, pan, p.: to be narrow, to afflict; yxw, ango [anguish, Welsh yng, angau];.14 to tread [comp. track]; a s, ftlfw, fremo [Welsh brefu], to make a humming sound (to buzz, hence to spin), &c. A full development of this active change among the elements of the language, may be found in the later editions of Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon. It is important that even the learner should be taught to regard the roots and their significations, not as the arbitrary creation of a people secluded from all the rest of the ancient world, but as imitations of nature, and as intimately connected with the well-known treasures of other languages, spoken by nations more nearly related to ourselves. 3. To a secondary process or later epoch of the language belong stem-words of four and, in the case of nouns, even of five consonants. These are, however, comparatively far less frequent in Hebrew than in its sister dialects.* This lengthening of the form is effected in two ways: a) by adding a fourth stemletter; b) by combining into one word two triliteral stems, so that then even quinqueliterals are formed. Such' lengthened forms as arise from the mere repetition of some of the three stem-letters, as bltp, =b..b;:10, 00p, are not regarded as quadriliterals, but as variations in conjugation (~ 54). So likewise the few words which are formed by prefixing 1, as ntribt flame from::h, Aram. conj. Shafel lt'. Rem. on a). Some forms are made by the insertion particularly of I and r between the first and second radicals; as or>, tun to shear off to eat off; u`'~=' ^. — sceptre;.tt to glow; hot wind (the first form with ' frequent in Syr.). This mode of formation is analogous with They are chiefly such as too strongly resemble each other, as ip, pa, It, 21. Some letters, however, have been falsely considered incompatible, as, which are often found associated, e. g. in 5' and 'n, from the harsher forms ant, 'li. Comp. yeaxo'g by the side of yJ/rpvX, oxw by the side of oy oog, and much that is analogous in Sanskrit. * Especially in /Ethiopic, where these forms are very frequent, see Hupfeld's Ezercitatt, AEthiop. pp. 24 foil.

Page  85 ~ 31. GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE. 86 Piel, and in Aramman the two forms exist together, as )1, Wbn. In Latin there is a correspondent lengthening of the stem; as findo, 8cindo, tundo, jungo, from fid, scid (oaxcso)), tud, jug. Additions are also made at the end, principally of I and n; as an' an awe, from t to cut [comp. graze];, I an orchard, from ITr; b1. flower-cup, from ^:: cup; from:im to tremble, '>nI to hop; (the termination el has perhaps a diminutive force, as it has in many languages). Rem. on b). In the combination of triliterals, it generally happens that letters common to them both are written but once in the compound form, as a.1D_ afrog, perhaps prop. marsh-hopper, from 'St to hop, and Arab. 3s:rxt a marsh. n13S< tranquil, from,n'b to be quiet, and lt_ to be at rest; or a feeble letter is cast away, as ~. a bat, from b:u dark and t flying. Still bolder changes are sometimes made in the amalgamation of words, as ~.~b_ (6 Sueva) Dan. viii. 13 from '.zH_ ' It should be remarked that quadriliterals may be shortened again into triliterals. E.g. from.b$' (hop, see above), ban with the same signification; hence,nb a partridge (from its hopping, limping gait); nt1in a chain for ntMe, from 1n, 10.. 4. To an earlier stage of the language, on the contrary, belong the pronouns (~ 32 foll.), and some particles, especially interjections (~ 103, 1), which as an ancient and crude formation have not attained to the model of the triliteral stems, and follow peculiar and freer laws of inflexion.* Most of the particles, however, are either derived from nouns or resemble them in inflexion, although their form is often very much shortened on account of their enclitic nature, and their origin can no longer be known. (See ~ 97, &c.) SECT. 31. OF GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE. 1. The formation of the parts of speech from the roots, and their inflexion, are effected in two ways: 1) by changes in the stem itself, particularly in its vowels; 2) by the addition of formative syllables. A third method, viz. the use of several separate words in place of inflexion (as in expressing the comparative degree and several relations of case), belongs rather to the Syntax than to that part of grammar which treats of forms. The second mode of forming words, namely, by agglutination, which is * Comp. Hupfeld's System der semitischen Demonstrativbildung und der damit zusammenhangenden Pronominal- und Partikelnbildung, in the Zeitschrift fir die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Bd. IL S. 124 ff. 427 ff.

Page  86 86 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. exemplified in the Egyptian, appears on the whole to be the more ancient of the two. Yet other languages, as well as the Shemitish, had early recourse also to the first mode, namely, internal modification of the stem, and in the period of their youthful vigour developed a strong tendency to follow this process; but in their later periods this tendency continually diminished in force, so that it became necessary to use syntactical circumlocution. This is exemplified in the Greek (including the modern) and in the Latin with its corrupt branches [called the Romance language]. rthe formation of words by agglutination is prevalent in ancient and modern Egyptian; that by internal modification in Sanskrit and Greek; the Chinese is almost entirely destitute of any grammatical structure, and supplies its place by syntactical methods. 2. Both methods of formation and inflexion are found in Hebrew. That which is effected by vowel-changes exhibits considerable variety (t p, ~, bj?, bp, ). We have an example of the other method in btOptl, and of both in the same word in btr.r. Inflexion by the addition of formative syllables occurs, as in almost all languages, in the formation of the persons of the verb, where also the import of these annexed syllables is still, for the most part, perfectly clear (see ~~ 44, 47); moreover it occurs in the distinction of gender and number in the verb and the noun. Of case-endings, on the contrary, there appear in Hebrew only slight traces [~ 88]. CHAPTER I. OF THE PRONOUN. SECT. 32. OF THE PERSONAL OR SEPARATE PRONOUN. i. THE personal pronoun (as well as the pronouns generally) is among the oldest* and simplest elements of the language (~ 30, 4). On this account, and because it lies at the foundation of the flexion of the verb (~~ 44, 47), it properly claims our first attention. * Among other proofs of the high antiquity of these words is the very strik4 ug coincidence between them and the pronouns of the ancient Egyptian lana guage (by far the oldest in which we possess written monuments), see the comr parison in Jllg. Lit. Zeitung, 1839, No. 80.

Page  87 ~ 32. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 87 2. The pronouns in their separate and chief forms, or as expressing the nominative, are the following:Singular. Plural. 1. comm. a?., in pause 1. comm. tn S, ('M),j As"; fig, in pause '?l * (we. (nM. Mnr (M^), in pause fI - ( r. prop. cn.) A f. ]mQ, n ~ 3. 3 ~ she. R.1 m. an;Il t hey. cf she. 5 in, sn itey. The forms included in parenthesis seldom occur. A complete view of these pronouns with their abbreviated forms (suffixes) is given at the end of the grammar in Parad. A. REMARKS. I. First Person. 1. The form U3ix is nearly as frequent in the Old Testament as M'R. The former exists in the Phoenician, but in no other of the kindred dialects;* from the latter are formed the suffixes (~ 33). In the Talmud 'St, is con: stantly used, and "a.s very seldom. 2. The formation of the plural in this and the other persons, though analogous with that of verbs and nouns, exhibits (as also in the pronoun of other languages) much that is irregular and arbitrary. WsIMA is manifestly the plural of 't.i (with the exchange of: for n), as also i t. is of '".. The form laUs, from which the suffixes are derived, occurs only in Jer. xlii. 6 (K'thibh). The form a:m is found only six times; e. g. Qen. xlii. 11, Numb. xxxii. 32. (In the Talmud W alone appears). 3. The first person alone is of the common gender, because one that is present speaking needs not the distinction of gende as does the second person addressed (in Greek, Latin, and German [as also in English, Celtic, &c.] the distinction is omitted here also), and the third person spoken of. II. Second Person. 4. Instead of Daghesh forte in Mtm, ta.t, tV., 1S, from trlt, &c., the kindred dialects have an n before the n, Arab. anta f. anti thou, plur. dntum f. antunna ye. The essential syllable is hn ta (see ~ 44, 1); the an prefixed is demonstrative, and gives more support to the form. rW without n occurs only five times, e. g. Ps. vi. 4, and each time as Jlthibh with In Phoenician it is written 1:X, without the ending '-., and spoken somewhat like anekh (Plauti Panulus, V. 2,35., GesenU Mon. Phenicia, pp. 376,437). A trace of this form is found in the AEthiopic qatalku (I have killed). In ancient Egyptian ANK (pronounced anok).

Page  88 ,Ss 68 ~~PART IIL PARTS OF SPEECH. the Q~ri MRn. As the vowels of the text belong to the Qeri (~ 17), the reading of the Kthibht may have been r-p as an abbreviation from MIX. The feminine form was originally pronounced V. (with the feminine designation 4-7, probably from bKl" she, properly thou 8he, compare ~47, 2), as in Syriac, Arabic, and AFthiopic. This form is still found in a few instances (Judg. xvii. 2, 1 Kings xiv. 2). Some forms in the inflexion of the verb are derived from it (~ 44, Rem. 4, ~ 58, 1). The 4, however, was but slightly heard (in Syriac it was at length only written, not pronounced), and therefore fell away, so that the Jewish critics, even in the above mentioned passages, place in the Qeri nbt, whose Sheva stands in the punctuation of the text (~ 17). The same final " appears, mioreover, in the unfrequent forms of the suffix '4-, 'Vl-:~5) 5. The plurals txbt bjri are blunted forms (comp. ~ 27, Rem. 4, b) of Wmb (Arab. antum. Chal. jtrrlb, a form which lies at the fcundation of some verbal inflexions, ~58, 1), and 'I-rI or bl'9n., the full final vowel giving place to the obtuse sound of e, somewhat in the manner of the third person. ~1y5% is found only once (Ezek. xxxiv. 31, where another reading is 'tz), and MfhpA (for which MSS. have also srI-?t) occurs only four times,'viz. in Gen. xxxi. 6; Ez. xiii. 11, 20; xxxiv. 17. Frteedn -seN.7 III. Third Person. o. The tX was, perhaps, heard at the end of bil and b~b as a kind of balf-vowel, hisa, hia, as e in German die (old Germ. thiu, thia), sie, wie. A trace of this appears in the Arabic; as huma, hiya, in the common dialect hisa, hla. The masculine Wt1h is of common gender in the Pentateuch, in which it is used also for she. (See ~ 2, 3.) The punctators, however, whenever it stands for b0M give it the appropriate pointing of this form (tMiM), and require it to be read Wtim (comp. ~. 17). It is, however, to be sounded rather according to the old form w-M * ~~7. The plural forms WM and IM are got from WKI' and Kil7 in the same manner as MA from 11.M In Arab. where they are pronunced hum, hunna, the obscure vowel-sound is retained. The M- in both forms (He paragogic) has a demonstrative force. (See ~ 88, 2.) In Ohald. (Jlll inr!), Arab. and Xthiop. (huma, homil) there is a I (as Cholem or Shureq) appended, which occurs in Hebrew in the poetical forms in, in.-,.... ~ 57, 3, Rem. 1). S. The pronouns of the third person Wttr, WI2 ~ I1,'!, are also demonstrative pronouns (see ~ 120, 1). SECT. 33. SUFIFIX PRONOUN. 1. The full and separate forms of the pronoun, as given ID the foregoing section, express only the nominative:' the accusA* * See an exception in ~ 119, 2.

Page  89 ~ 33. SUFFIX PRONOUN. 89 tive and genitive, on the contrary, are expressed by shortened forms or fragments which are joined to the end of verbs, nouns, and particles (suffix pronouns, usually.suffixes), e. g..n him and i his (from Rtn he), thus.-r.bt_ > I have killed him, i1.0 his horse. Instances of the same construction occur in Greek, Latin, and German, as narieq pyov for crarq lpoiv, Lat. eccum in Plantus for ecce eum, Germ. du hast's for du hast es [comp. vulgar English give'm for give them]. In Hebrew this is done systematically, as in Egyptian, Hungarian, and some other languages. 2. Concerning the cases which these suffixes denote, let it be remarked:a) When joined to verbs, they denote the accusative (but comp. ~ 119, 3),.rrt-.t: I have killed him; b) When joined to substantives, they denote the genitive (like narfQ i ov, pater ejus), and then serve as possessive pronouns, as m.* (abh-i) my father; c) When joined to particles, they denote either the genitive or the accusative, according as the particle has the meaning of a noun or a verb, e. g. T~. (prop. my vicinity) with me, like mea caussa, on the contrary 1:.:l behold me;* d) The dative and ablative of the pronoun are expressed by combining the prepositions that are signs of these cases (b sign' of the dative, 3 in, T? from, ~ 100) with the suffixes, as ii to him, i.1 in him,:n. from you. 3. Some of these suffixes are probably derived from forms of the separate pronoun which were early lost in Hebrew, as -- thee from a form like r-n =r11t t thou. This applies also to the afformatives of the verb (~ 44, 1). 4. The suffix of the verb (the accusative) and the suffix of the * With some adverbs we must translate the suffixes by the nominative, ~ 98, 5. t That a palatal (k) and lingual (t) are liable to be exchanged is manifest from the speech of young children, who frequently confound them, as likkie for little. Obvious instances of this exchange are found in many languages, as Gr. dalw-= alw, Gr. Tgs- AEol. xl,; Lat. quis, and in the Hebrew itself tnrid nplt to drink. There is thus a strong presumption that the pronoun of the second person in the Shemitish languages must have had two forms, one with k and the other with t, as tri and Mr_, OwS and Orm. In Celtic there is a similar change, as Welsh ti but Cornish chee (thou) and chwi (you). —T.

Page  90 90 90 ~~~PART 1I. PARTS OF SPEECH. noun (the genitive) are mostly the same in form, but sometimes they are different, e. g. me, I — my. For a view of all the forms of the pronoun both separate and suffix, see Paradigm A; more explanation about the suffix of the verb and the mode of attaching it to the verb will be found in 11 57-60, about the suiffix of the noun in 1 89, about prepositions with suffixes in 1 101. SECT. 34. THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. Sing. m. 11T* ths Plur. comm. 'o* (rarely ~)these. The feminine form?9T is for MI (from NT = 'sI and the feminine ending rt, see 1 79, 2); and the forms IT, iMr, which are both of rare occurrence, come from 119 by dropping ri. The forms 51 and no- (akin to the Arabic article ~,see 1 35, Rem. 1) are plural according to use and not according to grammatical inflexion. occurs only in the Pentateuch and 1 Chr. xx. 8, and always with the article 5W (Rem. 1). The ending M% in -s* (same as Y)isadmnstrative appendage, asinr (32 'Rem. 7). Another secondary form of the demonstrative is IT, used only in poetry. It stands mostly for the relative [like that for who] and is used alike for all numbers and genders, like'lt (~ 36). Rem. I. This pronoun receives the article (1r14, 1,7 64m bi according to the same rules as the adjectives, 1 109, 2. There are, besides, some peculiar forms in which ~ is inserted after the article, Gen. xxiv. 65; xxxvii. 19; 1ti11 fern. Ez. xxxvi. 35, and shortened T~usually rna8C. Judges vi. 20; 1 Sam. xiv. 1; xvii. 26; but fern. in 2 Kings iv. 25. In Arabic there is a corresponding form alkzdhi as relative pronoun. 2. Some other pronorninal stems occur among the particles, 1 97, &c. [see also ~ 115, note]. * In most languages the demonstratives begin with d, hence called the de. mnonstrative sound, which is, however, interchanged with a -sibilant [as in Heb. MlIor a rough breathing. Thus in Aram. ottl 1, 2 ths Arabdhhidaj Sasr s,., tat, (Gr o, 'ITo, Goth. sa,.6, thata;Germ. da; der', die, das [our the, thi., that; Welsh dyna, Ayn, hyna], &c.

Page  91 ~ 35. THE ARTICLE. 91 SECT. 35. THE ARTICLE. Originally the article was a demonstrative pronoun, akin to the pronoun of the third person, but of so feeble import that it was scarcely used except in connexion with the noun. Its usual form is -t, with a short sharp-spoken d and a doubling of the following consonant (by Daghesh forte), e. g. t.3t? the sun,?tn the river for ':n (according to ~ 20, 3, b). When the article 4. stands before a word beginning with a guttural, then the Daghesh forte cannot (according to ~ 22, 1) be used, and hence the short and sharp a (Pattach) is lengthened into a (Qamets) or a (Seghol). But to be more minute:1) Before the weakest guttural K and before ' (~ 22, 5) the vowel of the article is always lengthened, as:t: the father, 'nHn the other, 0: the mother, tt'n. the man, n the foot, OWt"11 the head, Stt the evil-doer. 2. For the other gutturals it is in general the rule, that the stronger the guttural the firmer is the syllable of the article. both as to its sharpness and its short d. But there are then two cases to be distinguished:A) When the guttural is followed by some other vowel than - or T, then a) before n and 1 (as being stronger), the article regularly remains 'n, as Kn. that, tI'n the month, bab the strength; with rare exceptions, as 4tr Gen. vi. 19, and always Ort those; b) before V the Pattach is generally lengthened, as A.g. the eye, '."V the city, 'Irl the servant pl.:W1.7.. (Exceptions in Jer. xii. 9.) B) But when the guttural is followed by -,, then a) before I and V the article is always 1, provided it stands immediately before the tone-syllable, else it is a, e. g. iSt the people, Vtj1 the Mountain, '?n (in pause), n~n towards the mountain, on the contrary C:1.1 the mountains, Bfi the guilt; b) before t the article is always 't, without regard to the place of the tone, as t:? the wise, 7Me the feast; so also c) before M, as.rnn the sickness, Vt.'7n the months. (On the contrary rorn1 according to A, a.)

Page  92 92 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECh. Gender and number have no influence on the form of the article. Rem. 1. It is commonly assumed that the original form of the Hebrew article was bt,, the i being always assimilated to the following letter. But on the contrary —) the form 'T, 1t is in itself demonstrative; comp. in Aram. and Arab. K1 ecce: 2) Arq nowhere occurs in its full form, not even in fM*n (see ~ 34, Rem. 1), where besides 'n we have also the demonstrative form b: 3) the Arab. article ib, adduced in support of this assumption, belongs to another and distinct pronominal stem related to the Heb. 1ix. It occurs indeed in the Old Testament, but with certainty only in the Arabic name '1tib;t according to others, in t.b.t the people Prov. xxx. 31, and in 0's.1= ice, hail_='j. Ezek. xiii. 11, 13; xxxviii. 22. 2. When the prepositions a, b, and the Z of comparison (~ 100) come before the article, the T falls away and the preposition takes its points (~ 23, 5), as t._a'; in the heaven for tn1w5z; of to the people for =tts, O9r1.r on the mountains. With I, however (which is less closely connected with the word), the M very often remains, as tinm12 Gen. xxxix. 11, but also 01. Gen. xxv. 31,33; seldom with other prefixes, except in the later books, as Ofa 2 Chron. x. 7. (But see 1 Sam. xiii. 21.) With 1, which in conception is still less closely connected with the word, the I always remains, as aisl and the people. SECT. 36. THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. The relative pronoun for both genders and numbers is 'Ir who, which. In the later books, and even in some of the earlier, as in Canticles throughout, and occasionally in Judges, it takes the form *t by the elision of t and assimilation of ', according to ~ 19, 2, 3; more rarely the form.' Judges v. 7, Cant. i. 7, and before t in a single instance 1 Judges vi. 17, though elsewhere. before the gutturals. The still more abbreviated form t5 occurs Eccles. ii. 22 [in some copies]; iii. 18. For the manner in which the cases of the relative are expressed, see ~ 121.1. "^b is used also as a conjunction, like quod, Otn, that. Closely con * In the. Phmnician it is always written A, and pronounced sa, se, si. Monumm. Phoenicia, p. 438 Comp. above ~ 2, 5. In moder Hebrew also.* has become the predominant forn. t Gen. x. 26.

Page  93 ~ 37. INTERROGATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 93 nected with it in meaning is ^', which also belongs to the pronominal stems, ~ 102. SECT. 37. THE INTERROGATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 1. The interrogative pronoun is 'i who? (of persons), and ~t1 what? (of things). The pointing of tn with Qamets is seldom found excupt in pause and before tt and ', as On1 nM what are ye? OrW n A what do ye see? rarely before n as in Josh. iv. 6, 21. It is commonly written in close connexion with the following word: a) -n~ with Maqqeph and Daghesh forte conjunctive (~ 20, 2), as -ti-t what to thee? and even in one word, as wnM what to you? Is. iii. 15, rtlo what is this? Ex. iv. 2; b) before the harder gutturals nl n, 3, it likewise receives Pattach with the Daghesh implied in the guttural (~ 22, 1), WS'n-n Num. xiii. 18; c) when the guttural has Qamets, it receives Seghol (according to ~ 27, Rem. 2), as r'iV-nxq what hast thou done? This Seghol stands also occasionally before letters that are not guttural, as '11 51'p Mn what voice, fc.? 1 Sam. iv. 6; 2 Kings i. 7, but only when the tone of the clause is far removed from the word; moreover in the form t3., snd (see more in the Lexicon under nm in the note). 2. Both E. and,1t occur also as an indefinite pronoun, in the sense of whoever, whatever. CHAPTER II. OF THE VERB. SECT. 38. GENERAL VIEW. 1. THE verb is, in the Hebrew, the most elaborated part of speech as to inflexion, and also the most important, inasmuch as it mostly contains the stem of the others (~ 30), and its various modifications are, to a great extent, the basis of the other forms in the language. 2. Yet all verbs are not stem-words. Like nouns they may be divided, in respect to their origin, into three classes. a) Primitives. e. to reign; 1.l' to sit. b) Verbal derivatives, derived from other verbs, e. g. ~.S to jus.

Page  94 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH, tify, pt. to justify one's self, from pl to be just; commonly called conjugations (~ 39). c) Denominatives, or those derived from nouns; e. g. 5b? and 5b;. to pitch a tent, from bR a tent; It.i to root out and tVn'. to take root, from ~tEi a root. These appear to be of later origin than the two preceding classes, which they imitate in their forms. The noun from which the denominative verb comes, is in most cases itself derivative; e. g. ]>b to be white, hence Mn~ a brick (from the colour), and hence again 1'_ to make bricks; from r, to increase greatly, m a fish, and hence again t.. to fish. A peculiar kind of secondary verbs, and at least of rather late formation in the language (hence frequent in the later dialects), are those denominatives, one of whose consonants, originally a servile, has become a radical. E. g, t_ to rest, to set one's self down; hence the noun nrM a setting down; hence again r1. to descend; in like manner r-, grave, destruction (from t!t), hence mrt. to destroy. SECT. 39. 1. The third person of the Preterite is generally regarded as the stem-form of the verb, as Ip he has killed, L?; he was heavy.* From this are derived the other persons of the Preterite and the Participle. Another, more simple still, is the Infinitive, with which the Imperative generally agrees in form, and from which is derived the Future, as bp, also bti. The first ground-form, of two syllables (Arab. qatala, qatila, qatula), may be called the concrete; and the second, which is generally monosyllabic (Arab. qatl, qitl, qutl), the abstract. The same analogy prevails in the division of nouns into abstract and concrete. In verbs whose second radical is ', the full stem appears only in the second forni; e. g..eS, of which the third person Pret. is =0. 2. From this stem are formed, according to an unvarying analogy in all verbs, the verba derivata, each distinguished by a specific change in the form of the stem, with a corresponding definite change in its signification (intensive, frequentative, causative; passive, reflexive, reciprocal). E. g. 'TM to learn, h..b to cause to learn, to teach; m:: to lie, ~fn to cause to lie, to lay; 'tt to judge, tt. to contend before a judge, to litigate. * The infinitive is here used for the sake of brevity in most Grammars and Lexicons, thus b1I to learn, prop. he has learned.

Page  95 & 39. CONJUGATIONS. 95 In other anguages such words are regarded as new derivative verbs; e. g. to fall, to fell; jactre, to throw, jacere to lie; yivoacct to be born, ywvvcco to bear. But in Hebrew, where these formations are beyond comparison more regular than in any other language, they-are called, since the time of Reuchlin, conjugations (Hebr.::?.3, more correctly species, modifications) of the ground-form, and both in the Grammar and the Lexicon are always treated of in connexion as parts of the same verb. 3. The changes of the ground-form consist partly in varying its vowels, or doubling one or more of its letters (btp, bP t; btip, b p; btp, i~ p; comp. to lie, to lay; to fall, to fell); partly in the addition of formative letters or syllables (b~?,; comp. to speak, to bespeak; to count, to recount; bid, forbid); sometimes in both united, as bprn. (Comp. ~ 31, 2.) In the Aramaean this is effected less by the change of vowels than by the addition of formative syllables; so that, for instance, all the passives are formed as reflexives by the prefix syllable r6, rx. The Arabic is rich in both methods, while the Hebrew holds also here the middle place (~ 1, 6). 4. Grammarians differ as to the number and arrangement of these conjugations. The common practice, however, of giving to them still the old technical designations, prevents any error. The ground-form is called Kal (bp light, because it has no formative additions); the others (:.3? heavy, because burdened with formative additions) derive their names from the Paradigm used by the old Jewish Grammarians, bV_ he has done.' Several of them have passives which distinguish themselves from their actives by the obscure vowels. The most common conjugations (including Kal) are the five following; but few verbs, however, exhibit them all. * This verb, on account of the guttural which it contains, is unsuitable for a Paradigm, and was accordingly exchanged for lpl, which has this advantage, that all its conjugations are actually in use. There is, however, some indistinctness in the pronunciation of some of its forms, as tl_, tntlbp. The Paradigm bP_, in common use since the time of Danz, obviates this inconvenience, and is especially adapted to the harmonic treatment of the Shemitish' languages, inasmuch as it is found with a slight change (Arab. and XEthiop. brp) in all of them. In Hebrew, it is true, it has only the forms of Kal, which are not frequent, and occur only in poetry, yet it may be retained as a type or model sanctioned by usage.

Page  96 96 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. Active. Passive. 1. Kal. ut to kill. (wanting.) 2. Niphal. b3p2 to kill one's self. (very rare.) 3. Piel. tp to kill many, Pual. top " to massacre. 4. Hiphil. t?.?' to cause to kill. Hophal. ~pin 5. Hithpael. ^b.ip to kill one's self. Hothpaal. bto~rn There are several other less frequent conjugations, of which some, however, are more common than these in the kindred languages, and in the irregular verb in Hebrew they sometimes take the place of the usual conjugations (~ 54). In Arabic there is a greater variety of forms, and the series of derived conjugations, with their mutual relation, though not perfect, exhibits more regularity than in Hebrew. Arranged after the Arabic manner, the Hebrew conjugations would stand thus:-1. Kal. 2. Piel and Pual. 3. Pole and Poal (~ 54, 1). 4. Hiphil and Hophal. 5. Hithpael and Hothpaal. 6. Hithpol (~ 54). 7. Niphal. 8. Wanting in Hebrew. 9. Pilel. The most appropriate division is into three classes; 1) The intensive Piel, with the analogous forms derived from it; 2) The causative Hiphil, and its analogous forms (Shaphel, Tiphel); 3) The reflexive and passive Niphal. SECT. 40. 1. The Hebrew verb is indebted, for whatever copiousness it exhibits, chiefly to these conjugations or derivative verbs. In moods and tenses it is verj poor, having only two tenses (Preterite and Future'), an Imperative, an Infinitive (with two forms), and a Participle. All other relations of time, absolute and relative, must be expressed by these, either alone (hence the diversity in the senses of the same form, ~ 123, &c.) or in syntactical connexion with other words. The jussive and optative are sometimes indicated by peculiar forms of the future (see ~ 48). In the Germanic languages also there are distinct forms for only two tenses (the present and imperfect). In the formation of all the others, auxiliary verbs are employed. 2. In respect to their relation to one another, the forms of each conjugation may be embraced in two classes (~ 39, 1). The third person of the Preterite is the ground-form of one of these classes, which embraces, however, only the remaining forms of * See note * to ~ 47.-Tn.

Page  97 ~ 41. CONJUGATIONS. 97 the Preterite and, in some conjugations, the Participle; the Infinitive is the ground-form of the other, which embraces the Imperative, which is generally of the same form, the Future, and often the Participle. E. g. Kal, Pret.. b.b, Part...t Niph. - b_, Part. T.. Kal, Inf. and Imp.:bpj, Fut. 5bp Piel, - - - b P, Put. ~P., Part. tjpp. 3. In the inflexion of the Pret. and Fut. by persons, the Hebrew differs from the Western languages, having in most cases distinct forms for both genders, as in the personal pronoun, which is incorporated in the forms of these tenses. SECT. 41. In the formation of all the verbs there is the same general analogy; and the Hebrew has properly no anomalous verbs, like those, for instance, in Greek, which end in /u. The deviations which occur from the general model of the regular verb are owinga) To the presence of a guttural as one of the stem-letters or radicals, which occasions various vowel-changes according to ~ 22 (guttural verb, ~~ 61-64); b) To the falling away of a strong stem-letter by assimilation or contraction (contracted* verb, ~~ 65, 66), as t?:X, d; c) To the presence of a feeble letter as one of the radicals (~~ 23, 24), so that many changes occur through its commutation, omission, or quiescence (quiescent or feeble verb), ~~ 67-74), as:t', p. The letters of the old Paradigm ~i_ are used in naming the letters of the stem, b designating the first, Y the second, and i the third. Hence the expressions, verb bK for a verb whose first radical is K (primce radicalis 8); verb ti for one whose third radical is,t (tertie radicalis n); verb 35 (3 doubled) for one whose second and third radicals are the same (mediwe radicalis geminatce). * The term defective, by which some designate this clas, we apply to thoswhose forms are not all in use (~ 77). 7

Page  98 98 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. I. OF THE REGULAR VERB. SECT. 42. As the rules for the formation of the regular verb apply, with only occasional modifications, to all the irregular verbs, it will be most convenient (and will also exhibit the subject in the most clear light to the learner) to present, while treating of the former, whatever belongs to the general analogy of the verb. Paradigm B exhibits a complete view of the usual conjugations, with their inflexions, in their most general form. Full explanations are given in the following sections (43-54), where every subject is elucidated on its first occurrence; thus under Kal the inflexions of the Preterite, of the Future, and its modifications, are minutely explained with reference also to the other conjugations; and under the regular verb are given the forms and significations of conjugations which apply also to the irregular, &c. A. OF THE GROUND-FORM, OR KAL. SECT. 43. ITS FORM AND SIGNIFICATION. 1. The common form of the 3d person Pret. in the groundform is btlP, especially in transitive verbs. There is also a form with E (Tsere), and another with O (Cholem), in the second syllable; the two latter are usually found with intransitive meaning, and for expressing states and qualities, e. g. '1T to be heavy, f1 to be small. Sometimes both forms, the transitive and the intransitive, exist together, as gt~ to fill (Esther vii. 5), M't to be full (comp. ~ 47, Rem. 2), yet also with the same sense for both forms, as VIP and 3'In to approach. A verb middle E will be found in the Paradigm by the side of a verb middle A.* The example selected shows, at the same time, the effect of inflexion on Daghesh lene in the middle stem-letter. Rem. 1. The vowel of the second syllable is the principal vowel, and hence it distinguishes between the transitive and intransitive. The pretonic Qamets in the'first syllable has little strength, and becomes vocal Sheva on the shiftihg of the tone, as =trnjp. In Aramcean it wholly falls away in the root itself, as _p~, up. Rem. 2. Examples of denominatives in Kal: tnt to cover with pitch, from 'nM pitch; nh. to salt, from n~b salt. * A verb middle A. is one that has Pattach or Qamets under the middle radical or in the second syllable;, a verb middle E, one that has Tsere; and a verb middle 0, one that has Cholem.-Tu.

Page  99 ~ 44. PRETER OF KAL AND ITS INFLEXION. 99 Xyr~ ~ SECT. 44. PRETERITE OF KAL AND ITS INFLEXION. 1. The inflexion of the Preterite in respect to person, number, and gender, is effected by the addition of fragments of the personal pronouns (afformatives) to the end of the ground-form. In explaining this connexion, we may treat the ground-form as a participle, or a verbal adjective,* thus l"?p? killing-thou, or killer-thou (a killer wast thou),:rr? t fearing ye, for 'btp,rin, tn3 ri. In the second person this is readily seen, as well as in.b:] for.10 btp. In the first person sing. '.bp we have -, the simple germ of the pronoun, united with the demonstrative sound I, by which the afformative receives more support, and is at the same time distinguished from the suffix-forms. and -. (as if one would form a.dsI, 9. I after the analogy of:M_).t In the third person, -- (originally n-, comp. Rem. 4) is a designation of the feminine (as in the noun (~ 79, 2), and I (orig. 11) is a sign of the plural. In the Indo-Germanic tongues the inflexion by persons originated in the same manner, as is shown in Greek by the Doric ending sg; (from oye;, we), and in Latin by mus,: [and much better still in Welsh, e. g. Wyf I am (with ending f from fi, I), wyt thou art (ending t from ti, thou), yw he is (no ending as in Hebrew), ym we are (ending m from ni, we), ych you are (ending ch from chwi, you), ynt they are (ending nt from hwynt, they)]; but the traces of its origin are [except in Welsh] more obliterated than in Hebrew. This is true also of inflexion In the later Shemitish languages; e. g. 1 pers. Arab. qataltt, Syr. qetleth, where the characteristic i is wholly lost. 2. In respect to vowel changes, the analogy of the 3 fern. sing.,tPi is followed by the 3 masc. plur. ftT, and that of the 2 masc. sing. rb,) by all the forms of the first and second persons.~ Only W.bip., Ivip have the tone on the last syllable, and, in consequence, Sheva under the first radical (~ 27, 3). * On the intimate connexion between the Preterite and the verbal adjective, see what has been already said ~ 39, 1. They often have the same form, as ibz full, or he is full; lb'p small, or he is small. t Gesenius, on the contrary, maintained (and so does Ewald), that the afformative 'it comes strictly from arte, IX, an ancient form supposed to have been actually used for 5Z..-Ta. t See Bopp's Vergleichende Gramnatik, ~ 439, &c. ~ In the Paradigms the forms,t'n^ and rtop are, therefore, marked out with an asterisk as model-forms, for the notice of the beginner. ~*.

Page  100 100 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. N. B. Rem. 1. Verbs middle E, falling back in their inflexion to the type of verbs middle A, generally lose the E sound, which passes over into ~(-), as the Paradigm shows. The original E appears, however, regularly in the feeble stems it (~ 73, Rem. 1); in strong stems only in pause, i. e. when the stress of voice falls upon it, as:j.s, Job xxix. 10; comp. 2 Sam. i. 23; Job xli. 15. 2. In some feeble stems middle A, the a under the second radical sometimes passes over into - or-, when the syllable is closed and toneless, and the first radical has not a full vowel (~ 27, Rem. 2, 3). Thus trht ye have asked 1 Sam. xii. 13, Wt1.0` ye possess Deut. iv. 1, 22; so also before suffixes li5.x. I have asked him 1 Sam. i. 20,.i1'. I have begotten thee Ps. ii. 7. Such forms must not be considered verbs middle E: the weakening of the vowel is owing simply to the general weakness of the form, and the 3 pers. pret. is strictly 5Dt,.1,'l, l, not Ai, ts, A. See ~ 68, Rem. 4, and ~ 72, Rem. 4. 3. In verbs middle 0, the Cholem is retained in inflexion where it has the tone, as tP'. But when the tone is thrown forward, Cholem becomes Qamets-Chatuph, as I have overcome him, 5?91 (see ~ 48b, 3) and thou tilt be able, Ex. xviii. 23. 4. Unfrequent forms.* Sing. 3fem. in -- (as in Arab..Ethiop. Aram.),, Deut. xxxii. 36. Before suffixes this is the prevailing form (~ 58, 2).-2 mas. rt (the full form) for 1n, as n_5, Mal. ii. 14, comp. Gen. iii. 12. It often occurs.-2 fem. sometimes has still a Yodh at the end; as '^I. h, Jer. xxxi. 21 (according to one form of the pronoun rm_, ~ 32, Rem. 4), especially in Jeremiah and Ezekiel. With this is connected the form '.Ir before suffixes (~ 61, 2).-1 cor. sometimes without Yodh, as 1.~_, Ps. cxl. 13; Job xlii. 2; 1 Kings viii. 48. This however is found only in Kethibh; the Qeri substitutes the full form.-Plur. 2 fer. rnh, Amos iv. 3.-3 con. seldom with the full plural ending t. (often in Chald. and Syr.), as 1tslT, Deut. viii. 3, 16, or with a superfluous t (as in Arab.), as a.n, Jos. x. 24. In the Future the form with 11 is more frequent, see ~ 47, Rem. 4. N. B. 5. In connexion with the afformatives t, 'n, s1, the tone is on the penultima, and the word is Milel; with the others it is Milra (~ 15, 2). The place of the tone is shifted, a) in several persons by the Pause (~ 29, 4), where it is moved backwards and at the same time the vowel of the second syllable, if it had fallen away, is restored, as rtup,.5t, r~. b) By Vav conversive of the Preterite, where it is moved forwards one syllable (48b, 3). * Almost all these forms, which in Hebrew are unfrequent, are the usual ones in the kindred dialects, and may, with a proper understanding of the terms, be called Chaldaisms, Syriasms, and Arabisms.

Page  101 ~ 45. THE INFINITIVE. '101o 7 SECT. 45. OF THE INFINITIVE. 1. The second ground-form of each conjugation is the Infinitive in its shorter form (Infinitive construct), in Kal 5bj. This is the most usual form of the Infinitive, and is employed not merely when a genitive follows, but also, necessarily, when a preposition is prefixed (bpi, bpd.). The longer form (Infinitive absolute), in Kal btl~, is used when the action of the verb is presented by itself, without direct connexion with other words; and most frequently, when the Infinitive is added to the finite verb for the sake of emphasis (see the particulars of this in, 128). The first is the original Infinitive, from which the second was subsequently formed. The first has more of the character of a verbal noun; the second expresses rather the abstract idea of the verb. E. g. 'A nh; Is. xxii. 13, means to slay cattle; but:nn 'i^W would mean the slaying of the cattle. 2. Between biti and bbp, in Kal, there is much the same relation* as between the absolute and the construct states of nouns of this form (see ~ 91, Paradigm III.); with this difference, however, that the Infinitive absolute has Cholem unchangeable, the Infinitive construct Cholem changeable (henc& with Suff. sb.p), while the noun has its final vowel unchangeable in both states. Besides bbp? the Infin. constr. has the following unusual forms: a) bqp, e. g. =:_S to lie Gen. xxxiv. 7. b) nrup and rh'i', btip (feminine forms from bTp and bpt); as t1 o to hate,. pi= to approach Ex. xxxvi. 2, ntro to pity Ezek. xvi. 5. (As a verbal noun, too, the Infin. may take the feminine ending.) c) iUp: (as in Chaldee); e. g. %?:. to call Numb. x. 2. These unfrequent forms are in more common use as verbal nouns (~ 83 Nos. 10, 11, 14). 3. A sort of Gerund is formed in Hebrew by the Inf. constr. * This relation is certainly similar to that which exists between the absolute and construct states in the noun (~ 87). There is a difference, however, both in form and use. The absolute is indeed mostly the longer form; but its vowels are often wholly different, as in Piel bqp.,,absol. iSp., and it is made by lengthening the construct; but the construct is not a shortened form of the absolute. The use of the Infin. constr. is by no means limited to the case where it is fol. lowed by a genitive. In the Paradigms the Inf. constr. as the predominant form is put before the other under the name of Infinitive xaz' 4ozXiw.

Page  102 102 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. with the preposition i, as bp. interficiendo, ad interficiendum bia5 ad cadendum (for to fall). The ' is here so closely connected that it constitutes part of the grammatical form, as appears from the syllable-division and the use of Daghesh lene, namely bu. lin-pol (~ 28, 1), so also liq-tol, just as in the Fut. Lar?, bpy.. On the contrary bD. Job iv. 13, i:b 2 Sam. iii. 34, where the prepositions a and Z are conceived to be less closely connected with the Infinitive. SECT. 46. OF THE IMPERATIVE. 1. The chief form of the Imperative ibp (tp) 'is the same that lies also at the basis of the Future (~ 47), and which, when viewed as an Infinitive (~ 45), is likewise allied to the noun." It expresses only the second person, but has inflexions for the Feminine and the Plural. For the third person it has no form (see ~ 127, Rem. 2); and even the second must be expressed by the Future (in the jussive form, ~ 48) when a negative precedes, as bbp. b ne occidas (not bbp bt). The proper passive conjugations have no Imperative,t but the reflexive Niphal and Hithpael have. 2. The inflexion is quite similar to that of the Future, and it will be comprehended from the explanations given below in ~ 47, 2. Like the Future, the Imperative also has a lengthened and a shortened form, the first in the manner of the cohortative, the second after the analogy of the jussive (see ~ 48, 5). Rem. 1. Besides the form i:p there is also one with Pattach, as:_ (as in the Inf. and Flt.) 2 Sam. xiii. 5. The Pattach is quite regular in "I; from M3M, see the Paradigm. 2. Less frequently there is found in the first syllable of the feminine and Also the Inf. absol. is occasionally used, like the Greel Infinitive, for the Imperative (~ 128, 4, b). But this is no ground for taking the Imperative to be properly an Infinitive; for the Inf. absol. stands also for a Present, Perfect and Future. It might rather be supposed, that the Imper. is a shortening of the 2d person of the Fut. (~iZ from tp.n); but in reality these three forms are each independent, and not sprung one from another, but standing all alike on the basis of the abstract verb (~ 39, 1). The inflexion of the Imper. may rather be borrowed from the Future, than the reverse. t An Imper. is found twice (Ez. xxxii. 19, Jer. xlix. 8) in Hophal, but with a ileinve meaning.

Page  103 ~ 47. THE FUTURE AND ITS INFLEXION. 103 plural form an 6 (Qamets-chatuph) instead of the i, as *~5~: draw ye Ez. xxxii. 20; s.a reign thou f. Judges ix. 10. 3. In the form:1tbp the ri- at times falls away, and then a helping vowel is introduced, as in lt.tS hear ye f. for -ottS Gen. iv. 23; comp. lpt? call ye f. for:ttp Ex. ii. 20. The shortening is probably owing to the guttural. SECT. 47. OF THE FUTURE AND ITS INFLEXION.* 1. Fragments of the personal pronoun are employed in the inflexion of the Future as well as of the Preterite; but in the Future these fragments are prefixed (preformatives)t to the root in the abstract form, viz. the Infin. constr. (bp). These formative particles, inasmuch as they stand before the verbal form, towards the end of which the tone continually tends, are much more abbreviated than the afformatives of the Preterite, so that in every case, only one consonant remains (s1 t, X,,), mostly with a very short vowel, viz. vocal Sheva. But as this is not always sufficient to mark at the same time the distinction of gender and of number, the defect is supplied by additions at the end. 2. The derivation and signification both of the prefonnatives and afformatives, are still in most cases clear. In the 1st pers. ipb, plur. b]p?, $ is an abbreviation of.,: This person required no addition at the end. * In this translation the grammatical terms, used by Gesenius himself and by most other Hebraists, are generally retained, in preference to those adopted by Rodiger after the example of Ewald. A general change of the terminology would occasion inconvenience and some perplexity, particularly in using the best Hebrew Lexicons now extant, while it would scarcely secure advantages to counterbalance. Accordingly the tenses are, here, designated by the usual names. By Rodiger, however, the Future is called Imperfect, as expressing what is unfinished, in progress, and future; in contradistinction from the Perfect, which expresses what is actually finished and past, or conceived to be so (see in the Syntax, ~~ 123-126b). It may be added that Prof. Lee calls the Future the Present tense. In this, however, he seems to stand alone.-Ta. t There is this striking difference in the formation of the two tenses, that the more objective Preterite begins with the verbal stem, and ends with the pronominal sign as something subordinate, while the Future, on the contrary, begins with the pronoun denoting the subject from whom the action of the verb proceeds. See more in the Syntax, ~ 123, &c.

Page  104 104 PART IL. PARTS OF SPEECH. In the 2d pers. sing. the ti. in ~bll is from III-, the 4 — in is the sign of the feminine, as in 'In b thou (feminine, see 1 32, Rem. 4). In the 2d pers. plur. the'. (more fully 'p1, see Rem. 4) in nfp- is the sign of the plural as in the 3d person and already in the Preterite (~ 44, 1), and is here appropriated to the masculine;' 'cl in '#N1*bn is the sign of the plural feminine (in Caldee~-),or borrowed from '13s eae. In the 3d person ~b" the " stands most probably as a stronger consonant for I (from Nils), properly ~b~ because I at the beginning of a word was mostly avoided in Hebrew (~ 68). The n. in the femiines ~bpn which are precisely the same as the second person, is probably allied to the feminine ending ri [or it may come, as Gesenius thought, from Wlo she, by changing lol into ri, which is often done]. 3. In the course of infiexion the final vowel is dropped in some forms, while in others it is retained. In this respect the analogy of ~bp is followed by all the other forms which receive no addition at the end, and that of ~ rIby the forms *up; anlgos to m is -mt~ in the Imperative. Rem. 1. The final o (Cholem) is only tone-long (~ 9, No. 10, 3), as in the Infin. and Imper. Hence, a) The examples in which it is written ful4, are very rare, and are to be regarded as exceptions. b) Before Maqqeph it becomes Qamets-chatuph; e. g. W6.M4 and he wrote there, Josh. viii. 32. c) It becomes vocal Sheva before the afformatives,~- and 1. In the few instances in which it remains before such afformatives, the pointing becomes t1, because it stands close before the pause, e. g. 110'14 yish-pfda (they will judge), Ex. xviii. 26; Ruth ii. 5; comp. Prov. xiv. 3. N. B. 2. This Cholem is confined, almost exclusively, to verbs middle A, like ~Up Intransitive verbs (middle E and 0) take 4 (Pattach) in the Future, as ~11to be great, Putt ~Ir,bp to be small, Put. "ISome times both forms exist together; the Put. with o is then transitive, and that with 4! intransitive. E. g. -it hewl u ffwl ep!P he will be cut of, i. e. will be short. So also Ol~r, Fut. o, to subdue; Fut.4, to be subdued. Ex. xvii. 13; Job xiv. 10. More seldom both occur without any difference in signification; e. g. ~J-~5'4 and JW0 he will bite. In the irregular verbs, the feeble a (Teere) is also found in the final syllable, as 11: for These three forms of the Future are called Puture 0, Put ure A, Future E. * This is also the proper gender of the plural-syllable Qln, 11. It is true that in the Pret. the Hebrew employs it for both genders, but in the kinired tongues, it stands even in the Fret, for the masculine alone; as in Syriac ma:. qtjtalun, fern. q~talen, so in Arabic, mna:. qdtalfz~fem. qattllna.

Page  105 ~ 48. JUSSIVE AND COHORTATIVE FORMS. 105 3. For the 3 plur. fern. tsbpt. is substituted in three instances, to distinguish it from the 2d pers., the form M^t:'p (etymologically more correct), as in Chaldee and Arabic. E. g. lr:ifi they shall arise, Dan. viii. 22; comp. Gen. xxx. 38; 1 Sam. vi. 12. In several instances rst:itpf seems to have been used improperly for the 3d pers. singular, Ex. i. 10; Judg. v. 26 (and according to some Job xvii. 16; Is. xxviii. 3). (In the vulgar Arabic, necul, properly we eat, is the common form for I eat; and in the French patois, javons for fai).-In the Pentateuch I. (na) occurs in place of I3, especially after Vav conversive (~ 48b, 2); e. g. Ex. i. 18, 19; xv. 20, as in Arabic.-A form still more abbreviated is found in the Imp. (~ 46, Rem. 3). -Once occurs (Ezek. xvi. 50) the anomalous form nwz~. with '- inserted, after the manner of verbs si and I5 (~ 66, 4, ~ 71, 5). N. B. 4. The plural forms ending in 1 appear also not unfrequently with the fuller ending 'j, most commonly with obvious stress on the word at the end of a period, where the vowel of the second syllable is then retained, as s.a t they tremble, Ex. xv. 14, s.t~. ye shall hear, Deut. i. 17. But it is not confined to this position; see e. g. Ps. xi. 2, nr% l'i.??; comp. iv. 3, Gen. xviii. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32; Is. viii. 12; 1 Sam. ix. 13. But the preference for this form at the close of a period is clearly seen in Is. xxvi. 11, b. qiSwi tri. 1"!r they see not; may they see and be ashamed.* This original ending 11 is common in Aramrcan and Arabic; yet in the vulgar Arabic it is shortened. Of the Fut. with K, btqiS' Jer. x. 5 is the only example. 5. In like manner ^'b has a longer form with final 1, namely 'i^ib.., which is also common in Aram. and Arabic. The 1- here is scarcely original; probably it arose from imitation of the plural ending 1q. See examples in 1 Sam. i. 14; Ruth ii. 8, 21; iii. 4, 18. 6. In Pause, the vowel of the second syllable, if it had become Sh'va, is restored and takes the tone, as i.p,.btil. Comp. ~ 29, 4. SECT. 48. LENGTHENING AND SHORTENING OF THE FUTURE AND IMPERATIVE. (Jussive and Cohortative Forms.) 1. For the paucity of specific forms to express the relative Tenses and the Moods in the Hebrew and its kindred dialects, a small compensation is made by changes in the form of the Future, to which a certain signification is either exclusively or principally appropriated. 2. We must distinguish, accordingly, between the common * It is worthy of remark, that the Chronicles often omit the Nun where it stands in the books of Kings; see 1 Kings viii. 38, 43; comp. 2 Chron. vi. 29, 33 -1 Kings xii. 24; 2 Kings xi. 5; comp. 2 Chron. xi. 4; xiii. 4.

Page  106 106 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. form of the Future and two others, viz. a lengthened form (with a cohortative force) and a shortened form (with a jussive force) The lengthened Future, however, occurs only in the first person (with unimportant exceptions), while its shortened form is confined to the second and third. In Hebrew, however, the shortspoken Jussive is not always orthographically distinguished from the common form of the Future. In Arabic the distinction is always clear. Besides the common Indicative Future ydqtulu, it has, a) a Subjunctive, ydqtula; b) a Jussive, ydqtul; and c) a so-called Future energic, yaqtulan, which is nearly related to the Heb. Cohortative. 3. The characteristic of the Cohortative is '- (He paragogic) attached to the first person; e. g. bt:ps for bbt. It is found in all the conjugations and in all classes of regular and irregular verbs (except in the Passives), and has the tone wherever it is taken by the afformatives. and -, and hence it affects the final vowel in precisely the same manner as these do. E. g. in Kal, 3tt.; in Piel, r':1^ Ps. ii. 3; but in Hiphil, 11?5-t. In a very few instances 'i- takes the place of r-, (according to ~ 27, Rem. 4), e. g. 1 Sam. xxviii. 15; Ps. xx. 4. As rarely is it attached to the third person (Is. v. 19; Ez. xxiii. 20; Ps. xx. 4). The second person, however, receives it in the Imperative. See No. 5. '-, denotes, as accusative ending to a noun, motion or tendency towards a place (~ 88, 2); and after the same analogy, the Cohortative with this ending expresses effort and the direction of the will to an action. Accordingly it is used especially to express excitement of one's self, determination, wish (as Optative), &c. (see ~ 126). 4. The Jussive occurs only in the second and third persons. It has several modifications of form, which will be described in treating of the conjugations in which it is found. In the regular verb it is confined, as a distinct form, to Hiphil, as btp. for b"?p. It is found in Kal and Hiphil of verbs 1l, as nbr and rno for rnMo and tr"l; and in all the conjugations of verbs ib, where it consists in the removal (apocope) of the ending -..; e. g. b. for bi>. (The name Future apocopated, derived from the mode of forming it in verbs ib, is applied generally to this form of the Future.) But in all cases the plural forms of the Jussive coin

Page  107 ~ 48b. PRETERITE AND FUTURE WITH ' CONV. 107' cide with the common, only that the ending 1- cannot occur. Also the second pers. sing. f. sounds like b.p._, &c. In signification this form is similar to the other, with some modification occasioned by difference of person. In general it expresses command and wish (~ 126). 5. The persons of the Imperative, as it is allied in form and meaning to the Future, are also lengthened (by -1 ) and shortened, in a manner perfectly analogous. So also the Arabic has an Imperativus energicus. In most conjugations only one of these forms is found, in others both are employed. The lengthened Imp. occurs, e. g. in Kal of the regular verb, as 'nI, qFt~ ,:?1, 1nI5; the shortened Imp. in verbs V*, as 1 for rt1; both together in Hiphil, as bup:n and Pnbt.O for bp~. The signification of these forms is not always so strongly marked as in the Future. The longer form, however, is often emphatic,, as Mp stand up,,.mp up!.n. give, Mr* give! SECT. 48b. PRETERITE AND FUTURE WITH VAV CONVERSIVE. 1. The use of the two tenses, as will more clearly appear in the Syntax (~~ 124, 125), is by no means confined to tie expression of the past and the future. One of the most striking peculiarities in their use, and, indeed, in the Hebrew diction generally, is this: that in continued narrations of the past, only the first verb stands in the Preterite, the others being in the Future form; and, on the contrary, in continued descriptions of the future, the first verb is in the Future, while the rest are in the Preterite form. Gen. i. 1: In the beginning created (Pret.) God the heavens and the earth. 3 v. And said (Fut.) God, Let there be light, and there was (Fut.)'light. 4 v. And God saw (Fut.), &c. Just the reverse in Is. vii. 17: Jehovah will bring (Fut.) upon thee, and upon thy people, and upon thy father's house, days, such as have not come since, &c. 18 v. And it will happen (Pret.,n4,) on that day..... 19 v. and they will come (Pret.). This progress of time, this succession of thought, is usually indicated by the Vav copulative, which however in this case, partly, receives itself a somewhat different form, and partly

Page  108 a 108 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. affects the form of the Preterite and Future to which it is prefixed.* 2. The Vav conversive of the Future is the most inportant. This a) is regularly prefixed with Pattach and a Dagliesh forte in the next letter, as bpjl. and he killed, but to the first person sing. with Qamets (according to ~ 22, 1), as 5bpt! and I killed [see another exception with Daghesh f. omited, as '"qli and.'l, in ~ 20, 3, b]; b) it takes a shortened form of the Future, when that exists (comp. ~ 48, 4), e. g. in Hiphil blj.. (~ 52, Rem. 4), and often at the same time draws the tone back to the penultima, as hM.?, shortened rlit, with Vav conversive rnt} (and he died), ~ 71, Rem. 4.t Yet it is often, particularly in the later books, prefixed to the first person sing. with the lengthened form in In~, e. g. MVQRl and Iplucked, Ezra ix. 3. See more in ~ 126, b. In the former editions [all but the 13th] of this Grammar, another view of this Vav was preferred, viz. that it is a shortening of the verb,11 (it was) and is prefixed to the future in order to express the tense of narration. Thus: 5btl_ from lbzp r/1 it was (that) he killed. But it is evident, on the contrary, that the copula (conjunction) lies in the Vav, for 1) this Future with Vav always conjoined to what precedes stands before the noun, as tirbx =._ttl, and where the noun must stand first, the Vav is separated from the verb, e.g. Is. vi. 4: ltsl V nr3:. A.....:*l and they (the thresholds) shook.... and the house was filled with smoke, iii. 16; 2) it never stands after the relative and the conjunctions, which exclude and ('t~ tt S, '); 3) in parallel passages we frequently find it exchanged for a simple 1; see Is. lix. 16; com. ch. Ixiii. 3,5, 6, and also in the same sentence, as in Is. xliii. 28. Though 4) it often stands at the beginaing of entire sections and books, yet this only proves that they are sequels of a former narrative (as in Ex. i. 1 and Ezra i. 1), or at least conceived to be such (as in Ruth i. 1 and Esther i 1). The simple I begins the 1st book of Kings. Another opinion derives '* from nrM, but without any probability. It is better, therefore, to consider -1 as merely a strengthened form of *Since it changes in a degree the meaning of the tenses, it is called by the Hebrew grammarians [including Gesenius] Vav conversive (i. e. converting the Fut. into the Pret., and the Pret. into the Fut.). Better [in the opinion of Ro. diger, who follows Ewald] is the name Vav consecutive, since it essentially de notes sequence or progress. t Also the forms in (.:- and p occur very seldom after Vav conv., ~.~. Judges viii. 1, Ex. xliv. 8.

Page  109 ~ 49. THE PARTICIPLE. 109 Vav copulative (comp. haS, Mas, hab, where the prepositions a, %, b are strengthened in a similar way), in the sense of and then, and so. The shifting back of the tone is found also in similar connexions, like Mt&5, and the shortening of the verb at the end (apocopi) is only accidentally similar to the form of the Jussive, just as its lengthening is to the form of the Cohortative. 3. As the opposite of the above, we have Vav conversive of the Preterite, which joins Preterites to a foregoing future. In form it is the usual Vav copulative (1), e.g.,~l (after a Fut.) and it will be; yet it has generally the effect of shifting the tone to the last syllable in those verbal forms which would otherwise have it on the penultima,* e. g. 4_5M I went, 5_~n (with a Fut. preceding) and I will go, Judges i. 3; ra5,n Pret., M5n.'11. and it shall divide, Ex. xxvi. 33. See more on the use of the Preterite in ~ 124. This shifting forward of the tone does not always take place, and the exceptions are sometimes strange. It does not take place a) in the 1 per. pl. pi '. Gen. xxxiv. 16; b) in verbs a6 and,ib. SECT. 49. OF THE PARTICIPLE. 1. Kal has two forms of the Participle, viz., an active, called also Poel, and a passive or Pa-ul (bVT').t The latter is probably a remnant of a lost passive form of b3_. In the Aramfean the passives of Piel and Hiphil are in like manner lost, except in the participles. 2. The participle active of Kal is connected, in its formation, with the third person of the Preterite, from which it is distinguished only by the longer vowel of the noun-forms, thus: At.., Part. b tp, ' sleeping, from ]t:; "'5 fearing, from A'i. But the Participle that most commonly occurs in verbs middle A, deviates from this form and takes that of btp, the 6 in which has sprung from a, q6tel from q4tel (~ 9, No. 10, 2). The form * Whether the hastening of the tone forward expresses the reference to the future, and, on the contrary, the shifting of it backward, a close connexion with what is past, may be left undecided. t The Jewish grammarians call the participle A (middle word); yet not in the sense of the Latin name, but as used for a present tense, and accord. ingly holding the middle place between the Preterite and the Future. *

Page  110 110 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. S%2j is in common use only as a verbal noun. Compare the mode of forming the Participle in Niphal (~ 83, 1); that of Piel, Hiphil, Hithpael follows a different method. 3. Participles form their feminine and plural like other nouns (g 90, 91). Rem. 1. An unfrequent form is.'iitl supporting Ps. xvi. 5 (foi Tirn from:d), comp.::b 2 Kings viii. 21, and the prop. n. Fein 1 Chron. xxvii. 30. Many reckon here also A.i" Is. xxix. 14; xxxviii. 5, but this is much rather 3 sing.fut. Hiphil of t?:_. Comp. a quite similar construction Is. xxviii. 16. The Cholem in 5ip is unchangeable, though it is generally written defectively. The form it:ii, Is. xli. 7, for t:in is explained by ~ 29, 3, b. 2. The participle in the passive form has not unfrequently an active signification, especially when it belongs to an intransitive verb, which cannot take a passive meaning. Compare in English aged, flown. Thus TnIM means holding (not held), Cant. iii. 8, rn=a confisus for confdens, Ps. cxii. 7. Comp. the deponent verbs in Latin. B. DERIVED CONJUGATIONS. SECT. 50. NIPHAL. 1. The full characteristic of this conjugation is the syllable n (in the corresponding seventh conjugation in Arabic t.) prefixed to. the ground-form. It appears only in the Inf. constr. ~jt?, contracted from ~?]-n. With the Inf. are connected, in form, the Imp. ltpn and the Fut. t?-, contracted from tU~. In the Pret. the (less essential) He has been suffered to fall away, and only Nun remains as the characteristic, hence blp.. The same applies to the Participle, which is distinguished from the Preterite only by the long (T), as bt:, fern.,h. or tr...?. The inflexion of Niphal is perfectly analogous to that of Kal. Niphal may- be distinguished in the Pret. and Part. by the Nun prefixed; in the Imp., Inf., and Fut. by the Daghesh in the first stem-letter. The same marks are found in the irregular verbs; except that where the first stem-letter is a guttural, Daghesh forte must be omitted (~ 62, 4). To compensate for this omission, the preceding vowel is made long (~ 22, 1). 2. Significations of Niphal. It has similarity to the Greek middle voice, and hence a) It is primarily reflexive of Kal, e. g. '.ttD to look ft one's self, to beware, cpvidaaearat 'S11. to hide one's self often in verbs which express passion or feeling, as

Page  111 ~ 50. NIPHAL. ill to trouble one's self, to grieve, MU~ to bemoan one's self, to bewail; comp. 68v'ecata, lamentari, contristari. b) Next it frequently expresses reciprocal action, as to contend with another at law; T~', to counsel, Niph. to consult together; comp. the middle and deponent verbs'waO at, pu~alhzft (O~) altercani, luctari, prceliari. c) It has also, like HithpaOd (~ 53. 3, c) and the Greek Middle, the signification of the Active with the addition of self, for one's self, e. g. ~Nt to ask for one's self (1 Sam. xx. 6, 28), precisely like airoi~rad ae roiro, 46v''acca0as Xcr65va to put on (one's self) a tunic. Here, instead of the accusative, the remote object (usually expressed by the ddtive) lies in the idea of the conjugation. d) It is often also passive of Kal, e. g. '*' to bear, Niph. to be born; likewise of Piid and Iliphil, when Kal is intransitive- or not in use, e. g. '1:- to be in honour, Niph. to be honoured, 'lrl in Phil to'conceal, Hiph. to make disappear, to destroy, Niph. passive of both: and in this case its meaning may again coincide with Kal ('rib Kal. and Niph. to be qick) and even take an accusative (~ 135, 2, Rem. 1). Examples of denominatives are; cordatum fieri, from =~ heart; 11 to be born a male, from 'IZ a male. The older Hebrew Grammarians have represented Niphal as the proper Passive of Kal. This representation is decidedly incorrect; for Niphal has not the characteristics of the other passives. There are still found in Kail traces of' an early passive form (~ 49, 1), and the Arabic has an independent conjugation, corresponding with Niphal (inqatala), wlch has its own Passive; nay, in Hebrew itself there is probably a trace of the Passive of Niphal in the form ~b~ s lix. 3; Lam. iv. 14. According to the usage of the language, the passive signification is certainly the predominant one; but it was first derived from the reflexive. The 7ot prefixed has the force of a reflexive pronoun, like 11M in Hithpa~l.* Rem. 1. The Inf. absol. connects itself, in form, with the Preterite, to which it bears the same rela tion as to Puse. It is the only Infinitive of this kind. Examples of this form, ~,~ rogando 1 Sam. xx. 6, qb desideranclo Gen. xxxi. 30; of the other, IMIr! Jer. xxxii 4; once Ou~t exaudiendo Ez. xiv. 3. The 'i in the final syllable (which is essentially long), this Infinitive form has also in Pi#,l and Pual, and it resembles, in this respect, several Arabic Infinitives, in which there is a corresponding 4. *In other languages, too, the change of the reflexive into the passive is observed. It is still clear in Sanskrit and in Greek how the middle goes before the passive voice; the r at the end of the Latin passive is the reflexive pronoun =.Re; in the ancient Slavic and Bohemian amat-se stands for amatur, in Dacoromanic io wae laudua (I am praised). See Pott' Etymologische Forschungen, Th. 1, S. 133, if. Th. 2. S. 92. Bopp'a Vergleichende Grammatik, 5. 686 I1.

Page  112 112 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. 2. In Pause, Pattach often takes the place of Tsere in the final syllable; e. g.?Il and he was weaned, Gen. xxi. 8, as also in other cases (see p. 80). In the second and third persons plural feminine, the form with Pattach is more common than that given in the Paradigm, e. g. - they shall be remembered, Is. Ixv. 17. 3. When the Fut., or the Inf., or the Imp. is immediately followed by a word of one syllable, the tone is commonly drawn back upon the penultima, and consequently the final syllable, losing the tone, takes Seghol instead of Tsere. E. g. nM tSi- he stumbled at it, Ez. xxxiii. 12; i 'niv. and he heard him, Gen. xxv. 21, comp. t'nrbtn 'I.M and God heard, 2 Sam. xxi. 14; xxiv. 25. In a few words, this form with the retracted tone has become the constant one; as '~^ take heed, Ex. xxiii. 21; tn.;. and he fought, Numb. xxi. 1. 4. A frequent form of the 1 Pers. is b~., as t 1- I will be found, Ez. xiv. 3,.lt. I swear, Gen. xxi. 24. Comp. ~ 68, Rem. 5. SECT. 51. PIEL AND PUAL. 1. The characteristic of this conjugation (Arab. Conj. II. qattak, Aram. b3P2) is the doubling of the middle stem-letter. In the Active, the Fut. hop_ and the Part. Wl~.. (whose preformatives retain their original Sheva) are formed, according to the general analogy, from the Inf. and Imp. btp. The Passive (Pual) has more obscure vowels, and its Infinitive is of the same form witl the Preterite. In other respects the Active and Passive follow the same analogy. In the inflexion of the Preterite of Piel, Pattach takes the place of Tsere in the first and second persons (tp,.ip, qr.i?), which, properly, have for their basis the form l.p. See Rem. 1. The ' which occurs also in the succeeding conjugations as the characteristic of the Part. may be derived from 'it who? in the sense of some one. Piel and Pual are throughout distinguished by the Daghesh in the middle stem-letter. It is omitted only in the following cases:-a) Always when this letter is a guttural (~ 63, 3). b) Sometimes, though rarely, when this letter has Sheva (~ 20, 3, b); as.WVU. Job xxxvii. 3, for.r3im? he directs it; RMt for.t^a) Ez. xvii. 7; xxxi. 4; then also the omission is at times indicated (~ 10, 2, Rem.) by a Chateph under the littera dagessanda; e. g. Mt..b for Mnmlr she is taken Gen. ii. 23; comp. ix. 2; Judges xvi. 16. In the Fut. and Part. the Sheva under the performatives may always serve as a mark of these conjugations. 2. Significations of Piel. a) It denotes intensity and repetition (comp. the Nomina intensiva and iterativa, which are

Page  113 ~ 51. PIEL AND PUAL. 113 also formed by doubling the middle stem-letter, ~ 83, 6-9); e. g. pn. to laugh, Piel to sport, to jest (to laugh repeatedly); 5bCt to ask, Piil to beg; hence it denotes that the action is performed upon many, as '1_ to bury (one), Gen. xxiii. 4, Piel to bury, (many), 1 K. xi. 15. (So in 'Syriac frequently.) This signification of Piel is found with various shades of difference, as nnr to open, Piel to loose; '0. to count, Piel to relate. With the eager pursuit of an object is connected the influence which the subject of it exerts upon others. Hence, b) It has a causative signification (like Hiphil), e. g. tlt to learn, Piil to teach. It often takes the modifications expressed by to permit, to declare or to regard, to help, as tM. to let live; pt. to declare innocent: 1e to assist in child-bearing. c) Denominatives are frequently found in this conjugation, which in general mean to make a thing (sc. that which the noun expresses), or to be in any way occulpied with it; as from ]~ nest,..p to make a nest; from n'V dust, '1. to throw dust, to dust. It also expresses the taking away or injuring the thing or part of which the noun is the name (as in English to behead, to skin, to bone), e. g. ID. (from tAit a root) to root out, extirpate;.T (from =T tail) properly to injure the tail, hence to rout the rearguard of an army; a'd to remove the ashes. So also in verbs whose origin cannot be traced to a noun, e. g. b. to stone, and also to remove the stones, sc. from a field.t The significations of the Passive will present themselves spontaneously, e. g.:a. to steal, Piel to steal, Pual to be stolen. In Piel the proper and literal signification of a word is often retained when Kal has adopted a figurative one, the former being the stronger and more prominent idea. E. g. btt? in Piel to stitch up, in Kal to heal; stM * Analogous examples, in which the doubling of a letter has an intensive force, are found in the German words reolazen, recken; streichen (stringo, Anglo-Saxon strecan), strecken; comp. Strich, Stretke; Wacker, from wachen: others in which it has the causative significatiot., are btechen, stecken; wachen, wecken; in Greek, Tato to bring to an end, from the stein 'iAo to end, yewao to beget, and to bear,. from yivw to come into being. The abuve examples from the German show also that ch when doubled takes the form of kk ck, in accordance with the laws relating to the Daghesh in Hebrew (~ 13, 3). Analogous to the conjugation Pool (~ 54, 1) is cado, to fell, from cado, to fall. t In Arabic, Denominatives of Conj. II. aften express injury done to a member, the removal of vermin or of any injurious thing. This force is not wholly wanting, also,:n the simplest Conj. I. Comp. Hebrew Kal 'Ad (from '"1=) to buy and sell grain, 8

Page  114 114 114 ~~PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. Pill to cut, to hew out, Kal to form, to make; lh,~ Pill to uncover, Kal to reveal. In intransitive verbs also, PIl occurs as an intensive form, but only in poetry, as rt.rM frangi Jer. li. 56; Mn 1 to be open Is. xlviii. 5; lx. 1 1; pir to be drunken, Is. xxxiv. 5, 7. N. B. Rem. 1. The Pret. Pil has frequently ()in the final syllable instead of (),e. g. Mbrt~ to destroy, '11 to break in pieces. This occurs especially before Maqqeph (Eccles. ix. 15; xii. 9) and in the middle of a period, when other words immediately follow; but at the end of a period, Tsere is the more common vowel. Compare bU Is. xlix. 21 with Jos. iv. 14; Esth. iii. 1. Some verbs have Seghol, as to speak, 'I:. to atone, Vtn to wash. A single instance of (-) in the first syllable (after the manner of the Chaldee) is found in Gen. xli. 51, Mt to cause to forget, occasioned by the play upon the name 115MMM. Compare the quad riliteral itno which is analogous, in form, with PiOd (~ 55). 2. The Fut., Inf., and Imp. when- followed by Maqqeph, generally take Seghol in the final syllable, e. g. h le seeks for himself Is. xl. 20; sanctify to me Ex. xiii. 2. So in' Hithpall. In the 1 pers. sing. Fut. besides ~q there occurs also (very seldom) the form 11T$$ Lev. xxvi. 33 (on account of the long vowel following), and" I'W2t Zech. vii. 14 (according to ~ 23, 4, Rem. 2). With Vav cony, we have also ~U for Judges vi. 9. Instead of are found such forms as 'e,e. g. Is. xiii. 18; Ezek. xxxiv. 14. 3. The Inf. absol. has the marked form ~-op as 'ir castigando Ps. cxviii. IS; and in Pual, ni Gen. xl. 15. But more frequently the form ~u is used, e. g. Jer. xii. 17; xxxii. 33. 4. In Pual, instead of Qibbuts is found less frequently Qamets-chatuph. e. g. Vit~u dyed red Nah. ii. 4; comp. iii. 7; Ps. xciv. 20. It is merely an orthographic variation when Shureq takes the place of Qibbuts, as'Ibl Judges xviii. 29. 5. The Part. Pual sometimes occurs without the prefix M; it is then disti-nguished, like the Part. Niph., only by the Qamets in the final syllable, e.g.?~ taken 2 Kings ii. 10; cornp. ' uge ii.8,as Eccles. ix. 12; Hos. 1. 6, 5. SECT. 52. IHIPHIL AND HIOPHAL. 1. The characteristic of the Active is bil with (~ or (-v) prefixed to the stem, and inserted. in the final syllable. From the Inf. ~b*' are formed the Fut. and the Part. ~ 'zn or zrIn ', 07b In the Passive (as in Pual), the Inf. is of the same form with the 3 pers. sing. Preterite; and in its other forms it fcllows the general analogy. The inflexion has nothing pecu

Page  115 ~ 52. HIPHIL AND HOPHAL. 115 liar, except that in the 1 and 2 pers. Pret. the -- falls away and Pattach takes its place, as 5i.p'., X rP; which is explained by the analogy of the Aramman (b0?.), and of the Arabic (btpR), where the I- is not found. It does not appear to be an essential characteristic of the form, but it has arisen out of a shorter vowel. See Rem. 1. The marks of this conjugation are, therefore, in the Pret., Imp., and Inf., the prefix In; in the Fut. and Part., the vowel under the preformatives, which in Hiphil is Pattach, in Hophal Qibbuts or Qamets-chatuph. 2. Significations of Hiphil. It is properly causative of Kal, and in this sense is more frequently employed than Piel (~ 51, 2, b), e. g. NV to go forth, Hiph. to bring out of, to lead forth; t*p to be holy, Hiph. to sanctify. When Kal is transitive, Hiph. takes two accusatives (~ 136, 1). Frequently Piel and Hiphil are both in use in the same signification, as '1_$ to perish, Piel and Hiph. to destroy; but generally only one of them is found, or they have some difference of signification, as in 1;~ to be heavy, Piel to honour, Hiph. to make heavy. Intransitive verbs merely become transitive, e. g. an: to bow (intrans.), Hiph. to bow (trans.). The causative and transitive signification of Hiphil is employed, in accordance with a mode of conception familiar to the Hebrew, for the expression of ideas, which other languages express by intransitive verbs. Especially was any change in one's habit of body conceived (and very rightly too) by the Hebrew as the result of personal agency, and was represented, in the mode of expression, as produced by the individual himself,* e.g. T1' Hiph. to become fat (properly to produce fat); p!n and yrm Hiph. to become strong (properly to develop strength); t'l; Hiph. to become feeble. The same analogy applies to 'tt5 Hiph. to become rich (properly to make, to acquire, riches); also especially to words which express the taking of a new colour, as V.rNt to become red, 14bO to become white, &c. Moreover, what is merely state or condition, becomes in the Hebrew mode of conception, an act, e. g. ltnrt, not to be silent, but properly to keep silence (silentium facere, Plin.);?:.?t to lead a quiet life,:7.~. to prolong (one's stay), to tarry. In such cases there is often an ellipsis, as unts to deal well, rnlrn to do wickedly, properly to make good, or bad (se. in-, b t'?V, which are also often expressed). * The verb Mim to make, is employed in the expression of the same ideas, e. g. to makefat (fatness), for, to produce fat upon his body, Job xv. 27; to make fruits, to make branches, for, to produce, to put forth, Hos. viii. 7; Job xiv. 9. Compare in Latin corpus facere, Justin. 11, 8; robur facere, Hirtius, Bell. Afr. 85; sobolem, divitias, facers, Plin., and in Italian far corpo, farforze, farfrutto.

Page  116 116 116 ~~PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. These remarks apply also to Denominatives, i. e. the verb often expresser, the idea of' producing or putting forth'that of which the original noun is the name, e. g. U54wtll to put forth roots, "41'~jN I to put forth horns. It also expresses the actual' use of a member, as jblbl to listen (properly to make ears); 'Ire to chatter, to 8lander (after the samne analogy, properly to make tongue, to use the tongue freely). The signification of Hophal, as of Niphal, may sometimes coincide with that of Kal, e. g. ~5 potuit, Fut. Hoph. pot ensf]iet, i. e. potenit. Rem. 1. Only the Preterite of Hiphil retains always the '%- of the final syllable (in 3 p. sing. and plur.); on the contrary, the Inf., Imp., and] Fut. frequently take Tsere instead of it (in Chaldee the usual form), although usage generally makes a distinction between forms with i and e. Tsere is in this case only tone-long, and hence in the lengthening of the forms it becomes vocal Sheva, and with gutturals it is changed into Pattach. 2. The Inf. absol. has generally Tsere, with and without Yodh; as Judg. xvii. 3; h7=11 Ex. viii. 11; ~Zt Amos ix. 8. Strictly Chaldee, with Kt instead of the t'i is V9 b mane surgendo Jer. xxv. 3. Unfrequent exceptions, in which the form, with Ts-ere stands for the Inf. constr., are found in Deut. xxvi. 12;.- xxxii. S. 3. The Imp. but seldom takes the form r.ur2 (Ps. xciv. 1 in pause, perhaps also Is. xliii. 8); instead of it are employed the shortened and the lengthened forms and as "j#11 to make fat, 1 pt"fb'attend! The first takes Seghol before Maqqeph, as M —II Job xxii. 21. N. B. 4. In the Fut. of Hiph. the form with Tsere for the jussive is the usual one, as bIU-rn"m make not great Obad. 12, Vi' let him cut off Ps. xii. 4, especially with I convers., as and he divided Gen. i. 4. Before Maqqeph this Tsere becomes Seghol, as and he held him Judg. xix. 4. In the plural (after the manner of th Aramean) it sometimes becomes Sheva, as Innll Jer. ix. 2, 1 Sam. xiv. 22; xxxi. 2. The defective mode of writing Chireq, e. g. is not an essential variationi. 5. The form of the Part, with (.)in the Sing. is doubtful (Is. liii. 3); but perhaps the plurals Vim~M dreamers Jer. xxix. 8, tr1~ 'helpers 2 Chron. xxviii. 23, are derived from this form. The fern. is lnbp; e. g. MkV Lev. xiv. 21. Comp. Gen. xxxv. 8. 6. In the Pret. are sometimes found the forms 1-~= we have reproached 1 Sam. xxv. 7, and '116b I have soiled (with K as: _in Aramwean) Is..ixiii. 3, comp. Job xvi. 7. 7. In the Fut. and Part. the characteristic ti regularly gives place to the preformatives, as ~ 1 'ur, but not to prepositions in the Inf., 1~ because their connexion with the groundfomilesntae than that of the preformatives. To both rules there are some few exceptions, as W'flt~i-t1' he will save Ps. cxvi. 6, for V9W9~i; IrVliM~ he will praise for I'Mi9~ (in verbs 11 only); on the contrary =VU for ' I" to cause tofaint, 1 Sam. ii. 33; comp. Is. xxiii. 11; Ps. lxxviii. 17. N. B. 8. The tone, in Hliphil, does not fall on the afformatives 1, fl-,

Page  117 ~53. HITHPAEL.17 117 and -.They take it, however, in the Pret. when VaV cotweraiv~e is prefixed, as H~'t~l Ex. xxvi. 33. 9.Inth Pssve (Hophal) Pret., Fut., and Part. (&(4 is found in the first syllable as well as 6 (,), ~ur but not so often in the regular verb, e. g. E.xxi32and ll=ab xi.1 x.21, anzi xxii 32 1; Part. ~V~2 Sam. xx.21 ndM nte s.xiv. 19; bu~t 'verbs lb have fz constantly, as '11 (according to ~ 9, 9, 2). 10. The Inf. absol. is distinguished by (.)in the final syllable; e. g. ~rrln fasciando Ez. xvi. 4; 'I- nuntiando Jos. ix. 24. Of the InC. constr. as given in the Paradigm, there happens to be no example in the regular verb. SECT. 53. HITHPAEL. 1. This conjugation connects itself with Pi~l, 'inasmuch as it prefixes to the form Ste the syllable Mi (Chald. Mt, Syr. MV) which, like tl in Niphal, has undoubtedly the force of a reflexive, pronoun, perhaps of the same origin as the particle M~ self (~ 115, 2, Note). 2. The rl of the- syllable Ml suffers the following changes: a) When the first radical of the verb is a sibilant (0, '~ ), it changes places with ri (~ 19, 5), as t3 to take heed, for 'I-m 1r- Vo to be burdened, for ~1rwl With.%, moreover, the transposed rl is changed into the more nearly related 0, as to justify one's self for P71 -'I. (Single exception in Jer. xlix. 3.) b) Before 'I, t, and ri, it is assimilated (~19, 2) e. g. 11,0 to converse, Vo~ to cleanse one's self, V31's? to conduct one's self uprightly; sometimes also before and 0, as Rzwi to prophesy, elsewhere bt=Nl 1~0i for 1;~lo to make one's self ready. Once before I, Is. xxxiii. 1 0. 3. The significations of IHithpai~l. a) Most frequently it is reflexive, but chiefly of Piel, as t'p! to sanctify one's se~f. o~r#l to avenge one's self, rI-INo to gird one's self. Then farther it means: to make one's self that which is expressed by the first conjugation: hence, to conduct one's self as such, to show one's self, to imagine one's self, to affect, to be such; properly to make one's self so and so, to act so and so. E. g. to make one's self great, to act proudly, I= MM to show one's -See also in Hebrew 1ZJJTM$ 2 Chron. xx. 35.

Page  118 118 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. self cunning, crafty, also, Eccles. vii. 16, to think one's self wise; 't n to make, i. e. to feign one's self rich. Its signification sometimes coincides with that of Kal, and both forms are in use with the same meaning, e. g. b5 Kal to mourn, is found only in poetry; Hithp. in the same sense, is more common in prose, and even takes an accusative (~ 135, 2, Rem. 1). b) It expresses reciprocal action (like Niph. ~ 50, 2, b), as 'ini to look upon one another Gen. xlii. 1. More frequently c) It expresses what one does indirectly to or for himself (comp. Niph. ~ 50, 2, c). It has then an active signification, and governs an accusative, e. g. qSrnI exuit sibi (vestem), IrlBtr solvit sibi (vincula). So without the accusative, Ii:'n. to walk about for one's self (ambulare). Only seldom d) It is passive, e. g. 1iin, to be numbered, mustered, Judges xx. 15, 17, xxi. 9. Comp. Niphal. ~ 50, 2, d. The passive Hothpaal is found only in the few following examples, ~spnmr (so always for 'Srenr) they were mustered, Numb. i. 47; ii. 33, sMKUn to be rendered unclean; tSwn to be washed; I:MSi. it is smeared with fat. Denominatives with the reflexive signification are: "'nln to embrace Judaism (make one's self a Jew), from 'i.n, nmwTh Jews; 'ltr_ to supply one's self with food for a journey, from Mri'. N.B. Rem. The Preterite, as in Piel, has frequently Pattach in the final syllable, as pnnn to be strengthened, 2 Chr. xiii. 7; xxi. 4. Final Pattach occurs also in the Inf., Fut., and Imp., as tonn_ he deems himself wise, Eccles. vii. 16; Wtrn sanctify thyself Jos. iii. 5. In Pause these forms take Quamets, as ^b-r) Ez. vii. 27. With the form in Piel Mtt:2tP (~ 51, Rem. 2) comp. Hithp. n'::Btnr. Zech. vi. 7. SECT. 54. UNUSUAL CONJUGATIONS. Of the unusual conjugations (~ 40, 2) some are connected, in form, with Piil, and are made by the doubling or the repetition of one or more stem-letters, or by the insertion of a long vowel, i. e. by changes within the stem itself; others are analogous to Hiphil and are formed by the addition of prefix letters or syllables. To the former class, besides a passive distinguished by the vowel in the final syllable, belongs also a reflexive form with the prefix tn, after the analogy of Hithpael. Those which are analogous to Piel, and which follow it m their inflexion, are:

Page  119 ~54. UNUSUAL CONJUGATIONS. 1 119 1. Poel; as bniin, pass. ~Ulp re~flex. ~zprl (corresponding to Conj. III. and VI. in the A~rabic qdtala-, qittila, taqdtala), Putt. ~qiPar.'pz Fat. pass. ~tAF?'n, &c. In the regular verb it but seldom occurs. Unquestionable examples are: Part. lift my judge, Job ix. 15; "I-lli I have appointed 1 Sam. xxi. 3 (unless we should read Nnrlif); O'i~tt to tak#~ root, Denom. from t'i root. In verbs V~ (~ 66) it is far more frequent; Its signification, like that of PiM, is often causative of Kal. Sometimes both are in use in the same signification, as yr~il and y'ri to oppress; sometimes each has its peculiar modification of meaning, as to turn about, to change, ttt to go about, to surround; ~I to exult, ~~ir to make foolish (from ~15 to be brilliant, but also to be vain-glorious, foolish); "11 to make pleasant, J~iMi to commiserate; 131 to root out, &Ii to take root. With ~ti is connected the formation of quadriliterals by the insertion of a consonant at the end of the first syllable, as D ~ 0,3) 2. Pilel, Pulal, Hithpa-lel; as ~Upand up pass reflex. b~qpr -j like the Arabic Conj. IX. iqtalla, and XI. iqtdlla, used especially of permanent states or conditions, e. g. of colours, as ~tjto be at rest, ~i2to be green, Pass. ~~hto be withered; of these verbs there is no example in Kal. It is more frequent in verbs ).V, where it takes the place of Pi~l and Hithpael (~ 71, 7). 3. Pealal; as Huts with repetition of the last two stem-letters, used especially of slight mo tions repeated in quick succession; e. g. 'IlII to go about with quick motion, hence (of the heart) to palpitate, Ps. xxxviii. ii1, from 'I to go about; Pass. 'InU to ferment with violence, to make a rumnbling sound, Lain. i. 20.- Nouns of this form are diminutives (~ 83, 23). Nearly related to this is 4. Pilpel, formed from verbs rw and ~.V by doubling both of the essential stem-letters; as =1t from:M= *' from ~Z (~~M). This also is used of motion rapidly repeated, which all languages are prone* to express by repetition of the same sound, as to chirp, ~%~ to tinkle, %I to gurgle, ~~ to flutter (from ~V to fly). With Hiphil are connected: 5. Tiphel; as ~:p wihvprfxda n to teach one to walk, to lead (denom. from bVi afoot); 'IIM Fut. ItTIMM" to emulate Jer. xii. 5; xxii. 15 (from rI"M to be ardent, eager). The Aranmman has a similar form tbh?2 to interpret. ~'Compare tinnio, tintinnus, and in German Ticktack, Wirrwarr, KMingklang [our ding doing]. The repetition of the same letter in verbs T.V produces also the same effect; as in ~pp~ to lick, to beat, ~VD to trip along. Other languages express the same thing by diminutive forms; comp. in Lat. the termination -illo, as in cantillo, in Germ. -elnm, ern, in flimmemn, trillern, tropfeln [comp. our drip, dribble). Hence we may exphi~n the relation, mentioned under No. 3, between these forms and the diminutive.#.

Page  120 120 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. 6. Shaphel; as Sb.t, frequent in Syriac, as an: 5 to flame, from thr. In Heb. it is found only in the noun n.b_ flame, ~ 83, No. 35. * * * * Forms of which single examples occur:-7. i s?, pass. t;r-; as tDO n scaled off having the form of scales, Ex. xvi. 14, from ttiv, rin to peel, to shell.-8. tli, as.! a violent rain, from _5. —9. b rUp. (frequent in the Rabbinic), a form compounded of Niphal and Hithpael, found in the examples.rti s for.-NDI they suffer themselves to be warned, Ez. xxiii. 48, B.S= for '1D.M to be expiated, Deut. xxi. 8. We may mention also,-10. the form t'it: to sound the trumpet, commonly derived from the stem.-n. But it is probably a denom. from tXlMsn a trumpet, an onomatopoetic form like the old Latin taratantara = tuba. Ennius apud Servium ad ZEn. 9, 526. SECT. 55. QUADRILITERALS. Of the formation of quadriliterals we have already spoken (~ 30, 3). The few verbs of this kind (of nouns there are more) are formed after the analogy of Piel, once after Hiphil. The following are all the examples that occur: - Pret. TIts he spread out, Job xxvi. 9 (with Pattach in the first syllable, as in Chaldee). Fut. inttn he will devour it, Ps. lxxx. 14. Pass. tuan to become green again, Job xxxiii. 25. Part. 5bten girded, 1 Chr. xv. 27. After Hiphil b ni.'i contracted b.'witl. to turn to the left (denominative from b~n), Gen. xiii. 9 and other places. C. REGULAR VERB WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES.* SECT. 56. The accusative of the Pronoun which follows a verb active may be expressed 1) by a distinct word, Mt (the sign of the accusative) with the suffix (~ 101), as irn bj? (he has killed him); or 2) by a mere suffix, as.1Vb:h or iUp (he has killed him). The second method is the usual one, and it is only of it we now treat.t This matter embraces two points, viz., the form of the suffix, and the changes in the verbal form in consequence of appending it. The former is exhibited in ~ 57, and the latter in ~~ 58-60. * We treat- this subject here in connexion with the regular verb, in order to show in it the general analogy. As to the irregular verbs, the mode of shorten. ing their forms before the suffixes will be noticed under each class. t On the cases where the formner must be employed see ~ 119, 3.

Page  121 ~578. SUFFIX OF THE VERB.12 121 SECT. 57'. % ~~THE SUFFIX OF THE VERB. 1. The suffixes appended to the verb express the accusative of the personal pronoun; and they are the following: S~ingular. 1. comm. h~ ';~ me. m.~i(ekha), in1 2. pause T* jthee. {f. ~~;~-;;~ her. Plural. 1comm. ~;~,~ US. Mi. M - ~ contr.' from W11),n a (contr. from tzr.), 5~ 3. ~ ~ t;: 2. These suffixes clearly are, for the most part, shortened forms of the personal Pronoun, and only some of them require explanation. In the suffix of the second person (~,~ )the basis appears to be a lost form of the pronoun Mn1?M with Dt instead of rl ~ ri~; ~ which was employed here in order to disstinguish the suffixes from the afformatives of the Preterite (~ 44, 1). In the third person masc. out of I'M- by rejecting the feeble h there arose d-u, and thence 6" (~ 7', 1), usually written Si, much more seldom,0. In the fem. the suffixes from bto ought, according to analogy, to sound M1, M-., but instead of Mwe have, for the sake of euphony, simply 'o1 where the M is regularly a consonant and therefore marked with Mappiq. Once (Ez. xli. 15) 91j0 stands for 'M, as in Chaldee and Arabic. 3. The variety in the forms of the suffixes was occasioned by Won occurs very seldom as verbal suffix (Deut. xxxii. 26), ",' not at all. Yet they are given in the list as being ground-forms, which frequently occur with nouns and prepositions. t Traces of this lost form appear still in the afformatives of the.Ethiopic Preterite, as qatalka (thou hast killed), and also in the Samaritan (see Gesenji.Anecdota. Orientalia, I. 43). Comp. what was said in ~ 44, 1, on -i~p The forms with t and k are not unfrequently interchanged in languages generally [see ~ 33, 3, Note].

Page  122 122 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. the regard had to the form and tense of the verb which received them. Thus three forms of almost every suffix may be distinguished: a) One beginning with the consonant itself, as Id,..,?1,, 0, &c. This is appended to verbal forms which end with a vowel, as t?.;?, T tl;,e. b) A second and a third with the so-called union-vowels* (' -,. —). for the verbal forms which end with a consonant: with the union-vowel a for the forms of the Preterite, as 'ip, t?:bp, Ob~p; with the union-vowel e (rarely a) for the forms of the Future and Imperative, as.ebi:,:}~. Of the suffix i the same holds good as of 1-; from which it comes. With A, ~?, ]~ the uniting sound is only a half-vowel (vocal Sheva), as T-, -, - 1- e. g. ~: (qetalekha); or when the final consonant of the verb is a guttural, —., e. g. Tn1bt. In Pause this Sheva becomes a Seghol with the tone,.. Rem. 1. As rare forms may be mentioned: Sing. 2 pers. m. -n: 1 Kings xviii. 44, in pause:-7 Is. lv. 5, and mh — Prov. ii. 11; fem. em, a:- Ps. cxxxvii. 6, and in the later Psalms frequently. (-. contrary to the rule appended to the Pret. in Judges iv. 20.)-In the 3 pers. masc. i Ex. xxxii. 25; Num. xxiii. 8: fem. t'- without Mappiq Num. xv. 28; Jer. xliv. 19.The forms iu, i-;, it- are strictly poetic (except. Ex. xxiii. 31); instead of i we find 4M once in Ex. xv. 5. On the origin of these forms see ~ 32, Rem. 7. 2. By comparing these suffixes of the verb with the suffixes of the noun (~ 89) we discover: a) There is here a greater variety of forms than there (because the forms and relations of the verb are themselves more various); b) the verbal suffix, where it differs from that of the noun, is longer, as ~, ':.-, '."?-. (me); *-. (my). The reason is, that the object of the verb is less closely connected with it, than the possessive pronoun is with the noun: on which account also the former may even be expressed by a separate pronoun (~ 119, 3). 4. The suffix gains still more strength, when instead of the union-vowels there is inserted a union-syllable:-, -. (commonly called Nun epenthetic, but better Nun demonstrative), which, however, occurs only in the Future and in pause, e. g. ~ n?:m= he will bless him (Ps. lxxii. 15),.:!:i_ he will honour * We retain the common name union-vowel [Bindevocal], although it rests on a rather superficial view and is somewhat vague. These union-sounds seem for the most part to be residues of ancient terminations of the verb. Take, for - example, the Hebrew form qetal-ani when compared with the Arabic qatala-ns.

Page  123 ~ 58. PRETERITE WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. 123 me (Ps. 1. 23). This Nun is, however, for the most part incorporated with the suffixes, and hence we have a new series of forms, namely, 1 pers. f-, 3-., for i —, ~-; 2 pers. 3-, once s-: (Jer. xxii. 24); 3 pers. 13:- for r-, also i: (Num. xxiii. 13); fern.;3:-, foi 5^- T; ' V 1 pers. plur. I.n for ':-_. In the other persons this Nun does not occur. Rem. The forms with Nun distinctly written are rare, only poetic (Jer. v. 22), and do not occur at all in 3fem. sing. and 1 plur. The contracted forms (with the Nun assimilated) are rather frequent, especially in pause. This Nun is of a demonstrative nature, and belongs to the appended accusative of the personal pronoun, to which it serves to direct attention as to the object of the verb. In Chaldee besides the Nun there is also inserted a Yodh with consonant power, in Samaritan a 5 is appended also to the Preterite, and in similar cases a r inserted. SECT. 58. THE PRETERITE WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. 1. The endings (afformatives) of the Preterite have in part a different form, when connected with the suffixes. Namely: a) In the 3 sing. fern. n_, n-, the original feminine ending, for Aw; b) 2 sing. masc. besides rn also.1 to which the union-vowel is attached, but the only clear instance of it is with '- i c) 2 sing. fern. E, likewise an older form for P1 (comp. 'tl., n.Dj ~ 32, Rem. 4; ~ 44, Rem. 4). This form is to be distinguished from the first person sing. only by the context. d) 2 plur. masc. In for t:1, which is explained by the Arabic antum, qataltum, Chald. lV.l, X. iV_?p for t:, O:b. t (~ 32, Rem. 5). Of the fern. Ri_?P with suffixes there is no instance, but probably it took the same form as the masculine. We exhibit, first, the forms of the Preterite in Hiphil as they appear in connexion with the suffixes, because here no further change takes place in the stem itself, except as to the tone (see No. 2):

Page  124 124 124 ~~PART II PARTS OF SPEECH. ASing. Plur. 3 m. ~%po 3 c. 421 3 f 2 m. zr, ~2 m. 2.,t 1C. 1.C. 2. The tone inclines towards the appended suffix, so that it never remains on the stem itself. And this occasions, particularly in the Preterite of Kal, certain vowel changes, in consequence of which we have in it the following forms: ASing. Plur. 3 m t. (bt~ Rem. 1) 3 c. 2 m.) V (r ~: Rem. 4) 2 m, i. t 2 f. ~ (,Rem. 4) 1C. C. c These forms are exhibited in connexion with all the suffixes in Paradigm C. It will be seen there too, how the Tsere in Piel changes sometimes into &eghol and sometimes into vocal ~Sheva. Rem. 1. The szflixes for the 2d p. plural,- W and J~, are (together with t: and IM-) rather weightier [more strongly accented] forms than the others, and hence are called grave suffixes. They always have the tone, and cause in the 3 m. sing. of Pret. Kal a greater shortening than the others (called light suffixes), e.g. J, U- The difference has still greater effect in the case of noun~s (1 89). 2. I~n the 3 sing. masc. Nr~; is also contracted into iqjnt. according to ~ 23, 5, and so likewise in the 2 sing. mase. into 3. Thd, 3 -sing. fern. r1~ rI (= rn)has the twofold peculiarity, that it a) constantly draws the tone to itself, except with and J~ (see Rem. 1), and then takes tbe suffixes that make a syllable of themselves ('9, ~ n T) V,~.1) without a union-vowel, contrary to the general rule (~57, 3, a);- b) with the other suffixes it takes indeed the union-vowel, but draws the tone back on the penultima, so that they appear with shortened vowels (~., ~.),e. g. 1:15" she loves thee Ruth iv. 15, cniniv it bur.neth then; Is. xlvii. 14, == she has stolen them Gen. xxxi. 32. Forba &c. we find in pause lim- Ps. lxix. 10, -'M Cant. viii. 5, and also without pause, for the sake of correspondence in sound, (she has borne thee) in the same verse (Cant. viii. 5). The forms In. n U are contr. from ~ ~ ~, after the analogy of l- or.r (~ 57, 4).I

Page  125 ~59. FUTURE WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES'. 125 4. In the 2 sing. masc. n~up is always usea; and the suffixes have no union-vowel, except in N- fromn?'~ad~.g tto searchest me Ps. cxxxix. 1, but also '%-W thou hast forsaken me Ps. xxii. 2. In the 2 sing. fern. Nl- is written also defciey ~ Jr v 0 at iv. 9; Ex. ii. 10; instead of it the mase. form is also used lthou (fern.) adjurest us Cant. v. 9; Jos. ii. 17; and with Tsere 5. From a verb middle 0 we have I have subdited him. P,. xiii. 5, with a shortened o in a syllable that has lost the tone. SECT. 59. FUTURE WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. In the forms of the Future which end with the last stem. letter, the vowel o of the final syllable is shortened generally to simple ~Sheva vocal (),at times to Chateph- Qamets (-_) Jer. xxxi. 33; but to Qamets- Chatuph (-) before 1,,.Instead of 7 t-bIn the form *tUpn * is used as 2d and as 3d person, Cant. i. 6; Jer. ii. 19; Job xix. 15. The form with Nun demonstrative (i57, 4) is apt to be used at the end of the clause or period..N. B. Rem. 1. Verbs with Fut. A (to which belong all that have a guttural for the third radical) retain the full A in the Fut. and Imp.; and the Pattach, when it comes to stand in an open syllable, is lengthened into Qamets, e. g. ":f~Z0 send me Is. vi. 8, 4: 6 it put me on Job xxix. 14, ~t~ let them demand it back Job iii. 5. 2. Occasionally, as exception;, suffixes occur also in the Fut. with the. union-vowel a, as =5 Ex. xxix. 30; comp. ii. 17; Gen. x.ix. 19; xxix. 32. 3. The suffixes are at times appended also to the plural forms in 11, e. g. ye crush me Job xix. 2, elsewhere always without a unionvowel they wilt find me Prov. i. 28; Is. lx. 7, 10; Jer. v. 22. 4. In Pijl the Tsere of the final syllable, like the Cholem in Kal, becomes Sheva; but before the suffixes 1,, it is only shortened into Seghol, e. g. J~,qn he will gather thee Deut. xxx. 4, more rarely into Chireq, as t~ 1 t'iwill -strengthen you Job xvi. 5; comp. Ex. xxxi. 13; Is. xxv. 1. In Hiphil the Chireq remains; rarely there are forms like Mlfr thou enrichest it Ps. lxv. 10; 1 Sam. xvii. 25. Comp. ~ 52, Rem. 4. SECT. 60. INFINITIVE, IMPERATIVE, AND PARTICIPLE WITH SUF.. FIXES. 1. The Infinitive of a verb active can be construed accusative, and then it takes the verbal &uftix (i. e. the acc. of *This form is also found as feminine, without a suffix, Jer. xlix. 11; Ez ixxviL. 7.

Page  126 12b PART H. PARTS OF SPEECH. the personal pronoun), as ^ p, to kill me; but as noun it can take also the nominal suffix (the genitive), as.t.p my killing (see ~ 130, 1). In either case it assumes the form bi?, like the segholate nouns of the form bp, with which bpu? is nearly allied (~ 91, Paradigm VI.). Rem. 1. The Inf. of the form =:_ becomes with suffixes n.i. Gen. xix. 33, like nouns of the form O2i. 2. Before i,, b a, H., are found forms which depart from the analogy of segholate nouns, e. g. =b.:X your eating Gen. iii. 5, 1?n thy standing Obad. 11. The analogy is adhered to, however, in I::.bP your harvesting Lev. xix. 9, and:tas (mo —osekhm) your contemning Is. xxx. 12. 2. What has been said of the Inf. applies also to the leading form bti? of the Imp. The forms t.pi,.eb., which are not presented in the Paradigm, suffer no change. For the fern.,lbup is substituted the masculine form tOip, as in the Future. On..nW. see ~ 59, Rem. 1. 3. In the Participles the shortening of the vowels is the same as in nouns of the like form, e. g. Up, _pt, according to ~ 91, Parad. VII. On the difference between %'..p and.tb?, see ~ 132, 2. II. OF THE IRREGULAR VERB.* A. VERBS WITH GUTTURALS. SECT. 61. Verbs which have a guttural for one of their three stem-letters are governed, in their deviations from the regular verb, by the general principles laid down in ~ 22. Of course g and rl come under consideration here only when they retain their power as consonants; ' also partakes only in part of these anomalies (~ 22, 4). For convenient representation, we distinguish the cases in which the guttural is the first, second, or third stemletter. The Paradigms D, E, and F, in which those conjugations which are wholly regular are omitted, exhibit their infiexions, and the following sections explain them more fully. * See the general view of the classes in ~ 41.

Page  127 ~ 62. VERBS PE GUTTURAL. 127 SECT. 62. VERBS PE GUTTURAL. E. g. 'IM to stand. Parad. D. The deviations from the regular verb are as follows:1. When the first stem-letter, at the beginning of the word: requires a simple Sheva (b:, Uti:p), in these verbs it takes one of the composite Shevas (~ 10, 2; ~ 22, 3), e. g. Inf. 'i:, b A. to eat, Pret. on.II, Q:rSn from tYn to be inclined. 2. When a preformative is prefixed to such forms, it takes the vowel which lies in the Chateph (~ 28, 2), as umst, Q'in he will dream, Jbb he will gather; or the composite Sheva conforms to the vowel of the preformative, when the latter is an essential characteristic of the form; e. g. Pret. Niph. WS. (for?.3.), Hiph. T.,s. (for ', Inf. and Fut. 11.t~U, '-'1., Hoph. Pret. t.,, FPut. p1as. (On the Methegh in these forms see ~16, 2, a.) In many verbs, however, the guttural, especially n, when it stands after a preformative at the end of a syllable, retains the simple Sheva; but in this case the preformative always has the vowel corresponding to the composite Sheva, which the guttural would take according to the above rule. E. g. Fut. Kal n.* he will desire, ~n he will bind, Niph. ~^ to change one's self, 'WT girded, Hiph. M.nn to cause to fail. The Grammarians call this the hard, the former with the comp. Sheva the soft combination. Both forms often occur in the same verb. 3. When in forms like '2W7, qu., the vowel of the final syllable becomes a simple Sheva vocal, on the addition of a sufformative (1, 1_, n-;), the composite Sheva of the guttural is exchanged for its short vowel, as * p, plur..at_ (speak yddmedht); r,'t she is forsaken. But here also there is besides a harder form, as.en! they take a pledge,.IpTn as well as ~LpTn they are strong. See in general ~ 22, 4, ~ 28, 3. 4. In the Inf., Imp., and Fut. of Niph., where the first stemletter would regularly be doubled (b5?jp, u p.), the doubling is always omitted, and the vowel of the preformative is lengthened into Tsere, as qW. for W:^. REMARKS. I. On Kal. 1. In verbs At the Inf. constr. and Imp. take (-) under the first letter (according to ~ 22, 4, Rem. 2); as '$t gird Job xxxviii. 3, =ns love thou

Page  128 128 128 ~~PART IL. PARTS OF SPEECH. Hoe. iii. 1, blt with a prefix lib6 ~~6 The (-)ifonheeol when the tone is forcibly th'rown forward; e.- g. 0It M_ o 3 Num. xxvi. 10. For the same reason we have =-'ntm not ori1imm. In the other forms also of the lImp. the guttural often exerts its influence upon the vowel, which it changes to Seghol, as lli.r~ Is. xlvii. 2, obn'l Job xxxiii. 5, especially when the second radical is also a guttural, as 1=b Ps. xxxi. 24. Pattach occurs in ti Prov. xx. 16. 2. The Fut. A, as the Parad. shows, has regularly under the first two letters —;and with the hard combination -, as ~%M he ceases, C21 he is wise. This is also true of those verbs whi-ch are a-t t..he same time 0t_', as Mr"1' he sees, MM he divides. Less frequently the pointing i-s ' found also in verbs Fid. 0; as IsM ~VM he lays bare. Quite unique is the form =.ene and -she loves Ez. xxiii. 5. In these forms the pointing..,is frequently shortened to — ~ (acrig ot2,Re.5;a he binds, plur..11M tr.t II. On Hiphil and Hophal. 3. The rule given in Rem. 2 respecting..~and -c-applies again here in the Pret. after Vav conversive; i. e. the throwing forward of the tone occasions a change of ee6 into a5, as r-'lai thou didst set, n"V1 and thou wilt set, Num. iii. 6; viii. 13; xxvii. 19; ll'"-17n I 4. In the Pret. of Hiph. -— is sometimes changed into -,and.into. —in Hoph. Pret. by prolonging the short vowel, which was sustained by Methegh, e. g. ri~- Jos. vii. 7; M~1 Hab. i. 15; al'oI5 Nah. ii. S. III. In General. 5. In the verbs * to live, and 61" to be, the guttural is treated as such in very few forms; Fitt. Mlnl M1ri The rule given under No. 1 is indeed true of these verbs, hence ni"Mt; but so soon as a letter is prefixed, the first radical drops the peculiar pointing of the guttural, as riner~i, m tn'M E z. xxxvii. 5, 6. SECT. 63. VERBS AYIN GUTTURAL. E. g. WM?2 to slaughter. Parad. E. The deviations from the regular verb are not so great aii in the former class, and are mainly as follows:' 1. Where a simple Sheva is required, the guttural takes without exception the composite Sheva (..E. g. Pret. I= t FaPt. wvt~' Imp. Niph. ivrtn In the Imp. the vowel, supplied * Hophla, which is not exhibited in the Paradigm, is varied like Kal. HiPhil is regular.

Page  129 ~64. VERBS LjAMEDH GUTTURAL. 129 under the first radical, conforms to the Chateph of the second as So in the Inf. Kal-fem., as Mtlb to love, 'M1. to languish. 2. As the preference of the gutturals for the A sound has generally less influence on the following than on the preceding vowel (~ 22, 2), so not only is the Cholem in Inf. Kal 'Cro UM'O retained, but also, for the most part, the Tsere in Put. Niph. and Piel t2* CM and even the more feeble &eghol (after Vav conversive) CM3!11. But in the Fut. and Imp. of Kal the last syllable generally takes (,through the influence of the guttural, even in transitive verbs, e. g. =tj I =76; nr nm (seldom as cold); and in the Pret. Pikl also, Pattach occurs more frequently than in the regular verb, as t2M 3. In Piel, Pual, and Hit/p., the Daghesh forte of the middle stem-letter cannot stand; but in the greater number of examples, particularly before I,, MI, and r, the preceding vowel remains short, the guttural having Daghesh forte implicitum (~ 22, 1). E. g. Piel P1i Inf. P~ to jest; Pual, 71 to be washed; Hithp. IIMWI cleanse yourselves. Before N the vowel is commonly prolonged, and always before 'I, as Piel jt' to refuse, to bless, Flit. -.e' Pass. seldom as JM~ to commit adultery. Rem. 1. In Piet and Hithp. the tone is sometimes drawn back upon the penultima, and the T-sere of the final syllable shortened to Seghol; viz, a) Before a word of one syllable (according to ~ 29, 3, b), as =r5b in order to serve there Deut. xvii. 12, comp. Gen. xxxix. 14; Job viii. 18. b) After Vav conversive, as r~b9 and he blessed Gen. i. 22),5%% and he drove out Ex. x. I11, comp. Gen. xxxix. 4. 2. The following, are unfrequent anomalies in the Pret. PO~: Tnrlt the1, delay Judges v. 28 for -1m and the similar form r9:nb' she conceivted mePs. Ii. 7 for "Z r19 or r=M'. SECT. 64. VERBS LAMEDH GUTTURAL. E. g. 1*5 to svend. Parad. F. 1. According to ~ 22, 2, a and b, we here distinguish two, cases; viz, either the regular vowel of the final syllable remains, and the guttural takes Pattach furtive, or the full vowel Pattachl takes the place of the regular vowel. The more partictilar state., ment is as follows: 9

Page  130 130 130 ~~PART IIL PARTS OF SPEECH. a) The strong unchangeable vowels h4-.,, i). (~ 25, 1) are always retained; hence Inf. absol. Kal Midy Part. pass.rlt Hiph. r1161 Put. M~t Part. M~'n 0 though less firm is also retained in the Iuf. constr. M~t in order to dis~ tinguish it from the Imp. (as in verbs T guttural). b) The merely tone-long 0 in the Fut. and Imp. of Kal becomes Pattach, as T*5 rJbt. (With suf' %rbtl see ~ 59, Rem. 1.) c) Where Tsere is the regular vowel of the last syllable, the forms with final Tsere and final Pattach are both employed. Usage, however, makes a distinction in these forms. Thus: In the Part. Kal and Piel ristI,?!i is the exclusive form, and the full Pattach first appears in the constr. state, ri~5, nltm In the Fut. and Inf. Niph. and in the Pret.-lnf. and Fut. Piel, the form with (-=) is employed at the beginning and in the middle of a period, the one with at the end, and in Pause. E.'g. YVrW' it is diminished Num. xxvii. 4 and VIV xxxvi. 3; he cleaves Hab. iii. 9, and Vjn.; Ez. xiii. 11; Y1~- to swallow Hab. i. 13; Num. iv. 20. It may further be observed that the Inf. absol. retains Tbere, which is lost in the Inf. constr. E. g. li~tk0 Deut. xxii. 7, else Mri t. In Hiph. the shortened forms of the Imp. and Fut. admit only (-) e. g-. M211prosper, r11 and lie trusted; but the In~f. absol. takes ()as er to make high, hut as Inf_ constr. also Mish occurs Job vi. 26. 2. The guttural here, has simple Sheva whenever the third radical regularly takes it (because it is JSh'va quiescent, which is generally retained even under gutturals ~ 22, 4), as lit Win-3t. But in the 2 fern. Pret. a helping-Pattach takes its place, as ti~ (~ 28, 4), yet more rarely also Mp Gen. xxx. 15 and rIrb 1 Kings xiv. 3. The softer combination with composite Sheva occurs only a) In some examples of the 1 plur. Pret. when the tone is thrown forward, as 11)1 we know thee lbs. viii. 2; comp. Gen. xxvi. 29. 6) Before the suffixes 1, in, 1, as 1 t1~~ 1 will send thee 1 Sam. xvi. 1, r2b-lke Gen. xxxi. 27, IIPIO Jer. xviii. 2. B. CONTRACTED VERBS. SECT. 65. VERBS ~.E. g. %~~ to approach. Parad. H. The irregularities of these verbs, arising from the feebleness of the nasal letter Nun, are as follows:

Page  131 ~65. VERBS *J~ 13 131 1. The Imp. and Inf. constr. often lose (by aplisresis, 19, 3) their Nun, which would here take Sheva, as tl for t. The ~nf. then, however, has regularly the feminine ending rl:5, or, with a guttural, rl-hZ (~ 79, 2), as 11t~, rl~ to touch (from ) The Imp. has usually Pattach; but also Tsere, as 11~ give (from Frequently it takes the lengthened form, as 101 give uip. 2. Whenever Nun, after a preformative, stands at the end of a syllable, it assimilates itself to the following stern-letter (~ 19, 2, a): viz. a) in the Put. Kal, e. g. he will fall for ~kl t~- for t~l 11~- he will give for 1 th Pt.0,asi the regular verb, most common, the Put. B only in this example'5); b) In the Pret. Niph., e. g. t~- for t~= c) In the whole of Hiphil and Hophal (which here has always Qibbuts), e. g. t"V for t"~ The other forms are all regular, e. g. Pret. Inf. absol. Part. Kal, Piel, Pual, &c. Only those conjugations which are irreguVrare included in the Paradigm HI. The characteristic of these verbs in all forms which begin with a formative letter, is the Daghesh forte following it in the second radical. Some forms, however, of one class of verbs 'ID (~ 70), and even of verbs V~ (~ 66, 5), exhibit the same appearance. Verbs 4 likewise exhibit such forms of the Imp. as t5- also nt~ (Gen. xix. 9), and Rem. 1. The instances are comparatively few in which the forms mentioned in Nos. 1 and 2 retain their Nun, e. g. Imp. ~Ztt permit, 61 fall ye; Inf. ~ (as well as nrli) to touch; Fut. 'I& he keeps Jer. iii. 5 (elsewhere;do6i). In Niph. t-his never occurs, andin Hiph. and Hoph. very seldom, as TrWl to melt Ez. xxii. 20,?1pn~ they are cut off Judges xx. 3 1. It regularly occurs, however, in all verbs which have a guttural for their second stem-letter, as ~m, he will possess. In these verbs. the Nun rarely falls away, as liff, he will descend, and MIT9; Niph. tm for =2 he has comforted himself N. B. 2. These anomalies are in part exhibited by the verb rp~ to take., whose ~ is treated like the Nun of these verbs (~ 19,2). Hence, Fut. MP-, Imp. Mp (seldom np~r2') Inf. constr. rrlf~, Hoph. Fut. Mr'V. Niphalhowever, is always Mp~ N. B. 3. In the verb lan to give, the final Nun is also assimilated, as. *The verb OM, employed as a Paradigm, has the Fut..1, which is not preseatedl however, as the most usual form of the Fust. in verbs of this class, but only as the actual form of this particular verb. The Tterer in 111V~ is owing to the double feebleness of the stem "ll (comp. Rem. 3).

Page  132 132 132 ~~PART 11. PARTS OF SPEECH. V -for -'M tid for rntn; Inf. constr. M. for ri f (see ~ 19, 2), with asuff. " my giving. SECT. 66. VERBS ~.E. g. ~.Parad. G. 1. The principal irregularity of these verbs consists in the contraction of the second and third radicals often into one doubl letter, as '%6 for 1.= even when a full vowel would regularly stand between them, as tb for to =0 for -=. Those forms are not contracted which contain unchangeable vowels, or a Daghesh forte, as - tO, =. 2. The monosyllabic stem thus obtained takes, throughout. the vowel which the full form would have had in its second syllable, and which in the regular verb characterizes the form (~ 43. Rem. 1), e.g. =0for =0; Inf. =b for =10; Hiph. -=- for MO-10o (comp. No. 6). 3. The Daghesh forte, which, after this contraction, properly belongs to the final stemn-letter, is excluded from it (~ 20, 3, a), except when formative additions are made at the end, as 'It Put. Iz5, but not.10, -b. 4. When the afformative begins with a consonant (,),a vowel is inserted before it in order to render audible the Dag-hesh of the final stem-letter (~ 20, 3, b). This vowel in the Pret. is iin the Imp. and Fut. ~,e. g. ni ioIn~i Put. Wi- in The Arabian wri~es indeed regularly r~~im, but pronounces in the popular language Ml maddit, also, according to Lumsden, maddata, which last is exactly analogous to the Hebrew inflcxion.* 5. The preformatives of Put. Kal, Pret. Niph., and of Hiph. and Hoph., which in consequence of the contraction stand in a simple syllable ( instead of take, instead of the short * The common explanation, which we also give, of this inserted vowel may certainly suffice, if an approximation be supposed between this class of verbs and th cas r; compare rl-t and Arab. maddita with n4~ or an with rM'911. Gesenius, however, threw out (in the 13th edition, of this Grammar, P. 294) the hint, whether the ~'- and 'i in these forms do not properly belong to the pronoun (afformative), namely, the '1V-to t11, and the ito aformn of the pronoun whicb~ may be explained from the Egyptian, where eMoK (thou), eNffoTeN (you),.-iNoK (I, comp. &c., show a corresponding o in the pronoun.

Page  133 ~66. VERBS h 13 133 vowel of the regular form, the corresponding long one (~ 27,2, a). Hence Fust. -t4fr-'14Ft,'TC4 fo lt Hiplh. 10 for =01 Inf. =Mfor O)l; Hoph. Mo1 for 011 This long vowel (except the.l in Hophal) 'is changeable. There is still another mode of constructing these forms (the common one in Chaldee), which supplies a Daghesh in the first radical in place of doubling the third. E. g. Fut. Kal. to' for Z -V Fat. Hiph. rnfor Man, Hoph. r.1 for r~z" These forms do not usually take Daghesh in the final letter on receiving an accession, as 1-r, they bow themselves (from bI) ~nll (from nn Z), because the doubling is already supplied in the first letter; but see.1zel Judges xviii. 23, Job iv. 20. They therefore omit also the vowels il and ~: e. g. 11: '.nh(from ) Jer. xix. 3. The Parad. exhibits this form by thie side of the'other in Put. Kal. 6. Of many of these contractions, however, the originals are not found in the regular verb, but they may be considered as ancient analogous forms. Thus:b" stands for ml-4 with a under the prefonnative, as in the regular Arabic, form;t Hiphi. =3 for =1s has in the contracted stem-syllable the shorter and more original 6 (like the Aramn. ~Ul comp. ~ 52, 1 and Rem. 1); Pret. Niph.:1 for Put. Niph. 10 for =V comp. ~p 50, Rem. 2. 7. The tone has this peculiarity, that it is not thrown forward upon the formative syllables beginning with a vowel (lo-. ~ comp. ~ 44, Rem. 5), but remains before them on the stem-syllable, as 1.11. Before the other afformatives, it rests upon the inserted syllables hj and '-(with the exception of 1:. and, which always take the tone), and in consequence the vowels of the word are shortened, as -%in bli -in ~i u 8. Instead of Piel, Pual, Hithip., `and in the same signification, is found in numerous verbs of this kind, the unfrequent conjugation Poel (~ 54, 1), with its Passive and Reflexive, e. g. *hi, to treat one ill, Pass. Reflex. bb~o (from bb.7); in some is found Pilpel (~ 54, 4), as blbl to roll, Slb-l to roll one's It might seem far more easy, in explaining the origin of the Fust. =b (as well as of the Fut. in verbs ~,~tIW ) to regard it as formed from the Inf. =b by prefixing ~ so also HipI&. and Hoph. But the mechanically easier way is not always the natural one. f Hebrew bh~pi from ~btp, ~ 9, 5. The a appears also in verbs ID guttural, especially in verbs t~ ~ 67, and verbs 171. t The terminations for gender and number in the Participle* take the tone., as these are not a part of the verbal infiexion, as

Page  134 134 134 ~~PART HI. PARTS OF SPEECH. 8elf (from b'~,Pass. Tt.t to be caressed (from Zl) They are inflected regularly like Piel1. REMARKS. I. on Kai. 1. In the Pret. are found some examples with Cholem (comp. ~bl, ~ 43,1), as ~l from t~' they are high Job xxiv. 24, Im from =~' Gen. xlix. 23. 2. The QColem of the Inf., Imp., and Fat. (=b, =0) as a changeable vowel, is written defectively, with a few exceptions, which are found especially in the later orthography. E. g. Ti=~ for T~: to plunder Esth. iii. 13; viii. 11. It is consequently shortened into Qamets-chatuph or Qibbuts, whenever it loses the tone, as inf. -J to rejoice, Job xxxviii. 7, with si~ff.!'iTM1 when, he founded Prov. viii. 27, Imp. Ji pity me, Put. with Vav conves TT Jugsx.1,wt uf e lays them waste Prov. xi. 3, QWri. 3. Of final Pattach in the Inf. Fut., and Imp. ($rU,.t) the following are examples; Imp. J- to stoop Jer. v. 26, roll Ps. cxix. 22, Fut. biM4i he is bitter Is. xxiv. 9, ~p he is slighted Gen. xvi. 4, 5. Examples of the Chaldaizing Fut. are::2"even though =b& is also in use; C~' he is astonished 1 Kings ix. 8; 1.r thybwd thmselves from b12p. 4. In the Participle occurs the Aramtean form wtl for t~~i Jer. xxx. 16, K1thibh. II. On Niphal. 5. Besides the most usual form with Pattach in the second syllable, as given in the Paradigm, there is still another with Tsere, and another with Cholem (analogous with b~i ~ 43, 1), extending through the whole conjugation. E. g. Pret. ~P (also ~P~ it is a light thing Is. xlix. 6, lnf. 10S to melt Ps. lxviii. 3, Part. V= wasted away 1 Sam. xv. 9. With Cholem they are rolled together Is. xxxiv. 4, Inf. Absol. Vi to be plundered Is. xxiv. 3, Imp. -Ite take yourselves up Num..xvii. 10, Fut. 19in Jer. xlviii. 2. Chaldaizing forms of' Niphal are ~M' Ez. xxv. 3 (from ~~5 'M (from 'Tim) Ps. lxix. 4; cii. 4 (also 'IM Jer. vi. 29), nrl fractus eat (from rri). III. On Hiphil and Hophal. 6. Besides Tsere the final syllable has also Pattach, especially with gutturals, as Inf. Inf 11 to cleanse Jer. iv. ii. But also without a guttural, as lpb 2 Kings xxiii. 15, Plur. 411 1 Sam. v. 10, Part. b:a ehgdowing Ez. xxxi. 3. 7. The Future with retracted tone takes the form Jt: he protects Ps. xci. 4. ~~and he rolled Gen. xxix. 10. 8. Chaldaizing forms of Hiphil and Ha.phal: =V1 Ex. xiii. 18, ~rl and they broke Deut. i. 44, 11-4 Is. xxiv. 12, IpM in pause (Job xix. 23) for

Page  135 '~ 67. VERBS ME.15 135 IV. In General. 9. Verbs VV are very nearly related to verbs ~ ~71), as appears ev~en from the similarity in their conjugations, which are paral~lel throughout. In form the verb is generally shorter than the other (comp.:~b and Mln~,' and IM415). In some cases they have precisely the slame form, as in the Fat. convers. of Kal and Hiphil, in Hophal, and in the unfrequent conjugations. On account of this relation, they have sometimes borrowed forms from each other, e. g. II) for ',~ he rejoices Prov. xxix. 6. 10. Along with the contracted forms there are found, especially in certain conjugations and tenses, others which are wholly regular. E. g. Pret. Kai. to plunder, Plur. ti~,*4j (also!Uii~ Deut. -ii. 7); Inf. and tb. Fat. kjM he is gracious Amos v. 15, else where '-rI". Hiph. I'IM Put. n.. he will rejoice (which is never contracted), Part. 1:75 astonished Ez: iii. 15. Sometimes the full form appears to be emphatic (Ps. cxviii. 11). 11. We have seen above (No. 5), that in the Fut. of the Chaldee form, the Daghesh of the third radical, together with the preceding vowel, is, omitted before afformatives, as,! Of the same omission in other forms there are unquestionable example s, as 'M~ Gen. xi. 7 for r~~we will confound (Cohortative from I=~) t' fo r Mi vs. 6 they will devise; Pret. Niph. M= for I'l b Ez. xli. 7;:c"omp. Is. xix. 3; Jer. viii. 14. Without Daghesh, but with the full vowel: MTV1 for MO Prov.-vii. 13, ml,: 1 Sam. xiv. 36, V' Is. 1Vi1i. 5 for VIM) 12. Although the afformatives here do not attract the tone (see No. 7, p. 133), yet it is thrown on them when suffixes are appended, as 1izb, -iz Ps. cxviii. 11. The vowels suffer before Daghesh the changes pointed out in ~ 27, 1, viz. C/tolem in the Fut. becomes Qibbuts, less frequently Qamets. chatuph, Tsere in Hiph. becomes Chireq (after the, analogy of Mvtin nilvm); the preformatives then, in place of the full vowel, take Sheva. E. g. "A) Ps. xlix. 6,5Z Job xl. 22, i Ps. lxvii. 2, Hiph. -1Z1 Ez. xlvii. 2. C. FEEBLE VERBS (VERBA QUIESCENTIA). SECT. 67. FEEBLE VERBS ttT E. g. ~nbt to eat. Parad. I. So far as bt is treated as a consonant and a guttural, these verbs have all the properties of verbs Pe Guttural exhibited in 62. But here we regard them only in so far as the bt quiesces, i. e: loses its consonant-sound, and is blended with the foregoing vowel, which happens only in certain verbs and forms, as follows: 1. In the Put. Kal of five verbs, viz., hlIh$ to perish, rI11M to be willing, ~Db to eat, ~I'M to say, 11M~ to bake, the Lt always quiesces in a long 6 (Cholem), as '14*4. In some others, the

Page  136 136 136 ~~PART 11. PARTS OF SPEECH. form in which. it retains its power as a consonant is also in use, as MOI and TiiW" he takes hold. The 6 in this case is but a corruption of the vowel a ( 9, 10, 2), which is itself derived by contraction from..~or The feebleness of these verbs (~ 41, c) affects also their last syllable, so that it receives instead of the stronger vowel s an 6 (Tsere), particularly with distinctive accents at the end of a period or clause; but with conjunctive accents, which mark the continuance of the discourse, it takes a (Paltach), e. g. 'IV 'tn Ps. ix. 19, on the contrary b'ngnt Ps. i. 6 (comp. a similar exchange of 6 and a ~ 64, 1, c). When the tone moves back, the last stem-syllable has sometimes Pattach. as t~t 'M9" perish the day Job iii. 3, ~D- and he ate, and sometimes ASeghol, as nt~- (Mildl), with conjunctive accents, but -M" (Milra) with distinctives (only in Job a few times nt,1 in pause). Very seldom does K in the Put. Kal, quiesce in Tsere, as 1-mn it shall come Mic. iv. 8, contracted from Mnn always, however, in the form li5zKe dicendo (Inf. with ),for Inzt~b. 2. In the 1st Pers. singe. Put. the radical bt (to avoid the repetition of this letter) is regularly dropped (~ 23, 4), as 'Ii for 11nb I will say. Except in this case the radical Kt seldom falls away, as ~~ for ~tgri thou takest away Ps. civ. 29, for they speak oJteP. C~xxix. 20, "~r thou goest away (from ~$), Jer. ii. 36. The Parad. I shows the, forms in which bt is treated as a quiescent (namely, Put. Kal), and merely indicates those in which it retains its character as a guttural. Rem. 1. Out of Kal K seldom quiesces, as in Niph. 1-~ Jos. xxii. 9: Hiph. ~%b'l and he took away Numn. xi. 25, 1"M 1 hearken Job xxxii. 1I, VKI will destroy Jer. xlvi. 8, IM attending Prov. xvii. 4, Imp. 1.4!).1 bring ye Is. xxi. 14. 2. In Pieil Kt sometimes falls away by contraction (like 1' in e. g. for teaching Job xxxv. 1 1. SECT. 68.FEEBLE VERBS it". FIRST CLASS, OR VERBS ORIGINALLY 1D. E. g. =it to dwell. Farad. K. Verbs 'lb are divided principally into two classes, which are wholly different from each other in their origin and inflexion.

Page  137 ~68. VERBS 'I. 137 The first embraces those verbs which have properly a 1 for their first stem-letter. In Arabic they are written with I (e. g. 5., Arab. walada); but in Hebrew, by a difference of dialect, they take " instead of it, wherever the first radical is the initial letter. The second embraces those which are properly B', and which have Yodh also in Arabic (~ 69). A few of these verbs En form, in some respects, a third class inflected like verbs ]D (~ 70). In ad are contained two verbs, distinguished both by form and signification; viz., 1) 12 (for 'nI), Fut. n', i.6. to be in a strait; 2) '~, Fut. W:2, '1.n toform. The peculiarities in the inflexion of the first class, which is analogous with the Arabic IS, are the following: 1. In the Fut., Imp., and Inf. constr. of Kal there is a twofold form. About the half of these verbs have here the feeblest forms, namely, FtLt. ~? with a tone-lengthened e in the second syllable, which may be shortened to Seghol and vocal Sheva; and with a somewhat firmer e in the first syllable, which in a degree still embodies the first radical ' that has fallen away; Imp.: t from 1?j by omission of the feeble?, and Inf. rn shortened in like manner, and with the feminine ending r._-, which again gives to the form more length and body. The other half of these verbs are inflected with stronger forms, have the Fut. A and retain the Yodh at the beginning, namely in Imp..t? and Inf. ab? as a consonant, but in Fut. as a quiescent, or resolved into the vowel i (~ 24, 2). That the latter mode of inflexion belongs to verbs actually 'l (which has been often overlooked and falsely denied) is shown, partly by the numerous verbs which take these forms in Kal, and at the same time have I in Niphal, Hiphil, and Hophal; partly by the analogy of the Arabic, where the verbs ~t have precisely the same double inflexion. Even in the same verb are found both forms, one with Yodh, the other without it, as pX 2 Kings iv. 41, and paS pour Ez. xxiv. 3, I3 1 Kings xxi 15, f3_ Deut. ii. 24, and v'1. possess, with lengthening tA" Deut. xxxiii. 23, Fut. ip.' Deut. xxxii. 22, and 'P! he will burn up Is. x. 16. To the first mode of inflexion belong, e. g. h_ to bear, mRt to go forth, =td to sit,.iy to descend, S: to know, (Fut. aW2 with Pattach in the last

Page  138 .138 138 ~~PART IL. PARTS OF SPEECH. syllable on account of the guttural); to the second belong tj~ to vear.y IM to counsel, 03= to be dry, though the latter is in Arabic 'b.7 2. The original Vav appears always in Niphal, Hiphil, and Hophal. It quiesces in the Pret. and Part. of Niph. and throughout Hiph. in Cholem, throughout Hophal in &lureq, as Zt (for =3~) Vl~i (for =), o (for In the Inf., Imp. and Fut. Niph., I remains as a consonant, and the inflexion is regular, as V&, It also retains its power as a consonant in the Hithp. of some verbs, e. g. from V'4, and in two nominal forms, viz. T*1 offspring from b to bear [and 'IT guilty] 3. The other forms, with few exceptions (see Rem. 3, 4), are regular. In those forms in which Yodh does not appear, these verbs may be dietinguislhed, in the Fut. of Kal by the Te-ere under the preformatives; in Niph., Hiph., arid Hoph., by the Vav (1, i, -1) before the second radical. Forms like =i, r* they have in common with verbs It. Hophal has the same form as in verbs Try and y Rem. 1. The Inf. of Kal without the radical Yodh (see No. 1) has very seldom the masculine form like VI to know Job xxxii. 6, 10, or the feminine ending rI- like MI7~ to bear 2 Kings xix. 3. With a guttural the latter takes the form r-4 instead of rl-4' e. g. r1T to know. In'1 in 1 Sam. iv. 19 is contracted to r~ (1 19, 2). Examples of the regular full form occur with su~ffixes, VIV Job xxxviii. 4, i~'lt Ezra iii. 12. The full form has seldom the feminine ending, as Dto be able. 2. The Imp. Kal. often has the lengthening I1-*, as IM0~ sit, 111 descend. From ZI- to give the lengthened Imp. is Mns, fern. "ZM plur. Nn with accented Qamets, owing to the influence of the guttural. 3. The Put. of the form =tZo takes Pattach in its final syllable when it has a guttural, as YPl, also vmin Jer. xiii. 17. When the tone is drawn back upon the penultima, the final syllable takes Seghol, namely, before a word of one syllable and after Vav conversive. E. g. 05-=5 Gen. xliv. 33; 111A nt~ but in Pause ~ttz3A and I'11 A very rare exception, in which a Fut. of this kind is written fully, is Mn" Mic. i. S. The form Tbn~ when lengthened can also lose its radical ',as 1.3) Is. xl. 30, VV1 1xv. 23. Yet the cases are rare and doubtful where this occurs after other preformatives than "' (see Is. xliv. 5). -4. In some stems the feebleness affects also the Pret. Kal, so far that the a under the second radical becomes I or i, as 1=10ik4, Iw n -74 from Wol'i,~ Examples are found in Ps. ii. 7; Num. xi. 12; Deut. iv. 1; viii. 1; XiX. 1; Xxvi. 1; Ps. lxix. 36, &c. In Syriac e is here predominant; in Hebrew the feeble vowel is found only in such forms of the Pret. as have no ful vowel under the first radical. 6. As an exception the Fut. NMph. sometimes retains Yodh, e. g. ~1

Page  139 4 69. VERBS -6. 139 and he wailed Gen. viii. 12; comp. Ex. xix. 13. The first Pers. sing. has always the form ntl not ='ibt~; comp. 4 50, Rem. 4. 6. In Pijl the radical Yodh sometimes falls away after '~preformative., which takes its punctuation (comp. 4 67, Rem. 2). E. g. 4mlt for ) —ft~ and he dried it up Nah. i. 4. 7. Put. Hiph. like Put. Kal, takes Seghol when the tone is drawn back, as ~qi let him add Prov. i. 5, ~q~ and he added. N. B. 8. The verb '~~t oi onected with verbs "4 of the first class, for it forms (as if from J~" Put. J-~ with Vac J- i pause -1 Iuf. constr. M~ Imp. ~,lengthened ran and also ~,and so Hiph. jx~n Rarely and almost exclusively in later books and in poetry, we find also the regular inflexions from ~tas Put. 1.r" Inf. I.(Numn. xxii. 14, 16; Eccles. vi. 8, 9), Imp. p1. lt~ (Jer. li. 50), on the contrary Pret. Kal is always 1~11 Part. 1'15, Inf. abs. Piel J-'l Hithp Ji MMrM, so that a ~' nowhere distinctly appears as first radical. An obsolete stem may however be assumed, although in a word so much used as ~b~the feeble letter Mt may itself be treated like %, and so the infiexion resemble "O. Comp. also the feeble MEi, e. g. "~r from b~tm (4 67, 2), and "Z~ from FaPt. Hiph. MV14= from bItM and In i 2 Kings vi. 16 from SECT. 69. FEEBLE VERBS 4i. SECOND CLASS, OR VERBS PRO-. PERLY "E. E. g. to be good. Parad. L. The most essential points of difference between verbs properly 4t and verbs it are the following: 1. Kal has only the stronger of the two forms described in 468, 1, namely, that in which the radical 4 remains. luf. to, with thle Put. A, as rp " the Pattach of which becomes egholQ when the tone shifts back, as and he awoke Gen. ix. 24, and he formed Gen. ii. 7. 2. In Hiphil the " is retained and is pronounced as a diph-. thongal eA (Tsere), e. g. 1'04i (for 24:1) Put. VIVI seldom with the diphthong ai, ay, as in ~1I~~they make straight Prov. iv. 25; comp. ps. V. 9, Qeri. The following are the only verbs of this kind: nti p~ to suck, rp toawke " tojform, '~- Hiph. to bewail, n~t2 to be straight. Of the Put. Hiph. there is an anomalous form with preformatives put before the 3 pers. as he wails, I wail, -Iwn ye wail, Is. xv. 2; lxv. 14; Jer. xlviii. 31'; Hoe. vii. 14;'also VU" Job xxiv. 21; and once even in Put. Kai. rIM" Ps. cxxxviii. 6 from 3~. This anomaly

Page  140 140 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. is explained by supposing, that the " of the simple form was superficially taken to belong to the stem. SECT. 70. VERBS '. THIRD CLASS, OR CONTRACTED VERBS Is. The D of these verbs does not quiesce in long i or e, but is assimilated like ~. Some verbs are exclusively of this class, e. g. Age to spread underneath, Hiph. eHl, Hoph. d; ra? to burn up, Fut. r?, Hiph. r1.t.- Others have two forms; in one the > is assimilated, in the other it quiesces, as p: to pour, Fut. pan and p3. (1 Kings xxii. 35); '2 to form, Fut. ad 2_ and 2 (Is. xliv. 12; Jer. i. 5); b' to be straight, Fut. a'c and A'' (1 Sam. vi. 12). Verbs of this class (which seldom occur) are inflected like verbs I1, for which they may easily be mistaken by the learner. When therefore a form has not a root It in the Lexicon, he should look for one of this class. SECT. 71. FEEBLE VERBS I'. E. g. D.p to rise up. Parad. M. 1. In these verbs the middle stem-letter q always quiesces; not merely in the more usual cases (~ 24, 1) when a Sheva precedes or follows, as tl. for 1tit, but also when it is both preceded and followed by a full vowel, as tlp Part. Pass. for Dip; Dip Inf. absol. for 5i2. Hence the stem is always a monosyllable. '2. The vowel in which 1 quiesces is essentially the vowel of the second syllable, which, in the verb, almost universally characterizes the form (~ 66, 2). But this vowel, in consequence of the union of the Vav with it, is mostly made fuller, e. g. Inf. and Imp. Mtp for,ip, Pret. tP for Mlp; yet it is not unchangeable, for we have IIp (with short a) from ~2, and Fut. Hiph. o:.d (from P:I.?) is shortened in the Jussive to Ap. The verb intransitive middle E takes in Pret. Kal the form of nr (from MrM) he is dead; the verb middle 0 takes the form of wiit (from 'it) luxit t3iz (from tSi) he was ashamed. Comp. Rem. 1. 3. The preformatives in the Fut. Kal and Pret. Niph. and throughout Hiph. and Hoph., which before the monosyllabic stem form a simple syllable, take instead of the short vowel of

Page  141 ~ 71. VERBS i&. 141 the regular form the corresponding long one (~ 27, 2). E. g, mp.?'* for:1?P; V:IP. for t.'ln;.ptn for 0Ipt. This vowel is changeable, and becomes Sheva when the tone is thrown forward, e. g. before Suff..Wlh. he will kill him, and with the full plural form of the Fut..~.Mn, they will die. The t in Hoph. is the only exception. But this conjugation is formed (in appearance) by transposing the letters of the original stem. Thus Wtpt becomes by transposition lttPn, hence o:prn. 4. In some cases, forms of the regular verb not now in use lie at the foundation of those of which we are treating. E. g. Fut. Kal for nt:' (see ~ 66, 6), Part. t: for M: (after the form bpl, comp. ~ 49, 2, ~ 83, No. 1). Those which conform to the regular Hebrew verb, are generally the most unfrequent. as 1it? (after the form Ti T). The o in Niph. comes from va (=ua), Dip, u. from, ut. p from DI. 5. In the Pret. Niph. and Hiph. the harshness of pronunciation in such forms as P25p~, ~pt, is avoided by the insertion of i before the afformatives of the first and second person. For the same purpose -. is inserted in the Putt. Kal before the termination,, (comp. ~ 66, 4). These inserted syllables take the tone and shorten the preceding vowels, as Nip:, rinps; pn., nwpn, or itipn,, also ipn;, rp. Yet in some cases the harder forms without the inserted syllable, are also in use. Thus Fut. Kal.1tM Ez. xvi. 55 (also,U.lna in the same verse) and rather oftener in Hiph., as MrD!J Ex. xx. 25, but also 'mni.qi. Job xxxi. 21, mn sli Job xx. 10, once ns^t~. Jer. xliv. 25. Imp. only,nrp, IM:r. 6. The tone, as in verbs I, is not thrown forward upon the afformatives n-,., —., as,tap,.:, except with the full plural form l..p?. In those persons which take afformatives without epenthesis (see Rem. 6), the accentuation is regular, as na.; so in Hophal rI#t1.. For the tone on i and - see No. 5. 7. The conjugations Piel, Pual, and Hithpael are very seldom found in verbs properly &. The only instance in which ' remains as consonant is 3P. to surround, the Piel of.1S (yet see Rem. 5). In some others ' has taken the place of 1, as in %?p from ap, a?. from:t., which forms belong to the later Hebrew, having been borrowed from the Aramaean. On the con * On the a under the preformative see No. 4.

Page  142 142 142 ~~PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. trary, the unfrequent conjugation Pilel (~ 54, 2), with its Passive and Reflexive, is the common form employed in the signification of Piel and as a substitute for it. E. g. t~i to raise up, from tl tt to elevate, Pass. from 'IllVI'l to rouse one's self, from 'I.V. Less frequent is the conjugation Pilpel (~54, 4), e. g. to sustain, to nourish, from h' Of these unusual conjugations the Parad. exhibits only Pilel and Pulal, from which the Reflexive (Hithpael1) is readily formed. REMARKS. I. On Kal. N. B. 1. Of verbs middle E and 0, which in the regular verb also have their Pret. and Part. the same (~ 49, 2), the following are examples; viz. Pret. MM~ (for r~t), 1 sing. '9t"_, 1 pl 1. ) 3pl. IrH;; V~i= (for Wi),4n t ~ =5. I-i';b. Part. MM; t"W Ez. xxxii. 30. Of the Preterite and Participle, the usual form to is very seldom written with bt (after the Arab. mode, ~ 9, 1), as in tbl Hos. x. 14, VIM Ez. xxviii. 24, 26; comp. xvi. 57. 2. In the Inf. and Imp. of some verbs, )always quiesces in Cholem, as b~m ti, bVIi. In most verbs, however, it quiesces only in ~Shureq; but even in these the Inf. absol. has 1 in the final syllable (after the form ~ill as I-.P Zip surgendo surgent Jer. xliv. 29. Those verbs which have i in the lnf. retain it in the Put., as btt" In one verb alone the preformatives of the Put. have Tsere, viz. Win Put. Wli= (for 3. In the Imp. with afformatives (bml.IV) the tone is on the penultima, with a few exceptions as in Judger, v. 12. The lengthened form [with t-]has, on the contrary, the tone usually on the latsllbe~ r~ t~ with a few exceptions where the word is Jliilel (Ps. vii. 5; Jer. iii. 12; xlT. 5). N. B. 4. The shortened Put. as Jussive (~ 48, 4) has the form 61n (very seldom t~" VIbi. E. g. itt" let him return Deut. xx. 58; 3-bt ~let him not return Ps. lxxiv. 21; M" that he 9nay die 1 Kings xxi. 10. In poetic language as Indicative, asV4 lhe, it shall be high, Numn. xxiv. 7; Micah v. 8. After Vav conversive, and before words of one syllable, the tone is also drawn back upon the penultima, and the last syllable takes Qamets-chatuph, as t:19 ~, J~t Job xxii. 28. In Pause, however, the tone remains on the last syllable, as rb41; comp. Gen. xi. 28, 32, with v. 5, 8. With a guttural or a Resh, the final syllable may take Pattach, e. g. '16 and he turned aside Ruth iv. 1 (from 'f.t. The full plural ending 1'1 has the tone (according to No. 6 of this secdion), hence Itmn Gen. iii. 3, 4, 1.10 Ps. civ. 7, 1-211 Joel ii. 4, 7, 9. II. On Niphal. 5. Anomalous forms are: Pret. t~~t ye have been scattered Ez. xi. 17, x.34, 41, 43; Inf. constr. Wvil Is. xxv. 10. Oornp. Rem. 9.

Page  143 ~72. VERBS i..4.143 III. On Hiphil. 6. Examples of the Preterite without the epenthetic q: MeMthou liftest Ex. xx. 25; Mbln thou killest, and even Crrl Num. xvii. 6, &c. 7InteImp. the shortened and lngthened foms M both occur. N. B. The shortened Put. has the form t~" as wipl that he may take away Ex. x. 17., After Vav conversive the tone is drawn back upon the penultima, as tel; V and he -scattered., The final syllable when it has aguttural or Resh takes Pattach, as in Kal, e. g. 11" and he removed Gen. -viii. 13. V. In General. 8. On account of the intimate relation between verbs I1T and V$, it is necessary, in analyzing forms, to note particularly the points in which these classes differ. Several forms are exactly the same in both, e. g. Fitt. Kal with Vav conversive; Pilel of 1.V and Poil ofr.' Hence it is that they often borrow forms from one another, as in Kal I M he despised (Pret. of V11as if from 112 Zech. iv. 10, MDt he besineared (for MD) Is. xliv. 18. 9. In common with verbs ~~5 (~ 66, 5), those of this class have in Niphal and Hiphil the Chaldee and Rabbinic punctuation, which substitutes for the long vowel under the preformatives, a short one followed by Daghesh forte. This form and the common one are often both in use. E. g. rlior to incite, Put. rlt (also n"W, InO"; Tr and he -shows the way'2 Sam. xxii. 33 (and 'Il Prov. xii. 26); sometimes with a difference of signification, as MI~: to cause to rest, to give, rest, M~ — Fat. rl5 to set down, to lay down; y'~" to spend the night, to abide; 1' V'M, 'M to be headstrong, rebellious. Other examples: Miph. bin: (from tntb)toecium cised Gen. xvii. 26, 27; xxxiv. 22, with a gouttural 'fiYe Zech. ii. 17; Hiph. ~'ll to despise Lam. i. 8, 'V~Prov. iv. 21. Here belong some forms of verbs Pe guttural with Daghesh forte implicitum, which have generally been derived from a false root, or been uncritically altered; viz. 1trln for WrZil~ and she hastens (from Witm) Job xxxi. 5, U311, Wn 1 Sam. xv. 19; xxv. 14, from WV WIV to rush upon. 10. Verbs whose middle stem-letter is Vav moveable (i. e. sounded as a consonant) are, in respect to this letter, perfectly regular. E. g. '11 to be white, Fut. 11M M. to expire, Fut. WV'; particularly all verbs that are also ri as 111 Piel MI- to command, 114 to wait, &c. SECT. 72. VERBS "'Y. E. g. bi n to discern. Parad. N. 1. These verbs have the same structure as verbs ~., and their " is treated in the same manner as the '1 of that class. E. g. Pr-et. Kal rit (for Mt he has set, Inf. Inf. absol. rlit5 (for tf) Imp. 1110 Fut. ri4, Jussive Md, with Vav conv. rit;But the Pret. Kai has, in several verbs, still a second set of

Page  144 144, 144. ~PART 11. PARTS OF SPEECH. forms, which resemble a Hiphil with the characteristic 11 elided, e. g. "H1 (similar to 'Irt"W#) Dan. ix. 2, also 11-= Ps. cxxxix. 2, Ine thou contendest Job xxxiii. 13, also =.' Lam. iii. 58. Often also complete Hiphil forms occur, e. g. Pret. t~itWol 1Inf. I"Ts (also 1'1) Imp. 1;,' (also I1) Part. I" (also j-), so likewise V11 (also Z1), t:t' (also t~), r)'Itf glittering, also in Pret. 72. Moreover as Passive we find a few times Hoph. Put. '161 from 'I~ to sing, ril. from rl~t to set. 2. These Hiphil forms may easily be traced to verbs ~r, and possibly they in part belong strictly to that class. The same may be said of Niph. 'jiny Pul. J~ and Hithpalel i~t-r(as i from '1~). Thse verbs are in every respect closely related to verbs '. Hence it is that we find several verbs used promiscuously, as I.V and ~,and with the same meaning in both forms, as (denom. from to spend the night, Inf. also J*; =t to pae, lnf. also &r, Put. t~r" once Un" In other verbs one of the two is the predominant form, as to excult (~is found only in Prov. xxiii. 24). But few are exclusively, as =41' to con~tend, r) to set, t to rejoice. The older Grammarians did not recognise this class of verbs, but ref'erred all its forms to verbs %V, which may indeed be right in some cases. In modern Arabic we find an exactly corresponding abbreviation of the Hiphil (Conj. IV) of verbs %V. Yet the Arabic, as also the AXthiopic, has ataveb 1Y, and the Hebrew has some with Yodh as consonant, like wi and ~.A fluctuation and interchange between the closely related stems must certainly be assumed. The Paradigm. N is placed in connexion with that of verbs IV, in order to exhibit the parallelism of the two classes. The conjugations which it omits have the same form as in Parad. M. Rem. 1. Examples of the Inf. absol. are =~ liligando Judges xi. 25, rlitt ponendo Is. xxii. 7, also w~ Jer. 1. 34. 2. The Fitt. apoc. is 1;; with retracted tone it takes the form * ='n" Judges vi. 31. So with Vav ~onversive, te'l and he placed, jt4- and he perceived. 3. As Part. act. Kal we find once 1~ s~pending the night Neh. xiii. 21; Part. Pas8. WiiV or t:* (according to a various reading) 2 Sam. xiii. 32. 4. Verbs t6 scarcely ever suffer their M' to quiesce, and hence are irreguilar only as represented in ~ 63. Yet in the Pret. of the much used verb %0 to ask, the feebleness of the tx reduces the 1 under it to (-7 ) and in a closed syllable to -) and( (-.), when the syllable is toneless and no full vcwel precedes the M (just as in some verbs 4, ~ 68, Rem. 4), e. g. with sufl: 4 ~ Gen. xxxii. 18, Ps. cxxxvii. 3, 2 pi. Wbtt) 1 Sam. xii.

Page  145 ~73. VERBS g~. '45 13; xxv. 5; 1 sing. with suff. 1-1if~M Judges xiii. 6; 1 Sam. i. 20; tISO in Mhph. 1 Sam. i. 28. Comup. 1 44, Rem. 2. SECT. 73. VERBS MNb. E. g. tt4'm to find. Parad. 0. The N is here, as in verbs NO, treated partly as a consonant with a soft guttural sound (scarcely audible at the end of a word), partly as a quite inaudible (quiescent) letter, according to the following rules: 1. In those forms which end with the third radical, the final syllable has always the regular vowels, e. g. M*. 4z X~ tII N"tf but Pattach before the feeble letter N is lengthened into Qamets (1 23, 1), viz, in the Pret. Put. and Imp. Kal, in the Pret. Niph., Pual, and Hoph. The (,) however is mutable (125, 2, Rem.), hence in the plural 1= The Put. and Imp. Kal have A, after the analogy of verbs Lamedha guttural. 2. Also before afformatives beginning with a consonant (ri,) bt is not heard, but is quiescent in the Pret. Kal, in Qamets, r~t' in the Pret. of all the other conjugations, in Tsere, rI21 in the Imp. and Put. of all the conjugations, in &eghol,. The use of Tsere and Seghol in these forms arose doubtless from thegreat resemblance between verbs X6 and r~(comp. ~ 74, 2), and an ap — proximation of the former to the latter. Before the suffixes 1, =, 1 the tM retains its character as a guttural, and takes (-:); as jz'%MX Cant. viii. 1, M"I7! Ez. xxviii. 13, comp. ~ 64,2, Rem. The reason (as in verbs Lamedh guttural) is, that those suffixes require before them a half-vowel. 3. Before afformatives beginning with a vowel, M is a conlsow nant and the form regular, asIN Parad. 0 gives a complete view of the inflexion. REM~ARIS 1. Verbs middle E, like xKv to be full, retain 7'ere in the other pe r. sons of the Pret., as lirnb6. Instead of M$42 is sometimes found the Aramuean form tnr~ for nbor 8ke names Is. vii. 14; comp. Gen. xxxiii. 11 (after the form. rn, 44, `R em. 4). 2. In the Inf. occurs thefm form rlit7 tofi Lev. xii. 4, for tnwnM. l0

Page  146 146 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. 3. The Part. fern. is commonly, by contraction, rSth, seldom taxb Cant. viii. 10, and defectively written rni' (from S2) Deut. xxviii. 57. In the forms ts rtih 1 Sam. xiv. 33, and ltIh Neh. vi. 8, the vowel is drawn back in the manner of the Syriac. 4. The K sometimes falls away, as in >'t. Num. xi. 11, 'nr n Job xxxii. 18. Niph. tatn=. ye are defiled Lev. xi. 43. Hiph. rn, Jer xxxii. 35. See more in the Remarks on verbs,qb, No. VI. SECT. 74. VERBS r,5. E. g. ah to reveal. Parad. P. These verbs, like those 'h (~~ 68, 69), embrace two different classes of the irregular verb, viz. 5 and I', which in Arabic and specially iEthiopic are clearly distinguished. But in Hebrew the original l and I have passed over into a feeble: (~ 23, 3), in all those forms which end with the third radical, and which hence are called verbs ib. E. g.. S; for nt5 he has revealed; tit for *15 he has rested. By far the greater number, however, of these verbs are originally if; only a few forms occur of verbs 15. The two classes are therefore less prominently distinguished than verbs I' and iD. A true verb 15 is Mn to be at rest, whence nB, Part. be, and the derivative r;5. rest; yet in the Fut. it has. ~^ (with Yodh). In rnl (Arab. )::) to answer, and,MV (Arab. )::) to suffer, to be oppressed, are two verbs originally distinct, but with the same form in Hebrew (see Gesenius's Lex. art. h s). In Syriac the intermingling of these forms is carried still farther, verbs Ms also being confounded with those Mi, i. e. with the two classes;b and;5 of the Arabic. Wholly different are those verbs whose third stem-letter is a consonantal n (distinguished by Mappiq); e.g.:N. They are inflected throughout like verbs Lamedh guttural. It is certain, however, that some verbs,i originated in verbs with final In, this letter having lost its original strong and guttural sound, and become softened to afeeble t, e. g.,nM, Arab.,nna to be blunt. Hence it is that verbs i91 are often related to those tlb for which the verb h` may be assumed as an intermediate form, e. g. ntrp and ntr to be hard; hnr properly = nr to be open. The grammatical structure of these verbs (which Paradigm P exhibits) is as follows: 1. The original Yodh or Vav, in all forms which end with the third radical, gives place to 'i as a vowel-letter and representing the final vowel; which is the same in each form through all the conjugations, namely,

Page  147 74. VERBS ii. 147:1- in all the Preterites, rLf, 1r. ti, &c. n,, in all the Futures and Participles Active, f5", "t, &c n- in all Imperatives,,rf?, rl, &c. ~- in the Inf. absol. (except in Hiph. and Hoph.), r &, &c. The Part. Pass. Kal forms the only exception, in which at the end the original i appears, s.t;, as also in some derivatives (~84, V). The Inf. constr. has always the feminine form in rt; hence in Kal nb, in Piel riS, &c. In explanation of these forms we observe: That in the Pret. Kal,,i stands for i according to ~ 24,2, c; so in Niph. and Hophal. Piel and Hithp. are based on the forms bsp., bl.pt1 (~ 51, Rem. 1), Hiph. on the form bnt7 after the manner of the Arabic aqtala (~ 52, 1). In the Fut. Kal, ra?.. is a Fut. A for 9b_ (according to ~ 24,2, Rem. a), whence also are such plural forms as.^k. (see Rem. 4). The same is true of the other conjugations, all of which, even in the regular verb, have, in connexion with the usual form, another with Pattach in the final syllable. See ~ 50, Rem. 2, ~ 53, Rem. The use of Tsere in the Imp. may be explained on the ground, that as the form is shorter than in the Fut. the tone falls more strongly upon the final syllable, and therefore requires the support of the stronger vowel Tsere. Compare the construct state of nouns in i —, ~ 87, 2, c. The Cholem of the Inf: absol. is the regular vowel. 2. Before the afformatives beginning with a consonant (r, i), the original " remains, but not as a consonant. Properly it would here form with the foregoing a (Pattach) the diphthong ai; but this diphthong in the Pret. is contracted first into 9 (-.) and then farther attenuated into i, but in the Fut. and Imp. it is changed into the obtuse —. Thus in Pret. Piel, from?o.. (after?Z.P?) we get first 'it and then by attenuating the 8 into I?Ad.; in the Fut. Piel.:'~.. In the Passives the 9 is always retained, in the Actives of the derived conjugations and in the Reflexives both e and i are used alike (see Rem. 8 and 12); on the contrary in Kal (the most used of all the species) we find only i. Accordingly we have in the Preterite Kal i, as ri5b; Preterites of the other active conjugations and also the reflexive promiscuously 0 and i, as trit and il?; Preterites of the Passives only 0, as n.5; Futures and Imperatives always -, as Mr5i, Mnl.

Page  148 148 148 ~~PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. The diphthongal forms are throughout retained in Arabic and zXthiopic, and the diphthong is contracted only by way of exception and in the popular idiom. In Chaldee and Syriac the contracted forms predominate, yet these dialect's have in Ka] r' as well asre. 3. Before the afformatives beginning with a vowel (. 4_ l),the Yodh with the foregoing vowel usually falls away, e. g. *1 (for ~ ~~,rT,~ yet it is retained in ancient full forms, particularly in pause, as 1'3b (see Rem. 4 and 11.). Before suftix-es also it falls away, as (Rem. 19). 4. The Yodh disappears also in 3 Pret. sing. fern., where rt.-_ is appended as feminine ending, as rlip. But this ancient form is become rare (see Rem. 1); and as if this mark of the gender were not sufficiently distinct, a second feminine ending ri- is appended, so as to form Mr~ So in all conjugations, e. g. Hiph. common form ~? in pause See analogous cases in 169, Rem., ~ 89, 3. 5. The formation of the shortened Future, which occurs in this class of verbs in all the conjugations, is strongly marked, consisting in the casting away (apocope) of the Ir- by which still other changes are occasioned in the form (see Rem. 3, 7, 9, 14). The shortened Imperative is also formed by apocope of the '1- (Rem. 10, 15). REMARKS. I. On Kal1. For the 3 Pret. fern. the older and simpler form r)I', from r'~ (comp. the verb ~b, ~ 73, Rem. 1), is almost entirely banished from common use. One instance is r~iVV she did Lev. xxv. 21. So in Hip/i. and Hp. eg. r2111, Lev. xxvi. 34, r)1 Jer. xiii. 19. But with szf/Jlxes it is always used, see Rem. 19. 2. The lInf. absol. has also the form ix' videndo, Gen. xxvi. 28. As the Inf. constr. occurs also, though seldom, MiizV Gen. 1. 20, ruie xlviii. 11, as well as the feminine form rimmIn to see Ez. xxviii. 17, like r1p 45, 2, letter b. N. B. 3. The apocope of the Fut. occasions in Kal the following changes: a) The first stem-letter most commonly receives the helping-vowel Seghol, or, when the middle radical is a guttural, Pattach (1 28, 4). E. g. -~ for ~1; 1~- and he built; 114 let him look, for ft" b) The Chireq of the preformative is also sometimes lengthened into T"ere (because it is now in an open syllable), as WI let him see from MDT ji9from ri11.

Page  149 ~74. VERBS I 6.14 1AQ &1=4r c) The helping-vowel is sometimes omitted, especially in the cases mentioned in ~ 28, 4. E. g. 12% Num. xxi. 1, M,! 9 T1 The verb MWI$ has the two forms WI'2 and WI h latter with Pat~tach on account Of the Resh. d) Examples of' verbs which are Pe guttural (Q 57) as well as Lamedha He: ir-1 and he made, from Mi~ 'ev and he answered, from MV. Sometimes the punctuation of' the first syllable is not affected by the guttural; as in lea 1 '.M (with Dag. lene in second radical) let him rejoice Job iii. 6. e) The verbs M'11 to be, and M'9 to live, which would properly form in the Put. apoc. 191 '9tr'~, change these forms to "M and "M4 because the Yodh prefers a vowel before it in which it may quiesce (comp. the derivatives 'i for '9: '9~ for '92 &c., ~' 84, No. V). From MIMt to be occurs once the form MINTV' for 1ttV1' he will be Eccles. xi. 3. The full forms without the apocope of M-7 sometimes occur even after',especially in the 1st person and in the later books, e. g. MWIMIt and I saw,, twenty times but not in the Pentateuch, tMiUVA and he made, four times. 4. The original "' is sometimes retained before the afformatives beginning. with a vowel (comp. No. 3, above), especially in and before the Pause, and before the full plural ending "II-, or where for any reason an emphasis rests upon the word. Pret..1t~ they took refuge Deut. xxxii. 37. Imp. T' ask ye Is. xxi. 12. Put. "1"-n they increase Deut. viii. 13, more frequently like ITIO they drink Ps. lxxviii. 44 (comp. Rem. 11). 5. The Part. act. has also a fern. of the form II'i spying Prov. xxxi. 27, tla fruitful Ps. cxxviii. 3, in the Plur. like r')' ~r~it4 Is. xli. 23. The Part. pass. is sometimes without ", as 1-iY for ".1itt made Job xli. 25, M1 xv. 22. 6. Seldom is the second syllable defectively written, as ri"'M1 2 Sam. xv. 33, mim job v. 12, or pronounced as in Millit$i Mic. vii. 10. II. On Niphal. 7. The apocope of the Put. occasions here no further changes, h" from m'i'q; yet in one verb guttural we find a form with (-) shortened to (-,viz. rt,'i (for rit"') Ps. cix. 13. Similar in Pi. 'In (from IMlVK) Ps. cxli. 8, and in Hithp.:'2r)rM (from 1'.111r) Prov. xxii. 24. Il. On Piel, Pual, and Ritthpa&l 8. In the Pret. Piel, the second syllable has Chireg instead of the diphthongal in the greater number of examples, as liihm rbbq which its therefore adopted in the Paradigm. Before suffixes Chireq is'always employed, e. g. Inn"41. Ps. xliv. 20. Yet Pual has always Tsere (-) 9. The Fut. loses, after the apocope, the Daghesh forte of the second stem-letter (comp. ~ 20, 3, a); hence Pi.O 1141; Hithp. ~1n~ Gen. ix. 21. Less frequently is the Pattach then lengthened into Qametu, as Irivi 1 Sam. xxi. 14, 'vtm Ps. xlv. 12. Comp. Rem. 7.

Page  150 MO 150 ~~PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. 10. In Pivel and Hithp. are found also apocopated forms of the Imp., an W for MW prove! Dan. i. 12; ~Mr feign thyself sick, 2 Sam. xiii. 5. 11. Examples of Yodh retained in cases where more commonly it is omitted: Put. 141"'l will ye liken me Is. xA 25, ~MNV they cover them Ex. xv. 5. IV. On Hiphil and Hophal. 12. In the Pret. Hiph. the forms rl~l and t1;! are about equally common; before suffixes the latter is used as somewhat shorter than the other. In Hoph. always ~13. The Tsere of the!nf. absol. Hiph. is the regular vowel (as in ~~) to this the Inf. absol. Hoph. conforms, as in MUM1 Lev. xix. 20. The verb hi to be much, has three forms of the Inf,) viz., binlim much (used adverbially), MVIMt used when the Inf. is pleonastic, Innnb the Inf. constr. Comp. Gen. xli. 49; xxii. 17; Deut. xxviii. 63. 14. The Put. apoc. has either the, form W-1 Is. xli. 2, r-lp Gen. ix. 27, or(it hlin-oel) ',for 'Which, however, is invariably substituted the form '~5(~ 27, Rem. 2, c), as ~~; 2 Kings xviii. 11, '1. Ps. cv. 24. Examples with gutturals: ~V~ Nu,"m. xxiii. 2, &C., which can be distinguished from the Put. Kal only by the signification. 15. The Imp. apoc. has invariably the helping-vowel Seghol or Pattach, as VIF1 for ='el M i Ps. li. 4, Bel for s It! 1t21 Deut. ix. 14, r for Mti'l Ex. xxxiii. 12. 16. The Put. with Yodh retained occurs only in 11jih Job xix. 2, from M1. V. In General. 17. In the Aramaman, where, as before remarked, the verbs tbN and Mb flow into one another, both classes terminate, in the Fut. and Part. of all the copjugations, without distinction, in bt- or 4-7. As imitations of this mode of formation we are to regard those forms of the Inf., Imp., and Put. in ri-, more seldom tt- and -,which are found in Hebrew also, especially in the later writers and the poets. Inf. '1" to be Ez. xxi. 15, 1r0 opprimendo Ex. xxii. 22, MUMnr Lev. xix. 20. Imp. itIM be thou Job xxxvii. 6. Put. mrmnrrxie 3r. xvii. 17, Ichi ~t follow "not Prov. i. 10, h~rftlK-b do not 2 Sam. xiii. 12.* The Yodh is found even at the end of the word (which is also a Syriasm) in "~MIs. liii. 10; "~Iri Jer. iii. 6, and hence in the Plur. ~14=1 Jos. xiv. 8.' 1 A 19.. In three verbs is found the unfrequent conjugation Pilel, or jts reflexive (~ 54, 2), where the third radical, which the conjugation requiies to be doubled, appears under the form MI; viz. MM~it, contracted IMIMi to * The Jussive *ignification in these examples is the reason that they have Teere like the Imp. But this will not apply to all other eases; and, besides, the reading in many instances is doubtful between (-) and (-~See Gen. xxvi. 29; Lev. xviii. 7; Joe. vii. 9; ix. 24; Dan. i. 13; Ez. v. 12.

Page  151 ~75. VERB~S DOUB3LY ANOMALOUS.15 151 be beautiful, from '1m; WIu' the a'chers Gen. xxi. 16; but especially mriOt to bow, Pilel MIM hence the Reflexive MIIi51 to bow one's self to prostrate one's self, 2 pers. rl-. and In"-, Fut. MIM" apoc. -m~vl for IMU" (analogous with ~ql fo r1 b,~) 19. Before sziffixes, the M final, with the preceding vowel, falls away, as "= he answered me, ~;, I PvIut. V, ~I Hiph. ~jy.Very seldomi'. takes the place of the final ri — or t~-, as in 1zOn he will cover them,2 Ps. cxl. 10, '4951 smite me I Kings xx. 35. The 3 Pret. fern. always takes before stufl. the older form r~(ee No. 4), yet with a short 4, as in the regular verb, e. g. 1-~ for rIrMn Zech. v. 4; in puse Job xxxiii. 4. VI. Relation of Verbs M$ and bt to each ot her. 20. The verbs of each of these classes, in consequence of their intimate relation (see second paragraph of this section, and Rem. 17), often borrow the forms of the other, especially in the usage of the poets and of the later writers. 21. Thus there are forms of verbs ti$, a) Which have adopted the vowel-points of verbs M$, e. g. Pret. PS. cxix. 101; Part. Rt*1i Eccles. ix. 18; viii. 12; Pi0 Pret. bKm Jer. li. 34, "nt" 2 Kings ii. 21; Fut. bKw Job xxxix. 24; Niph rt (after Mn~2 2 Sam. i. 26; Hiph. Pret. MrR2M Jos. vi. 17. b) Which retain their own pointing, but have adopted the )M, e. g. Imp. 1I~- Ps. lx. 4; Miph. 1rit;rl 1 Kings xxii. 25; Pil Fut. M~V Job viii. 21. c) Which in all respects have the appearance of verbs f1, e. g. tra thou thirstest Ruth ii. 9; 6M they are full Ez. xxviii. 16; Inf. iuM to sin Gen. xx. 6; Put. rn0+1r they heal Job v. 18; Part. fern. woEccies. x. 5; Part. paes..Vi~ Ps. xxxii. 1; Niph. Mhlun Jer. Ii. 9; Hithp. thou prophesiest I Sam. x. 6;- Inf.?ni=?1 I Sam. x. 13. 22. On the contrary there are forms of verbs 2i$ which, in some respects, follow the analogy of verbs D6. E. g. in their consonants, b~l it is hage Lam. iv. 1; KX116 2 Kings xxv. 29; itm and he was sick 2 Chron. xvi. 12; in their vowels, lh~r 1 Kings xvii. 14; in both, W-6 2 Sam. xxi. 12. SECT. 75. VERBS DOUBLY ANOMALOUS. 1. Such are verbs which have two stem-letters affected by the anomalies already described, not including, however, those occasioned by gutturals. These verbs exhibit no new changes; and even in cases where two anomalies might occur, usage must teach whether the verb is actually subject to both, or but one of them, or, as sometimes happens, to neither. Thus from vi to flee are formed 1W h1.1 Nah. Wi. 7, and bm I Gen.

Page  152 152 PART 11. PARTS OF SPEECIL 152 PART II. PARTS OF~~~ SPEH xxxi. 40 (after the analogy of verbs lb), Hiph. 1hi~i (as a verb *), but in Put. Hoph. iwl (as ',I)" 2. The following are examples of doubly anomalous verbs, and of difficult forms derived from them: a) Verbs bil and t6 (comp. ~~ 65 and 73); e. g. WMt to bear, Imp. WV, Inf. constr. rlbtiV (for rn'"), also rbtivi (comp. ~ 73, Rem. 3), Fat. omp for Mmi-6I Mr Ruth i. 14. b) V'er"bs It and II (comp. H~ 65 and 74), as orr to bend, IM to smite. Hence Fat. Kali = apoc. Vn1, T 'l and III and he sprinkled (from Mp); Pret. Hiph. MM~, Put. ele", apoc.,,salo;Imp M pc c)Verbs A and lri (comp. ii67 and 74), as Mrmto come, 1"r~ to bake. Hence Put. MA" plur. bu l Deut. xxxiii. 21 for MM1 Put. apoc. rMK1 Is. xli. 25 for rbt'i; Imp.~bt for 1-b '+ (~ 23, 4, Rem. 2, ~ 74, Rem. 4); Hiph. Imp. 11+~ fo r.1''Xo IsI. xxi4; Put. apoc. ~b~ 1 Sam. xiv. 24, from M,!' to swear. d) Verbs " and (comp. ~~ 68, 69, and 73), as btl to go forth, Imp. bt, inf. MM Hiph. KwVrT. e) 'Verbs G' and Hi$ ('ornp. ~ ~ 68, 69, and 74), e. g. 25~to throw, in Hiph. to confess, to praise, properly tin, and I *', to throw, 1111 to be beautiful) which are really ~.Inf.I* I, M~in;. Imp.!iaV; Put. with suff. VI" we shot at them (from hIV'l), Num. xxi. 30; Piel I-in for ~~ fliph. ri'iM — Viri) inf. r~irin; Fut. "~%apoc2V. lmi f) Verbs 4~ and ~$, particularly the verb. hi to come; Pret. bq nN, once I.A for -M 1 Sam. xxv. 8; Hiph. M"i, II and r~0111 Fa~t. "=b for M"Z Mic. i. 15; Imp. in Ruth. iii. 15. So "~ he refuses, Hiph. from WU -Ps. cxli. 5. Deserving of notice also, g) is the verb Vir to live, which is treated as a verb YY and hence has 4M in the 3 Prel. Kal, Gen. iii. 22. In Hebrew it occurs only in this form. The synonymous and kindred stem r114 is in frequent use. SECT. 76. RELATION OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS TO ONE ANOTHER. 1. Several classes of irregular verbs, e. g. those 11 and -I-, kt and M#, )* and Vv, stand in a very intimate relationship, as appears from the similarity in their meaning and infiexion, from the forms w~hich they have in common, and from their mutual interchange of forms. The affinity consists, as a rule, in the essential equality of two stemn-consonants of firm sound, to which the common signification cleaves (biliteral root. ~ 30, 2), so that the third feebler radical is not taken into account. Thus I=.1

Page  153 ~77. DEFECTIVE VERBS. 153 J:V-T, RV- all mean to strike, to beat in pieces; h1V, '# iV to flee. In this manner are related in form and signification, 1. Verbs )`Y and i'w (in which the essential stem-letters are the first and last), e. g. 1.-7 and J.' to become poor; t~.' and Oft tojfeel, to touch, 'I1- and 1V2~ to flee. 2. Verbs '4 and lb (in which the two last are the essential stem-letters), both to each other and to the former class. They are related to each other in the verbs =W and = to place, %ZIo and ltp (yaqosh) to fowl; to the former class, especially to verbs )'Y, in 'A and *tojfear; MIDs and ~to" to be good; 1.? and J1-O to anoint; MID" and r2'1b to Nlow; yrp and y'e1 to break in pieces. Verbs A are more seldom found connected with these classes, as =5 and =5" to be destroyed; &IN2t and 01-1I to thresh, &c. 3. Verbs W~ and M (in which the first two consonants properly form the stem), both to each other and to the former classes; to each other in Mt and MZ. to break in pieces; b~bl and M'r to meet; to verbs of the former classes, in ',~ and Y214 to suick, 11~- and I~to thrust, &c. SECT. 77. DEFECTIVE VERBS. It often happens, when two kindred irregular verbs are in use in the same signification, that both are defective, i. e. do not occur in all the verbal forms. As these, however, are not generally the same in both, the two taken together make out a perfect verb, as in Greek 'rzopsat, Aor. t'ii0ov, Put. eAevao1saL, and in Latin, fero, tuli, latum, ferre; with this difference, that in Hebrew these verbs are almost universally related in form as well as signification, like the Greek Patdvo, Aor. 2, 10jr, from the original form fla'c03 Of these verbs the following are the most common:' Oil to be ashamned, Hiph. T6iti but also Outi (onO")Cse cially with the intransitive signification tojfeel ashamed. rmU) se =rs to be good, Pret. Miu. Fut. =ot2. (from MD) Inf.:&n Hiph. "11" tojfear. Fut. ~'11 (from =V and to place, neither used in Kal. Mph. wn to stand. Hiph. and Hoph. tel and =2b Hit hp. Y to break in pieces. Fut. Y-It (from 'jlb.Imp. frlU1. Niphi. yjiUW. * It is worthy of remark, that the verbs AI which have sprung from verbs ~.,are apt from their origin to take o in the second syllable. ]Besides the above example, we have Olip and t~pl' to fowl, ~* and '~ni to contain,, to be able.

Page  154 154 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. PiiR ts (from ybt). Pil. yi.e (from y'r). Refley. yrir?.. Hiplh. y't^. Pilpel Yre. Job xvi. 12. 'll and 'it to be strait. Hence Pret. 'I t1 Iam in a strait, lit it is strait to me, from 'v. Fut. 'A (from 'A1) and ">'1. Hiph. 'tt, Aim, to bring into a strait, to distress. The related form '.IS is transitive, to press, hence to besiege. nrrt to drink, used in Kal; but in Hiph. ItMP to give to drink, from On rbM to go, see above ~ 68, Rem. 8. Rem. 1. The case is similar when different conjugations of the same verb, having the same signification, borrowed tenses from each other; 7b5 he is able, it'. Fut. Hoph., he will be able, used for Fut. Kal which is wanting; tM' he has added, borrows its Inf: and Fut. from Hiph. tian., I.. l13 to approach. Pret. Niph. ta. for the Pret. Kal which is not in use; yet the Fut. tU I, Imp. tS, and Inf. 5.. of Kal are all in use. Rem. 2. The early Grammarians often speak of mixedforms (formis mixtis) in which, as they maintain, are united the character and significations of two tenses, genders, or conjugations. On correct grammatical principles most of the examples adduced are set aside (e. g. runny, ~ 47, Rem. 3); in others, the form seems to have originated in misapprehension and inaccuracy, e. g. JjH:= in thy building Ez. xvi. 31 (where the plural suffix is appended to the ending Ir, which had come to be regarded as plural). Others again are merely false readings. CHAPTER III. OF THE NOUN. SECT. 78. GENERAL VIEW. 1. IN treating of the formation of the noun, it is very important to keep in view its relation to the verb, since most nouns may be derived from verbs (considering the 3 sing. Pret. as the stem-form, according to ~ 30, 1), and even those which are not, whether primitives or derived front other nouns, follow the form and analogy of the verbals. Besides, on this connexion is based the explanation of the forms by which the gender of nouns is distinguished (~ 79, comp. ~ 92).

Page  155 ~ 78. THE GENDER OF NOUNS. 1565 The Adjective agrees entirely with the Substantive in form, though it is manifestly only by a figure of speech that forms with an abstract signification can be treated as adjectives (~ 82, Rem. 1). 2. A regular inflexion of the noun by cases does not exist in Hebrew, although perhaps some ancient traces of case-endings remain (~ 88). The relation of case in a noun is either learned simply from its position in the clause, or indicated by prepositions. In the form of the noun there is no change; and hence the matter belongs not to this division of grammar, but to the Syntax (~ 115). On the contrary, the connexion of the noun with suffixes, with the Feminine, Dual, and Plural terminations, and with a noun following in the genitive, produces numerous changes in its form, which is all that is meant by the inflexion of nouns in Hebrew.' Even for the Comparative and Superla tive the Hebrew has no appropriate form, and these relations must be expressed by circumlocution, as taught in the Syntax (~ 117). SECT. 79. OF FORMS WHICH MARK THE GENDER OF NOUNS. 1. The Hebrew, like all the Shemitish languages, has but two genders, the masculine and feminine. Inanimate objects properly of the neuter gender, and abstract ideas, for which other languages have a neuter form, are regarded in Hebrew as either masculine or feminine, particularly the latter (see the Syntax ~ 105, 2-4). 2. The masculine, as being the most common and important form of the noun, has no peculiar mark of distinction. The ending for the feminine was originally ri, as in the 3 sing. Pret. of verbs (~ 44, 1). But when the noun stands without a genitive following [i. e. when it is not in the construct state, ~ 87], the n- usually appears in the weakened form nT-, or is shortened to ri_ unaccented. The original ri- is very seldom found, except when the noun is in close connexion with a succeeding genitive, or has a pronominal suffix. Irrespective then of these two cases (for which see ~ 87, 2, b, ~ 89, 4), we have as feminine ending * This has been called [by Gesenius himself and others] the declensios of the Hebrew noun.

Page  156 156 166 ~~PART IL. PARTS OF SPEECH. a) Most commonly an accented rI-, as 0.O horse, 'MI mare; b) An unaccented MLZ, after a guttural ti (which also remains unchanged before the genitive), as 5'~ fern. ri killing, Vln fern. MF7' acquaintance. Here the termination of the noun follows the manner of segholate forms (~92, 2). When the masc. ends with a vowel, we have for r.- simply ri, as '1=biM Moabite, ri~ Moabitess; ZWIM sinner, 11O sinfulness, sin. The vowel-changes occasioned by these endings are exhibited in ~ 92.* Rem. 1. The feminine form in tl-. is, in general, less frequent than the other, and seldom occurs except when the other is also in use. It is only in the Participles and Infinitives, that it is found more frequently than the other (e. g. rn~u'~, oftener than l ti1 than Mi); it is moreover, in common with r%-, a form for the construct state (~ 93, 1). 2. Unusual feminine terminations: a) M=, as rpj- emerald Ez. xxviii. 13, rto pelican Is. xxxiv. ii, rnt5 crowd 2 Kings ix. 17, and often in proper names among Phmenicians and other neighboring tribes, as ntl Sarepta, ri'ht liana in Idumnea, on the Arabian Gulf. b) r-, almost exclusively poetical, e. g. r'TEM heritage Ps. xvi. 6, V13 help Ps. lx. 13, but in prose also is found r)Il morrow Gen. xix. 34. c) bt-. Aramuean orthography for ri-, found chiefly in the later writers, e. g. N5 -sleep Ps. cxxvii. 2, DM~, bal~nes8 Ez. xxvii. 31, Kt~tom mark Lam. iii. 12. d) Very rare 1,a weakened form of ri- (~27, Rem. 4), as riVlql for rill-I is. lix. 5. e) without' the accent, as rimh'l Deut. xiv. 17, '110-r- burning furnace Hbs. vii. 4; comp. Ez. xl. 19; 2 Kings xvi. 18. In all, these examples there should be the usual accented T-.; but the Punctators, not comprehending the feminine here, marked the ri (by depriving it of the tone) as not feminine, which is however no rule for us. Also night seems by the tone like a masc. form, particularly as it is always construed as masc., and we find also~ occurring. Like are IMMh I the sun Judges xiv. 18 (else 'V M) ri brook Ps. cxxiv. 4, rii' death Ps. cxvi. 15, and some othevr words. But much is here doubtful.t f)1Ml~ — in poetry, properly a double ending (as in 111it22l this f. =?Nkt21 Jer. xxvi. 6 Kethibh, and in the verbal form rill ~ 74, 4), e. g. rnT help (= n l -t6z5 salvation (= ~ lv wickedness *On the feminines not distinguished by the form, see ~105, 1. 3. 4. t The ending '1-, in these words has been taken for the termination of the Aramyean emphatic state, so making 111rK: pass for ~M11 But there are these objections: 1) That some examples have the Heb. article, which implies at least that the Aramman form was not recognised, 2) That the examples in part

Page  157 ~ 80. DERIVATION OF NOUNS. 157 ( —_h?_l), see Ps. iii 3; xliv. 27; xcii. 16; Job v. 16; Ex. xv. 16, and other places.* 3. It is wholly inapt to consider [as Gesenius and Nordheimer did] the vowel ending n-t as the original termination of the feminine, and the consonant ending r- as derived from it. The XEthiopic still has the n constantly, and in Phoenician also the feminines end almost without exception in r (not r or M), which is sounded ath in the words found in Greek and Roman authors (see Gesenii Monumenta Phoenicia, pp. 439, 440). The ancient Arabic has the weakened vowel-ending scarcely anywhere but in the pause, the modern Arabic is, in this respect, much like the Hebrew. SECT. 80. DERIVATION OF NOUNS. Nouns are either primitive (~ 81), as:t father, W mother, or derivative. The latter are derived either from the verb (Ver. bals, ~~ 82-84), as pat just, p., P' righteousness, from p'2 to be just,:t high,,t1u high place, Q'it height, from:.1 to be high; or from another noun (Denominatives), as ^b~ foot, ri'ntq place at the feet. The Verbals are by far the most numerous class. Rem. 1. Many of the early Grammarians, who admitted none but verbs as stem-words, classed all nouns among the verbals, and divided them into a) Formce nudce, i. e. such as have only the three (or two) stem-letters, and 6) Forma auctce, such as have received formative letters or syllables at the beginning or end, as:tbsn, rt.'b. These formative letters are: I,,, n,, a,, N,,, (~ri:w_)$ According to the view of roots and stems given in ~ 30, 1, the relation of the noun to the verb is strictly somewhat different, since according to it many nouns are formed immediately from the (ideal) root But we here retain the common view, as being easier for beginners. 2. Of compound nouns, as appellatives, the number in Hebrew is very small, e.g. b5. properly worthlessness, baseness, rMtmL death-shade. As proper names, they occur pretty frequently, e. g.?,.. man of God, belong to the more ancient books, and 3) That we find among them so old and familiar a word as nb_. Yet n'i% might be strictly an accusative with adverbial signification noctu, and then used simply for nox, no regard being had to the ending, something like:11%_ ~ 88, 2, c. See Gesenius's Lexicon under?. in the Note. * This ending t"n- too has been compared with that of the Aram. emphatic state, or been regarded as an accusative ending. t A consonantal A h is quite out of the question in this ending. t From this vox memorialis (~ 5, Note t) the nomina auct are also called, by the old Grammarians, nomina heemantica.

Page  158 158 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. whom God raises up, npinr! strength of Jehovah, ':n.f father of the king, tbt!. foundation of peace. SECT. 81. ~.'a. PRIMITIVE NOUNS. 1. The number of Primitives is very small, the nouns which are in most languages primitive being here usually derived from verbal ideas, e. g. most of the names of natural objects, as 'sT. he-goat (prop. shaggy, from to),,Tt.n stork (prop. pia sc. avis),,to barley (prop. bearded, also from ' '), -T gold (from:tI =:r12 to be yellow). Decidedly primitive are the cardinal numbers (~ 95), and there are many names of members of the body, in men and beasts, for which no stem-verb can be found, as Ap' horn, htO rtIftf, female breast. 2. The form of the Primitives is that of the simplest verbals, as hp, bopp, and it makes no difference, in the grammatical treatment, to which class the nouns belong. Some follow the analogy of the regular (~ 83), others that of the irregular verb (~ 84), e. g. tcs man as if from t:I; on the contrary,:1 father, =~ mother, as if from MRs, t::, which is very improbable. SECT. 82. OF VERBAL NOUNS IN GENERAL. 1. In Hebrew, as in Greek and Latin, the verbal nouns are connected in form and signification with certain forms of the verb, namely, the Participles and Infinitives, which even without any change are often employed as nouns, e. g. r_. (to know) knowledge, to (hating) enemy. Still oftener, however, have certain forms of the Infinitive and Participle, seldom or never found in the regular verb, though employed in other dialects and in the irregular verb, become the usual forms of the verbal noun, e. g. the Participles hp., b., the Infinitives bt, nb 5 (~ 45, 2), &c. Some, as the Arabic shows, are properly intensive forms of the Participle. 2. As to signification, it follows from the nature of the case, that nouns which have the form of Infinitives regularly denote the action or state, with other closely related ideas (such as the place of the action), and are, therefore, mostly abstract; that

Page  159 ~ 83. NOUNS FROM THE REGULAR VERB. 159 participial nouns, on the contrary, denote, for the most part, the subject of the action, or of the state, and hence are concrete. It often happens, however, that a certain signification is found in single examples, which is not characteristic of the form. Rem. 1. It need not appear strange, moreover (for it is found in all languages), that a noun which in form is properly abstract, should be employed metaphorically as a concrete, and vice versd. So in English we say, his acqaintance, for those with whom he is acquainted; the Godhead, for God himself; in Heb.:yi' acquaintance and an acquaintance; Fa simplicity and a simple one; on the contrary rnttn that which sinneth for sin, which is a frequent use of the fern. concrete (~ 83, 5. 6. 11). 2. For facilitating the general view we treat first of the derivatrves from the regular verb (in next section) and then of those from the irregular (~ 84). SECT. 83. NOUNS DERIVED FROM THE REGULAR VERB.* We distinguish here, I. Forms originally Participles, or participial Nouns,from Kal. 1. bul, fer. 51ji, the most simple participial form of verbs middle A (~ 49, 2), in use as a participle only in verbs 'I (~ 71, 4). It is most frequently employed as an adjective expressing quality, as ta wise, thr new, TU upright. It also occurs, however, with an abstract sense (No. 12). 2. 2i, fern. rTp, Part. of verbs middle E, mostly serves for intransitive notions (~ 43), and for adjectives of quality, e. g. J1) old, old man; ZOn dry; '1. fat. 3. b:' and 'i Pa (with firm o), fer.., Part. of verbs middle 0 with intransitive sense, e. g. 'bjr small, 'A fearing, Spy fowler; then frequently as an adjective, even when no Pret. with Cholerm is found, as finl great, pirn far, fiTp. holy. As a subst. abstr. li= honour, th50 peace. No. 21 with the doubling of the last radical must not be confounded with this. 4. bUip, b;p, fem. tgrp, b..p, the usual participial form of transitive verbs, e. g. =:: enemy, p',i suckling; hence of the instrument by which the action is performed, as &5nh a cutting instrument, a weapon. A feminine with a collective signification is found in Mn`t caravan, properly the wandering, wandering host. 5. It.:: and db5u, passive Participles of Kal, the latter (Aramean) form employed rather as a substantive, like the Greek verbals in Tro. E. g. 'ItW imprisoned, anointed,.ex. prisoner, ntS.. anointed one. With an active signification also, in intransitive verbs, as 'ts. small, t: strong. Some words of this form express the time of the action, as "1.5 time of * Under the regular verb we here include the verb with gatturab, i 62-64.

Page  160 160 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. cutting, harvest, '.ttn time of ploughing, like the Greek verbals in Tog, e. g. &CpTO;, aQOTO?, properly the being harvested, or ploughed. The feminines are prone to take the abstract signification (Synt. ~ 105, 3, b), e. g. iMr.l. deliverance (the being delivered). 6. b'r (Arabic tip), with Qamets unchangeable. In Arab. it is the usual intensive form of the Participle, and hence in Heb. expresses what is habitual, e. g. nrS apt to butt, btt:r sinner (diff. from Ituh sinning), a=_ thief; so of occupations, trades, e. g. nAr cook, fan, (for trj)faber. Here again the feminine (tnpb or riVp) often takes the abstract signification, as Mtsxn female sinner and sinfulness, sin; rn'.' burning fever, with a guttural UrS signet. Such intensive forms are also the three following. 7. b'iiu and b.r2, of which forms are most adjectives in the Chaldee, as pa': righteous, 'I_ strong, j(St compassionate. In Heb. of intransitives only. 8. bip., as 'it) censurer, i'id. drunken one, C'.M strong one, hero, seldom in a passive sense, as '1.i born. 9. b.l indicates very great intensity, often excessive, so as to become a fault or a defect, e. g. I. hunch-backed, n.. bald-headed, t it. dumb, 'us blind, Tnb. lame, &nrt deaf. The abstr. signification is found in the fern., as ri. 'folly. II. Nouns after the manner of Infinitives of Kal.* 10. bq~, iv>p, bp (with changeable vowels), are with No. 11 the simplest forms of this class, of which the first and last are employed in the verb as Infinitive (~ 45,2). As nominal forms they are unfrequent, e. g. 'an man, 'MM ornament, nh!: laughter. Instead of these, the three segholate forms, 11. ip l, b, S., are far more frequent. E.g... king (for:b, 70, ~ 28, 4), 'o (for 'at) book; Iti5J (for 7S7p (sanctuary; these have the characteristic vowel in the third syllable, and the helping-vowel Seghol (~ 28, 4) in the second. Instead of the Seghol, a Pattach is used with gutturals, as 3g:- seed, ran eternity, ~_E work. Examples of feminines, rn_ queen, 1t$tq fear, ris.: help, hsrn wisdom. In masculines as well as feminines the abstract is the proper and prevailing signification, yet not unfrequently the concrete occurs, specially in the form H5W, e. g. qb king, 'se a youth, s'. brutish, b'1 servant, 5a. lord, '|. man. In such forms the concrete sense is secondary and derived from the abstract, as in 'lt prop. brutishness, a_. prop. season of youth (comp. Eng. youth and a youth); or the form of the word is shortened from another with a concrete sense, as:6.b., '. from participial forms, meaning ruling, serving.t But altogether the meaning of the forms is very various, e. g. even for the instrument, as nI sword, Wrts graving-tool, and passively * All these forms are found, mutatis mutandis, in the Arabic as Infinitives, or so called nomina actionis. t Such an origin of b.n may be proved from the Arabic; and in some other nouns it is obvious. Comp. a8 as the name of a town with 'qa a wall, and tl: shortened (in the constr. state) from I:r] shoulder.

Page  161 .~83. NOUNS FROM THE REGULAR VERB. 16 161 t bread. In the passive sense the form WP is more common, as z fod; this form ~t0p is also more used in the abstract sphere, hence 'IVIa youth, -il) youth. 12. 'u P,,like No.1, fern.h unvery often with the absir. sense. E.g. nv' hunger, Wttht guilt, TY~fr satiety (besides their concretes t~' hungry, nt:zt I Wti); fern. rip$j righteousness, Mmp vengeance. More rare is the form k05. as 'It strong drink, =V grape. 13. ~ ti,'~t,'iup 'ltro all with an unchangeable vowel between the second and third radicals, and a Sheva under the first, as book, MM pain, ~':1 way, t:*r! dream, 'ildwlin;smeieswt Aleph prosthetic, as ViIA=i) arm, n tbodwelling sometiespowith -?~ bro.Tecorsodn feminines will suffgest themselves; the forms 4.T41 'vp -u coincide with those of feminines in No. 5. 14. th Aramfean form of the Infinitive, e. g. MI=~ judgment. Related f6rms are: ~'1Z song,' ri'-rn desire, ~i''booty, hzm kingdom, n.ti wages. Under this form, besides the action itself, is expressed very often the place of the action, as tl"I altar, 111 (from 'i to drive) place of driving, i. e. to which cattle are driven, wilderness; and the instrument, as r~sx knife. 15. ~ n te iia orms, with the terminations 1ji and 1-7, as D inte tal, offering; but there are also forms like"I'n I remembrance, 1111M prophetic vision. For Ji there is a truncated form 1, written also ti, which occurs especially in proper names, as iti and J'= hVtZ for ~JiV~v (comp. HkU'TuV, Plato). In Patronymic and Gentilic nouns (~ 85, 5) the Nun is restored. e. g. %'1t4 from 1-" the city Shilo (also still $ilun). 16. With the feminine ending Mrt, e. g. n~t folly, 11-M~ healing. In the Aramman, this is a usual termination of the Infinitive in the (lerived conjugations (comp. No. 28). Its frequent use appears only in the later books. As a synonymous ending we find at times I)'-. in earlier use, as, rl'It -remnant. Comp. the denominative nouns ~ 85, 6 Ill. Participials of the derived Conjugation&. 17. From Miph. Stp, as nirt (plur.) wonders. 18. 19. From Pftf and Hiph., e. g. Tn2M stnuff er8, MI17 prunintg-knifei 20. From Pool, as ~~tv and '~biY child. 21. From Pilel ~,fe. tItan 22. V1, for the most part adjectives of colour, as WI fern. Mn red, 1~btn green.* 23. 'UU-, ~ttp forms of adjectives with a diminutive significatiour (~54, 3), as- WII reddish,,n~nt -black-ish; hence in a contemptuous sense (like miser, misellus) Germ. (Gesinde,, Gesindel), as ~itq (with the passive form for qtItW) collected rabble. IV. Infinitives of the derived Conjugations. 24. From Miph. the form ID:n svtruggleo. *No. 21 may be regarded also as a mere modifiation of(No. S.

Page  162 162 162 ~~PART IL. PARTS OF SPEECH. 25. From Pil, like yq~ dispersion, more frequently in the Fern., as ftp! request, with Qamets unchangeable. 26. ~1top and 27. ~Ir ~ nintve f i l(he latter very common in Arabic), E. g. W-W requital; pltr folding of the hands; bene~fit; 1"II mantle. 2.From Hiph. of the form.11*11 remembrance-offering, M~~. anflouncing, Aramnean Infinitives. The Qamets is firm. 29. From Hithp. WrV~rW1 register. 30. From Poll, like wisir folly, and perhaps 31. like liusl smoke, pln prison. 32. From Pilel MIin a putting on, and 33. ~11 adultery. 34. MipMP1 opeinInf. to No. 23. 35. ~UU~ e. g. rn'2h~ flame (comp. ~ 54, 6). 36. Qu~adriliterals, like Vt locust. SECT. 84. NOUNS DERIVED FROM THE IRREGULAR VERB. These are formed in the same manner as those of which we bave already treated, with few variations, except such as are oc casioned by the peculiarities of irregular verbs. Accordingly we Shall refer these forms to the corresponding ones already described, mentioning only such as exhibit some important irregiilarity. I. From Verbs It. Connected with the Inf. of Kal, 14. "I- gift, 'IMD overthrow; of Hiph. 28. M1W2 deliverance. The lioun Vq M knowledge, from, VI"; see ~ 70. II. From Verbs e-V From the Part. Kal, 1. W- upright (like ~Wn ) commonly with Pattach (to indicate the sharpening or the syllable), ~% abject, =1 much, Fem.; 2. fa t. From the inf. 10, 1 1. 12 booty, "It favour, Ph la-W, Fern. 472 word, M'~r law; 14. *M fastness, that which surrounds anything, Fern. 1"'O roll. The form sometimes, by retraction of the tone, becomes a segholate form, as 'IMm bitterness, J.~ timidity (from 22. bP~P. contemned, ln)in naked (a collateral form of Pilpel). 27. ri-M praise, Mk' prayer, with the segholate form also, as lot a melting away (from Wm) lli mast (from 1~' to make a tremuossud.Fo h unfrequent Conj. Pilpel (~ 54, 4) wheel, from ~- to roll. III. From Verbs ~4 and 'i. 'The Participial forms are regular. Forms originally Infinitives are: 10. 121., Fern. rlv r~~~ knowledge, M % counsel. 13. Ili 0 for lit)' divan. *On the formation of feminines without the Daghesh, see ~ 92, Rem. 2.

Page  163 ~ 84. NOUNS FROM THE IRREGULAR VERB. 163 14. k'nin fear, qpia snare, 1inz birth, ~?a punishment; from verbs prop. i', nt? the best. 27. tin inhabitant, rfbin generation, wp. the south. IV. From Verbs 'i and ~S. Participles: 1. b' foreign; 2. bI stranger, Sn a witness, testimony; 3. ti: good, nri~ what is good. Infinitives: 11. Different segholate forms, as m1r death, and ri? house; ip voice, stW. spirit; Feminines, nt1? and rtnI evil; rM. shame; 14. i=s, Fem. rnni.: rest, li:p' place, also 'Si. oar (from; 27. haMn intelligence, nItq. testimony; 28. nrts rest. V. From Verbs "i1. Participles: 2. bos fair,,tf hardc Fern. Wd, Mp. Some lose the n-, as In sign, for Mn. 4. hin seer, Fern. thi burnt-offering. 5 S~0 covering, ap. pure, '.s poor. Originally Infinitives: 11. The segholates in different forms; not often with the tn- retained, as in Mh. a weeping, mnl friend, rth,,n h vision, revelation (Is. xxviii. 7, 15), commonly without it, as A? (for An). Sometimes the original ' or I appears. The ' then quiesces in Chireq (comp. on A, ~ 74, Rem. 3), as in 'id fruit, "n sickness. The ' also quiesces as in.'I waste. In masculines the third radical rarely remains a consonant, as in q5$ end, ^1 sickness, though in feminines it is always so, as in 1~1?_ rest, M'Tb garland. 13. bt winter, 'r, fer. tutrt a drinking; Fern. nr part, nint the half, rnntr and navr e pit. 14. i?.P possessions, tNp appearance; Fern. r1. command. Apocopated form At height, for n1bT. 15. latp wealth, jlibi destruction. 27. r... annihilation, r:. structure, nr. 6 brood. 28. $qx testicle, for nt;1.i, from nM:. VI. From doubly anomalous Verbs. We present only some cases of especial difficulty to the beginner: 1. From a verb )b and i, nir elevation for r:b, from Wmo, Job xli. 17. 2. From a verb AD and 41, n? instruction law, rh5 sign, prob. from 3. From a verb (:V and fib, tl5 tumult, Num. xxiv. 17, from ntti, for 4. From a verb 'I and ti, X island, from r1 to dwell, for '!.; i~at sign for 1rt, from rk; tp cord, from " R; N chamber for M, from MnI to dwell; his people, from nMt, Arab. to flow together; "' irrigating for.i, from,r. To the learner the stem is often obscured also by contraction, when it originally contains Nun, Daleth, or He, e. g. rn wine-press for ri, tr" (from la); q_ anger for ql; rf for rn (from fr); 4i for lnet (from n,,) brightns.

Page  164 164 164 ~~PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. SECT. 85. DENOMINATIVE NOUNS. 1. Such are all nouns which are formed immediately from another noun, whether it is primitive, or derived from a verb, e. g. Vn'Tp eastern immediately from VIP the east, which is itself derived from the verb 1:V 2. Most of the forms which nouns of this class assume have already been given, the Denominatives (which seem in general to be a later phenomenon of language than Verbals) being formed in imitation of nouns derived from the verb. The Verbal with V prefixed, e. g. was employed to express the place of an action (~ 83, No. 14); accordingly this )fl was prefixed to a noun in order to make it a designation of place (see No. 3).. Also in Greek and German [and English too and Welsh], the Verbals and Denominatives are exactly analogous. The principal forms are the following: 1. In imitation of the Part. Kal (No. 4 of the Verbals), as lis porter, from '11 gate ~h herdsman, from 'IP cattle; inedresrfo t~ v'ineyard. 2.Like Verbals of No. 6, l~R~ archer, from nO bow; li~' seaman, from M~ b salt, sea. Both these forms (Nos. 1, 2) indicate one's employ-. mnent, trade, &c., like Greek nouns in T2lg, Irvye. g. rr0ofln7, YQqUaruuis;. 3. Nouns with M prefixed, expressing the place of a thing (comp. No. 14 of the Verhals), e. g. J'V place of fountains, from J~ fountain; for -,o -,plcabuthfetabuthhedfrm$t ield of cucumbers, from ttt cucumber. Comnp. " 7rskc'v, from 4. Concretes formed by the addition of li, 1-7, as Ji'm7p eastern, from Vt. l'1 hinder, from 'nrisi; Jrl) wound, hence coiled'animal, serpent, from M") a winding. Ji and '11 form also diminutives like the Syriac 1., as '*f5k little man (in the eye), apple of the eye, from U0'X; ~IVI.& (term of endearment for ),darling,.pious -nation (from 'ad = '10 upright, pious). 5. Peculiar to this class of nouns is the termination 4-:, which converts a substantive into an adjective, and is added uspecially to numerals and names of persons and countries, in order to form Ordinals, Gentilics, and Patronymics. E. g. Vn strange, from j'Tt any thing foreign; '24I~ the sixth, from it5~ siv; lit~im Moabite, from =thin; Israelite, from %0V When the substantive is a compound, it is commonly resolved again into two words, e. g. ")M1 Benjaminite from li"1 (for the use of the article with such forms, see 109, 1, Rem.). Rarely instead of 4-:.- we have a) the ending 4-: (as in Aramaman), as4 "Z deceitful, and in proper

Page  165 ~86. THE PLURAL.16 165 names, as 4MI (festive) Haggai; and b) the corresponding M~-.a (prop. milky) white poplar. 7 sN 6. Abstract nouns formed from concretes by the addition of rm and tt%-. (comp. the Eng. terminations doin, hood, ness, &c.); e. g. MZ~ kingdom, immediately from rM'; t widowhood, fromi jztwidower, widow; tV'iZtht principium, from tbi= Kftl princeps. (See the verbals No. 16.). SECT. 86. 4 OF THE PLURAL. 1. The plural termination for the masculine gender is 14-. e. g. 01. horse, pl. V11 horses, at times written defectively In-. as in Gen. i. 21, tVB%1. Nouns ending in 4- take ~ in the plural, as VI1= Hebrews from "IW (Ex. iii. 18); but usually a contraction takes place, as V (1. 91, VIMI), t31 crimsron garments from %T3 Nouns infl- lose this termination when they take the plural ending, e. g. 'IHseer, plur. t9lh. This ending im is also prevalent in Phcanician, e. g. MIS1 Sidonians, in Ararmcan it is in, in Arabic Rn (nominative) and in (oblique cases), in ZMthiopic ~ln. It is, moreover, identical with the ending l in 3p. pl. msc. of verbs. Unusual terminations of the plur. masc. are: a) T9l-, as in Chaldee and Syriac, almost exclusively in the later and poetical bookis, e. g. 14~ kings Prov. xxxi. 3; "Id days Dan. xii. 13, defectively 1"t islands Ez. xxvi. 18. Comp. Judges v. 10; Job xv. 13; xxiv. 22; xxxi. 10; Lam. i. 4 and other places. b) 4- (with 1: cast off, as in Dual "' for V", Ez. xiii. 18; comp. the constr. at. ~ 87, 2), e. g. "" for n-1M chordo Ps. xlv. 9; "13 peoples 2 Sam. xxii. 44 (yet in the parallel passage Ps. xviii. 44 we have W, but the other form. in Lam. iii. 14 and Ps. cxliv. 2). This ending is, however, doubted by many in these single passages (see also 2 Sam. xxiii. 8; comp. I Chron. xi. 11; 1 Sam. xx. 38 Kethibh), see (Jesenius's Lehrgebaude der Heb. Sprache, S. 524 ff. More doubtful is c) 4- (like the constr. state in Syriac). Here are reckoned, e. g. "114 white cloths Is. xix. 9; - n for tamiv princes Judges v. 15, %A; windows Jer. xxii. 14. Yet this last is perhaps Dual ( 86, b, Rem. 1) two windows, "'l may be my princes (with suif.), and '-in 'Ili may be a formative syllable. Farther "VO in Is. xx. 4 is Constr. St., but the 4- belongs to the stem in "nil locust-swarm Nah. iii. 17 (from MM) and in '"t(= after the form ~t)the Almighty; finally, in 42i'~kt the Lord (prop. my lord) it is originally a suffix, see ~ 119, Rem. 4. 2. The plural termination for the feminine gender is x~i. This takes the place of the feminine termination rli.,rti-, ~0 when the noun in the singular ends with one of these; other

Page  166 166 166 ~~PART 11. PARTS 01' SPEECH. wise it is merely appended to the form of the singular, tts 010 song of praise, plur. r1#r; MiN letter, plur. Ht~-; 'IM a well, plur. HINZ~. Feminines in ril form their plural in r~'.,and those in Ml, in H" e. g. Hebrewess, plur. H'"W; 1*5 kingdom, plur. These plural terminations have, however, for their basis, the endings Ix.-. and r-Mi in the singular. It is only from a disregard of the origin of the terminations t. and rv'-. that some words which end with themn, form their plural by the addition of 04-. e. g. r"~M, plur. Vil" and rMi5"7:; M~LV wlhoredom, plur. r'11;~ '2 9nn~b widowhood, and many other instances. Strictly in the manner of the Syriac is the formation of the plural rHIV (Wdh~.vOth) laws, with Vav as consonant, from the singular M.O This ending r~i (-6th) stands for -ltlh (as it sounds in Arab., MLth, and Chaldee, see on the change of 4 to 6 in ~ 9, 10, 2), and -4th is properly only a longer and stronger form of the singular ending -&ih (1 79, 2). The strengthening is intended to denote the plural. But this ending is then by a farther application appended also to such nouns as have not -4th in the singular. For the changes of vowels occasioned by the addition of the plural endings, see ~1 91, 93. 3. Words which are of two genders (1 105, 4) have often, in the plural, both the masculine and feminine terminations, e. g. tt soul, plur. t3t and HtM both forms may be employed as masculine and feminine, but their gender must be determined by observing the usage of the language in respect to each word. This is also true of severaltother words of both genders and both (masc. and fern.) terminations, e. g. 'l' an age, ma'sc., plur. t'bit-7 and rn —; a year, fern., plur. tes and rit The gender of the singular is here retained in both the plural forms, e. g. "I rnasc. a lion, ritI9N masc. Zeph. iii. 3, rliblil masc. Job xlii. 16. Sometimes usage makes a distinction between the two plural forms of the same word. Thus tvnl days, and wx years, are the usual, min rliW the unfrequent and poetical forms. This distinction appears especially in the use of several words which designate members of the human body The dual of these words (see ~ 86 b) is employed as the name of the living members themselves, while the plural in Ili (which is here regarded as neuter) represents something similar, but inanimate. E. g. t2h hand~s, run handles, manubr~ia; VIS-p horns, 1ni2" cornua altaris; V44 eyes, M3u1- fountains. 4. A considerable number of masculines formn their plural in

Page  167 ~86 b. THE DUAL.17 167 r~,while many feminines have a plural in V'-. In botb cases, however, the gender of the singular is usually retained in the plural. E. g. =bt father, plur. rlttb; 1= name, mase., plur. Ht;on the contrary, 111 word, fern., plur. Vih; 16)D concubine, fern., plur. 016t &c. 5. It is chiefly only in adjectives and participles that we find the plural endings regularly and constantly distinguished according to the gender, e. g. V'1it boni, rii~t bone3; tP~ masc., rivis fern. So also in substantives of the same stem, when the difference depends on sex, as V= filu, ritz filiw; IV reges, rlt~t reginav. Rem. 1. In some few words, to the plural form in r~i is added the other termination of the plural Vi-. (before the genitive4i-, comp. ~ 87, 2), or that of the dual W'~ e. g. 111= height, plur. Int- construct state '4nIuz; ~~M lli~in from the head of Saul, 1 Sam. xxvi. 12; r7iiri wall, plur. rizr(munia), Wlimirm double wall. This double designation of the plural appears also in the mode of connecting the suffixes with the plural forms in Mi (~ 89, 3). 2. Some nouns are used only in the plural, e. g. V'M' mem (in the A thiopic, sing. met, man); and some of these have a singular sense (~ 106, 2), as tel face. Also when the actual plural of the latter is required there is but the same way of expressing it, hence in4 means also faces ir E z. i. 6. SECT. 86 b. -4 OF THE DUAL. 1. As a modification of the plural we have the dual, which however is used only in substantives (not in adjectives, verbs and pronouns). It is indicated in both genders by the ending appended to the singular, as 0'4 both hands, V~bi' two days; but the feminine termination '#- always becomes in this case ri- as 'M~ lip, Viit both lips, and the rl of the termination ri remains, as MM dual Vi- M double fetters. The vowel-shortening in the noun pnteadto fte dual ending is rather greater than in the plural, particularly in the segholate forms (~ 83, 11), as hal foot, plur. Vi~I dual tl;5 yet is used as well as tri from r- horn, 12;M from 9)Mb cheek. Rem. 1. Unusual forms of the dual, mostly occurring only in proper names, are: a) jj~ and contr. ~j-,as 11b.' Gen. xxxvii. 17 and '

Page  168 168 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. 2 Kings vi. 13 (pr. name signifying two wells); b) ~ — and Wb-, as t? MS? (pr. names); t3%S two in the combination I'i Bsts twelve; c) '(with i cast off), ^? Ez. xiii. 18, perhaps also 'lin (double window) Jer. xxii. 14. 2. Only seemingly dual are the words tIM water, W.n_ heaven, t.'>I'14 or tb'tt' Jerusalem. The former two are plurals from the lost singulars 'n, 't_; the latter is a lengthened form for the older bht' I *, comp. the shorter form t0 Ps. lxxvi. 3, and the Chaldee b5c'tt1. 2. The use of the dual is in Hebrew confined, except in the numerals 2, 12, 200, &c. (~ 95), chiefly to such objects as are by nature or art in pairs, as D. both hands, DtI both ears, Vt. teeth (used of the two rows), sS. pair of shoes,.aTb. pair of scales, or at least are thought of as forming a pair, as.'w" two (successive) days,;biduum, t.?'t two years (in succession), biennium,?VrI__ two cubits. In the former case the dual is used also for the plural, as ts_ ht six wings Is. vi. 2, Ez. i. 6, ts "^.~ ' all knees Ez. vii. 17. For additional stress the dual takes also the numeral two, Amos iii. 12; Judges xvi. 28. Some other remarks on the use of the dual, see in ~ 86, Nos. 3, 5 (Rem.). It cannot be doubted that the Hebrew at an earlier period made a more extensive and free use of the dual, and that the restrictions above specified belong to a later phase of its development. The ancient Arabic forms the dual in the noun, pronoun, and verb almost coextensively with the Sanskrit or the Greek; but the modern Arabic omits it in verbs, pronouns, and adjectives. The Syriac retains. it only in four words, but yet without living force, somewhat like the Roman forms ambo, duo. In like manner the dual is lost in the newer Indian tongues. On the German dual see Grimm's Gramm. I. S. 814, 2 Ausg. SECT. 87. THE GENITIVE AND THE CONSTRUCT STATE. 1. The Hebrew has no more the living use of case endings, but indicates the relations of case, either by no outward means, as that of the nominative and generally also of the accusative, or by prepositions (~ 115); but the genitive relation is indicated by a close connexion between two nouns. The noun, which serves as genitive to limit the other, remains unchanged, and is only uttered in more close connexion with the preceding nomen regens. In consequence of this connexion the tone hastens on * See Gesenii Thesaurus Ling. Hebrese, p. 629. t On some traces of obsolete case-endings, see ~ 88.

Page  169 ~ 87. GENITIVE AND CONSTRUCT STATE. J69 to the second (the genitive) of the two nouns,* and the first is therefore commonly shortened, by changes partly in the consonants, but chiefly in the vowels (when changeable), e. g. n.W. word, lff.' _t'1t word of God, literally word-God (where we reverse the order, as God's-word, like fruit-tree); ' hand, by ~9. hand of the king;: '. words, 2W '. words of the people. Thus in Hebrew,t the noun which stands before a genitive suffers the change [when there is any] by which this relation is indicated, and in grammatical language it is said to be in the construct state, while a noun which is not thus followed by a genitive is said to be in the absolute state. Such words are often connected by Maqqeph (~ 16, 1). The Insertion or omission of it, however, does not affect their relation to each other, and depends merely upon the accentuation. On the farther use of the constr. st. see the Syntax ~~ 113, 114. 2. The vowel-changes which many nouns exhibit in the construct state are taught in the Paradigms, ~~ 91, 93. This form of the noun has, moreover, peculiar terminations better fitted for union with the following noun: thus, a) In place of the plural and dual terminations s-_ and r —, it has by throwing off the m simply -. (comp. Rem.); e. g..0.b: horses,,W).cO horses of Pharaoh; Vti. eyes, i.Dn "s? eyes of the man. b) The feminine ending rn- is used, and it always takes the place of the usual termination I-,, as n"135 queen, rnbt~ it= queen of Sheba. When the same word has also the termination rl.., this form of it is adopted in the const. st. (~ 79, 2, Rem. 1). c) Nouns in M. — from verbs nb (~ 84, V.) form their const. st. in r;+ but nouns in -- change this termination to '-. Exs.,lx, constr.,nM seer; mn, constr. ASP life; and so also WI, constr. aI: valley. * In accordance with the universal tendency of the tone, in the Hebrew lan. guage, to hasten towards the end of words (~ 29, 1). t What is here said of the Heb. mode of expressing the relation of the genitive, is applicable in almost every particular also to the Celtic. In Welsh, for instance, they express word of God by gair Duw, i. e. word-God, without any change in either noun. The close connexion in utterance is all that indicates the genitive case.-Ta. t Compare ~ 74, 1, Rem.

Page  170 170 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. On the ending i and -- in the const. st., see ~ 88. Rem. Probably the t at the end of a word was pronounced obscurely, like the Latin -m before a vowel, and hence might be wholly lost in pronunciation, just as the m, in the case alluded to, was slurred over in the language of common life and in poetry. Quinct. Inst. Orat. IX. 4, ~ 40. So also the corresponding n of the plural ending in Arabic and Aramwean is slurred over, and that of the plural ending 1t in the verb (~ 44, 1, and ~ 47, Rem. 4). After the rejection of the m, the final vowel i was strengthened by a foregoing a (Guna in Sanskrit grammar), so that ai arose, which was then contracted to e (~ 7, 1, and ~ 9, 6). Instead of -- the Syriac has '"-, the original form, from which the other is obtained by contraction (~~ 7, 1, and 24, 2, b); in Hebrew too this form may be clearly traced in the suffixes to the plural noun (~ 89, 2). Of this the Old Testament perhaps furnishes an example in the form rntt) - '. Is. xx. 4 (according to some also Judges v. 15). It is obvious that the '- of the dual has come from '-. SECT. 88. TRACES OF ANCIENT CASE-ENDINGS [PARAGOGIC LETTERS]. M local, a- and i appended to the construct state. 1. As the Arabic distinguishes three cases by terminations, so we find also in the Hebrew noun three endings, which correspond in sound to those of the Arabic, but have mostly lost their signification. These endings remain only as obscure traces of a fuller and more vital organic development, than the language exhibits in the Old Testament, where it no longer ordinarily distinguishes the cases by terminations. The Arabic case-endings are: -u for the nominative, -i for the genitive and -a for the accusative (corresponding to the three principal vowels). In modern Arabic these endings have disappeared, except that of the accusative, which is still occasionally heard, when it stands as an adverbial case. The MEthiopic likewise has preserved only the -a, which is, however, still used for the whole range of the accusative anr, moreover (the distinction of case being dropped), as a termination of the consir. st. for connecting it with a following genitive. 2. The accusative relation is still very obvious in the toneless ending n-, which is appended to the substantive, a) Most generally to denote direction towards an object or motion to a place,* [answering to our -ward] e. g. trit towards * See on this force of the accusative ~ 116, 1.

Page  171 ~ 88. TRACES OF ANCIENT CASE-ENDINGS. 171 the sea, westward, f'itt towards north, northuward, r~b. to Assyria, rfa to Babylon, f1ni to the earth; with the article,,"1~V to the mountain,,h3?. into the house; after the plural, 'Itiq: to the Chaldeans, 'qtt7F towards the heavens; even after the constr. state with a following genitive, iPi fn? into Joseph's house, p'2.1 n'ilt7l towards the wilderness of Damascus, 3tt.. 1iT'l. (here with the tone, contrary to rule) towards the rising of the sun, eastward; b) Sometimes in a weaker sense, as merely pointing to the place where,* as nri. in Babylon Jer. xxix. 15, rt.iT in the dwelling Hab. iii. 11, also Sin there Jer. xviii. 2 (usually thither); c) The proper sense of the ending L-. is still more suppressed when a preposition is prefixed to the word, as,rf.5st to hell Ps. ix. 18,,fcb.. upwards,,~;l in the south Josh. xv. 21, rh.t from Babylon Jer. xxvii. 16. This termination nI- has usually reference to place (hence called He local); yet it also in rare cases refers to time, so perhaps 'nI now, at this time (from Ni), 1t"'.tt. from year to year. Its use is peculiar in,i5bn prop. ad profanum!- absit! As accusative of the object (but bordering on the local sense) we may regard.'ilT -li and b5.M,?1~ Is. viii. 23; comp. Job xxxiv. 13. As this ending is properly unaccented, the vowels of the word, as the above examples show, undergo scarcely any change, except that the helping vowel of Regholate forms becomes Sheva (~ 91, 6), and also the Chireq in t.i. Moreover the r- itself is in some cases shortened to r —, as nmi to Nob 1 Sam. xxi. 2; comp. Ez. xxv. 13.! 3. Much less frequent and almost exclusively poetica is the use of the two other endings, which along with the accusative in n — are presumed to correspond to the Arabic terminations of case, a — for the genitive, i (also.1 in proper names) for the nominative. Yet the reference to case in these forms is quite lost, and they are to be regarded only as archaisms, which occur in poetry or in stately speech, and are besides found in many compound names handed down from early times. As in these names, so also elsewhere, these terminations stand only with a * So likewise at times the accusative, ~ 116 1.

Page  172 172 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. noun closely connected with another, namely in the construct state.* a) The ending -_ is not very unfrequent, and it usually has the tone, e. g. IkM.TS forsaking the flock Zech. xi. 17,.t; i5D dweller of the bush Deut. xxxiii. 16; appended to the feminine, nigb 'Inr stolen at night Gen. xxxi. 39 (in prose), sditt rt5b full of justice Is. i. 21, pb'.: r!. i after the manner of Melchizedek Ps. cx. 4; very often when a preposition follows (comp. ~ 114), as thi- VlI'l mistress among the nations Lam. i. 1, 7jgb.0R binding to the vine Gen. xlix. 11, comp. Is. xxii. 16, Micah vii. 14, Ps. cxiii. 5-9, and other passages; in like manner it is found with many particles which are strictly nouns in the constr. st., as "ri-IT besides, I. from, 1.b not, and in compound names, as p~:bit.. (i. e. king of righteousness),.~? (man of God) bis..n (grace of God), and many others; comp. the Punic name Hannibal, i. e... 3l:h (favour of Baal). b) The ending i is of much rarer occurrence, in prose only in the Pentateuch, and that in solemn style, Gen. i. 24, irnr Vyi the beasts of the earth for ]rl ro, the same is copied in Ps. 1. 10, lxxix. 2, civ. 11, 20, Zeph. ii. 14, Is. lvi. 9; other cases are "1*.tI son of Beor Num. xxiv. 3, 15 and it? irP? fountain of water Ps. cxiv. 8, perhaps also itW 5bl soul of the sluggard Prov. xiii. 4. The effect these endings have on the vowels may be seen from the examples given. The Pattach of the feminine ending r- becomes sometimes vocal Sheva, sometimes Qamets. Rem. As these two terminations -_ and q have wholly lost their significance, they can no longer pass for proper case-endings; yet it is probable that once they as well as m- (No. 2) were so used in the living language, for we find that the ancient Arabic had exactly corresponding endings, and like the Hebrew lost them at a later period. This is the case also in other tongues. In Latin, for instance, we find a trace of the local case (in names of towns, rurn domi, &c.), in modern Persian the plural endings tn and hd are ancient terminations of case, which are no longer so used,-not to men* In ancient combinations of words, endings are often retained which have disappeared elsewhere or are but seldom employed, e. g. the' feminine ending rnwith the noun in the genitive connexion (~ 87, 2, b) and with the verb in connexion with suffixes (~ 58, 1); in like manner many peculiarities of language are retained by poets and in proper names.

Page  173 f1 89. NOUN WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. 17 173 tion the Germanic languages and the lingua Romana..-Even in cases where the ancient Arabic attached, with stronger sound, case-endings to the stem, as in I= "tI tq (constr. st. of ot$ father), the modern uses all three forms without distinction of case. Hence also probably in the Hebrew constr. state 'l5., '%Mb we have properly a genitive ending, and in Chald. I. i Heb. 111in (Mrbtnv~) ~ b(mttZj 1-1 (bxlnla) a nomninative ending, so that could more rea'dily occur along w ith bmn, and 9initmp with J~'~fllbt. SEC~F. 89. T1lE NOUN WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. In connecting the noun with pronominal suffixes, which in this" case denote the genitive of the pronoun (~ 33, 2, b), we have, as in the verb (1 56, &c.), two things to notice, namely, the form of the suffixes themselves and the change in the noun that receives them. Here we take up chiefly the first, as the second will be treated of under the infiexion of nouns in H 90-93. A general view of the suffixes is given also in Paradigm A. We exhibit the suffixes, first, as appended to the singular, and then as appended to the plural and dual of the noun. 1. The suffixes appended to the singular are: Singular. Plural. 1. Com. ~~~~~~~~~~~our. rm.,.. in pause q: Mi. W 31 2.. thy. 2*t ~ -[your. ~ M. Vl 1; i his. Mr. 13,0 n —, poet. hiw4 -3f. her: - jtheir. Rem. 1. There is a less variety of forms here than with the verb, and their use is as follows: a) The forms without a union-vowel are joined to nouns which end with a vowel, as J"t ~I:1 and 1111$~, 11$S, V'bt thtt jmqn Yet it must be distinctly understood, that nouns ending in Ml-, and Ml- (~ 87, 2) do not come under this rule. b) The forms with a union-vowel (~ 57, 3, b) are joined to nouns ending with a consonant, which are by far the majority. The union-vowel is usually a in the 3 sing. i, ri (from ~1~-), fern. M. and3 pur1n., ~,and in these cases e is scarcely used except with nouns in Ml-,,a's 4brillia rMio; but oz- are the customary forms while - are of rare occurrence, see Rem. 2. 2. Rare forms are: Sn.2 pers. m. Mt- 'in?I62 thy hand Pis. cmxix. 5; fern IV- Ez. v. 12, '-Ps. ciii. 4, once Hz~- Nali. Ii 14 (several MSS. Il- pr(!h.

Page  174 174 174 ~~PART IL. PARTS OF SPEECH. ~'-. - es i e.i h requent ri*~7L Gen. ix. 21; xii. 8, xiii. 3; xxxv. 21; Mk 2 Kings xix. 23, for which we find ilt in Is mxvii. 24, ihhl Gen. xlix. 1 1 (Keni i~) Plur I ers.~-,as nb4 Job xxii. 20, and so in Ruth iii. 2, Is. xlvii.10 ~-2 pens. rI5 Ez. xxiii. 48, 49.-3 pers. m. 2 Sam. xxiii. 6 for WM~-; (from which by contraction the usual form I:- ). Fern. rJIM " 1 Kings vii. 37, Mh Gen. xli. 21, M' Ruth i. 10, else mostly in pause; also is unfrequent (Is. iii. 17), usually IT.. 2. In appending the suffixes to the plural masc. in VI- and the dual in 4-7, these endings are changed for the construct (~ 87, 2) in ~which becomes blended with the suffixes; and hence we have these Suffixes of Plural [and Dual] Nouns: ASingular. Plural. 1. corn. my. 1 corn IV"' our. 2. ~ ~thy. 2. your. M. $ 4m. poet. 16_his. M. =,pet. 3. ~ 'h 3. } oe.~M their. In most of these forms the plural construct remains unchanged, as IIO, 11-0 =140O; in some it takes &eghol in place of Tsere, as I-ii0 MIIDV; in three forms with very short suffixes it takes Pattach (the original ending -, 87, Rem.), as 1"1- from Jd~ g, from 1101 (comp. ~ 28, 4), "01 sfisa&" fr-om suisaf-i. Rem. 1. The Yodh, which distinguishes these suffixes, is occasionally omitted in most of the persons, e. g. IT1. for thy ways Ex. xxxiii. 13, -Iaq for 1114V his friends Job xlii. 10, mr2'~T after their kinds Gen. i. 21. Tuilp happens most commonly with the suff. 3 pers. in. sing., where we very often find I-,, which is however almost constantly changed in the Keri toV-,e. g. 'IsM hi~s arrows Ps. lviii. 5, Ken 2. Unusual forms are: eing. 2 pers.f. v"- Eccles. x. 17, "VI Ps. ciii. 3, 4, 5; 3 pens. rn. 19i (quite a Chaldee form) Ps. cxvi. 12; 3 fern. RIC Ez. xLi 15.-Plur. fern. sm21- Ez. xiii. 20, M2M'.- Ez. xl. 16, fly'-t Ez. 3. On mW " see farther in 101, 2, in the Note. 3. It is clear and unquestionable that the 'Yodh in these suffixes, in reality, belongs to the ending of the constr. st. of the masculine plural. Yet this was so far lost sight of by those who spoke the language, that there arose the strange peculiarity (yea,

Page  175 ~ 89. NOUN WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. 175 inaccuracy) of appending these suflix-forms (already embracing the plural ending s.) to the feminine plural in rH, as VVMV, ral N. T 0o, where in reality a double indication of the plural occurs.' N. B. This is the rule; yet the bare suffix (as in No. 1) is sometimes appended to the ending ri, as iriii Ps. cxxxii. 12, J,'i Deut. xxviii. 59; this is even the more prevalent mode in the 3 plur., e. g. tn4b their fathers, oftener than W~lnKN, so also =iu=z5 their names, Ininib- their generations. 4. We now subjoin, in illustration of the above statements, a Paradigm of the masculine and feminine; and choose for the purpose a word whose stem-vowel is unchangeable. Instead of the feminine ending I#. in the singular, the construct ending ri- is employed, which retains its Pattach before I=, 1p, but changes it to Qamets before the others, because it then stands in an open syllable (~ 87, 2, b). Masculine Noun. Suff. sing. I. com. ~. 2. 3.masc. 3.fem. plur. 1. com. 2. m;c. femasc. 3. mntnasc. Singulo 010 a horse. VIC my horse. 190). thy horse. 1:1p thy horse. t0pI0 his horse. MCID her horse. 1-:1O our horse. t=01-0 your horse. jD;VD your horse. =09P their horse. IIt0 their horse. Feminine Noun. ~~tr.~ bAO' a mare. srB9b my mare. 1=101.0 thy mare. ~h0~ thy mare. irlto1 his mare. 011-0~ her mare. NDIO our mare. D~~0~ your mare. f~;t~r your mare. =0?b0 their mare. T01-0 their mare. Plural. Suf. sing. 1. corn. 2. masc. 3.masc..j em. VVID horses. 140' my horses. 1,4610 thy horses. r —*0 thy horses. 1b4010 his horses. M461- her horses. MOID mares. "Hi0b10 my mares. 'pftlot) thy mares. t3ns0sV thy mares. 1M0'10 his mares. I 1i0fit her mares. a * See a case analogous in ~ 86,, Remn 1. Comp. the double freinie en4. irg in ~ 79,Item. 2,f..1, ~, I 1L

Page  176 176 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. plur. 1. corn. t:l. our horses..:qnCiO. our mares. masc. =?VD. your horses. =T111.iD your mares. fern. tPOD1 your horses. 7fJP.OM your mares masc. nbD.'D their horses. t=M1ip0D. their mares. 3 fern. i OD their horses. Tr1iOD0 their mares. SECT. 90. VOWEL CHANGES IN THE NOUN. 1. The vowel-changes of nouns [to which is commonly given the name declension], are caused, a) by a noun following in the genitive, b) by pronominal suffixes, c) by the plural and dual terminations; to which is added, again, the effect of a genitive following, or suffix. 2. The tone, in all these cases, is moved forward more or less or even thrown upon the, following word. We here distinguish three cases, viz. a) When the tone is moved forward only one place. This effect is produced by most of the suffixes for singular nouns ( —7; i -, ST-.; l,; '. ~-, "-; ' '; 0~-, nv), and by the plural and dual terminations, as '1W word, o. my word, plur. VtT.; t=, dual L.S. wings; Z3s enemy, a.t, f~I.. The same applies to the light suffixes for plural nouns,* as X-; A-, A-d; I-, r., -.; 1',.. '~i —, e. g. t7~,.I~ql. b) When the tone is moved forward two places, as in the plural constr. and when the grave sufixes are appended to the plural (?_., t,_). In this case both vowels, if mutable, are shortened to the utmost, e. g. D1t ^W words of the people; 1:S1t your words; Cf.1. their words. In segholates, as they have the tone on the penultima, there is here a difference. The suffix has not so great effect as the (longer) plural ending o' —, rI: the former leaves the chief vowel still under the first letter: as V*w.; but the latter draws it nearer to the tone-syllable and under the second consonant, as o:.. Comp. ~ 91, 6. t c~) When the suffix begins with a consonant without a unionvowel, and forms a syllable by itself, as I;?, ]~; C:, It, ]~ (for which we have more commonly t3-, 7-7). Of About light and grave suffixes see Note on pages 178, 179.. ' g,, -' @i,:*'

Page  177 ~ 91. PARADIGMS OF MASCULI&E NOUNS. 177 these the first is a light suffix, and regularly affects the tone in just the same manner as e-, i, e. g. I, W, 2T. The others are grave suffixes, and have more effect in shortening the vowels, SW~, &c., as is shown in the Paradigms. A similar effect is seen in the constr. st. of the singular number, as,.'6fR ' _.; t1.1 0'1 (from 12M). 3. The vowel changes in feminine nouns (~ 93) are not so considerable, the addition of the feminine ending having already occasioned a shortening of the vowels (~ 92). Most of the vowel changes, which form this internal iiae.rion of the noun, are based on the principles laid down in ~~ 23-29. There are others, however, which are occasioned by the peculiar structure of certain forms of nouns exhibited in ~~ 83, 84, 85. They are nearly all confined to the last two syllables of the word, the third syllable from the end seldom having a mutable vowel (~ 27 at commencement). There is a striking difference between the vowel changes in the verb and the noun. In the verb the second of two changeable vowels mostly disappears (b5p, nt5g, t: ), in the noun thefirst ('I, I~, X.?), comp. ~ 27, 3. Changes of consonants are very few, and occur only in Parad. IX. SECT. 91. PARADIGMS OF MASCULINE NOUNS. Masculine nouns may be most conveniently arranged, with reference to their vowel changes, in nine classes, as in the table on the two following pages. See the necessary explanations on page 180. We here only remark in general, a' That all feminines without a distinctive termination (~ 105,. 1, 3) are inflected like masculine nouns, except that in most cases they take the plural ending Hi. E. g.:in, sh, &c. Plur. absol. HiVn, constr. st. tV'I, which is also the form before all the suffixes, see ~ 93. b) That in the plural, light suffixes are without exception. attached to the absolute, and grave stmixes to the ^onstruct state. 12 * 'a

Page  178 178 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. Paradigms of I. II. III. IV a. Sing. absol. 01 D.y:?PL. (horse) (eternity) (overseer) (word) constr. 0, 10:bt ~p. light suff..O -T? P grave suff.*.::?. T t:. Plur. absol. wto..b. 3liP. constr. O bi l ^. C light surf. lOci Y tp. -T grave suf.?. 5010. = i:?.q.. ~?F~. Dual absol.:.Dai:?7b:,t ~:I.13 (two days) (pair of tongs) (two weeks) (wings) constr. ^? VI. d. e. f. g. h. Sing. absol. r 3 `2 _ b Mti r.Ti (a youth) (perpetuity) (work) (death) (olive) constr. b_ n_. b.' rn i light suff. S n. i. T T. grave suff. =:? 0?n. tnb v t: nnT Plur. absol.:':r: C351; Scrr=:t*T constr. bS. *nMI? ) tylm rinT light suff.,'T Dn. sb^ r ^T grave suff. CyV l?'nl Ci cr t:?'rn ~ 13h4T Dual absol. w.a. Ip.S (pair of sandals) (eyes) constr. S?. b. * Grave suffixes are those which have always a strong accent or tone. aS:j, ],., 7, but not "-;.ira-; or to the plural, as t?-, "]:. ~k.. A.,;,. |^.:<;'. '

Page  179 ~91. PARADIGMS OF MASCULINE NOUNS. 179 Masculine Nouns. T ' IV. V. VI. b. a. b. C. a. b. c (wise) (old) (shoulder) (court) (king) (book) (sanctuary) VT v V) T (hips) (thighs) (feet) (double) (loins) VI. VIIL VIII.IX i. a. b. a. b. C. (fruit) (enemy) (name) (sea", (mother) (statute) (seer) (gazelles) r "5rib M '1 (cheeks9) (pair of scales) (nostrils) (teeth) Such are most suffixes of 2d and 3d pers. plural, whether joined to the singularp, IZ"- 1t!4-., but not The other suffixes are called light.

Page  180 ISO 180 ~~PART 11. PARTS OF SPEECH. EXPLANATIONS. 1. To Paratd. I. belong all nouns whose vowels are immuta. ble.. Of course there are no vowel-changes in this Paradigm, and it is inserted only for comparison with the others. Exs. 1,! biip, t~=~ Fi (~ 25, 1); to for tbt 'n~ for (~ 25, 2); Hil Pil n, mimz' (~ 25, 3); ittnn for ttil (~ 25, 4). Here belong the classes of verbal nouns given in ~ 83, Nos. 6, 7, 8, 13, 26, 27. 2. To Parad. II. belong nouns which have' 'a changeable Qamets in their final syllable, and are either monosyllabic or have the preceding vowels immutable. E. g. 'I hand, =Zi star, 't"P wilderness, women (found only in the plur.). With the suffix t, I Il becomes =1 (for tz') and W- becomes =V;see ~ 27, Rem. 2, 3. There are some nouns which resemble, in form, the above examples, but which have an unchangeable Q~amets in their final syllable; and hence they do not belong to this class, e. g. forms like 'tp, (~ 83, Nos. 6, 13), Wi as Part. of verbs 4'1 &c. Derivatives from verbs t`~ also corn inonly retain their Qamets, e. g. b0j) plur. C0nstr. 9lr 3. Parad. III. embraces those nouns which have an immu table vowel in the final syllable, and a mutable Qamets or Tsere in the penultima, Exs. great, JiI$ lord, t32. strong, In.= plur. VIIt faithfulness,. 11= hunger, 111Z- remembrance. The last two take -in the constr. st. the forms II=8 and 112T, the first two syllables of 1Ti:- being contracted into one. Here also are to be distinguished nouns which resemble the above forms, but which have an immutable Qamets. Exs. r11. for Vis y VrWv for (see verbal nouns, ~~ 83, No. 7); also 25 tPlur. Vl5.0 Ex. xiv. 7. Many fluctuate, as Wlt week, see Lexicon. 4. Parad. IV. embraces nouns of two syllables with -Qamets changeable in both. For the changes in these vowels, see ~ 90, 2. Nouns' of this form are very numerous. The influence of a guttural, especially on the form of the plur. constr., is seen in the second of the two examples given in the Paradigm. Other examples are: =#1 gold, = tail, tt guilt, =V hunger. In like manner are declined nouns of the less frequent form;tpe. g. -= heart, 'I strong drink; with a guttural, '1f hair, -= grape. A few nouns of this class take a segholate form in the constr.-at. singu. lar; e. g. 'I, cometr.,9t. am Deut. xxxi. 16; V* consir. 31~ also V~

Page  181 ~91. PARADIGMS OF MASCULINE NOUNS.18 181 2 Sam. xvi. 13; laf constr. 10jZ5 and bIrin (comp. 'ic and nt j 83, Nos. 10 and 11). Qamets is immutble in both syllables of T fr 05btmW and VJ311 for 0,wq ~ 83, No.-6. 5. Parad. V. is properly a mere variation of the preceding:one. The final Tsere is treated like the final Qamets in Parad. IV.,)except that in the constr. St. JP stands for 1~1 Some nouns, however, take the segholate form (No. VI.) in th constr. st.; e. g. I*t~ shoulder, constr. st. J~ 1 for PO-; Il wall, constr. St. 'Il for be l thigh, constr. st. 1-01 for 1.'4 In afew cases both forms occur, as 'Tt heavy, constr. st. 'MD Ex. iv. 10 and 11 Is. i. 4; ~V constr. st. ~V and 51V The original form appears in Gen. xlix. 12, -~b Pe. xxxv. 14 where Maqqeph follows. Examples of the first sort are: bin"V T~,~ Some nouns of this form retain their Tsere in constr. 8t. plural; e. g. Vt3", plur. constr. '=4 so also '1n irmD imt5 iu. 6. To Parad. VI. belongs the large class of nouns denominated &egholate forms (~ 83, No. 11). The chief peculiarity 'in their inflexion is, that before suffixes and in the constr. st. of the plural and dual, they resume their original monosyllabic, form (comp. ~ 90, 2). The plur. absol. is derived not immediately from the form ~,but from the kindred form (comp. ~ 83, Nos. 10, 11, and below, Nos. 4 and 6) ~,plur. V'U the Pattach being changed to Q~amets because the syllable in' which it stands becomes an open one. These forms may be arranged in three classes, the first having A, the second E, the third 0, in the first syllable. The Paradigm exhibits under a, b, c, derivatives of the regular verb; under d, e, f, forms which have a guttural in the final syllable; under gh derivatives from verbs V" and 4 n udri e rivative from a verb ~. Compare ~ 84, IV. No. 11, V. No. 11. REMARKS. 1. The form liTl (for 27, Rem. 2, c) exhibits the original A not only before suffixes, as in I'Za but also in Pause (~ 29, 4), e. g. wi and before He local (1 88, 1) as MIXt. In the Septuagint, also, the 1proper names like INr' are uniformly written with A in the, first syllable. 3Aj~L, 'aq~if#.The-wor y6, with the article, is constantly written rlikIm derivatives from verbs ~. also take Qamets for their first vowel, as b The original monosyllabic form is seen in the word itts a tailetj. Many of

Page  182 182 182 ~~PART If. PARTS OF SPEECH. these segholates keep the Seghol also in pause, e. g. b,~,t~,p but generally A appears, as in 00, It~ OM =I There are, however, nouns of this form, which take i instead of a and are inflected like 'lb; e. g. '~(as if -7 B '),; - (nl pus Vl, `1 cst.7~;~ '~ P~ '. At times bohforms occur, as ib.11, lV'2 Hos. i. 2 and V-;" Is. lvi. 4. Nouns of the form -~-~ 'when their third stem-letter is a guttural, are pointed like T-i YV~b when the second stem-letter is a guttural, like hVv (see Parad. d), seldom like cr~ It is to be observed, moreover, that in the hard combination (viz, when the second radical has quiescent Sheva, and when the third radical in J-'M would take Daghesh lene, as in n~n) Gsimple Sheva may be retained here also as in "MM' on the contray the forms corresponding to nz~ are always pointed as "IV 7 1r: 2. The form "Z~, MM (b, e), when its first letter is a guttural, takes Seghol in the plur. constr. and before suffixes in the singular; e. g. " ~, The monosyllabic form appears in MUM With He local Tsre is rtieas MMI'~'! from Vl~ Examples of this form are: =1b '1)V,,ypi 3. The form (c) sometimes, though not often, takes Q.ibbuts in the cases mentioned in the preceding number. E. g. b'p,, Ps. ci. 2. From =0 though without a guttural, we have in Hos. xiii. 14 T~bj similar to t=!l p61l1klhem. From (Ietterf) comes with suff. also 1~V for *-Tt (not from b)Is. i. 31, and so also Iitil1 Is. lii. 14 for Iinx- I Sam. xxviii. 14, where the Qarnets-clzatuph is made into a long vowel by Melkegh, comp. 162, Rem. 4. In the plural absolute most nouns of this form (even when they have not a guttural) take Chateph-Qamets under their first radical, as in the Paradigm, e. g. Vll mrlns; others take simple Sheva, as VPPM from Vri'lc from mm hence V'VV with Qarnets-chatuph, but also '9= from, ~J.;o two have Qamets-chatuph, as tt'10l (k-d/ud-shim), with the article V907ini,M V10'10 (slh6-re-shim) fromn VnwiZ (see ~ 9, Rem. 2). The word ~~ti has, byaS riam V"Mx for V~M (see ~ 23, 4, Rem. 2); but with a prefix it is pointed as M9.n With He local the Cliolem is retained, as *'. 4. According to the same analogy are inflected the kindred monosyllabic forms which have their vowel between their last two stem-letters (~ 83, -No. 1)); as nM~i, with suff 9u-atZ; Infin. ~b 4t9t; ib (thus the Inf. usually without Dag. lene in 3 radical, not like 'Idi) 5. Only derivatives from verbs ~'Y and ~Ychange their form (by contracting the diphthongal aw and ay to 6 and e, ~ 24, 2, b and Note *) in the constr. st., as Mt prop. mawlh, contracted rim. Before He local this contraction does not take place; e. g. r 1tt4;r9 (except in constr. st., as ~qj rtM'9). On the contrary, Vav and Yodh, when quiescent in the ground-form, may become consonants in the course of inflexion, e. g. Int 6. Of segholates fromn verbs 11~ there are also properly three classes, distinguished by the A, E, and 0 sounds (~ 84, V. 11). E. g. -9im 4m, ~7; i paue, VI I '9; Mt efties, ~'94tS, Vim,.9,TM; in the

Page  183 ~91. PARADIGMS OF MASCULINE NOUNS. 18 183 plur. and dual, Vnx t i '~' In the last case some nouns take tt instead of ~,on account of' the preceding Qamets (~ 24, 2, c); as 4ti 7'. To Parad. VII. belong nouns which have mutable Tsere in their final syllable, and are either monosyllabic, or have their preceding vowels immutable. It accordingly embraces all participles in Kal (of the form not ~t) and those in Piel and Hithpael, the form St (1 83, No. 9), and several others, e. g. staff 't~fl season, frog, &c. The following deviations from the Paradigm are to be noted: a) Several nouns take Pattach in the constr. st. (as in Parad. V.); e. g. '11=~ con~str. st. '~IM'; especially with gutturals, as MMi, -:t.s. 1% Z b) Before the suffixes which begin with a consonant occur such forms as Jbi~, and or as J~~0 c) In words of one syllable T"ere is retained in the plur. absol. as the Paradigm shows; it is also retained in several words which are not monosyllabic, as W,0 0 8. Parad. VIII. embraces all nouns which double their final stemn-letter when they receive any accession at the end. The final vowel, in consequence of the sharpening of the syllable, is shortened (~ 27', 1). If the word is of more than one syllable, the vowel of the penultima conforms to the principles which regulate the vowel-changes. E. g. camel, plur. jtib wheel, Plur. t: = ~ wheel, plur. M* *.Nouns of almost every form are found among those which are inflected according to this paradigm. Whether a noun belongs here cannot, there. fore, be known from its form, though its etymology will generally decide. Etymology refers to this Paradigm the following classes of nouns; viz. 1) All derivatives of verbs ~~. (~ 84, IL.), as ~,q V2n, pV1, I~M &c. and primitives whica follow the same analogy, as t~i 'i I3 t~b. 2) Contracted forms, like jv3 (for It.,S ~ 19, 2), with suff. int, in (for mi) with auff. ei.- rV (for r~,plur. 9t:'n or ninV?Z? 3) Denominatives, especially Patronymic and Gentilic forms in as:, as l,, though the forms M41#4 VVZ are at least equally common. 4) Derivatives of the regular verb (~83) under the following forms: 10. jvl; 14. J-Ma ~7ZTM?3; 15. J~b ~ IM plur. V'9=1; 21. ~t$~; 36. ~MI with aufi. imy tb"rI, plur. Im'WM But there are also words of all these five forms which do not take Dagrhesh in the plural, and those which are here adduced are to be regarded rat~her as exceptions to the prevailing usage. They are pointed ' out in the Lexicon. Before suffixes having vocal Sh6va as union-vowel (like I-,~), te Daghesh may be omitted; the same vowel is generally retained, however,

Page  184 184 184 ~~PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. except that in words of the form pH it is more commonly Qamets-chatuph, Pattach before the doubled letter is either retained, as =n, plur. ~i~ or is shortened into Chireq, as MD~, "r-1. 9. Parad. IX. embraces derivatives from verbs ~ ~84, V.) which terminate in '#I. as rIT beautiful, r#IN seer, rM't~ appearance. Only the changes "which affect the final syllable boy (which is treated as in verbs #l) are peculiar to 'this Paradigm, the vowel of the first syllable being treated according to the general rules. The original termination 4'- for which 1- is substituted (~ 24, 2, and.6 74, 1, Rem.), is often restored and affects the inflexion of the word. Thus with siff. (sing., thy covering, which might also be expressed by r )Is. xi V. I, thy cattle Is. xxx. 23, lii thy form, Cant. ii. 14. crbIA1 Dan. i. 15, Gen. xli. 21, )'1V his deed 1 Sam. xix. 4, In cattle, Ex. xvii. 3, and so perhaps also '9v! my maker Job xxxv. 10. But forms also occur in which (as the Parad. shows) the M -~ falls away, as Gen. xxx. 29, ~ Gn. xxi 18 In the plural VYMt (from -mmfor ~'12m Part. Pual), Is. xxv. 6. SECT. 92. VOWEL-CHANGES IN THE FORMATION OF FEMININE NOUNS. I. The termination In-. (~ 79, 2) appended to a masculine isoun affects the tone of the word, and consequently its vowels, in the same manner as the light suffixes beginning with a vowel (see ~ 90, 2, a). The followisng are examples of the formation of feminines in the several Paradigms: Parad. I. CIO, fern. 1. I. bttt fern. $MR$i outgoing. III. b~7~ great, fern. I V. =4, fern. P1~vengeance. V. TR old, fern. ' VI. ~,fern. lo-tb q I~ en oIrIO~ covert; lit fern. -I~ delight; ' fern. food; ~, frn. ~i~young woman; T1 ) fern. game; "l (not in use), 11) garland. VII. 5t fern. wob# VIII. VI, fern. M' muich; frT, fern. 'fgs law; '7, fern. *;1 measure. IX. 11,1 fern. '# I end. 2. The vowel in the penultima is affected in the same manner when the feminine-ending ry.- is employed,' e. g. rlvlb. * This is contrary to the general rule (~ 27, 3), since the tone is not thrown forward. But ail r.$ is merely a secondary form (~ 79, 2) derived from thg

Page  185 ~93. PARADIGMS OF FEMININE NOUNS. 18 185 crown; 'In7 fern. tVIT. The final vowel is also affected in several ways, so that the termination of the word is formed after the analogy of the segholates: a) Qamets and Pattach are both changed to &eghol, e. g. WiM1 seal, fern. rlh~r (comp. J-' for 6) Tsere in some words is retained, in others is changed to &eghol, e. g. tt, fern. rlb five; "I73 fern. rll) wall. c) Vowels which are immutable (~,.1, %7) are exchanged for the corresponding mutable vowels, e. g. tt1, fern. ri shame; -1tb fern. r11t'rb night-watch (also fi); ~ lady (also ~)from '1= Hence there are three segholate-forms for feminine nouns, r-(for rlA- or r —,, and corresponding exactly to the forms of masculine nouns in Parad. VI. The same correspondence appears also in their inflexion in the singular. The termination ri (when the word ends with a guttural) always changes the preceding vowel to Pattach, e. g. fern. M~' acquaintance; ~, fern. Mt knowledge ~ not in use), fern. rlj~ rest. Rem. 1. A rare form, n~ — for rn4, has already been noticed in ~ 73, Rem. 3. Another form, after the manner of the Arabic, viz. vi~ for tn'i5' occurs in Gen. xvi. 1 1; Judges xiii. 5,7 (like I' ~'') Since this form, in all the three places where it occurs, stands in connexion with the 2 pers sing. fern. Preteiite, it may perhaps be owing to a wish to copy after that Preterite form; for in connexion with the 3 pers. we find the regular form r'5 Gen. xvii. 19; Is. vii. 14. 2. When masculines of Parad. VIIIL recei've the termination r5-, they necessarily omit the doubling of their final stem-letter; hence MIM and rnri_~-t-mt plur. W"IVN fern. In~Vit So b —i and Alfrom r' e "from ~V. SECT. 93. PARADIGMS OF FEMININE NOUNS. The inflexion [or declension] of these nouns is more simple than that of masculines (~ 90, 3), the addition of the feminine-' ending having already occasioned as much shortening of the vowels as can be admitted. E. g. from Parad. III. ~ VI M~#; VIII. '1~1, rVfl, s. M.All these feminine forms belong original accented termination r, —, it is not strange that they should similarly affect the pointing of words to W~aieQ their~ sxe appended.

Page  186 186 PART IT. PARTS OF SPEECH. to the single Parad. A. In the plural no distinction is made between the light and the grave suffixes, the former as well as the latter being appended to the construct state. These nouns have only three modes of inflexion, Parad. A (which is inserted merely for the sake of comparison) having no vowel-changes. A general view of these inflexions is presented in the subjoined table, which is followed by the necessary ex planations. Paradigms of Feminine Nouns. A. Sing. absol. constr. light suf. grave surf. Plur. absol. constr. light suf. grave suJf. Dual absol. Tno (mare) * T ==1-0 ritm) *:: Hn. o HSnol 011 l on hDn~bi a. Tr T (year) ~*T (lip8).. Io B. b. (sleep) ri T:(corners) 11MI - C. b0772: (righteousness) rip-M tolrip-ip V:. hi2n:~ rt-72 rlip!2: Hp-v hrlp12 n1 3:nhrnp89 t @: *-~ constr. C. a. b. c. Sing. absol. n bt r n mr, n1: - T: T (queen) (reproach) (waste) constr. r3 51? n mn h~n0 light suff. ^lnt VIEn 11 T grave suff. 0tnr1??3.BIn t:h? Plur. absol. rnt't vi~n. rni~5 constr. rib7 rlnn. Hri=n light suff. -ti1 irmivn itnm grave suff. 0tvo riib. tz it.n norniL nn Dual absol. 3n>. n:p. (sides) (double constr. SI,^, embroidery) D. a. b. (sprout) (skull) rip ri ~* *p* l-. *,**- a riprn nbmiz MQ1nIip?1 tMsn:: * (cymbal) (double fetter.)

Page  187 ~93r. PARADIGMS OF FEMININE NOUNS. 18 let EXPLANATIONS. 1. To Parad. B belong those femninines which have a changeable Qamets or Tsere before the feminine-ending r.E. g. r,.. It accordingly embraces the feminine forms from the masculine nouns belonging to Parad. II. IV. v.. and several belonging to Parad. IX. For the formation of the new syllable in words having ~Sheva before their mutable Qarnets or Tsere (which falls away by inflexion as in the Parad. see 28, 1. Compare rite corpse, r~b llh a wvai, vi% Many nouns of this form, however, take in the construct state and before suffixes the coexisting form in ri..' or ( 7;b 192, 2). E. g. 'Mttkingdom, constr. St. lnv~ witht suff. -, T ornament, r~k-;rrttfmlnii Qamets is inmunuable in all nouns like litl ZIMZI (~ 83, Nos. 25,28), constr. st. Mt~; 'I= l~x Tsere is also unchangeable in roost verbals of the form,17t 67( 83, No. 13); but in others it is shortened, as in M9Ntt (~ 83, No. 2). The character of the vowel, in each case, is given in the Lexicon. 2. To Parad. C belong feminines derived from the segholateforms (Parad. VI). The two Paradigms are also analogous in their inflexion, the plural absolute in both taking Qamets under the second consonant of the original form. E. g. J.' Vi;~ rl~n, ~ Hi= lambs. Care must be taken not to confound with nouns of this class, those feminines of the same form which are not derived from geghokate8, particularly the derivatives from verbs 'h~ of the form '.il I lAl whose masculine form is. M%' I imt'i. The first syllable of these nouns is immutable. 3. To Parad. D belong segholatenxouns formed by the addition of the feminine-ending rt-1 (~ 92, 2). These correspond, in the inflexion of the singular, to masculine segholates (1 91. Parad. VI). To the examples in the Paradigm may be added, r1'9-0 enclosure, tl~b letter, rl wages Of the form 'Ib which is not frequent in this class of nouns, m~lZ woman, with suff. 'n~4 is an example. The same iaflexion, however, is exhibited by some words ending in -, viz, those inr which this termination takes the place of ri;-; e.g.r (for ribi~), with suff. vm~; in like manner rib v-Q (from the mauc. ~)-~utakes with suffixes the form u

Page  188 188 188 ~~PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. Many nouns of this class borrow their plural from the coe'xisting form in lry.17,. (Parad. B); as tnIMD capital of a column, plur. rit~; t ploughshare, plur. rli-WV; M~n correction, plur. 1rli;n r11n-. Astarte, plur. H SECT. 94. LIST OF THE IRREGULAR NOUNS. 1. There are several anomalous forms of inflexion, chiefly occurring in single examples only, or at most in very few, which may be best exhibited in an alphabetical list of the words in' which they are found. They require the more attention, because, as in all languages, the words which they affect are those in most common use. 2. Most of these irregularities of inflexion consist in the derivation of the construct state, or of the plural, not from the absolute state of the singular, but from another wholly different form; precisely similar to what we have seen in the inflexion of the irregular verb (~ 77). Compare 7vvj, 7vJ'atxo9; 0'0Q _Mrog. -Mb (for bi" as if from rIbt *$) father; constr. st. ~,with stiff. "Zb (my father), T1bli, ) lb~t) =1 plur. nin (186, 4). Mt~ brother, constr. "Mbt, with suff. -Ilb T1$,M =1M plur. constr. "Mb ='M All these forms follow the analogy of verbs -H, as if MN~ stood for rWMs from 'MR~. But the plur. absol. is Vlb with. Dag. f. implicitum (~ 22, 1), as if from MN ~; hence Ti1r, &c. On the form 1?7M (which is always used instead of TIM see ~ 27, Rem. 2, b. 'Mone (for 'Ib with Dag. f. implicitum, see ~ 22, 1, and comp. ~ 27, Rem. 2, b), constr. st. b7M) fern. MM for una (see 1 19, 2), in pause MR~. In one instance, Ez. xxxiii. 30,7 it takes the form '121 (by aphceresis, 1 19, 3), as in Aramwean. Plur. Vib-IM some. rlim sister (contr. for Hhb from- the masc. IV =4 ) plur. r~"M with suff. 11"b (from a sing. mlribt,fem. from lilb) also Ijnrmm (as if from a sing. 11?7ut). a man, a softened form of t~ (1 19, 5, Rem.); in *As these nlouns, though primitives, follow the analogy of verbals (~ 82, 2), it is necessary, in order to understand their inflexions, that we should know to which class of irregular verbs they respectively conform.

Page  189 ~95. NUMERALS. CARDINAL NUMBERS. 18 1819 the plur. it has very seldom V419 the usual form being fltt maid-servant, plur. (with rI as consonant) Hrmirt, Hn-R Comp. in Aram. IMI fathers.,1~twornan (for Tlt fern. from t~t) constr. st. ntk (fern from t~t, for tit"'); with suf. 'i T lr toa abbreviated from mi~ house (probably a softened form from rl.I (m) ~ 19, 5,Rmlike Inl thorn, from rl=), derivative of 17= to build (compare &0'pog from Vuo), constr. st. rot, plur. V1M. bdt-tim, for from another sing. r~for (like M- for 11 I,sedo son (for from '#Z:), constr. st. 0,sedo1 once 14= (~ 88, 3, a) Gen. xlix. 1 1, and ~ ~88, 3, b) Num. xxiv. 3, 15. With suff,~ plur. V"= (as if from 11, for Ml daughter (for r=1, fern. from 1, comp. ~ 19, 2), with suff. 1M. (for 41-); plur. ri4h (from the sing. to=, comp. t~r father-in-law, with suff. JV'Ml and H*C mother-inlaw, compare MR~ brother, HVWMt sister. t:~ day, dual 0'144 but plur. Vi' 4V (as if from VI for vessel, plur. t*- (as if from nO. tit plur. water (comp. ~ 86 b, 1 Rem. 2) constr. st. ", and also "t~ with suff. ="Vfl 'T. city, plur. VIV "'N (from %V, which is still found in proper names). all mouth (for 11RI from 111NI to breathe), constr. st. '41 (for 11) wikth suff. '4 my mouth, IT' 11 64 head (for ft) plur. WI (for 1046t' 23, 2). SECT. 95. NUMERALS. I. CARDINAL NUMBERS. 1. The Cardinal numbers * from 2 to 10 are substantives with abstract meaning, like triad, decad, grevrci', though they are VThat the Hebrew numerals, from 1 to 10, are words of very high antiquity [if not strictly primitive, see ~ 81, 1) may be inferred from their essential coincidenkce in all the Shemitish tongues. Moreover a principal ground for maintain

Page  190 190 190 ~~PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. also used adverbially (~ 118). Only 'TMM one (unus), fern. MNr (una, see ~ 94), is construed as an adjective. Of the remaining numbers, each has different forms for the two genders, but usage employs the feminine form in connexion with masculine nouns, and vice versa. It is only in the dual form for two, Vl~,2fem. ~?V~n6, that the gender of the numeral agrees with that of the object numbered The numerals from 1 to 10: Masculine. Feminine. Absol. Constr. Absol. Constr. 1. r1r% 17m N tlm 2. 3. i 4. nr~b 11 5. 100tni 6. rn r0n 0 o 9. Vt 10. bblrr~n a.' it ing the historical affinity between these languages and the Indo-Germanic, is the fact that in both families the numerals from I to 7 appear at first sight to be very similar. With tZtIZ (prop. U5'-it as the Arab. and MMth show) is compared the Sanskrit shash, [Celtic se, also chwech], ancient Persian cswas, Gr. e,, Lat. sex, ancient Slavic shestj; with Ino, Sansk..sapten, ancient Per. haptan, modem Per, heft, Gr. i'lrTU, Lat. SepteM [Celtic seacht, also saith], our seven; with 115~t5 (Aram. rnrn), Sansk. tri, fem. tiri, ancient Per. thri, fern. tisard [Celt. tri], Gr. Te-g Lat. tres; with "Trlst, Sansk. eke [perhaps also Welsh ychydig i. e. few]; with Sunrl, Sansk. pantahan, Gr. 7rivrs, [.olic 7r ' r5, Welsh pump], Lat. quinque, [Gaelic cuig]; with =,N Lat. quatuor [Celtic ceat her, also pedwar]; with V'~ (Aram. ~~) Sansk. dye, Lat. duo [Celt. dau, do), &C. But a close analysis makes these apparent coincidences again doubtful [but not in the judgment of Gesenius, Ewald, &c.]; because there is great probability, on the other side, that at least the numerals V1 O37M (prop, the fist, the 5 fingers) and InVO (prop. combination, multitude) are to be traced back to the pure Shemitish stems ri1M to repeat, Tz5r1 to contract (comp. y';p'1,VJ) and 'Iivv to bind to. gether (comp. "I~b 1101 &c.); even if all the other numerals cannot be referred to an equally obvious etymology. *Shortened from t4=5 (according to others it is for V'-Ib with.4leph prosthetic, ~ 19, 4), hence the Daghesh tons in the Tav.

Page  191 ~ 95. NUMERALS. CARDINAL NUMBERS. 191 The other Shemitish languages exhibit the same peculiarity in respect to the genders. For the explanation of this phenomenon the following observations may perhaps suffice. These numerals, being originally abstract substantives, like decas, trias, had both the masculine and feminine form. The feminine was the chief form, and hence became connected with words of the predominant masculine gender; and the other form without the feminine ending was used with words of the feminine gender.* Usage made this a settled law in all the Shemitish languages. The exceptions are very rare: e. g. t'S.: rn5ul, Gen. vii. 13 (where the use of the feminine termination is manifestly occasioned by the masculineform of the word 7^:),Ez. vii. 2; Job i. 3. 2. The numbers from 11 to 19 are expressed by adding to the units the numeral ten (in the form it* masc., nWW fem.), written as separate words and without a conjunction. In such as are of the feminine gender (masculine in form), the units are in the construct state, which in this case indicates merely a close connexion, not the relation of the genitive (~ 114). These numerals have no construct state, and are always construed adverbially. In the first two of these numerals are some deviations from analogy: the third shows the manner in which the rest are formed. Masc. Fern. 12. a. 13,y t~vhv rr T T h Unusual forms are Bit nrt2n fifteen, Judges viii. 10; iw ng Db eighteen, Judges xx. 25. Here the masculine too has the units in the constr. state. * In the vulgar dialects of the Arabic and in the 2Ethiopic the feminine form of the numerals is used almost exclusively. This form appears in Hebrew also in the abstract use of the numerals (Gen. iv. 15). It may be added that the feminine form is very frequently used for expressing the idea of plurality, as in collectives; see ~ 105, 3, d. t The etymology of this word is obscure. R. Jona explains it by 'sW ". VIl.i. to twelve, as if close to twelve, an expression like un4dviginti, but yet not so passable here. Besides, this explanation would properly apply only to the fem., whereas the masc. also has 'tS 'iftlPs, where we should expect IHIS Greg for i0u ^': 'IV or else must assume an inaccuracy. Others explain thus: #ew*thing thought of in addition to ten, from.t5 to think.

Page  192 192 192 ~~PART IL. PARTS OF SPEECH. 3. The tens from 30 to 90 are expressed by the plural forms of the corresponding units;- as Vl~ 30, V1V'b 40, VIM 50, Vff 60, VIV 70, tt 80, t2.V 90. Twenty is expressed by y~lr., plur. of '1- ten.' They are of common gender, and have no construct state. When units and tens are written together, the earlier writers commonly place the units first (e. g. two and twenty, as in Arabic); but in the later writers the order is almost invariably reversed (twenty and two, as in Syriac). Exs. Num. iii. 39; xxvi. 14; 1 Chron. xii. 28; xviii. 5. The conjunction is always used. The remaining numerals are as follows: 100 '#bt fern. constr. it~, plur. r~ibV hundreds. 200 Jon t dual (for 'iiNt). 300 rviu %* 400 nl= rVI, &c. 1000 ~ b constr., plur. M~)$ thousands. 2000 VIB dual. 3000 n~~b rt 4000 vltt vnt C 10000 { -iZ1 (prop. multitude), plur. rlgb ten thousands. 20000 dual. 30000 nI1 t ~ 400000 Hbh rvbt &C. Remn. 1. The dual form occurs in some of the units, with the effect of the English fold: as v+Pb fourfold 2 Sam. xii. 6; V~'Vt sevenfold Gen. iv. 15, 24; Ps. lxxix. 12. The plural 1MIM [comp. W~elsh' ychydig] means some, some few, and also the same (i'idem); r~iY*iV decades (not decem), Ex. xviii. 21, 205. 2. The suffixes to numerals are, as with nouns, prop. genitives, though we translate them as nominatives, as =rl~5you three, prop. your triad. SECT. 96. NUMERALS. If. ORDINAL NUMBERS. The ordinal numbers from 2 to 10 are expressed by the corresponding cardinals with the termination s'- ~85, No. 5), ~besides which another 4-. is also sometimes inserted in the final * The plural forms IhmZi vi=, vif,- from the segholates 'Ibr~ V* rath, take in the absolute state the shortened form, which, in other words of this Class, appears first in the construct state. Analogy requires VIll, woI *18ItI.

Page  193 ~ 97. THE PARTICLES. GENERAL VIEW. 193 syllable. They are as follows:?.M,.t'T., s.~, Tn. and r.n, an,. t, ~.~, ysn, "e.t. The ordinalfirst is expressed by ]tr. (for i"D, from itn head, beginning, with the termination 'i (~ 85, No. 4). The feminine forms have the termination t —, rarely ". —, and are employed also for the expression of numerical parts, as ht."ln fifth part, rk.~. and n.sts tenth part. The same meaning is found also in forms like ftO fifth part, ='i and ZV fourth part. For the manner of expressing other relations of number, for which the Hebrew has no appropriate forms, see Syntax, ~ 118. CHAPTER IV. OF THE PARTICLES. SECT. 97. GENERAL VIEW. 1. THE particles, in general, serve to modify the thought expressed by another word or words, and to exhibit more nearly the relations of words, or of sentences, to each other. They are for the most part borrowed or derived (~ 30, 4) from nouns, a few from pronouns and verbs. The number of really primitive particles is very small. The origin of those that are not primitive is twofold: 1) they are borrowed from other parts of speech; i. e. certain forms of the verb, noun, or pronoun, are employed as particles, retaining more or less of their original signification, like the Lat. verum, causa, and the Eng. except, away; 2) they are derived from other parts of speech, either a) by the addition of formative syllables, like ft9 by day from i'r (~ 98, 3), or most commonly b) by abbreviation occasioned by frequent use. This abbreviation is effected in various ways; and many of the forms resulting from it are so obscure in respect to their origin that they have generally been regarded as primitives; e. g. Ia only (prop. certainly, certe) for '1}?. Compare in German, gen from gegen, Gegend; seU from Sete; Woeig 13

Page  194 194 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. (orig. a particle of time) from Weile; in English, since (old Eng. sithence), till, contr. from to while. Such words suffer still greater changes in the Greek and Latin languages, and in those derived from the Latin; e. g. 6O~, ab, a; et, ex, e; ad Fr. d; aut, Fr. ou, Ital. o; super, Ital. su.* In some instances the particle has been so much abbreviated, that it has lost its character as an independent word, and has been reduced to a single letter prefixed to the following word, as is the case with the preformatives of the Future ( '47, 1, 2). This is the case especially with prepositions; e. g. the prefix from r, from e, 3 from Z (~ 100). That this reduction of a whole word to a single letter has actually taken place, and is to be regarded as a part of the process in the formation of the language, is evident from the fact, that in the subsequent stages of this process, as exhibited in the later Hebrew, the Aramtean, and all the Shemitish dialects, such abbreviations became more and more frequent. Thus for 'tl., so early as the period of the later Biblical Hebrew, '~ and even 5 had come into.use, and in Rabbinic authors the full form 'It very seldom occurs; the '. of the Biblical Chaldee at a later period became I; in modern Arabic we have hallaq (now) from hdlwaqt, lesh (why?) from li-ayyi-sheiin, and many more. This view derives confirmation from the analogy of the western languages. Yet the use of the simplest particles belongs to the earliest epochs of the Hebrew language, or at least to the earliest documents in our possession. It is not strange that the derivation of these particles, which often differ widely from the original form, should sometimes be obscure. This is the case, however, with but few of them; and it is but just to infer, that even in these some change has been effected analogous to that which may be readily traced in others. 3. Particles are also formed, but less frequently, by composition; as P..n wherefore? for 5.12-n what taught? i. e., qua ratione ductus? comp. zi ypao'; 'I.- besides, from bh and;:rh' from above, from 1, b, ri.15 More frequent is the combination of two words without contraction; as I? ~!ns, 3< &x, POf sn, 53 5p ^3. * Even short phrases are contracted into one word, e. g. German zwar from es ist wahr (il est vrai), Lat. forsitan from fors sit an. In the Chinese, most of the particles are verbs or nouns; e. g. ilt, to give, employed as a sign of the dative; i, to make use of, hence for; nei, the interior, hence in.

Page  195 ~ 98. ADVERBS. 195 SECT. 98. ADVERBS. 1. Primitive adverbs are those of negation, ki not =ov, ovx, 5= ru, 'p" there [is] not, and some few others of place and time, as =5 there, TR then. These adverbs may at least for grammatical purposes be regarded as primitive, even if it be possible to trace them to other roots, particularly pronominal roots. 2. Examples of other parts of speech, which, without any change of form, are used adverbially, are: a) Substantives with prepositions; e. g. It1T (with might), very greatly; ~5. alone (prop. in separateness), with suff.?.5 I alone (prop. in my separateness); nrl.t within; ltn. (as one), together. b) Substances in the accusative (the casus adverbialis of the Shemites, ~ 116), comp. rrv c;QXv, as 'lik (might), very greatly; 0&R (cessation), no more;:5't (this day), to-day; at' (union), together. Many of these substantives very seldom exhibit their original signification as nouns, e. g.:a.0 (circuit), around; others have wholly lost it, as I' (length), long ago; Vit (repetition), again, farther, longer. c) Adjectives, especially in the feminine (which answers to the neuter), as ]: recte, ita (prop. rectum), '1tWl. (primum) at first, formerly,,1r and rin much, enough, ri&TH. wonderfully (prop. mirabilibus, sc. modis), r11. the second time, nr.W.1 Jewish, i. e. in the Jewish language. d) Verbs in the Infinitive absolute, especially in Hiphil, which are also to be regarded as accusatives (~ 128, 2); e. g. IMi (prop. doing much), much. e) Pronouns, as.T (prop. this at this place), here. See a list of the adverbs most in use, with their meanings, in ~ 147. 3. Other adverbs have been formed by the addition of the formative syllable 3- (more seldom t3-) to substantives, as t3wH and:Wtb truly, from 10S' truth; Osn (for thanks), gratis, in vain;:ti" by day, from ir,; itB. for tZr. in a twinkling, from Vnf twinkling. The termination t3-,:-, occurs also in the formation of substantives, like 1i, 17 (~ 83, No. 15); e. g. igl, and lq',e ranuom, Aqovw, 1:ti

Page  196 196 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. ladder (from bb). Such forms might therefore be regarded as denomi native nouns used adverbially. The difference is not essential; but, on the other hand, this termination is chiefly used to express an adverbial signification, and the analogy is very clear. 4. Adverbs formed by the abbreviation or mutilation of longer words; such, for example, as:M only (prop. an affirmative particle, certainly, fiom JR, Chald. I'Rt, '.), and especially the interrogative M, e. g. $".1 nonne? D'_ num etiam? which originated in the more full form bD Deut. xxxii. 6. This In is pointed 1) generally with Chateph-Pattach, as '~ivl hast thou set? (see the examples in ~ 150, 2); 2) usually with Pattach and Daghesh forte (like the article) before a letter that has Sheva, as i:., Gen. xvii. 17; xviii. 21; xxxvii 32, once without this condition, viz. ='._. in Lev. x. 19; 3) with Pattach (and Daghesh f implicitum) before gutturals, as qb5. shall I go? 4) with Seghol before gutturals that have Qamets, as Tsix. num ego? This interrogative particle always has its place at the beginning of the clause. 5. Some adverbs, involving a verbal idea, admit also of pronominal suffixes, which are here used generally in the same form as with verbs, namely with Nun epenthetic (~ 57, 4). E. g. ~t he (is) present; A.r?? I (am) not,.33.z he (is) not;..Ws he (is) still; '~. where (is) he? The same applies to Jr1 and nr' behold! (prop. here, here is), with suffixes; as. pu, in pause 3ni and I33 behold me; e 3; W'i'; '3S, in pause ':3.n and,33; t3,in. SECT. 99. PREPOSITIONS. 1. Most of the words which by usage serve as prepositions, were originally, a) Substantives in the accusative case and in the construct state, so that the noun governed by them is to be considered as genitive, which is actually indicated in Arabic by the genitive ending: compare in German statt dessen, in Latin hujus rei causa. In the following examples the original signification of the noun is enclosed in parenthesis, and marked with an asterisk if it is still in use. Exs. qrj (hinder part*), behind, after; $2 (side*), close by; 'P (intermediate space, midst*), between; qA, HI (interval of space, distantia),

Page  197 100. PREFIX PREPOSITIONS. 197 behind, about; rtI- (remoteness, absence), besides; 7' (purpose), on account of; 51. before, over -against; al. (part), from, out of; h5 (that which is before), before, over against; '? (progress, duration*), during, until; b? (upper part), upon, over; = (connexion, also rnl,, wiith; ifth (under part*), under, in place of. b) Substantives in the construct state with prefixes; as:t. (in face of), before; A?,.be (in accordance with the mouth, i. e. the command*), according to; bn. (in consideration), on account of, 7_b7 (for the purpose), on account of. 2. Substantives used adverbially very readily take, in this manner, the construction of prepositions. E. g. b.:3, rt, M.. (in the want of), without; irt (in the continuing of), during; fu, '. (for enough), for, according to. SECT. 100. PREFIX PREPOSITIONS. 1. Of the prepositions given in the preceding section, pa is frequently written as a prefix, yet without wholly losing its Nun, which is represented by a Daghesh forte in the following letter, as t!_'_ from a forest. On the ways of using qo the following particulars should be noticed. Generally it stands entire and apart only before the article, as YIrn l., also in particular before feeble letters, as T"lj2 Jer. xliv. 18, '1: E. 1 Chron. v. 18, and elsewhere in the later books (like the usage of the Syriac): there is besides a poetical form 'e. (especially in Job). Most generally it is prefixed (as in AWo) by means of Dagheshforte, which can be omitted only in letters that have Shcva (according to ~ 20, 3, b); before gutturals it becomes a (according to ~ 22, 1), e. g. Oltm, tlW; before n also a, as y.rnr, un.n Gen. xiv. 23. 2. There are also three other prepositions, the most common in the language, which have been reduce d by abbreviation (~ 97, 2) to a single prefix consonant with the slightest vowel (Sheva); namely, e in, at, on, with (from rnt, '), b towards, to (from 5b), S like, as, according to (from ]~).* On the pointing of these prefixes we observe: * Of the derivation of b from bt, there is no doubt; and %t itself may be derived from a root meaning to approach (Heb. and Aram. nb, K0i adhat, Arab.

Page  198 198 PART IL. PARTS OF SPEECH. a) They have strictly Sh~va, which is, however, changed according to the remarks in ~ 28, 1, 2, thus "'1 to fruit, "'N as a lion; and before feeble letters it follows the rules in ~ 23, 2 and ~ 24, 1, a, e. g. 'Ibtb for b) Before the article they usually displace the M~ and take its pointing, as ",- for IN1 in the garden. See ~ 35, Rem. 2. c) Immediately before the tone-syllable, i. e. before monosyllables and words of two syllables that have the tone on the penultima, they have also Qamets (~ 26, 3), yet not always, but only in the following cases, a) before the Infinitives which have the fore-mentioned form, as rll~ for to give, lai for to judge, rt'!y for to bear, except before the genitive, 'M5 Num. viii. 19, nrlb Judges xi. 26; P) before many pronominal forms 11i M6'~ MM w~4 like these; particularly =Z =~ W= and tel Vb~ t. IZ (see ~ 10 1, 2);) when the word is closely connected with the foregoing and not the following, e. g. MtI M mouth to mouth 2 Kings x. 21, Vfm ln 7, between water and water Gen. 1. 6, particularly at the end of a clause; see the instructive example in Deut. xvii. 8, like wise rTj~ to e-ternity, but:4 = to all eternity, Is. xxxiv. 10. d) With the interrogative Mm' they are quite closely joined by means of Pattach and Daghesh forte? as I'a by what? tI7m. how much? 1"t (Milel) for what? why? Comp. the Vav conversive of the future (~ 48 b, 2). Before gutturals rion is used instead of IM5 Rem. The word tni~rvi which has not its proper original vowels (probably till") but those of "Db (see the Lexicon under the word), takes the preftice3 also after the manner of ")i'% as t'rV~'l, nimtV'= 0111' (because one was expected to read '9~~ ~9 I 4 alN SECT. 101. PREPOSITIONS WITH SUFFIXES AND WITH THE PLURAL FORM. 1. As all prepositions were originally nouns (~ 99), they are also united with the pronoun after the, manner of the nouns, i. e. the pronoun in construction with them takes the form of the nominal suffix (~ 89, 1, 2), as *2 (prop. my side) by -me, r'11 (my vicinity) wit& me, in i (my place) instead of me, like mea causa, on my ac ount. Rem. 1. The preposition rM near, with (from 112t 'is distinguished from rbt the sign of the definite accusative (1 115, 2), when suffixes are added, by the difference of pointing, the former making "MR i*bt, =Mt lrnnt, while the latter retains its original o before most of the pronouns, as '9rX me, Ini In thee, 'irit him, t?1tR her; imi us, =nt izrbt you, l'il acceasit). On the derivation of Z from Int., Aram. also '9, prop. in the house, hence in (not from j1'9: between), see Gesenius's Heb. Lexicon; 2, (from 1;) signifies prop. so, doubled.1n as-so.

Page  199 ~ 101. PREFIX PREPOSITIONS. 199 Wli and t~-% them. Only in later books, particularly in the books of Kings and in Jeremiah and Ezekiel, rN 5with is incorrectly inflected vi 2. The preposition W with takes Qainets before = and WIin order that the doubling of the Mem may be distinctly heard, as =-V tmv In the first person besides "n- we find 3. It is but seldom tha prepston aethe verbal suffixes, as %-rn 2 Sm.xxi. 7, 0,48 (for which we find lirl- in Ps. xviii. 3,4,4) MM rit Gen. ii. 21, and ":I% Ps. cxxxix. 11 (here for the sake of rhyming with ~.n3.But in these cases the form of the suffix may be certainly accounted for by the fact, that a tendency whither is thought of, so 3 M under-me-ward 2 Sam. (as above), which is somewhat different from Iplnt under me, MD-ir-? in its place ("1he put flesh in-to its place"), ":IV around me hither. 2. There is a tendency to obviate the extreme brevity and lightness of the forms resulting from the union of the prefix prepositions (~ 100) with the suffixes, especially with the shorter ones, by lengthening the preposition. Hence to Z. is appended the syllable ~t, and I' is lengthened into I'S (prop. a parte, from the side of -), and for 1 and we have at least I and with full vowel. a) with suffixes: Sing. Plur. 1. to me. 1-~ to us. 2 m. ~,rmo, in pause ~n oyu m. to him. -nnn poet. il them ~f to her. J *It has frequently been maintained, that the form iM stands also for the sing. *, for which various explanations have been given. An analogy might certainly be found in the tm~prn used for ~ (47p Rm.3) But it is so used only with reference to collectives; see Gen. ii. 26 (in reference to Shemn the Shemnites), Ps. xxviii. 8; lxxiii. 10 (in reference to the people), Is. xliv. 15 (in reference to ~tIM bt, which the LXX have rendered *eoi), Iiii. 8 (in reference to the foregoing i-illn his generation, i. e. He and his like). The same is true of j' for n~;see Job xx. 23 (in reference to the ungodly man, who in the wh~ole representation, vs. 5-20, is a collective,-nay, it begins v. 5 with the plural ~t)and xxvii. 23 (comnp. at the beginning of the representation, v. 13, t"1I) More strange is i7W'iP Job xxiL. 2 in reference to 11= man (human being). Yet this too is doubtless collective. [It is proper to remark, that the use of iu'6 for the sing. 'i6 is still maintained by Ewald in his latest work, JAusfuhrliclhes Lehrlnscl der Hebr. Spracke, 5te. Ausgabe, 1844. The same is maintained by other eminent scholars.-Tx.] t Not Ip~, which signifes therefore.

Page  200 200 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. 1 takes suffixes in the same manner, except that for the 3 pers. plur. we have also bt, fern. #1, but not 1i4p. Sing. 1. 3-i * as I. 2.. f _ as thou. 3. m-. Din:),s he. 3. f. nT asshe.? with suffixes: Plur. Wa. as we. ~3., seldom Di'Ofn?, M.iT, sn.t T 7 T I V as ye. ( as they. c) II with suffixes: Sing. 1. t., poet.. I, u. from me..M. 2 m. 1'', in pause T 1 from *f. from h thee. 7 3 5 m. 8'32X?, poet. InoM,,,.. from Cr 3 f.,7.TQ from her. [him. Ir Plur. t. from us.:u?from you. it, poet. Wc.' from I'm S them. The syllable I' in.:i3= (in Arabic -3==nT1 what, prop. according to what 1, for as I) is in poetry appended to the pure prefixes I, q, b, even without suffixes, so that i7m, n3, imr appear again as independent words. In this case, poetry distinguishes itself from prose by the longer forms; in the case of "n it has adopted the shorter ones, resembling those of the Syriac. The preposition "n with surf. from him, which comes from In-M- (according to ~ 19, 2, Rem.), and is identical in form with.QaM from us, which comes from t:" M. The Palestinian grammarians wanted to distinguish the last by writing it.z n, but Aben Esra with justice objected. The form M.= always stands without Mappiq, and comes from?TM'= or,t;,,?.. 3. Several of these prepositions, especially those which express relations of space and time, are properly plural nouns, like the Germ. wegen (for the ground of this, see ~ 106, 2, a).t They occur (some of them exclusively, while others have also the singular) in the plural construct state, or in connexion with those forms of the suffixes which belong to plural nouns (~ 89, 2). These are: * The use of I. for -- here is simply for the sake of euphony. t Some of these words, which come from stems ib, namely A.., ', '.., may certainly be traced back to singular forms like im__, Ai:, -; but the analogy of the others makes it more probable that these too should be regarded as plurals. Comp. the plural forms 'ds from 1]; t, tp, &c. from S.

Page  201 ~ 102. CONJUNCTIONS. 201 'm, more frequently 'IM1 (prop. hinder parts), behind, with suff. always _IMN behind me, Tnw. behind thee, ~nn,:?...., &c.., poet. also.b.A (regions, directions), towards, to, with suff. always Al to me, Ml b, Q:bb. I" (interval of space), between, with suff. s-, 1 E,u, but also??,:-:P1, vis.i, tain. (from.3 m, ril., intervals). T from, out of, seldom s'3 (plur. constr. st.), Is. xxx. 11. 'q (progress, duration, from a's) as far as, unto, plur. f.t (only poet.), with suff. 'am, J,', Vt?, I?. (even the last with Qamets). 5b upon, over, constr. st. of 5b that which is above (from,bI to go up), plur. 5 (only poet.), with suff. Al,.b, q?,, for which it;:i is also used in poetry. Mni under (prop. that which is beneath), with suff. in plural cln, nns, but also in the singular:1rT. SECT. 102. CONJUNCTIONS. 1. Conjunctions serve to connect words and sentences, and to express their relation to each other. Most of them were originally other parts of speech, viz. a) Pronouns, as ntSb and: that, because, for, the first being the common relative pronoun, and the last also having come from a pronominal stem (~ 36). b) Adverbs, as bR and bu (not), that not, Mt (num?), if,, pi (only), but yet. Also adverbs with prepositions; e. g. tas. (in the not yet), before that; or with a conjunction added, as tr ' there is added that - much more or much less. c) Prepositions which are fitted by the addition of the con junctions?'1 and A: to show the connexion between propositions; e. g. 'It It" because (from I? on account of), prop. on this account, that, nt* '1 after that, qRtt according as, pt 3. and qtft:?: (in consequence that), because. The preposition may still be employed in this manner, even when the conjunction is omitted; e. g. b. (for 8'I bV) because,:5 (for 'lbe '1t) on this account that, because.

Page  202 202 PART II. PARTS OF SPEECH. In like manner, all prepositions before the Infinitive may be rendered as conjunctions (~ 130, 2). 2. Even those words which are no longer in use except as conjunctions, seem to have been originally other parts of speech, particularly nouns, and they generally betray their affinity with verbal roots, as ~i (prop. desire, choice, from MN to desire, comp. Prov. xxxi. 4) or, like vel, ve, kindred with velle; D (a turning away) that not. Even the only prefix conjunction I and must perhaps acknowledge relationship with 1~ afastening, a nail. The pointing of the conjunction 1 is in many respects analogous to that of the prefixes a,:, ( (~ 100, 2), but as a feeble letter it has some peculiarities. a) Usually it has simple Sheva ( ). b) Before words whose first consonant has simple Sheva, the Vav takes the vowel-sound I, as bit (see ~ 26, 1, Rem.). It is also sounded thus (yet with the exception of the case under d) before its cognate letters, the labials:, n, 5; as q1.l and even before a Chatuph (under letters not guttural), as =aM. Gen. ii. 12. c Before 1 the Vav takes Chireq, as in *T. (for ~'*1, comp. ~ 28, 1, and ~ 24, 1, a); and before,t and n it is sometimes pointed with Chireq or Seghol, as ore:'n. Jos. viii. 4, and t'n. Gen. xx. 7 (comp. ~ 62, Rem. 5). d) Immediately before the tone-syllable, it often takes Qamets, like a, Z, b, and with the same limitation (~ 100, 2, c), especially when words are connected in pairs, as.ht1 t.s'h Gen. i. 2, tnib Oi* viii. 22, yet chiefly only at the end of a small clause, hence rEI =D t:S Gen. vii 13, t'Sn.t qb~ 1 Kings xxi. 10. SECT. 103. INTERJECTIONS. 1. Among the interjections are several primitive words which are merely natural sounds expressed in writing, as t t, n ah! iil, " M wo! rMn ho /! aha! 2. Most of them, however, were borrowed from other parts of speech, which, by use in animated discourse, gradually acquired the character of interjections, as 7n or l.V3 behold! (prop. here); #1, plur..M~ (prop. give, Imp. from:1~) for age, agite; eb, MS (prop. go), the same;* ^t 'n far be it! prop. ad profana! I (perhaps for A.t entreaty), I beseech, hear me; Mt * 'ta- and tMS stand also in this form in connexion with the feminine and With the plural, as a proof that they have fully assumed the nature of interjections.

Page  203 ~ 103. INTERJECTIONS. 203 now, Ipray (in IEthiop. an Imp. well now I come), a particle of incitement and entreaty (which is put after the expression it belongs to).* * The particle bS serves to express the most various turns of discourse, which are exhibited in different parts of the Syntax. A short statement must here suffice. bt stands a) after the Imp. in commanding as well as in entreating (~ 127, 1, Rem.); b) after the Fut. in the first as well as in the third person (~ 125, 3, b and ~ 1-6, 1); c) once after the Pret. (~ 124, 4, in Note); d) after various par. ticles, as K: n. n behold now, particularly with conjunctions, M b_ ne (quaso) and W'-. if now, teiroTs, if with a courteous or modest restriction. In courteous discourse these particles are very frequently employed Gen. xviii. 3; xix 7, 8, 19; 1. 17.

Page  204 PART THIRD. SYNTAX. CHAPTER I. SYNTAX OF THE NOUN, SECT. 104. RELATION OF THE SUBSTANTIVE TO THE ADJECTIVE, — OF THE ABSTRACT TO THE CONCRETE. IN the Hebrew language, there is a want of adjectives in proportion to the substantives, and some classes of adjectives (e. g. those of material) are almost wholly wanting.* This deficiency is supplied by substantives, and especially in the following ways: 1. The substantive employed to express some quality in another is placed after it in the genitive. So constantly in designating the material, e. g..D.? *5 vessels of silver= —silver vessels; 3.2 hra arkc of wood=wooden ark, like des vases d'or; in like manner rbid rtT n an eternal possession, Gen. xvii. 8, "'1Q.n. men of number=few men Gen. xxxiv. 30, 1' 14 a precious stone Prov. xvii. 8. This construction was employed even in cases where the language supplied an adjective, e. g. 1Dipan 8 the holy garments. Ex. xxix. 29. Comp. un homme de bien. Rein. 1. Less frequently the substantive which expresses a quality in another is followed by it in the genitive, as j.?m 'trla the choice of thy valleys, i. e. thy choice valleys, Is. xxii. 7, comp. xvii. 4, xxxvii. 24; Gen. xxiii. 6; Ex. xv. 4. With the substantive i: totality, for all, this is the usual construction (see ~ 109, 1, Rem.). 2. Where the adjective would stand alone as predicate, the substantive sometimes takes its place; e. g. Gen. i. 2, the earth was desolation and emptiness; Job iii. 4, let this day be darkness, Ps. xxxv. 6, lxxxviii. 19, cx. 3; * There are a few adjectives of this kind formed after the manner of passive participles, as al.e of cedar, i.n? of brass, comp. cuneatus (wedge-like).

Page  205 ~ 105. USE OF THE GENDERS. 20o Is. v. 12; Job xxiii. 2, xxvi. 13. More seldom the substantive takes a preposition; as in Ps. xxix. 4, the voice of Jehovah is n.a with power, for powerful. 2. In Hebrew many of our adjectives denoting a property, attribute, or habit, are expressed by circumlocution, viz. by an abstract noun or name of a thing, which designates the attribute, preceded by some general name of a person as the subject of the attribute. The subject is expressed by several words, viz. a) by ttVI man, e. g. tai.r tSt. an eloquent man, Ex. iv. 10; bru tti a wise man, Prov. xxiv. 5. b) by -i. master, e. g. 'n.. fam hairy, 2 Kings i. 8; nirnnt ie_ the dreamer, Gen. xxxvii. 19. c) by 1 son and i. daughter, e. g. 'rt'li a valiant man, 1 Kings i. 52; tlt-13 an oriental, Gen. xxix. 1;:1l'5-1 one year old, Ex. xii. 5; nM'l- doomed to death, 1 Sam. xx. 31; _'_ a n_ a worthless woman, 1 Sam. i. 1& A bolder construction, and merely poetic, is the use of the abstract in place of tbe concrete, as be.. worthlessness, for worthless, like sce-u for scelestissimus; and at the same time for the plural, as r,52 bow for bowmen, Is. xxi. 17, ~s~.p harvest for harvesters, xvii. 5. So far as this is a common characteristic of language, see ~ 82, Rem. 1. Rem. That, on the contrary, forms of adjectives and concretes often take the abstract signification, especially in the Feminine, has been shown in ~ 83; comp. ~ 105, 3, b. We may here remark also that the poets employ certain epitheta ornantia (which are at the same time perpetua) alone without the substantive; e. g. bo'n the Strong, i. e. God; '"_t the strong, i. e. the bullock, in Jeremiah the horse; 'jm the majestic, august, for the prince; nS. the pale i. e. the moon. In Arabic this is yet far more common. Comp. merum for vinum, vygql i. e. the sea Odyss. 1, 97. SECT. 105. USE OF THE GENDERS. Whether the Hebrew regarded a substantive as feminine is known partly from the feminine termination appended to it (~ 79, 1, 2), partly from its construction with a feminine predicate, 'and in most cases, though there are many exceptions (1 86, 4), from the use of the feminine plural form. We have now to show for what purposes the designation of gender was employed. 1. The most natural use of it was with reference to the physical distinction of sex in men and beasts, but with several gradations, according as this natural distinction is more or less strongly indicated The principal cases are the following, viz. a) when the female is indicated by an entirely different word, which, of

Page  206 206 206 ~~~PART III. SYNTAX. course, requires no feminine ending, as father, mother, in Heb. MA, ~; ram, ~MIewe; b) when the female is indicated by the addition of the feminine ending, as MM~ brother, HMT~ sister; t~Vyoung man, ft. young woman; 't1; juvencus, '0,1 juvenca; vitulus, M~- vitula; c) when the feminine gender is shown only by the construction (communia), like 6', 4' floiv; O', I nr4-, as camel masc. Gen. xxiv. 63, but fem. xxxii. 16; masc. male cattle, Ex. xxi. 37, but fain. for fiemale cattle. Job i. 14; d) when, without regard to the natural distinction of the sexes, only one form is employed in the same gender to designate both, as in 6' X'xog', 4Xelt&'v (epiccena) e. g. masc. a bear robbed of her young, Hos. xiii. 8 (yet it is construed as feminine in 2 Kings ii. 24); qlh masc. oxv, Ps. cxliv. 14, where the cow is intended. Writers often neglect to avail themselves of forms in the language whose gender is indicated according to a, b, c, and use less distinct terms, *e. g. "IiMM and ~'b as fern. for lirts and Is*M 2 Sam. xix. 27, and Ps. xlii. 2; also 'IV a youth, for in the Pent. and in Ruth ii. 21, comp. Job i. 19. Compare in German Gemahi for Gemahlin; in Arabic also, the more elegant written language avoids the feminine forms (e. g. rib= mistress, hii- bride), which are common in later usage. That the designations of sex were used sparingly, appears also in other examples; viz. 'IMt~ masc. architect, Prov. viii. 30, where wisdom (fern.) is meant (comp. artifex omnium natura, Plin. 2, 1);. %a a dead body (masc.), spoken of the corpse of a woman, Gen. xxiii. 4, 6; W9M$Mt foil a goddess, 1 Kings xi. 5, like Eng. friend, teacher, and Lat. auctor, martyr. Among epiccene nouns are found names of whole species of animals, which the mind contemplated as masculine or feminine, according as they appeared strong and powerful or weak and timid. E. g. masc. =~ dog, =btl wol; fern. 1612i dove, 111b stork, 1MV, rM ostrich, MW~t~ hare. 2. The most constant use of the feminine ending for denoting the feminine gender, is found in the adjectives and participles. 3. Besides objects properly feminine, there are others (nearly the same which in Greek and Latin are neuter), for which the feminine form is preferred,' viz. a) Things without life, for which the feminine, as the weaker, seemed to be the most suitable designation, as J-~ side, (of the human body), thigh, M~I'V side (of a country), region; fl~ browe, MM=~7 greave (from the resemblance). * On the subject of Nos. 3 and 4, see the excellent remarks of Harris (Hermes, I. p. 37).

Page  207 ~105. USE OF THE GENDERS.20 on,1207 b) Hence abstract ideas, which at least decidedly prefer the feminine form, even when the masculine is also in use; as I~,~IMmP vengeance, 11T -VV help (~ 83, 11, 12). Adjectives when used abstractly or in a neuter sense (like To xcalo'), commonly take the fem. form, as 'fnt the right, Ps. v.-10; so also in the plur. great things, Ps. xii. 4. c) At times the feminine form is apl~~ied, when a dignity or office is designated, which borders on the abstract sense, as IlVI princes (like highnesses), r~'flp concionator, comp. Mrirb as a man's name in Neh. vii. 57; Ezra ii. 55. Even the feminine plural ni~tt fathers appears to have some reference to dignity. These words are, however, agreeably to their signification, construed with the masc. This use of words prevails more extensively in Arabic, AMthiopic and Aramuean, e. g. in Caliph II~M A remote likeness is found in Lat. magist rat u, Ger. Herrschaft, [:= Eng. lordship] for Herr [== Eng. lord], Obrigkeit for Oberer, Ital. podestel, &c. d) Collectives, as Mt2.' wanderer, traveller, IM'1t~ caravan, prop. that which wandlereth for the wanderers; M~il (from masc. Mti'A) a company of exiles; rnti Mic. i. 11, 12, prop. that which inhabit eth for the inhabitants; rtij Mic. vii. 8,10, for the enemies. So in Arabic often. Comp. the poetic "IS rl for ')ct '1= sons - inhabitants of T`yre, Ps. xlv. 13, 'I-vM =,n a. my countrymen. Examples of its application to things without lfe, timber, Inni clouds, MV~ cedar wainscot. Comp. To&r~ rIuov a nd?I 1 r 7ro; for the cavalry, q aillc~ujog (Herodotus I., 80). e) But on the contrary the feminine appears, as in Arabic, now and then to denote an individual of a class, when the masculine is used of the whole clasp, e. g. 'I~ ships, fleet (1 Kings ix. 26, comp. 2 Chron. viii. 18), fr a single ship; n-i hair (collectively), '-~i a single hair (see Jud ges xx. 16); s0 also M~X afig, 1171W a blossom (beside the collective Y~ Gen. xl. 10) and other instances. But the difference is mostly overlooked in the Hebrew usage. 4. Many words, (besides certain names of objects properly feminine, No. 1, a) are distinguished by the feminine construction, without the characteristic ending. They are chiefly embraced in the following classes: a) Names of countries and towns, contemplated-as mothers,* or nurses, of the inhabitants, e. g. fern. Assyria, t:~ fern. Idumea, '1~ Tyre; so also the appellative nouns which denote locality, as YI earth, '1. toun, Hil the world, 1'ni and MrIit~ way, 'ISM7 court, rmi~ camp, und er-world, 12~ threshing floor, 'I well, &c., at times even tlpn place.t Thus 12, 2 Sam. xx. 19 and on Phoenician coins (comp. M~a, 2 Sam. viii. 1), stands for mother-city, pJ6oiro).t; (comp. pqTV, mater); and by the same figure, the inhabitants were called son* of the country, as sons of Zion) Ps. cxlix. 2; sons of Babylon, Ezek. xxiii. 15 (comp. son of the house, son of the womb). t As this word t~p is usually masc., we find also ia the others more or less fluctuation in the gender.

Page  208 208 PART III. SYNTAX. As names of people commonly remain masculine, it often happens, that the same word is used as masc. for the name of a people, and as fern. for the name of a country; e. g. nhtn masc. Jews, Is. iii. 8,fem. Judcea, Lam. i. 3; te:t masc. Idumceans, Numb. xx. 20,fem. Idumea, Jer. xlix. 17. But the names of people are also construed asfem. from a metaphorical use (like the German Pohlen ist im Aufstande), Job i. 15; 1 Sam. xvii. 21; Is. vii. 2; xxi. 2.* b) Members and parts of the body in man or beast, '" and t1 hand, Vn foot, 1?f eye, I. ear, wine arm, ~l F tongue, t: wing, 1). horn, 1. tooth, ItP beard, l.. womb, probably with reference to their subserviency as mere instruments,t and hence also words for inanimate instruments and utensils, as:1.n sword,.r. peg, Mt=' and =t1 staffg 'n' chest, '_ pail, it. bed, ti. cup, also l.. stone, and many others. Most of these words and ideas have the same gender in the kindred dialects. c) The words for light, fire, and other powers of nature, as O5t&t sun, nW. wind, also spirit, t5i. breath, soul; OSN fire (LZEth. esat), In (Job xxxvi. 32), and so rn and T v3t oven,,t-7 brightness, 'imt window, Gen. vi. 16, &c.4 SECT. 106. OF THE PLURAL, AND OF COLLECTIVE NOUNS. 1. Besides the proper plural endings (~ 86, 1, 2), the language employs some other means for the expression of plurality, viz. a) certain words, whose appropriate signification is collective, designating an indefinite number of a class of objects, and having their corresponding nomina unitatis, or nouns which designate an individual of the class, as 'Tt5 an ox (an individual of the ox kind), '11 oxen, e. g. 'j? r'w n five oxen, Ex. xxi. 37, 1t2 small cattle, viz. sheep or goats,. an individual of the same, a sheep or a goat (comp. in Eng. twenty people); b) the feminine ending (~ 105, 3, d): c) nouns which have the proper signification of the singular, but which are also used as collectives; e. g. DR man, the human race Gen. i. 26, trt collect. for men, 'W words, * Here belongs the poetical personification of a people as a female, Is. xlvii.; 1. 1; liv. 1 seq.; Ez. xvi.; Lam. i. t Of the masc. gender in these nouns the few examples are Ti'/ Is. xvii. 5, pit Ex. xxix. 27, Z. Zech. iv. 10, 'ift Ps. xxii. 16. t The particulars are found in the Lexicon. Some of these words, moreover, have the feminine ending, as mr)n brass, nri bow (from the stem-word Sip), ri time (for rn.). These are only now and then construed as masculine, from a misapprehension of their origin,

Page  209 ~ 106. THE PLURAL, AND COLLECTIVE NOUNS. 209 hipt the enemy, for enemies. These words take the article, when all the individuals of the class are included (~ 107, 1). 2. On the other hand, the terminations which properly express plurality, are employed in the expression of other kindred ideas, so that the Hebrew often uses plural forms where other languages employ the singular. The plural is used to denotea) Extension* of space and time: hence the frequent use of it to express portions of space, regions or places, as W:_IO heaven (~ 86 b, Rem. 2), ar.ion height Job xvi. 19, riVbaQ the place at thefeet, rditjn the place at the head; certain portions of the body, which are parts of its extension,t as Ot'. face, vt'n._ neck; spaces of time, as tan life, t2is?: youth,:.PVt old age; and finally states, qualities, which are permanent or of long continuance, as Oafs. perverseness, 'M.nn compassion, 2llstiS childlessness. b) Might and power, so far as these were originally conceived of as something distributed and complex (pluralis excellentice). So particularly we find lIb.i5S God (whether the use of this word originated in a polytheistic view and then passed over to the " God of gods," or in a monotheistic view and as such was intended to denote God's might in its manifestations), then a few times V"l'p the Holy (God) Hos. xii. 1; Prov. ix. 10; xxx. 3 (comp. Jos. xxiv. 19 and Chald. '?'i'1. the Highest Dan. vii. 18), and t2nn penates always in the plural, even when only one image is meant I Sam. xix. 13, 16. Farther:.< -= il'b lord, e. g. ntri;:~.t a hard lord Is. xix. 4, the lord of the land Gen. xlii. 30; so also; nmaster with suff. often ':.2 his master, nsire her master.: Rem. 1. The use of the plural, according to letter b, is very limited and does not extend beyond the above words, which are used also in the singular as well. On the construction of these plurals with adjectives, see ~ 110, 1, Rem. 3; with verbs in ~ 143, 2. On %nxi used of God, see ~ 119, Rem. 4. 2. The plurals under a are also limited [in common prose] to few words,. but in poetry there is a more extensive use of them, e. g. aSton tenebra (of dark places), Q:.:rn delicive, t:2.t. faithfulness, and many others. 3. When a substantive is followed by a genitive, and this * By transferring an expression for numerical quantity to geometrical (comp. No. 4, Rem. 1). The language has other examples of the designation of great and many by the same word (see en, Cory). t. Comp. the same use of the plur. in TOf aITva, Tar vwza, precordia, cervices, fauces. t Somewhat like is the use of we by kings when speaking of themselves (Ezra, iv. 18; vii. 24; comp. 1 Mac. x. 19; xi. 31), a mode of speaking which is then ap. plied to God (Gen. i. 26, xi. 7; Is. vi. 8). The Jewish grammarianl call such a plural inirn ^aiv (pluralis virium or virtutum); the moderns call it pluralis excellentie or plur. majestaticus. The use of the plural as a form of respectful address, as modern languages have it, is somewhat different from the Hebrew usage. 14

Page  210 210 PART III. SYNTAX. compound idea is to be expressed in the plural, it is done a) most naturally by the plural form in the governing noun, as brn 'h. strong heroes; so also in compounds, as.'.7. ] Benjaminite, plur. a.p d3 1 Sam. xxii. 7; b) in both, as Or.n. ':l 1 Chron. vii. 5, Vbt^n m-u prison houses, Is. xlii. 22, and hence Otfs -o, Ps. xxix. 1, sons of Gods for sons of God; c) even only in the noun governed, as t ily, r family, n t r~ families Num. i. 2 foll., T.~ a. precious fruits Cant. iv. 16, vii. 14. On this remark, which has hitherto been overlooked by grammarians, compare also Judges vii. 25 (the head of Oreb and Zeeb for the heads), 2 Kings xvii. 29; Dan. xi. 15. Here the two words by which the compound idea is expressed, are treated as a nomen compositum.* The connexion with suffixes is also effected according to letter c, as Wt' os eorum for ora eorum Ps. xvii. 10, 3't". Ps. cxliv. 8, where we also can say their mouth, their right hand. 4. To the modes of expressing plurality belongs also the repetition of a noun, with or without the conjunction. By this is indicated the whole, all, every, as l~ t~: day by day, every day, tis tjt. every man, also tis 1iS. Ps. lxxxvii. 5, =3 9 Esth. iii. 4, ind. r every generation Deut. xxxii. 7; hence distributively, as.g. *1 *y each flock by itself Gen. xxxii. 17; also a great multitude, even with the plural form, Gen. xiv. 10, mn. tHri' =- s asphalt-pits in abundance, nothing but asphalt-pits, 2 Kings iii. 16, Joel iv. 14; finally diversity, more than one kind, as ~b signifies all and every kind, e. g. 17? ]St two kinds of weights Deut. xxv. 13, 5b. >h a double heart Ps. xii. 3, 1 Chron. xii. 33. Not here but to rhetoric belongs impassioned repetition in exclamations. With many writers this appears to have but little emphasis, and to have become a habit (e. g. Is. xl. foil.). Rem. 1. Names of substances viewed as wholes (e. g. the metals, liquids, &c.) very seldom occur except in the singular, as abt gold, t]? silver, Af wine (yet tIn water is expressed by the plural, but in Arabic it is singular). But when the word is used to express portions of a substance, it may take the plural form, as t:.3D pieces of silver Gen. xlii. 25; comp. Is. i. 25. So of grain, as,nrn wheat (growing in the field), townz wheat in the grain. * All the three methods occur also in Syriac and JEthiopic. See Hoffmanm Gram. Syriaca, p. 254; Ludolfi Gram. 2Ethiopica, p. 139.

Page  211 ~ 107. USE OF THE ARTICLE. 211 2. Even in cases where the plural is regarded as merely poetic, we are to connect with it the idea of real plurality, e. g. Job xvii. 1, the graves are my portion, equivalent to grave-yard, many graves being usually found together, xxi. 32; W'M seas for sea Job vi. 3; comp. Gen. xli. 49. SECT. 107. USE OF THE ARTICLE. The article ('1, -n ~ 35) was originally a demonstrative pronoun (like o, ro' in Homer), yet its force was so slight that it was used almost exclusively as a prefix to the noun. The stronger demonstrative force of 't (this) is still found in some connexions, as:-ni this day, to-day; n*'I this night, to-night; t:.Vb this time. As an indication of this demonstrative sense we may also consider 1) the fact, that sometimes it stands for the relative before the verb, e. g..INIVn that are found 1 Chron. xxix. 17; xxvi. -28; Jos. x. 24; Ezra viii. 25; comp. Gen. xviii. 21; xlvi. 27; Job ii. 11; so also M~-n same as b...) 'nts 1 Sam. ix. 24; 2) the case, where it serves mostly before a participle to point back to a subject noun, in order to give it more prominence, Ps. xix. 10, the laws of Jehovah are truth.... v. 11, tWMrnt1r they that are precious: here the article has nearly the force of Mrlt atrol. So also in Ps. civ. 3 (three times,Mtnb he that lays beams); Is. xl. 22, 23; xlvi. 6; Gen. xlix. 21; Job xli. 25; and still stronger in Ps. xviii. 33, Gbn ron! ~.2nn the God that girds me with strength; v. 48; Jer. xix. 13; Neh. x. 38. The article is employed with a noun to limit its application in nearly the same cases as in Greek and German [or English]; viz. only when a definite object, one previously mentioned, or already known, or the only one of its kind, is the subject of discourse. E. g. Gen. i. 3, God said, Let there be light ( 'ib), verse 4, and God saw the light ( -il-rl*); 1 Kings iii. 24 bring me a sword, and they brought the sword;,t7'~ Wi the king Solomon, ~tfr.1 the sun, TIM^ the earth. See an instructive example in Eccles. ix. 15. In such cases the article can be omitted only in poetry, where it is used, in general, less frequently than in prose; e. g. t. for 7^ n Ps. xxi. 2, 'fo for ytf Ps. ii. 2. Special cases in which the article is commonly employed, are, 1. When the name of a class is used collectively to denote all the individuals under it, as the righteous, the unrighteous, Gen.

Page  212 212 PART III. SYNTAX. xviii. 25; the woman for the female sex, Eccles. vii. 26; the Canaanite, Gen. xiii. 7; xv. 19,20, like the Russian, the Turk.* 2. When a common term is applied by way of eminence to a particular person, and thus becomes a kind of proper name, like b szolnt S (Homer), as J]W adversary, ]ttn the adversary, Satan; 52? lord, i5g? (prop. name of the idol) Baal; CN!I, the first man, Adam; bWt, I: '? O6 eos, the only, true God= n:rl (yet this word,*bt is often so used without the article, because it approaches the nature of a proper name, ~ 108, 1); 1'~, the river, i. e. the Euphrates; '?;:- the region around, viz. that around the Jordan. 3. Hence it is also used with actual proper names of rivers, mountains, and of many towns, with reference to their original appellative signification (comp. the Hague, le Havre), as:*El the Nile (prop. the river), i:=~?! Lebanon (prop. the white mountain), gym the town Ai (prop. the stone-heap). But its use in connexion with names of towns is unfrequent, and in poetry is generally omitted. (Comp. ~ 108, 1.) Rem. 1. The Hebrew article certainly never stands for the indefinite article; but the Hebrew conceives and expresses many ideas definitely, which we are accustomed to conceive and express indefinitely. This is most commonly seen, a) In comparisons, where fancy paints the image of an object and causes a more distinct perception, e. g. white as the wool, as the snow, red as the scarlet Is. i. 18, as t he cattle Ps. xlix. 15, he hurls thee like t he ball Is. xxii. 18, the heavens are rolled up like the scroll xxxiv. 4; comp. x. 14; xxiv. 20; xxvii. 10; liii. 6; Ps. xxxiii. 7. Instructive examples in Judges xiv. 6; xvi. 9; Is. xxix. 8, 11. Yet where the noun compared is already made definite by an adjective, the article does not stand any more than when a genitive follows, e. g. A]d Is. x. 14, but nrTlv; It xvi. 2, comp. Ps. i. 4 with Is. xxix. 5. Exceptions are rare, as 'iZ-3. Job xvi. 14. b) In the names of classes of objects which are universally known, e. g. the gold, the silver, t h e cattle, the water. Hence Gen. xiii. 2, Abraham was very rich in the cattle, the silver, and the gold, where most languages would omit the article. He had much, is the Hebrew's conception, of these,well-known treasures. Comp. Gen. xli. 42; Ex. xxxi. 4; xxxv. 32; Is. i. 22. c) Often also in the expression of abstract ideas (like tro inrxn v, la modestie), hence of physical and moral evils, as the falsehood Is. xxix. 21, the blindness Gen. xix. 11, the carkness Is. Ix. 2. On these principles, it is easy to explain the use of the article in special cases, as in 1'Sam. xvii. 34, V.R the lion, as the well-known enemy of the * Exactly so among the Attics 6 'Avdialo, o veoqaxorwg.

Page  213 ~ 108. USE OF THE ARTICLE. 213 locks (comp. Tot v'xo', John x. 12); 1 Kings xx. 36; Gen. viii. 7,8; xiv. 13. The frequent expression 1:i.n '1n' should not be translated it happened on a day, but the day, (at) the time, viz. as referring to what precedes. 2. The vocative also takes the article, and for the most part in those cases where it is usually required; e. g. fine lJi~r tsinM, O Joshua, high priest, Zech. iii. 8; 1 Sam. xxiv. 9. SECT. 108. The article is regularly omitted,* 1. Before the proper name of a person or a country (.t', t1~.~), and also of a people, when it coincides with the name of the founder of the race or the name of their country (b5?s, OI). On the contrary Gentilic nouns admit it both in the sing. and plur., as.mse. the Hebrews, 1 Sam. xiii. 3, 7s.=.' the Canaanite (collect. ~ 107, 1). 2. Before substantives, rendered definite by a following genitive or a suffix, which renders the use of the article unnecessary; e. g. at 'b s 1 God's word,.s my father. When the article is by way of exception used in these two cases, some special reason can generally be assigned for it. E. g. a) In some cases the demonstrative power of the article is required; as Jer. xxxii. 12, I gave this bill of sale (tr^pt 'NM"-rt) with reference to ver. 11; Jos. viii. 33, tm a halfthereof in the next clause iqnn the (other) half thereof. b) When the genitive is a pr. name which does not admit the article (according to No. 1), as -t"rna tz3tt the altar of Bethel 2 Kings xxiii. 17, ~5-n'r 5N the God of Bethel Gen. xxxi. 13, 'I.Jt 1 b. the king of Assyria Is. xxxvi. 16; comp. Gen. xxiv. 67; Jer. xlviii. 32; Ez. xlviL 15 (comp. xlviii. 1). c) In others the connexion between the noun and the following genitive is somewhat loose, so that the first forms a perfect idea by itself, while the second conveys only a supplemental idea relating to the material or purpose, as I'VX. l1tn the weight, the leaden one Zech. iv. 10, rnttrn nfI.n the altar of brass 2 Kings xvi. 14, rn1.n 'liwTM F. Jos. iii. 14; Ex. xxviii. 39. 3. Before the predicate, which from its nature is indeterminate, as Gen. xxix. 7, i tO.n "Ti yet is the day great, it is yet * In these particulars (relating to the omission of the definite article, namely, before proper names, before nouns in construction with a genitive or with a possesive pronoun, and before predicates), the usage of our language corresponds to that of the Hebrew. The same is true of the Celtic tongues. In Greek it is quite otherwise, the article being freely used in all these cases except the last.-Tt.

Page  214 214 PART III. SYNTAX. high day; xxxiii. 13; xl 18; xli. 26; Is. v. 20, =j5 pIii 3r who call the good evil; 1xvi. 3. Yet there are cases where the nature of' the predicate requires the article, Gen. ii. 11 =*1" WIN it is the encompassing, i. e. that which encomtpasses; xlv. 12, ~~'ID 91 that my mouth (is) the speaking==it is my mouth that speaketh; Gen. xlii. 6; Ex. ix. 27: Num. iii. 24. See another case where the article stands before the predicate in ~ 107, beginning. SECT. 109. 1. When a compound idea, expressed by one noun followed by another in the genitive, is to be made definite, it is done by prefixing the article to the noun in the genitive; as liMtt'b amanl of war Jos. xvii. 1, Mt~s 'I~b the men of war, Numn. xxxi. 49; 'I~ 1= a word of falsehood Prov. xxix. 12, 12 bV~i the word of the prophet Jer. xxviii. 9. The article is put in the same way when only the genitive is definite, as rj~ja part of the field 2 Sam. xxii~i. 11 (see on the contrary Jos. xxiv. 32; Gen. xxxiii. 19), ''7t 5"tH a husbandmnan Gen. ix. 20 (on the contrary '1'I &tIN Gen. xxv. 27). Yet in this case we usually find another construction, in order to avoid the ambiguity, see 1 112. N. B. This explains the use of the article after ~!D prop. totality, the whole. The article is inserted after it to express definitely all, whole (like tous les hommes, toute la yulle), and is omitted when it is used indefinitely -for of all kinds, any thing,. or distributively for every (tout homme, cl tout prix);* e. g. VI-1-: all men, the whole earth, prop. the whole omethe whole of earth; but J~-~ stones of all kinds, 1 Chron. xxix. 2, any thing Judg. xix. 19, every day Ps. vii. 12. Yet also every living thing = all living. Even compound proper names may be resolved again into two words, and the second then takes the article; e. g. '4m4J Benjaminite (~5 85,.5), "VVI-: Judges iii. 1,5, '9=}2' r' the Bethlemite 1 Sam. xvii. 58. Exceptions where the article stands before the governing noun and not before the genitive, see in ~ 108, 2, 6. So in the later style, Dan. xi. 31; comp. xii. 11. 2. When the substantive has the article, or (what is equivalent) is made definite by a following genitive or a suffix, the adjective, as well as the pronoun rtM, RIM belonging to the substantive, takes also the article. G en. x. 12, ~ the * What is here said of b~D applies also to its Greek equivalent, 7rd~-: e. g.,ii.,,c7 7rcriq the whole city (Matt. viii, 34), but 7ru'ow 7i&4ei every city (Malt. iii. 25).-TR.

Page  215 110. SUBSTANTIVE WITH THE ADJECTIVE. 215 great city; xxviii. 19,.t111:iptol that place; Deut. iii. 24, S.;T~ 8IT thy strong hand;,itn t, the great work of Jehovah. Not very unfrequent is the use of the article a) With the adjective alone, which then serves to make definite the noun, e. g. 'ri m'i, Gen. i. 31, day the si.xth= the sixth day (on the contrary ~t.6 W a second day, i. 8); xli. 26; 1 Sam. xix. 22; Ps. Ixii. 4; civ. 18; Neh. iii. 6; ix. 35; Zech. xiv. 10. So also hnrn a]t Gen. i. 21; ix. 10. This is the usual construction when the adjective is properly a participle, as Jer. xlvi. 16,Mi., tn the sword that doeth violence. b) It seldom stands only with the substantive, as in Ez. xxxix. 27; 2 Sam. vi. 3 (perhaps to be emended), yet rather frequently in connexion with the pronouns.1n1 and In, which are sufficiently definite of themselves, as Rtn tit. Gen. xxxii. 23,. t 'il Ps. xii. 8; particularly when the noun is made definite only by a suffix, as,tiht ".sI 1 Kings x. 8; comp. Ex. x. 1; Jos. ii. 20; Judges xvi. 5, 6, 15. Purposely indefinite is enn =r. Gen. xxxvii. 2, an evil report respecting them (hnn rlI. would be the evil report). SECT. 110. CONNEXION OF THE SUBSTANTIVE WITH THE ADJECTIVE. 1. The adjective, which serves to qualify the substantive, stands after it, and agrees with it in gender and number, as b t5i t., Ard,t ". On the position of the article, see ~ 109, 2. Rem. 1. It is very seldom that the adjective stands before the substan- AI tive, only when some emphasis rests on it; Is. xxviii. 21; liii. 11; Ps. lxxxix. 51; cxlv. 7; compare also Ps. xviii. 4. Merely poetic is the form of expression -.p ^t.i., Job xli. 7, the strong of shields for strong shields (comp. v. 21; Is. xxxv. 9); or with a. collective noun instead of the plural, tt $'?i the poor of men = the poor, Is. xxix. 19; Hos. xiii. 2. Similar is the Lat. canum degeneres. 2. When substantives of the feminine gender or those which incline to it (~ 105, 4) take two adjectives, the feminine form sometimes appears only in the one which stands nearest the substantive; as toql hn r? w Nmb I Sam. xv. 9; p1;niB tra. 1 Kings xix. 11; Ps. lxiii. 2. Comp. ~ 144, Rem. 1. N. B. In regard to number, the nouns in the dual take adjectives in the plural, as ni.S_' lofty eyes Prov. vi. 17; Ps. xviii. 28; Job iv. 3, 4; Is. xxxv. 3. Moreover the constructio ad sensum is frequent. Collectives are construed with the plural in 1 Sam. xiii. 15; Jer. xxviii. 4; but the p/uralis majestatis (~ 106, 2, b) on the contrary with the singular, as trat. pa't Ps. vii 10; Is. xix. 4 (but with the plur. 1 Sam. xvii. 26).

Page  216 216 PART III. SYNTAX. 2. An adjective, when its meaning is more fully determined by a substantive, is followed by it in the genitive case,* as h' nsI' beautiful inform Gen. xxxix. 6, On? Ap. pure in hands Ps. xxiv. 4, 7d3 it& sorrowful in spirit Is. xix. 10. (Comp. the construction of the Participle, ~ 132.) But verbal adjectives govern also the cases of their verbs, as Deut. xxxiv. 9, 71.1 A Turn full of the spirit of wisdom (where r.. is accusative). 3. On the adjective as predicate of the sentence, see ~ 141 foll. SECT. 111. OF APPOSITION. 1. By this is meant the placing together of two substantives, so that one of them (commonly the secondt) serves to limit or qualify the other, as,;'bi, tM. a woman (who is) a widow 1 Kings vii. 14;, 4 1-2IT a damsel (who is) a virgin Deut. xxii. 28; Mh Vt::t. words (which are) truth, Prov. xxii. 21. Also two adjectives may stand in apposition, in which case the first modifies the sense of the second, as ni:'b rn. nim7ht pale white spots Lev. xiii. 39; in verse 19, rnIV1' Ain rny? a white red (bright red) spot. SECT. 112. OF THE GENITIVE. 1. Apart from the obsolete ending of the genitive (explained in ~ 88), the Hebrew regularly expresses the genitive relation by the construct state (see ~ 87). When several successive genitives depend on each other, the repetition of the constr. st. is often avoided by adopting a periphrastic construction (see ~ 113); yet this is not always done, e. g. 11%t t.t 'I 'M the days of the years of the life of my fathers Gen. xlvii. 9; rt.p-"1 'tS ~?^.' whe the residue of the number of the bows of the mighty ones of the children of Kedar Is. xxi. 17.t * In Greek and Latin the genitive is employed in the same manner, as tristes animi; see Ruhnken. ad Veil. Paterculum, 2, 93. t The first only in certain formulas, as T'.'la:.Si, -it' t S, like our the king David, the king Solomon; where the arrangement:;2 fte., 2 Sam. xiii. 39, like Cicero Consul, is of rare occurrence. t The student should here notice (what no Heb. grammar has hitherto pointed out), that two or more nouns cannot be in the construct state before the

Page  217 ~112~. THE GENITIVE.21 217 In these examples (comp. also Is. x. 12, Job xii. 24 and others) all the nouns but the last are in the construct state. Yet we find also examples where the genitives, being subordinate to the main thought and serving merely as a periphrasis for the adjective, stand in the absolute state, while only the following genitive is dependent on the main thought. Thus in Is. Xxviii. 1, 11 ~"fi! W4= i the fat valley (prop. valley of fatness) of the smitten of wine, 1 Chron. ix. 13: Ps. lxviii. 22. Similar is the rare case, when a noun has first an adjective and then a genitive after it, as Vtpa "= unemsoes of the quarry, 1 Kings vi. 7. The usual construction is like rt — T I r'n: a large crown of gold, Esther viii. 15. 2. The noun in the genitive expresses not only the subject, but at times also the object. E. g. Ez. xii. 19, CtM the wrong which the inhabitants did, on the contrary Obad. vs. 10, 17M M the wrong against thy brother; Prov. xx. 2, rib the fear of a king,* t3P rl])T the cry concerning Sodom Gen. xviii. 20. Other applications of the genitive are: way to the tree Gen. iii. 24, Z~0 "~judges like those in sSodom Is. i. 10 l,6bt '91 sacrifices pleasing to God Ps. li. 19. 3. Not unfrequently the genitive construction also stands in the place of apposition, as rl1 '' river of Euphrates, 111 Jer. xiv. 17, Is. xxxvii. 22. Rem. 1. Between the noun in the constr. st. and the following genitive is found in rare cases a word intervening, as in Hos. xiv. 3, 2 Sam. i. 9, Job xxvii. 3 (in all these passages the word intervenes after ~,comp. also Is. xxxviii. 16). 2. Proper names, as being in general of themselves sufficiently definite, seldom take a genitive for fuller specification; yet this is the case with geographical names, V%-f- "It Urof the C/zaldees Gen. xi. 29, ta'M ni Aram of the two rivers== Mesapotamia; so also ntis rilt Jehovah of hosts for Jehovah the Lord of hosts. same genitive. Thus if the Hebrew wanted to express Noah's -sons and daugh-. ters, he could not say Tr1' noe but either M~ rI4= (the sons of Noah and his daughters 6I 1~ h a ) like T4 it b~i the chariot of Israel and his horsemen 2 Kings ii. 12, or perhaps rt9, lni=z'11 1:22 (the sons and the daughters (belonging) to Noah) like ~IZR5' -V~i'5 S~aul's watchmen 1 Sam. xiv. 16. The Hellenistic Greek too appears, in some cases, to have followed the former of these Hebrew constructions. Thus ia Matt. vi. 33 we have Ta~v flao'dElaV TOO E~eoiv xE5'?fl,r 5L3aLtoYu'Vfl alroi' for the common construction Tfr flaatklfcev Xca zsh' 5uXato0nn'Tsjv oii9eoi,.-TR. * In Latin the genitive is similarly used after injuria (Ciws. B. Gall. 1, 30), mnetus (like metus hostium, metus Pompeii), apes, and other words. Comp. AisI Gell. 9, 12. In Greek compare rrloarc oi~ eeoi~, A.'yog xoi' araveoi' 1 Cor. 1 18.

Page  218 218 218 ~~~PART III. SYNTAX. SECT. 113, E XPRESSION OF THE GENITIVE BY CIRCUMLOCUTION. Besides the indication of the relation of the genitive by the construct state (~ 87, and ~ 112), there are certain periphrastic indications, chiefly by means of the preposition ~,denoting the relation of belonging, which is not unlike that of the genitive. Accordingly we find 1.~~used principally for the genitive, of possession, as "9V 'It ' Gen. xxix. 9; xlvii. 4, the flock of her father (prop. the flock which to her father belonged); and also where there would be several successive genitives (to avoid the repetition of the constr. st., but see ~ 112, 1), as ~11C -i) q~ Vt the chi ef of the herdsinen of Saul I Sam. xxi. 8, -fm~t -t:X V'1 TM ~' the song of songs of Solomon Cant. i. 1; Geni. xl 5; 2 Sam. ii. 8; 1 Chron. xi. 10. (Hence the Rabbinic designation of the genitive ~23; in Syriac and Chaldee, the relative -9,. also 'I alone is the usual sign ofrthe genitive). 2. (without 'I5) which also denotes the idea of belonging, and hence the genitive of possession,* as ~-x~V9t~ the watchmen of Saul 1 Sam. xiv. 16. This is used particularly a) when the governing (or first) noun is expressly regarded as indefinite, e. g. '99 a son of Jesse 1 Sam. xvi. 18 (whereas 1&-"= signifies as well the son of Jesse), a priest of the most high God Gen. xiv. 18, xli. 12, =~'IIN a friend of David (was Hiram) 1 Kings v. 15, 'II ')tl also 'I''- a psalmr, of David (i. e. belonging to him as the author), and elliptically 'Vi of David Ps. xi. 1, xiv. 1; b) when several genitives depend on one substantive, e. g. T.= r~r~r a portion of the field of Boaz Ruth ii. 3; 2 Kings v. 9, -:1)9 nr *nY9 r." the chronicles of the kings of Israel 1 Kings XV 31, 9: nimI~n 9 Josh. xix. 51 where theparofme closely connected nouns which form one conception are joined by means of the constr. state, while therc is between them the indicating a looser connexion (yet comp. ~S 112, 1); c) when the governing noun has an adjective, as W Imbt 1~ 1 Sam. xxii. 20 (yet here also the constr. st. is usdsee ~ 112, 1); d) after specifications of number, e. g. vqitV zITntz teTrlb t~ on the seven and twentieth day of the month Gen. viii. 11. *Philologically considered, the Gascon says no less correctly la fille a My N. than the written language la fille de -; the former expresses the idea o. belonging, the latter that of descent. The Arabians distinguish a twofold geni tive; viz, one which has the force of ~, and one which has that of ",M We havt the latter conception of this relation in the de of modern languages, that are derived from the Latin (the Romance languages). In Greek we may compare the so-called uXi cc Ko)oqDWVLOV, e. g. ii xEq~aA TWj a&v(=c'o) for TO 'ro V*,5Miio (see.Bernhardy's Syntax, p. 88)

Page  219 ~ 114. USE OF THE CONSTRUCT STATE. 219 SECT. 114. FARTHER USE OF THE CONSTRUCT STATE. The construct state, as it serves in general to put two nouns in close connexion, is in the flow of speech used not only for the genitive relation, but also 1) Before prepositions, particularly in poetry and oftenest when the governing word is a participle, e. g. before I, as 1ritrD '132 the joy in the harvest Is. ix. 2, v. 11; before i, as dnt tllb Is. lvi. 10, xxx. 18, Ps. lviii. 5, Job xviii. 2; before l?, as bndl.b..1 weaned from milk Is. xxviii. 9; before 5b in Judges v. 10. 2) Before the relative pronoun, e. g. tt Otip the place where -, Gen. xl. 3; 3) Before relative clauses without 'tb, e. g..t1 d rlpj. the city where David dwelt Is. xxix. 1, ib aV Sib Wpq the place of him who knows not God Job xviii. 21, 1 Sam. xxv. 15, Ps. xc. 15. Comp. ~ 121, 3, Rem. 1. 4) Rarely even before Vav copulative, as n_1 rhl? Is. xxxiii. 6, xxxv. 2, li. 21; 5) Also in other cases where close connexion is to be expressed: thus at times we have Wn one for I'M 2 Sam. xvii. 22, Zech. xi. 7, and moreover Is. xxviii. 4, 16. Compare besides the constr. st. in numerals, as in thirteen, fourteen (~ 95, 2), and in the adverb (~ 98, 2, c). Rem. While in the above cases the absolute st. could generally stand quite as well as the construct, yet there are also constructions where the constr. st. might be expected rather than the absolute. Thus for example a) in geographical names like:rnSg nrs b^ Abel Beth-Maachah* (i. e. Abel of Beth-Maachah, to distinguish it from other places called Abel). Comp. on the contrary ~ 112, Rem. 2. b) in some other instances where the connexion is not close enough for the genitive relation, so that it must rather be considered as apposition or the second noun as an adverbial accusative (~ 116). Here belongs Ez. xlvii. 4, VaII. oan not water of the knees so much as water up to the knees; Is. xxx. 20, yo ca. water of aafliction or rather water in affliction; * So in English York-street, Covent-garden, for near Covent-garden. But in Latin the genitive is used in such cases (like the Hebrew construction mentioned in ~ 112, Rem. 2), as Jugusta Vindelicorum.

Page  220 )20 PART III. SYNTAX. c) in the expression ri:Nt t.s'bR God hosts elliptical for N4:%^.s,q:M2 God (the God) of hosts. SECT. 115. EXPRESSION OF THE OTHER CASES. 1. As the Hebrew language has lost the living use of caseendings (~ 88), we must consider what substitutes it adopted for expressing the different relations of case. The nominative is always to be known only from the syntactical construction. On the modes of expressing the genitive, see H~ 112-114. The dative and ablative are periphrastically expressed by means of prepositions, the former by i, the latter by 7p (from, out of) and I (in, at); but the Shemite regards the nouns dependent on these prepositions as genitives, because these particles were themselves originally nouns. In Arabic they have also the genitive termination. Comp. ~ 99, 1. On the use of the dative particle i, which in many cases serves to express also our genitive, see ~ 113, 1. 2. 2. The accusative frequently has still its ending '-, when direction or motion to a place is expressed (~ 88, 1).. Else it is, like the nominative, to be known only from the structure of the sentence. Yet we may often know it by the preceding -fI or Z1 (before suffixes also rlHN), which, however, is not used before a noun, except when that noun is made definite by the article, the construct state, a suffix, or otherwise (Gen. vi. 2, 2 Sam. xiii. 17, xviii. 18), or is a proper name. Such is the usage in prose; but not so much in poetry. E. g. Gen. i. 1,..n dr1 1?!tn rim (on the contrary:.t)1 r'~ Gen. ii. 4, vi. 10, Ex. i. 11).* * hit, which, in close connexion with a following word and without the tone, becomes -rbt and then again with the tone rK, is properly a substantive derived from a pronominal stem. It signifies essence, substance (comp. r'iN a sign), but in construction with a following noun or suffix it stands for the pronoun ipse, aeVIog (comp. a similar usage in ~ 122, Rem. 3). But in common use it has so little stress, that it only points out a definite object. Its force is here as feeble as that of the oblique cases aVroV, aiO, aiavov; ipsi, ipsum; Germ. desselben, demselben, denselben: and the Hebrew t.ntsn rn prop. avrov rov orQUVOV (comp. aIrjvY XQva-rl'a 11. I. 144) it, the heaven, is not stronger than iov oveavov. —That Mnt may denote also the nominative is not of itself inconceivable, but appears to be actually the case in some instances, like Hag. ii. 17, 2 Kings xviii. 30 (yet it is wanting in the parallel passage Is. xxxvi. 15), perhaps also

Page  221 ~ 116. USE OF THE ACCUSATIVE. 221 The cases are rare in which Mr stands before an indeterminate noun, but somewhat oftener in the loftier style, where the article also may be omitted before a noun that is definite according to the sense (~ 107), as Prov. xiii. 21, t.9'. -nr. Is. 1. 4; Job xiii. 25; Ez. xliii. 10. Very seldom in prose, like 1 Sam. xxiv. 6; Ex. ii. I (where, however, the noun is made definite by the context). SECT. 116. USE OF THE ACCUSATIVE. The accusative is employed, 1) to express the object of the transitive verbs (~ 135); but also 2) in certain adverbial designations, where it is no longer governed immediately by the verb. We shall here treat only of the latter. The second of the above usages is undoubtedly derived from the first, and to this still belong several constructions in which the accusative is commonly supposed to be used adverbially (~ 135,1, Rem. 3). But we are not therefore authorized to reject altogether the adverbial use of the accusative. Accordingly the accusative is employed: 1. In designations of place: a) in answer to the question whither? after verbs of motion, as,'te t: let us go out into the field 1 Sam. xx. 11, tlt.' robS to go to Tarshish 2 Chron. xx. 36, Ps.cxxxiv. 2; b) in answer to the question where? after verbs of rest, as.lam rlf in the house of thy father, Gen. xxxviii. 11, isrlt nri in the door of the tent, xviii. 1. It is then employed also with reference to space and measure, in answer to the question how far? Gen. vii. 20, the water rose fifteen cubits. In both cases, especially the first, the accusative ending nh- is often appended, on which see ~ 88, 2. The first relation may also be expressed by b. (as it commonly is with reference to persons), and the second by 3; but we are by no means to suppose that where these particles are omitted the construction is incomplete. 2. In designations of time: a) in answer to the question when? as Wti., the day, i. e. on the day, then, or on this day, to-day; yl1 at evening,,rc1n by night; Is,'M at noon Ps. xci. 6;.WQs,tD 1nwi Vbh the thirteenth year (in the 13th year) Jos. xxii. 17, Dan. ix. 13. Yet in other places, which some reckon with the fore. going (e. g. 2 Sam. xi. 25, Neh. ix. 32, and even 1 Sam. xvii. 34), it may be considered as a loosely governed accusative, which it certainly is when connected with the passive (see ~ 140, 1, a). In Ez. xlvii. 17, 18, 19 rn stands for riT, and perhaps ought to be so emended in the text, comp. verse 20.

Page  222 222 PART III. SYNTAX. they revolted Gen. xiv. 4;.l.t 1tp rhn i at the beginning of barley harvest 2 Sam. xxi. 9 (Kethibh); b) in answer to the question how long? t. 1ft. six days (long) Ex. xx. 9. 3. In other adverbial designations: Gen. xli. 40, b5 H~:? p~ only in respect to the throne will I be greater; 2 Sam. xxi. 20, four and twenty It= in number (comp. oseir adt0p6ov three in number); 1 Kings xxii. 13, n7s st with one mouth i. e. with one voice; Zeph. iii. 9, they served God bti t.t with one shoulder i. e. with one mind. With a following genitive, 'I".Q hrbs for fear of thorns, Is. vii. 25; Job i. 5, he brought burnt-offerings:53 ) 't. according to the number of them all. Here belong also cases like Al O?.t the double in money Gen. xliii. 15,:& ^nbS anz ephah of barley Ruth ii. 17, 0a: t?l'~d two years time Gen. xli. 1. Comp. also ~ 114, Rem. b. Similar cases in connexion with verbs are explained ~ 135 and ~ 136. By the same process carried still farther, many substantives have come to be distinctly recognised as adverbs (~ 98, 2, b). Rem. Similar reference to place, time, &c., may be denoted by a noun when it is connected with D (as, according to, after the manner of), but in that case the prefix D alone is in the accusative relation, while the noun is to be considered in the genitive. Thus a) of place; Vtl: as in their pasture, Is. v. 17, comp. xxviii. 21; lash after the manner of the stone i. e. as in stone (the water is hid when frozen) Job xxxviii. 30, xxx. 14; lvs tst.b as in gorgeous apparel Job xxxviii. 14; t:rn_ as in a dream, Is. xxix. 7, comp. xxiii. 15; b) of time, especially in the forms t:'S as the day= as in the day, Is. ix. 3; Hos. ii. 5; "'V. as in the days of-, Hos. ii. 17; ix. 9; xii. 10; Amos ix. 11; Is. li. 9. c) With other references, as in Is. i. 25, I will purge away thy dross '23 as with lye; Job xxviii. 5, tNI is after the manner offire = as by fire. Rarely another preposition is used after such a ~, e. g. tilJtn. Is. i. 26; 1 Sam. xiv. 14. It is, moreover, obvious that a substantive with 3 may stand either for the accusative of the object or for the nominative relation. SECT. 117. MODES OF EXPRESSING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE. 1. When the comparative is to be expressed, the particle.fp (..) is prefixed to the word with which comparison is made, e. g. 1 Sam. ix. 2, S'.n t t" h taller than any of the people; Judg. xiv. 18, 5_tt pWirn sweeter than honey; so also after a verb

Page  223 118. SYNTAX OF THE NUMERALS. 223 denoting an attribute, as 't#5I. =.~"Ih3 and he was taller than any of the people, I Sam. x. 23. In other cases also the particle Iq is employed in expressing pre-eminence (e. g. ]p. ipn'r pre-eminence over, Eccles. ii. 13; comp. Deut. xiv. 2), which the Hebrew conceives as a takingfrom, marking out. Compare the Latin ablative with the comparative, also the etymology of the Latin words eximius, egregius, and in Homer ix 7rcvvuv pUAacTa, Il. 4, 96, and merely ex iaasou', 18, 431). Hence the signification more than connects itself with the fundamental signification out from. (Compare the use of i: in comparisons, Job xxiii. 2; Ps. cxxxvii. 6.) The correlative comparatives, such as greater, less, are expressed only by great, little, Gen. i. 16. 2. The several modes of expressing the superlative are in principle the same: thus in all of them the positive form, by neans of the article, or a suffix, or a following genitive, is made to designate an individual as pre-eminently the possessor of the quality expressed (comp. le plus grand). E. g. 1 Sam. xvii. 14, and David was jt^ the small (one) i. e. the smallest, and the three great (ones), i. e. greater, &c., Gen. xlii. 13; Jon. iii. 5, D3Tp::b'U. from the greatest among them (lit. their great one) even unto the least among them (lit. their little one). A kind of superlative in substantives of quality is made by the construction:i.. tt'bp the holiest of all, prop. the holy (holiest) of holy things. SECT. 118. SYNTAX OF THE NUMERALS. 1. The numerals from 2 to 10 (which are properly substantives, but may also be used adverbially, ~ 95, 1) are connected with substantives in three different ways. They stand either a) in the constr. st. before the substantive (the object numbered being accordingly in the genitive), 'ts. rF)lt three days, prop. triad of days; or b) in the absol. st. before it (the thing numbered being then considered as in the accusative or in apposition),:l. ',nth three sons; or c) in the absol. st. after it, as in apposition with the object numbered (a usage of the later books, where the adverbs also are so construed), ti5t h~ri three daughters, 1 Chron. xxv. 5. In like manner the constructions nW' rtva Gen. xvii 17, and ati rnl xxv. 7, 17, a hundred years, are equally common.

Page  224 224 PART' III. SYNTAX. 2. The numerals from 2 to 10 are joined, with very few exceptions (e. g. 2 Kings xxii. 1), with the plural. But the tens (from 20 to 90), when they precede the substantive, are regularly joined with the singular (in the accusative), and when they follow it in apposition, they take the plural. The first is the more frequent construction. E. g. Judges xi. 33, aft.^iW twenty cities; on the contrary Vl.= Hr=_ twenty cubits, 2 Chron. iii. 3, seq. The plural may be used in the first case (Ex. xxxvi. 24, 25), but the singular never occurs in the second. The numerals from 11 to 19 are joined to the singular form (in the accusative) only with certain substantives, which there is frequent occasion to number, as, rm= day, stI: year, ttSn man, &c. (comnp. our four year old, a thousand man strong); e. g. ': niv han' P, prop. fourteen day Ex. xii. 6. With this exception, they are joined to the plural; and in the later books they then stand after the substantive (1 Chron. iv. 27; xxv. 5). 3. Numerals compounded of tens and units (like 21, 62) take the object numbered either after them in the singular (in the accusative), as!t:tW't' t3?t sixty-two years Gen. v. 20; or before them in the plural, as in the later books (Dan. ix. 26); or the object is repeated, with the smaller number in the plural, with the larger in the singular, as Gen. xii. 4,:Y::I z 5 1t tatH M16 seventy-five years Gen. xxiii. 1, Ytlt t, t'W l n.t,t one hundred and twenty-seven years. 4. Beyond 10 the ordinals have no peculiar forms, but are expressed by those of the cardinals, which then stand either before the object numbered, or after it as genitive, as *.V 'R:lts:d" on the seventeenth day Gen. vii. 11, St: tnw. rt:t3 in the twenty-seventh year 1 Kings xvi. 10. In the latter case, the word bl: is sometimes repeated, as in Gen. vii. 11; 2 Kings xiii. 10.-In numbering days of the month and years, the forms of the cardinals are used, even for the numbers from 1 to 10, e. g.:s1t tt.? in the second year, t5*J hrd' in the third year 1 Kings xv. 25; 2 Kings xviii. 1, 1 rh15,tw. on the ninth of the month, thnhb qMs on the first of the month, Gen. viii. 15; Lev. xxiii. 32. Rem. 1. The numerals take the article when they stand without a substantive, and refer to subjects mentioned before, as tZ.rt the two Eccles. iv. 9, 12. The case like tinm the seven days Judges xiv. 17, is to be explained on the principle stated ~ 109, 1. 2. Certain substantives employed in designations of weight, measre, or

Page  225 ~119. USE OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUN.25 - M:C time, are commonly omittod arter numerals; e. g. Gen. xx. 16, rp~ a thousand (shekels) of silver; so also before =M7 gold; Ruth iii. 15, ft inqf six (ephaha) of barley; I Sam. xvii. 17,, r~z ten (loaves) of bread. Thus t~i" is omitted Gen. viii. 5, and it3lri Vill. 13.-The number of cubits is often stated thus: MrM MAt'd a hundred cubits, prop. a hundred by the cubit Ex. xxvii. 18. 5. Numbers are expressed distributively by repetition of the cardinals, as V'jVlt two by two, Gen. vii. 9, 15. One time, once, is expressed by 0 (prop. a tread), VMI two times, twice, C~.Z 3T thrice. The same may be denoted also by the fern. forms of th cardinals, as MNI once, twice, t3 thrice; also MR once, Num. x. 4. The ordinals are employed in the same way, as rlt a second time Gen. xxii. 15; Jer. xiii. 3; Ez. Xxi. 19. CHAPTER IL. SYNTAX OF THE PRONOUN. SECT. 119. USE OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 1. When a personal pronoun is the subject of a sentence, like a noun in the same position, it does not require for its union with the predicate a distinct word for the copula, when this consists simply in the verb to be (1 141), e. g. Mbt(oj ')h I (am) the seer 1 Sam. ix. 19, I-~b Vl: honest (are) we Gen. xlii. 11, 014barI lin.b upright (wast) thou Ez. xxviii. 15, 101 CY1V"' that naked they (were) Gen. iii. 7',tlo 'I~b t*1 one dream it (is) Gen. xli. 26. 2. The pronoun of the third person frequently serves to connect the subject and predicate, and is then a sort of substitute for the copula or the verb to be. E. g. Gen. xli. 26, the seven good cows t:t Ztseven years (are) they; Eccles. v. 18, ~ M4#1tM'#btrlrl thi's is God's gi ft. Sometimes such a pronoun' in the third person refers to a sqbject that is of the first or second person, e. g. " - ' btV1M.b thou art my king Ps. xliv. 5, where' 15

Page  226 226 PART III. SYNTAX. Mill at the same time points to the predicate and makes it prominent (prop. thou (art) he, my king); Is. xxxvii. 16; Neh. ix. 6, 7; Deut. xxxii. 39. (Comp. in Chaldee Ezra v. 11). 3. To the general rule (~ 33, 1), that the separate pronouns are in the nominative and the suffixes in the oblique cases, there is but one exception, viz. when the personal pronoun in an oblique case is to be repeated for the sake of emphasis (me, me; thy, thy), it is expressed the second time by the separate form, which is then in the same case with the preceding suffix, to which it stands in apposition. E. g. in the accusative, Gen. xxvii. 34, t1. S5 Wy1=. bless me, me also, comp. Prov. xxii. 19; oftener in the genitive, with a nominal suffix,f'1 O JtM 1 Kings xxi. 19, thy blood, yea thine (prop. sanguis tui, utique tui), Prov. xxiii. 15; Ps. ix. 7. So also in apposition under the influence of a preposition (i. e. in the genitive, according to ~ 99, 1, comp. ~ 151, 4), as Hag. i. 4, lb lb for you, for you; 1 Sam. xxv. 24, A.q A in me, in me; 1 Sam. xix. 23,.l, 05 )1" also on him; 2 Chron. xxxv. 21,,r'I T*bV Ib not against thee. On the same principle is to be explained Gen. iv. 26, W. 3' tz Ib to Seth, to him also; x. 21. 4. The suffix to the verb is properly always in the accusative (~ 33, 2, a, ~ 57), and is the most common form of expressing the accusative of th6 pronoun (see Rem.). In certain cases, however, it is used through an almost inaccurate brevity of expression for the dative, as Zech. vii. 5, ~.~2D did ye fast for me? i. e. to my advantage, for o.:O.D; Job.xxxi. 18, '~ %bt. he (the fatherless) grew up to me as to a father, Ez. xxix. 3 comp. verse 9. Rem. The accusative of the pronoun must be expressed by rt (~ 115), the sign of the accusative, a) when the pronoun, for the sake of emphasis, precedes the verb, as 'rt_ rni Num. xxii. 33; b) when the verb has two pronouns in the accusative, only one of which can be a suffix, as irnt ':.n 2 Sam. xv. 25. The use of this sign with the pronoun is not confined, however, to these cases; see Gen. iv. 14; xv. 13. 5. The suffixes to nouns, which are properly genitives (~ 33, 2, b), and supply the place of possessive pronouns,* express, like * The possessive pronoun may be expressed by circumlocution, after the manner of the Aramsean; Ruth ii. 21, '5 t Vl iti.1, the servants which (are) to me, for my servants; especially after a substantive which is followed by another in

Page  227 ~ 119. USE OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. Ms7 nouns in the genitive (~ 112, 2), not only the subject but also the object. E. g..!.' the wrong done to me, Jer. ii. 35; inryW the fear of him, Ex. xx. 20. 6. When one noun is followed by another in the genitive, so that they together express but one complex idea, a suffix which refers to this whole idea is appended to the second of the two nouns (compare the analogous position of the article, ~ 109, 1). This occurs most frequently in the case (mentioned ~ 104, 1), where the second noun is used to express a quality of the first and serves for an adjective to it; e. g. Ps. ii. 6, 7P ', my holy mount; Is. ii. 20; xxxi. 7, his silver idols. We seldom have the construction tMl I=p thy lewd conduct, Ez. xvi. 27; comp. xviii. 7. So also Lev. vi. 3; Ps. xxx. 8. Rem. 1. Through a certain inaccuracy, which probably passed from the colloquial language to that of books, masculine pronouns are sometimes used in reference to feminine substantives (Gen. xli. 23; Ex. i. 21). The reverse also occurs, but more rarely, Deut. v. 24; 2 Sam. iv. 6. 2. The accusative of the pronoun, as object of the verb, is often omitted, where it can be easily supplied from what has preceded, e. g. the accusative it, after verbs of saying, as '.'m_! like dixit, he said it, Ex. xix. 25, 't.. and he told it, Gen. ix. 22; but also after other verbs, e. g. Gen. xxxviii. 17, till thou (send) it; xxiv. 12, let (it) meet me. 3. There is, on the contrary, a redundancy of expression, when the noun for which the pronoun stands is itself employed in apposition after it, e. g. Ex. ii. 6, she saw him, the child; Ez. x. 3, fit i5hz when he went in, the man; 1 Sam. xxi. 14. So also Gen. ii. 19, 1?tt_ S.2.. i5 to it, the living creature; and with repetition of the preposition, Josh. i. 2. 4. In some instances the force of the nominal suffix or possessive pronoun has become so weak, that it has almost ceased to exist. E. g. liat my Lord (prop. imy lords, see ~ 106, 2, b), used first in addressing God (comp. Ps. xxxv. 23), then without regard to the pronominal suffix, the Lord, meaning God;* l'o. (prop. in its connexions it together), e. g. l:n-bD 1n. Ex. xix. 8, then even after the first person, without regard to the suffix, as It_.Sn.. 1 Kings iii. 18; comp. Is. xli. 1, after the second person in Is. xlv. 20. Similar is-hear, ye nations *? Micah i. 2. the genitive, as in 1 Sam. xvii. 40. (Comp. the analogous mode of expressing the genitive, ~ 113.)-In this case there is sometimes a pleonastic use of the suffix, as i7b5ttX irtn prop. his litter of Solomon, Cant. iii. 7; comp. i. 6. *'See Gesenii Thesaurus Lingua Hebreem, p. 329. Compare the Phaeni. cian names of idols Adonis (Oi.) and Baaltis (^r9SS.), also the French Notr, Dame.

Page  228 PART II. SYNTAX. SECT. 120. OF THE DEMONSTRATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRO NOUNS. 1. The pronoun of the third person Rion, fern. W;, plur. V2J, fen. 1-, sl (is, ea, id; ii, ece, ea) may also [like adjectives] be joined to substantives, and should then take the article, if the substantive has it, e. g. RMi. t~.t is vir, NR.r, CI. eo die [comp. in vulgar English in them days for in those days]. See an exception in ~ 109, 2, b. When employed in this way, RtI is to be distinguished from the demonstrative n.t; for n= — oviro, hic, always points to an object present or near, but Wsn=ao'6V, is, indicates (like the article, ~ 107) an object already mentioned or known [the former answering to this and the latter nearly to that]. The distinction is clearly seen in Judges vii. 4, of whom Isay to thee, "this (n.) shall go with thee," that one (XV.I) shall go with thee; and of whomsoever I say to thee, " this (MT) shall not go with thee," that one (XSn) shall not go. So also in Ps. xx. 8,* oVTO and IanI atrol in vs. 9. Hence MnM::n. this day means the day in which any one speaks or writes (Gen. xxvi. 33), but RW.Sb t:q~. [that day] means the day or time of which the historian has just made mention (Gen. xv. 18; xxvi. 32), or the prophet just predicted (Is. v. 30; vii. 18, 20), and goes on to relate or to predict. 2. The demonstrative 'lt (also IT, IT), has also, especially in poetry, the force of the relative flt; comp. in Eng. that for which. E. g. Ps. civ. 8, to the place W:b PlbD,T which thou hast destined for them. It is even employed (like 1t., ~ 121, 1) to give a relative sense to another word; e. g. Ps. lxxiv. 2, Mount Zion ' n:??t_,t on which thou dwellest. t. is used adverbially, a) for there, it n1sn see there! and then merely as an intensive particle, especially in questions, as i lt. n wherefore then? (prop. wherefore there?), b) in reference to time, for now, as tsn. nI. now (already) twice, Gen. xxvii. 36. 3. The interrogative 4. can be used in reference to a plural, as l..h '. Gen. xxxiii. 5 (for which, however, A.d 'n is more accurately used, Ex. x. 8); also in reference to things, yet only when the idea of persons is implied, e. g. =1t 'I who are the Shechemites? Judges ix. 28; comp. Gen. xxxiii. 8. —.. may also stand in the genitive, as ' nM whose daughter? Gen. xxiv. 23. It is also used indefinitely for any one whoever, and M,

Page  229 ~ 121. RELATIVE PRONOUN. 229 for any thing whatever (Job xiii. 13). For -T in this sense we have also the specific term tlttl. (from "*t- t quidquid). On the use of ro in the sense of negation, see ~ 150, 2, first Note. SECT. 121. RELATIVE PRONOUN AND RELATIVE CLAUSES. 1. The pronoun 't. often serves merely as a sign of relation, i. e. to give a relative signification to substantives, adverbs, or pronouns. E. g. Of there, t — 'I where; ria' thither,,irv - 'tbS whither; tt. thence, t. - -tg whence. In the same manner the Hebrew forms the oblique cases of the relative pronoun, who, which, viz. Dative, ib to him, i 'It. to whom;:~b, 1t to them,: b 'Ite, Ifr 'It to whom. Accusative, nt, nit him, her; irs tbt, sitr Wht wAom (quem, quam). With prepositions, ti. therein, i. 't wherein, VW:. therefrom, VM. t '. b. wherefrom. Genitive, itb.'. whose language, Deut. xxviii. 49. The accusative whom may, however, be expressed by 'It alone, as in Gen. ii. 2. Rem. 1. The Hebrew is able in this way to give a relative sense to the pronoun of the first and second persons in the oblique cases, for which in German [and English] the third must be used. E. g. Gen. xlv. 4, 1tk 'Mr.; Num. xxii. 30, %4 'i<; Is. xli. 8, Jacob thgl. 'Itt whom I have chosen; Hos. xiv. 4. But in the nom. of the 1st and 2d person this is admissible also in German, e. g. der ich, der du, die wir, where der stands for welcher, and serves (like the Heb. n'tb) merely as a sign of relation. 2. The word th. is commonly separated from the one which it thus affects by one or more words, as t: i 'nin Q% where was, Gen. xiii. 3. Only seldom are they written together as in 2 Chron. vi. 11. 2. Before m'O we are often to supply the personal or demonstrative pronoun (he, she, that, see ~ 122, 2), as in Latin is before qui. E. g. Num. xxii. 6, A' 't.l and (he) whom thou cursest; Is. lii. 15, -vt bib 'l (that) which they have not heard. The pronoun is almost always to be supplied where a preposition stands before 'Ib; the preposition is then construed with the supplied pronoun, and the relative takes the case which is required by its connexion with the following part of the sentence.

Page  230 230 PART III. SYNTAX. E. g. 1b_ to him who, and to them who; It.~-ns him who, that which, or those who; W...' from him who, from those who or which; 'IR: prop. according to that which, hence, as.* Sometimes the idea of place or time is also to be supplied; as 'tto in (that place) where? 'I,. from (that time) when. 3. The pronoun 'Wt may be omitted in all the cases which have been specified: there is then no expression of the relative, as in the English construction, the woman Ilove; the book Itold you of; where the only indication of the relative is the position of the relative clause as subordinate to a preceding word. This oinission of 'tts (most frequent in poetry) takes place, a) Where it would stand as a pronoun in the nominative or accusative; e. g. Gen. xv. 13, AIb a5 t^n in a land (which belongs) not to them; Gen. xxxix. 4, "ti'e' all (which) was, i. e. belonged, to him, comp. vs. 5, where bltZb is inserted: Eccles. x. 5 (comp. vi. 1, where with the same words t~b is employed).t b) When it would be merely a sign of relation, e. g. Ps. xxxii. 2, happy the man, It "rioll tun_ i5 to whom Jehovah imputeth not sin; Job iii. 3; Ex. xviii. 20. Frequently in specifications of time, when it would have the signification when; Ps. iv. 8,.13_::t1i'-.:t:: r in the time (when) their corn and new wine are abundant; Jer. xxxvi. 2. c) When there is also an omission of the personal or demonstrative pronoun (No. 2); e. g. Job xxiv. 19, Sheol [carries away] ItNr (those who) sin; comp. vs. 9. The pronoun thus omitted may include the idea of place or time, as 1 Chron. xv. 12, i.:i.r-bz' to (the place which) I have prepared for it; comp. Ex. xxiii. 20. Rem. 1. When the pronoun to be supplied would be in the genitive, the * Very rare are the examples in which the preposition before tea refers, as with us, to the relative itself, viz. 'i..t Is. xlvii. 12, for t:= 'ttS in which, and L'O t3: Gen. xxxi. 32, for.3? 'IX with whom (xliv. 9, 10). Comp. also I't-i nrY Zech. xii. 10, for:i.k.. t'i. t The Arabic omits the relative when the substantive to which it refers is indeterminate, as above; but inserts it when the substantive is determinate. In the latter ease, the Hebrew commonly inserts it in prose (see Jer. xxiii. 39; Ex. xiv. 13); though it is sometimes omitted, Ex. xviii. 20; 2 Sam. xviii. 14; especially in poetry, Ps. xviii. 3; xlix. 13,21; Deut. xxxii. 17; Job iii. 3.

Page  231 ~122. MODE OF EXPRESSING PRONOUNS.23 CIO I,Go peeing noun takes the constr. st. E. g. Ex. iv. 13, M~r- '1 by the hand (of him whom) thou wilt -send; Hos. i. 2, 4Mrrr the begin%ning (of that which) Jehovah spake; Ps. lxxxi. 6, 'TV bt& rn~iV the speech (of one whom) I knew not; lxv. 5; Lain. i. 14; Jer. xlviii. 36. Comp. ~ 114, 3. 2. Relative clauses are joined on also by means of the copula (',e. g. Job xxix. 12, the orphan, 'i' -) 9t1 and that hath no helper. SECT. 122. MODE OF EXPRESSING THOSE PRONOUNS FOR WHICH THE HEBREW HAS NO PROPER FORMS. 1. The reflexive pronoun myself, thyself, himself,;s expressed, a) by the conjugations Niphal and Hithpael; b) by the personal pronoun * (as a suffix to a noun or preposition), e. g. Gen. xxii. 3, Abraham took two of his servants ~r b with h im, for with himself; 1 Sam. i. 24, she carried him up 11= with h e r, for with herself; Gen. viii. 9; Jer. vii. 19; Ez. xxxiv. 2, 8, 10; c) by circumlocution with substantives, especially *t e. g. '4t V'bt I know not myself, Job ix. 21; Jer. xxxvii. 9; 01VP within herself (prop. in her inner part), Gen. xviii. 12. 2. The personal or demonstrative pronoun is omitted (comp. 121, 2) before 'Ib in all cases, both singular and plural: very seldom it is expressed by the interrogative pronoun, as 4-il that which,7 Eccles. i. 9; iii. 15. Rem. 1. Each, every one, with reference, to a person, is expressed by VNa man, sometimes repeated 0Nttl~t4 I" Ex. xxxvi. 4, t5'4ls &v Ps. lxxxvii. 5; with reference either to persons or things, by ~b-, commonly without the article (~ 109, 1); by repetition uiph every morning; also by the plural V~p evrxonigP.hxiii. 14. 2. Any one, -some one, is expressed by &mb Ex. xvi. 29; Cant. viii. 7; and by WIN$ Lev. i. 2; any thing, something (especially in eonnexi~n with a negation), by lil- lnlq without the article. The latter is also'expressed by an appropriate word '1MIM formed frcim M~I. fl2 Gen. xxii. 12 (comp. ~ 120, 3). 3. Self the same, self-same is expressed, in reference to persons or things, by bt-M W9- as Wt1-11. &4ht'n Job i. 1, this same man; in reference to things, the noun t= prop. bone, body (in this case fig. for essence, substance) is also employed as a periphrasis for the pronoun; e. g. Gen. vii. 13, =T MVV t~' on the self-same day, comp. itz- =V in his very prosperity, i. e. in themidst of his prosperity (Job xxi. 23). * So also in the German of Luther's time, as er machte i/am einen Rock (where i/am stands for sich), which may be literally rendered ifrto old-fas~hioned English thus, he made him (i. e. for himself) a coat.-TR&.

Page  232 232 PART III. SYNTAX. The Arabic, in a similar manner, expresses the idea self by eye soul, spirit; the Rabbinic by t!:, m1 bone, t. body; the Amharic by Ati head. Comp. in middle High German min lip, din lip. 4. The one - the other (alter - alter) is expressed by rt or 8'18 repeated, or by trfi< with Mr brother or St friend, and where the feminine is required, by 1N woman, with inM sister or.1:S friend; both the masc. andfem. forms are used also with reference to inanimate objects of the same gender. The same form is used to express one another, as Gen. xiii. 11, and they separated, TVUn ae ts4. the one from the other, i. e. from one another; Gen. xi. 3, they said. I'N' ttI. < to one another; Ex. xxvi. 3,five curtains shall be joined rnni.nrl ti' i' to one another. 5. Some is often expressed by the plural form alone, as ten some days Dan. viii. 27, W1t. some years Dan. xi. 6, 8; and sometimes by ittt tt. sunt qui Neh. v. 2-4. CHAPTER III. SYNTAX OF THE VERB. SECT. 123. USE OF THE TENSES IN GENERAL. FROM the poverty of the Hebrew language in the means of expressing the absolute and relative divisions of time (~~ 40 and 48), we might naturally expect some variety in the uses of the same tense. We are not to infer from this, however, that there was scarcely any well-defined and regular use of the two existing tenses; on the contrary each of them has its distinct sphere, as already intimated in the first Note on page 103. The Preterite serves to express what is finished and past, whether it actually belongs to the past, or properly lies in the present or even in the future, and is only represented as past, that it may thus appear as certain as if it had already happened, or that it may stand, as relatively earlier, in comparison with a subsequent event. The F-zture [called also Imperfect and Tempus Infectum], on the contrary, expresses what is unfinished, hence what is continued and in progress (even in the past), what is coming to pass and

Page  233 124. USE OF THE PRETERITE. 233 about to be. The Future is, besides, especially used in a modi. fied form (~ 48) for expressing the relations of the optative, the jussive, and the subjunctive. We must further add the peculiarity of the Hebrew diction mentioned already in ~ 48b, namely, that of joining, by means of Vav conversive, futures to a preterite and preterites to a future. Fuller information on these points will be found in the following sections. It is a false view, which regards the so-called Preterite and Future not as tenses, but as designed originally to express distinction of mood* rather than relations of time. As examples of the Preterite and Future used expressly to-denote opposite relations of time, we refer to Is. xlvi. 4,:kv; 'Nt. 1ni.:* I have done it, and I will (still) bear (you); and vs. 11, r]'.:; nim r. x ^t.?ttP?. I have spoken it and will bring it to pass, I have purposed and will accomplish it; Deut. xxxii. 21; Neh. i. 12. SECT. 124. THE USE OF THE PRETERITE. The Preterite stands: 1. In itself and properly, for absolutely and fully past time (Practeritum perfectum), e. g. Gen. iii. 10, 11, I" '1pn bt who has declared to thee? vs. 13, why hast thou done this? Comp. verses 14, 17, 22. Hence it is used [for the historic tense] in the narration of past events, Gen. i. 1, in the beginning God created (Pret.) the heaven and the earth (comp. xiv. 1; xxix. 17). Job i. 1, there was (Pret.) a man in the land of Uz; ii. 10. For this latter purpose the Future with Vav conversive is commonly used in continued narrative (see ~ 126b, 1). 2. For the Plutperfect. Gen. ii. 2, rIn i inr Mb.' his work which he had done; vs. 5, Jehovah had not yet caused it to rain; vii. 9; xix. 27; xx. 18; xxvii. 30; xxxi. 20; Jonah i. 5. 3. For our Present, where this denotes a) a condition or attribute already long continued and still existing, as ". 1 [comp. oloa] I know, Job ix. 2, x. 13; $. i I know not, Gen. iv. 9; "Trt I hate,t Ps. xxxi. 7; ~p't. I am righteous, Job * Much nearer the mark would be the distinction of them into Actio perfecta and Actio infecta, according to the designation introduced into Latin grammar after Varro. t Similar in Latin are novi, memini, odi.

Page  234 234 PART III. SYNTAX. xxxiv. 5; rI; thou art great, Ps. civ. 1; '4b3. I am little, Gen. xxxii. 11; or b) a permanent or habitual action (often in the expression of general truths) as I"W. Isay, Imean, Job vii. 13, Ps. xxxi. 15, Judges ix. 9, xi. 13.-Ps. i. 1; happy the man, who walks (5:?) not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stands (7PW) in the way of sinners, nor sits ('i') in the seat of scorners; x. 3, cxix. 30, 40. Here (in the expression of our present) the Preterite and the Future are used with equal propriety, according as the speaker views the action or state expressed by the verb as already existing before, but still continuing or perhaps just now ending, or as then first about coming to pass, in progress, or perhaps occurring at the instant (comp. ~ 125, 2). Accordingly we find in nearly the same sense V.b5 9b Ps. xl. 13 and b?.M i5 Gen. xix. 19, xxxi. 35. In such cases the two tenses are often employed interchangeably, e. g. Is. v. 12, Prov. i. 22, Job iii. 17, 18. 4. Even for the Future, in protestations and assurances, in which the mind of the speaker views the action as already accomplished. being as good as done. In German [and English] the Present is sometimes used, in this case, for the Future. So in stipulations or promises in the way of a compact, Gen. xxiii. 11, I give ('r.1) to thee the field, vs. 13, I give (l?.r) money for the field, particularly in promises made by God, Gen. i. 29, xv. 18, xvii. 20. Also in confident discourse, especially when God is said to be about to do something, e. g. riN fro tmri'7.r thou deliverest me, 0 Jehovah, Ps. xxxi. 6; hence frequently used in lively representations of the future and in prophecies, e. g. Is. ix. 1, the people who walk in darkness see (.1l) a great light; v. 13, therefore my people goes into captivity (r5i); verses 14, 17, 25, 26; xi. 1, 2, 4, 6, 10. (In these cases also the Preterite may be interchanged with the Future, see e. g. Is. v.). Comp. No. 6. Ih Arabic the Preterite, made still stronger by the particle tp_, is likewise employed in emphatic promises, &c. They say, 1 have already given it to thee, meaning, it is as good as done.* * The assurance that something will happen, can also serve to express the wish that something may happen. So Gen. xl. 14, '1A! I-inD?, ion q Sr 't 'liwlJs? and do thou a kindness, Ipray, to me (prop. thou surely doest kindness tome, I hope), and make mention of me to Pharaoh. The addition of M: makes the sense of the Pret. here unquestionable. In Arabic, likewise, the Pret. is employed, in wishes

Page  235 ~ 124. USE OF THE PRETERITE. 235 5. For those relative tenses, in which the past is the principal idea, viz. a) for the Imperfect subjunctive (which is, however, expressed by the Fut. also, ~ 125, 5); e. g. Is. i. 9, 1:4b. ~:WW,V b. T:"?I we should have been [essemus] as Sodom, we should have resembled Gomorrha; Job iii. 13; b) for the Pluperfect subjunctive, Is. i. 9, 1rin.5 if he had not left; Num. xiv. 2,.r: -lb if we had but died! (.b with the Future would be, if we might but die! ~ 133, 2); Judges xiii. 23; Job x. 19, t1n Vr).. _b ItWI I should be as if I had never been; c) for the Future perfect (futurum exactum), e. g. Is. iv. 4, 'jr_ oR when he shall have washed away, prop. he has washed away; vi. 11.-Gen. xliii. 14, i.-bt dr.b: t5s if I am bereaved (for if I shall be), then I am bereaved (the language of desponding resignation). 6. In all the foregoing cases we have viewed the Preterite in its independent use, when not connected with preceding verbs. But its use is no less diversified, when it is joined to preceding verbs by the conjunction 1 (Vav conversive of the Preterite). It then takes the tense and mood of the verb going before, and it shifts the tone forward as explained above in ~ 48, 3. Hence it stands a) most frequently for the Future, when that tense goes before it, e. g. Gen. xxiv. 40, Jehovah will send his angel nban. MAT and prosper thy way (prop. and then he prospers). Judges vi. 16; 1 Sam. xvii. 32. Here the Future, in the progress of the discourse, passes over by means of the Pret. into easy description, and the sense of the Pret. follows the usage explained in No. 4 above. Also b) for the Present subjunctive, when the preceding Future form has this sense (according to ~ 125, 3); e. g. Gen. iii. 22, 5b b nMipb in n Wbt_ ] lest he put forth his hand and take and eat (prop. and so takes and eats); xxxi; 12; xix. 19; Num. xv. 40; Is. vi. 10. c) for the Imperative, when a verb in that form goes before; e. g. Gen. vi. 21, h.DO 1b i nlp take for thyself and gather (prop. and obtestations. In Heb. farther Job xxi. 16, the counsel of the iwicked Flu MlMR be far from me! xxii. 18. Comp. the use of the Preterite when following the Imperative, in No. 6, c.

Page  236 236 PART III. SYNTAX. and then thou gatherest); xxvii. 43, 44. As in the case under letter a, the command here passes over into a description of that which is to be done. At times the Pret. in this sense is put separate from the Vav, as in Ps. xxii. 22. d) for the past or the present time, according as the preceding Pret. or Fut. may require. Riem. 1. The Pret. with Vav conv. relates to futurity, also when it is not preceded by a Future tense, but by some other indication of futurity. Exod. xvi. 6, 7, t:i.~_l =. at even, then ye shall know; xvii. 4, yet a little while 9..b~.& and they will stone me; 1 Sam. xx. 18. The Pret. with Vav conv. may be thus employed in the sense of the Put. (and Imp.), even when there is no indication of futurity, e. g. after antecedent clauses which imply a) a cause, or b) a condition. Comp. br letter a, Num. xiv. 24, because another spirit is with him 1.nrk'9 and (therefore) I will bring him; and without the causal'particle, Gen. xx. 11, there is no fear of God in the place and (therefore) they will kill me (for because there is, &c.); xlv. 12, 13; Ex. vi. 6. Comp. Ps. xxv. 11, for thy name's sake rini? so forgive (or thou wilt forgive). For letter b, Gen. xxxiii. 10, if I have found favour?1Mi then take; and without the conditional particle (~ 152, 4, a), Gen. xliv. 22, should he leave his father nrl then he (the father) would die; xxviii. 29; xlii. 38; Is. vi. 7, lo, this touches thy lips '1e and so is taken away thy iniquity.-Also to other very various specifications of the present we find appended by means of I with the Pret. those of the future (e. g. Judges xiii. 3, thou art barren nrtI. Wn* but thou shalt conceive and bear; 1 Sam. ix. 8, here is thefourth part of a shekel urs3 that will I give), or expressions of a wish (e. g. Ruth iii. 9, Iam Ruth ni.W.. then spread), or also of interrogation (e. g. Exod. v. 5, the people are many in the land ~tr:Stnr and will you let them rest? Gen. xxix. 15; 1 Sam. xxv. 10, 11). 2. A very frequent formula in prophetic language (like A.o and it came to pass in the language of history) is In? and it will come to pass. This is found both with a preceding Future and without it (see Rem. 1), especially when a particular time is named, as Is. vii. 18, tAid. Mn?' SECT. 125. USE OF THE FUTURE. The significations of the Future are perhaps still more various than those of the Preterite. But the language has here a more definite expression for certain relations of mood, inasmuch as it has (according to ~ 48) a shortened and a lengthened form of the Future, the former in the jussive sense and the latter in the cohortative (see ~ 126). The Vav conversive also has a very ex

Page  237 ~ 125. USE OF THE FUTURE. 237 tensive influence on the force of thistense (~ 126b). Yet the shortening, as has been shown in treating of the verb, is not obvious in all the forms, and in other respects, also, there is some uncertainty, so that the common form occurs in almost all the relations for which the shortened form is especially designed. The Hebrew Future forms, in general, the exact contrary of v the Preterite, and expresses, accordingly, what is unfinished, what is coming to pass and future, but. also what is continued and in progress at any point of time, even of the past (see the first Note on ~ 47). Hence the Future stands: 1. For strictly future time; Gen. ix. 11, 5b. t i,S'1T v there shall not again be a flood; also in narrative for the future with relation to some past point of time, as 2 Kings iii. 27, the first-born who was to reign (regnaturus erat). 2. For present time; 1 Kings iii. 7, l1_ i I know not; is. i. 13, bD.b B I cannot bear. Gen. xxxvii. 15. It is employed especially in the expression of permanent states, which exist now and always will exist, hence also in the expression of general truths, e. g. Gen. xliii. 32, the Egyptians may not eat with the Hebrews; Job iv. 17, is man more just than God? ii. 4; Prov. xv. 20, Mt nrl? 0?D lo a wise son rejoices his father, and very often so in Job and Proverbs. Here the Preterite may also be employed (~ 124, 3, a, b). In the same formula is used sometimes the Preterite, and sometimes the Future, but not necessarily without difference of meaning, e. g. Job i. 7, ftin ]?X: whence comest thou? Gen. xvi. 8, n: t r.q-s whence didst thou come? 3. For a series of relations which in Latin are expressed by the Subjunctive, especially by the Present Subjunctive. In this way is expressed what is future or what is expected to occur, according to a subjective view or according to some objective condition. It stands a) For the Subjunctive after particles signifying that, that not (ut, ne), as t,, At, n, AS_, that,* IP that not. E. g. Gen. xi. 7,.err 0b bit that they may not understand; xxxviii. 16, what wilt thoi give, b. MrlI b? that thou * When these particles have a different signification, the Future is not used; e. g. T. because, with the Pret. Judg. ii. 20, 'it because, Gen. axiv. 27.

Page  238 238 PART III. SYNTAX. mayest come in to me? Deut. iv. 1, -W" 7nQb that ye may live; i7 nb? ]q Gen. iii. 22. b) For the Optative; Job iii. 3, i" Ink" pereat dies; vs. 5, 6, 8; vi. 9. In this sense the lengthened or shortened form is properly used (~ 126, 1, 2), followed often by the particle S;* e. g. "'?, Ps. vii. 10, 0 that might cease -! b011' q:Y2 Gen. xliv. 18, might thy servant speak, for let thy servant speak. Yet, at times, the full form is employed even where the shortened one clearly exists, e. g. S..Wi let appear, Gen. i. 9; comp. xli. 34;,N' bR Job iii. 9. c) For the Imperative, the place of which it always supplies in negative commands (prohibitions). When dehortatory it is preceded by b6, as 7b13.'S fear not Gen. xlvi. 3; Job iii. 4, 6, 7 (and in this connexion with 5b the jussive or shortened form is proper to be used); when it expresses prohibition, by db, as Ar. 9b thou shalt not steal Exod. xx. 15. It is also used for the Imperative when the third person is required, and for the Imperatives of the passive voice, so far as the forms of these are not in use (see ~ 46). E. g. qiS a"'o let light be Gen. i. 3; tl." let him be put to death Ex. xxxv. 2. Comp. ~ 126, 2. d) For the so-called Potential, where we use may, can, might, could, &c. E. g. Gen. ii. 16, 51 bjt thou mayest eat; Prov. xx. 9, 'In who can say? Gen. xliii. 7,.^. SNS could we know? 4. Even for time past. It is thus used chiefly in these cases: a) After the particles t$ thent OI not yet, 0t3l (when not yet) before. E. g. Jos. x. 12, INl t then spake Joshua; Gen. ii. 5, n:l" CtV there was not yet; Gen. xxxvii. 18;. It.:t before thou camestforth, Jer. i. 5. (Compare the use of the Pret. and Fut. in the same sentence, 1 Sam. iii. 7.) b) Often also of customary or continued action, and in extended representation, like the Imperfect of the Latin and French languages. Repeated or customary action, as it involves the conception of something yet to be, is properly expressed by the Future. Job i. 5, thus did (nM.) Job con* The particle b3 (~ 103) gives to the verb the force of a request and of a wish. On its use with the first person see ~ 126, 1. t When Rt signifies then in respect to future time, this form of the verb has a future sense (Ex. xii. 48).

Page  239 126. COHORTATIVE AND JUSSIVE. 239 tinually; xxii. 6, 7,8; xxix. 12, 13; Judges xiv. 10; 1 Sam. i. 7; 1 Kings v. 25; Is. x. 6; Ps. xxxii. 4; xlii. 5. Yet also c) Of single acts that are done and past, where the Preterite might be expected. Such is the case, at least, in poetry, on the same principle as we employ the Present tense in lively representations of the past. Job iii. 3, perish the day 'bt. i' in which I was born; vs. 11, rl5t:=?t b " nb why died I notfrom the womb? iv. 12, 15, 16; x. 10, 11. 5. For the Imperfect Subjunctive, especially in conditional sentences (the modus conditionalis) both in the protasis and apodosis. Ns. xxiii. 4, RE.....b.'? t3: even if I should go I should not fear; Job v. 8, I would apply unto Goa (were I in thy place); ix. 21, I should not aznow myself (if I spoke otherwise); x. 18, Ihad died, and no eye had seen me; iii. 16; vi. 14. In this case, also, the shortened form often occurs (S 126, 2). SECT. 126. USE OF THE LENGTHENED AND SHORTENED FUTURE (COHORTATIVE AND JUSSIVE). 1. The Future as lengthened by the ending:-, (the Cohortative) is used almost exclusively in the first person; and is expressive of purpose or endeavour (see ~ 48, 3). Hence this form is employed, a) to express excitement of one's self, or a determination, with some degree of emphasis. Ps. xxxi. 8,,'-lb.,1r~tR let me be glad and rejoice! ii. 3;,'#Z? come! let us break asunder. Also, with less emphasis, in soliloquy; Ex. iii. 3,,MR'.3"nt&R I will go now and see; Gen. xxxii. 21. b) To express a wish, a request (for leave to do something); Deut. ii. 27,,tre let me pass through; Num. xx. 17, Pbt,S' _ let us pass through, Ipray thee. c) When a purpose is expressed, and the verb is commonly joined by? to a preceding Imperative Gen. xxvii. 4, bring it hither,,?bl and I will eat= that I may eat; xxix. 21; xlii. 34; Job x. 20. Less frequently d) it stands in conditional sentences with if, though, expressed or implied, Job xvi. 6; xi. 17; Ps. cxxxix. 8. Moreover it stands. e) frequently after Vav conversive (~ 48 b, 2).

Page  240 240 PART III. SYNTAX. In Jeremiah this form is used to give force and emphasis of almost every kind; iii. 25; iv. 19, 21; vi. 10. 2. The shortened Future (the Jussive) is used principally, a) in the expression of a command or wish, as <2.rn proferet Is. Ixi. 11, M2tn proferat Gen. i. 24, also joined to a preceding Imperative by ~ (comp. No. 1, c), Ex. viii. 4, Entreat Jehovah '1W and may he take away = that he may take away; x. 17; Judges vi. 30; 1 Kings xxi. 10; b) in prohibition, dissuasion, or negative entreaty, as nMtrp-b_ destroy not, Deut. ix. 26; 'pa b. ne confidat, Job xv. 31; xx. 17. c) Frequently in conditional sentences (like the Arabic usage) both in the protasis and apodosis. Thus Ps. xlv. 12 (Str); civ. 20 (ntFi and f..); Hos. vi. 1 (S); Is. 1. 2 (rth); Job x. 16, xiii. 5, xvii. 2, xxii. 28; 1 Sam. vii. 3 (C._). d) After Vav conversive (~ 48 b, 2). As the jussive form of the Future is far from being always orthographically distinguished from the usual form (~ 48, 4), its force may occasionally be doubtful, especially as the poets now and then employ the shortened form where the usual one might stand without materially altering the sense. The jussive form, in that case, expresses rather a subjective judgment, such as we indicate by it may be, it might, could, should, must be, according as the sense and context of each passage may require. SECT. 126 b. USE OF THE FUTURE WITH VAV CONVERSIVE. 1. The Future with Vav conversive ( _jP and he killed. ~ 48 b, 2), stands only in connexion with something preceding. Most commonly a narrative begins with a Preterite and then proceeds in the Future with Vav conversive; which is the most usual way of relating past events.* E. g. Gen. iv. 1, and Adam knew (Y.) Eve his wife, and she conceived and bare ('_rl 'Itr 1_) Cain; vi. 9, 10, &c.; x. 9, 10, 15, 19; xi. 12, 13-15; 27, 28; xiv. 5, &c.; xv. 1, 2; xvi. 1, 2; xxi. 1, &c.; xxiv. 1, 2; xxv. 19, 20, Tic.; xxxvi. 2-4; xxxvii. 2.t * This construction may perhaps be accounted for by supposing, that what was thus put in the Future was conceived of as relatively future, i. e. as later than and subsequent to what had been expressed by the preceding Preterite. This conjecture will obviously hold good in the first example given above. Compare Rodiger's own view of the Preterite in ~ 123.-TR. I{ le preceding Pret. is, at times, only implied in the sense, e. g. Gen. xi. 10, lhen (was) 100 years old 1'~i. and he begat, x. 1. So also in this sentence: on

Page  241 ~126b. FUTURE WITH VAV CONVERSIVE 241 2. If there be, however, any connexion with an earlier event, the Put. with Vav cony. may even begin a narrative or a section of one. In this case we find a very frequent use of "'l" (xat IYE'VE7o) and it happened Gen. xi. 1; xiv. 1; xvii. 1; xxii. 1; xxvi. 1; xxvii. 1;* ls-M 'I* and Jehovah said, xii. 1. This use of the Future is found also, especially, a) after an antecedent clause, e. g. after because, as in 1 Sam. xv. 23, because thou hast rejected Jelhovah's8 word, IM'1 therefore he rejects thee, Gen. xxxiii. 10; after since() Job iv. 5. b) after an absolute noun, e. g. 1 Kings xii. 17, as to the children of Israel, tx=- t:'1~ 1.9 so Rehoboam reigned over them; ix. 21; Dan.. viii. 22.t The Vav cony. (.' ) may be rendered that in sentences like the following: Ps. cxliv. 3, what is man 1.ITm11 that thou takest knowledge of him! (comp. Ps. viii. 5 where "I is used) Is. Ii. 12, who art thou "NIr1 that thou shouldest be afraid? But the idea in the former passage (Ps. cxliv. 3) is this: how insignificant is man? and yet thou dost notice him. 3. As to the relations of time indicated by this Future of consecution [see Note *, p. 108], we may remark that it, in accordance always with the preceding tense, may refer a) To the present time, namely, in continued descriptidts of it, wvhen preceded by a Preterite (in the sense of a Present), Gen. xxxii. 6; Is. ii. 7, 8; Job vii. 9; xiv. 2; or a Future (as a Present), Job xiv. 10; 1 Sam. ii. 29; or a Participle, Nab. i. 4; 2 Sam. xix. 2; Amos ix. 6. 6) Less frequently to futurity, when preceded by a Preterite (as a Future), Is. v. 15, 16; xxii. 7, 8; Joel ii. 23; Micah ii. 13; or by a proper Future, Is. ix. 10; Joel ii. 18, 19, or by an Imperative, Ps. 1. 6 (also when joined to a clause without a verb, e. g. Gen. xlix. 15, or to an absolute noun, e. g. Is. ix. 11, or when it turns to the future, e. g. Is. ii. 9; ixe. 13). The form ~M" stands for then had been in dependent clauses af'ter ttm'6 the third day NiV.-Att and he lifted up his eyes, in full it would be: it hap.. pened on the third day that -,Gen. xxii. 4; Is. xxxvii. 18; vi. 1. * This connexion is customary when a specification of time is to be made, e. g. Gen. xxii. I1,m vi~br m1~ty vii.1'mt"l and it happened after these things, that God tried; xxvi. 8, wimZ i t'i 12INI '9z '9,9 xxxi'x. 13, 15, 18, 19; Judges xvi. 16, 25. See the numerous passages in Gesenius's Thes. Ling. Hebr. p. 372. In a similar way, we found M used of the futurein ~ 124, Rem. 2. t On the sentences which begin with the Infinitiv~e or Participle and then proceed with this Future of conoecution, see ~ 129, Rem. 2, and * 131, Rem. 2. 16

Page  242 242 PART III. SYNTAX. e. g. Is. xlviii. 18, 19; and 'tki in a conditional clause, e. g. Ps. cxxxix 11 and (if) I should say (comp. the common Future ~ 125, 5). SECT. 127. OF THE IMPERATIVE. 1. The Imperative expresses not only command in the strict sense, but also exhortation (Hos. x. 12), entreaty (2 Kings v. 22, sometimes with NS, Is. v. 3), wish (Ps. viii. 2, and with. Gen. xxiii. 13), permission (2 Sam. xviii. 23; Is. xlv. 11). It is employed especially in strong assurances (comp. thou shalt have it, which expresses both a command and a promise); and hence in prophetic declarations, as Is. vi. 10, thou shalt make the heart of this people hard for thou wilt make. These may be either a) promises, Ps. cxxviii. 5, thou shalt see ( thl) the prosperity of Jerusalem; Is. xxxvii. 30; lxv. 18; Ps. xxii. 27; Gen. xx. 7; or b) threatenings* Is. xxiii. 1, howl, ye ships of Tarshish, for ye shall (will) howl; vs. 2, 4; x. 30; xiii. 6. In all these caseshe use of the Imp. approaches very near to that of the Fut., which may therefore precede (Gen. xx. 7; xlv. 18) or follow it (Is. xxxiii. 20) in the same signification. In nearly all its significations, the Imperative is enlivened or strengthened by the addition of the particle Nt age! (~ 103), thus in the sense of command, both the milder (do now this or that), e. g. Gen. xxiv. 2, and the sterner or menacing, e. g. Num. xvi. 26; xx. 10; and in the sense of entreaty, e.g. 4S er.! Gen. xii. 13. In the sense of ironical permission we have `'*.s. only persist! Is. xlvii. 12. 2. We may, from the above, explain the peculiar use of two Imperatives joined by and: a) where they are employed in a good sense, the first containing an admonition or exhortation, and the second a promise made on the condition implied in the first (like divide et impera), e. g. Gen. xlii. 18.. Wr n- t this do, and (ye shall) live; Prov. xx. 13, keep thine eyes open (be wakeful, active), and thou shalt have plenty of bread; Ps. xxxvii. 27; Prov. vii. 2; ix. 6; Job xxii. 21; Is. xxxvi. 16; xlv. 22; Hos. x. 12; Amos v. 4, 6; b) where a threat is expressed, and the first Imp. tauntingly permits an act, while the second denounces the consequences; Is. viii. 9,.rhi t:..: h ~ rage on, ye * Analogous is the form of menace in the comic writers, vapula, Terent. Phormn V. 6, 10,.tapulare te jubeo Plaut. Curculio, IV. 4,12.

Page  243 ~ 128. USE OF THE INFINITIVE ABSOLUTE. 243 people, and ye shall soon be disnayed; Is. xxix. 9. In the second member, the Fut. also may be used; Is. vi. 9; viii. 10; 1 Sam. xvii. 44. Rem. 1. How far the Pret. and Fut. may be employed to express command has been shown in ~ 124, 6, c, and ~ 125, 3, c. 2. It is incorrect to suppose that the form of the Imp. is used, as some grammarians maintain, for the third person (let him kill). Among the examples adduced of this usage is Gen. xvii. 10, c:n-~::.b bin every male among you shall be circumcised. (In verse 12 ie. is used. But b'rin is the Infinitive, which gives the same sense, ~ 128, 4, b). Equally mistaken are the other examples, viz. Ps. xxii. 9 (^b Inf.); Gen. xxxi. 50; Judges ix. 28; Is. xlv. 21 (in the last three passages we have actual Imperatives of the 2d person). SECT. 128. USE OF THE INFINITIVE ABSOLUTE. The Infinitive absolute is employed, as has been remarked in ~ 45, 1, when there is occasion to express the action of the verb by itself, neither connected with something following nor dependent on a preceding noun or particle.* The most important cases of its use are: 1. When it is governed by a transitive verb, and consequently stands as an accusative. Is. xlii. 24, I85.t 95 they would not go; vii. 15;::i 112 n r t. Dan in 0 '.iw until he learn to refuse the evil and choose the good; Jer. ix. 4. (Here, however, the Inf. constr. is oftener used, with or without a preposition, always according to the construction of the preceding verb, ~ 139, 1, 2.) In the same construction is Is. xxii. 13, behold! joy and gladness 'I ut rirttl e 'in t ion the slaying (prop. to slay) oxen, the slaughtering sheep, the eatingflesh, the drinking wine (where the Infinitives are mere accusatives governed by behold!); v. 5, I will tell you what will do to my vineyard, i~vs yin... rli. nt)' the taking away (to take away) its hedge and the tearing down its wall,-q. d. that will I do. 2. When it is in the accusative and used adverbiallyt (in * Here the Inf. constr. is always used. But when several successive infinitives are to have a preposition, it is often written only before the first, and the second, before which it is to be supplied by the mind, stands in the absolute form, as inTil 'ibJ to eat and (to) drink, Ex. xxxii. 6; comp. 1 Sam. xxii. 13; xxv. 26; Jer. vii. 18; xliv. 17. This case is analogous with that explained ~ 119,3. Comp. also No. 4, a, of this section. t On the Accusative as a casus adverbialis, see ~ 116. In Arabic it takes, in

Page  244 244 PART III. SYNTAX. Latin as gerund in do); e. g..'7%l beneefaciendo, for bene, 'n.. multum faciendo for multum. Hence, 3. When it is used for emphasis in connexion with a finite verb. a) It then stands most commonly before the finite verb, to which it gives, in general, strength or intensity. 1 Sam. xx. 6,. I= b.t ~itt. he urgently besought of me; Gen. xliii. 3, he strictly charged us (T7". 'Sl). A very clear example is in Amos ix. 8, I will destroy it from the surface of the earth, except that I will not utterly destroy (~.' I q..,ttW 9) the house of Jacob. Judges i. 28. Its effect is often merely to give a certain prominence to the thought coptained in the finite verb,-which in other languages is done chiefly by the expression of the voice or by particles,-as in assurances, questions (such especially as express excitement in view of something strange and improbable), contrasts; Gen. xliii. 7, could we (then) know? xxxvii. 8, #'I. ti'. '5 wilt thou (indeed) rule over us? xxxi. 30, thou art gone* (e'T.nT,), since thou so earnestly longest (rid:: 'b=.); Judges xv. 13, we will bind thee, but we will not kill thee; 2 Sam. xxiv. 24; 1 Sam. ix. 6; Hab. ii. 3. b) When the Inf. stands after the finite verb, this connexion generally indicates continued or lasting action. Is. vi. 9;.i'tt.1 t hear on continually; Jer. xxiii. 17; Gen. xix. 9, l1tW b21 and he will needs be playing the judge! Two Infinitives absolute may be thus used; 1 Sam. vi. 12, iZ I,i'.:bN they went going on and lowing, for they went on lowing as they went; 1 Kings xx. 37. Instead of a second Inf. is sometimes used a finite verb (Josh. vi. 13), or a participle (2 Sam. xvi. 5). Rem. 1. This usage in regard to the position of the Inf. is certainly the common one, though not without exceptions. It sometimes follows the finite verb which it strengthens, when the idea of repetition or continuance is excluded by the connexion. Is. xxii. 17; Jer. xxii. 10; Gen. xxxi. 15; xlvi. 4; Dan. x. 11, 13. In Syriac, the Inf. when it expresses intensity this case, the sign of the Accusative. In general, the Inf. absol. answers in most cases (see Nos. 1, 2, 3, of this section) to the Accusative of the Infinitive, to which No. 4 also is to be referred. * As much as to say, I understand well wherefore thou art gone, namely from arnest longing. The Vulgate renders it, esto, ad tuos ire cupiebas.

Page  245 ~ 128. USE OF THE INFINITIVE ABSOLUTE. 245 stands always before, and in Arabic always after, the finite verb.-When a negative is used, it is commonly placed between the two (Ex. v. 23), seldom before them both (Gen. iii. 4). 2. With a finite verb of one of the derived conjugations may be connected not only the Inf. absol. of the same conjugation (Gen. xvii. 13; xl 15), but also that of Kal (e. g. tlb tlt Gen. xxxvii 33; Job vi 2), or of another of the same signification (Lev. xix. 20; 2 Kings iii. 23). 3. In expressing the idea of continuance (letter b), the verb _ft is frequently employed, with the signification to go on, to continue on, and thus denotes also constant increase. E. g. Gen. xxvi. 13, ~111 ibnS Ib. he became continually greater and greater. 2 Sam. v. 10; Gen. viii. 3, VitJl VbM.... ta.r_..tti and the waters flowed off continually. (The participial construction is also frequent here: e. g. 1 Sam. ii. 26, 'I.m niu bs:'1 h bSnIT the child Samuel went on increasing in stature and in goodness; 2 Sam. iii. 1). A similar mode of expression is found in the French: le mat va toujours croissant, la maladie va toujours en augmentant et en empirant, grows worse continually. 4. When it stands in place of the finite verb. We must here distinguish the two following cases, viz. a) When it is preceded by a finite verb. This is frequent, especially among the later writers, in the expression of several successive acts or states, where only the first of the verbs employed takes the required form in respect to tense and person, the others being simply put in the Infinitive with the same tense and person implied. (Comp. ~ 119, 3.) So with the Pret. Dan. ix. 5, 'l0.'Vlt we have rebelled and (we have) turned away; Gen. xli. 43, he caused him to ride in the second chariot, inrk tiri and placed him; 1 Sam. ii. 28; Jer. xiv. 5. With the Fut. Jer. xxxii. 44, they will buy fields for money (Fut.), and write and seal bills of sale, and take witnesses (three Infinitives), Num. xv. 35. b) It may stand at the beginning of the sentence, without a preceding finite verb. The Infinitive (being the pure abstract idea of the verb) may serve as a short and emphatic expression for any tense and person which the connexion requires. E. g. it stands a) for the Pret. in lively narration and description, like the Latin Infinitivus historicus. Is. xxi. 5, nbWiN qinT,in1r $: remann r2t to prepare the table, to set the watch, to eat, to drink (sc. this they do), for they prepare &c. Hos. iv. 2. Also p) for the Put. in its proper sense. 2 Kings iv. 43, 'tiHM b5'i to eat and to leave thereof (sc. ye shall do); y) most frequently for the emphatic Imp. (comp. i 46, Note ~),

Page  246 246 PART III. SYNTAX. as Deut. v. 12. '~tW to observe (sc. thou art to, ye are to); so Ex. xx. 8, q:T to remember (oughtest thou); hence, with the full form,.i1nt. bl), Deut. vi. 17; ^.?t 'bD, vii. 18. For the Cohortative Is. xxii. 13, irit b'nb to eat and to drink! (sc. let us eat and drink). 1 Kings xxii. 30 to dis guise myself and go (will I do). Rem. 1. The Inf: for the finite verb is seldom found in connexion with the subject, as in Job xl. 2; Ez. i. 14. 2. The examples are also few of the Inf constr. employed in these cases. Such are Is. lx. 14, where it is used adverbially like the gerund in do; it is connected with a finite verb in Neh. i. 7 (5im), Ps. 1. 21 (rni9), Ruth ii. 16 (bi), Num. xxiii. 25 ('p). SECT. 129. INFINITIVE CONSTRUCT. 1. The Inf. constr. as a verbal substantive is subject to the same relations of case with the noun, and the modes of indicating them (~ 115) are also the same. Thus it is found a) in the nominative as the subject of the sentence, Gen. ii. 18, rita batE3 9b qV. t ~ not good (lit. the being of man in his separation) that man should be alone; b) in the genitive, Gen. xxix. 7, br,DWt tempus colligendi, here too belongs the case where the Infinitive is dependent on a preposition (as being originally a noun), see No. 2; c) in the accusative, 1 Kings iii. 7, bi-:l MM:S 9b I know not (how) to go out and to come in, prop. I know not the going out and coming in. (In this case the Inf. absol. may also be used, ~ 128, 1.) 2. For the construction of the Inf. with prepositions, as in the Greek 'v TO v ecc, the German [and English] languages generally employ a finite verb with a conjunction which expresses the import of the preposition. E. g. Num. xxxv. 19, 'it"y. when he meets him, prop. in his meeting with him. Jer. ii. 35, lb Tal because thou sayest, prop. on account of thy saying. Gen. xxvii. 1, his eyes were dim rSlq. so that he could not see (comp. the use of 7' before a noun to express distance from, and the absence or want of a thing). The lexicon must be consulted for particular information on the use of the different prepositions. 3. With respect to relations of time, the Infinitive refers also to the past (comp. on the Participle, ~ 131, 2), e. g. Gen. ii. 4,:s=an when they were created (prop. in their being created).

Page  247 ~130. INF. CONSTRUCT WITH SUBJECT AND OBJECT. 247' Rem. 1. n~~v M" (or rlii2~ with the omission of MM~r) signifies I) he is about to ao, intends or purposes to do, and he is intent upon, is eager to do (comp. I ant to play), as Gen. xv. 12, hi=~ On'i'fl " and the sun was about to go down. Hence it serves for a periphrasis of the Fut. 2 Chr. xxvi. 5, V~~b '1 and he served God; without MM~ in Is. xxxviii. 20, ~ rI~MI. 1 Jehovah saveth me; xxi. 1; Eccles. iii. 15; Prov. xix. 8; comp. xvi. 20. 2) It is to do for it must be done (comp. I am to give). JOs. ii. 5, 'ltl "V- and the gate was to shut for was to be shut. More commonly without ~;2 Kings iv. 13, ri)V~M ~vwho"(is) to bedone; 2 Chr. xix. 2. Also 3) He was able to do (comp. the Latin non eat soovendo). Judges i. 19, 00i11~ t he could not drive out.4 2. The Hebrew writers frequently pass from the Infinitive construction (described in Num. 2) to the use of the finite verb, before which the mind must then supply a conjunction answering to the preposition before the Infinitive. Thus a Pret. follows in Amos i. 11, vitm-. mthi~-In7l ~ b e caus e he pursued -and stiffied his compassion; Gen. xxvii. 45; a Fut. with Vav. cony, in Gen. xxxix. 18, topK t '~ l~ when I raised my voice and cried. Is. xxx. 12, xxxviii. 9; most commonly a Fut. with only I prefixed, as in Is. v. 24, x. 2, xiii. 9, xiv. 25, xxx. 26. (Comp. the participial construction, ~ 131, Rem. 2.) SECT. 130. CONNEXION OF THE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCT WITH SUBJECT AND OBJECT. 1. The Infinitive mnay be construed with the case of its verb. and hence in transitive verbs it takes the accusative of the object, e. g. Num. ix. 15, =yfl ' 1 to set up the Tabernacle; 1 Sam. xix. 1, to kill David; Gen. xviii. 25, tl~tnl P'1- to kill the righteous; 1 Kings xii. 15; xv.4; 2 Kings xxi. 8; Ez. xliv. 30; Lev. xxvi. 15, H ZriV to do all my commrands; Prov. xxi. 15, '0=3Vn to doj~udgment.t In like manner it takes the accusative of the pronouns, e. g. t~o JN J-~i in. order to establish thee, Deut. xxix. 12; 4=4%1 to bring *This sense is necessary from the context, and in the parallel passage Jos. Xcvii. 12 it is expressed by 6'ir V b? KA. Comp. also the Hebrew -9 1.p non licet mihi, and the Syr. '9 M nonp;osmum (Agrell. Suppl. Synt. Syr. PP. 9, 10). t In cases like the last, MIU57 might be easily regarded as genitive of the object (', 112, 2), which construction is common in Arabic; but since in other instances ritt is used, and since a form like VPMnever occurs in such connexion, which form would decidedly mark the constr. -state and also the genitive relation, we must suppose that the Hebrews considered, at least as a general rule, the object of the Inf. to be in the accusative. Comp. No. 2 and 3.

Page  248 248 PART III. SYNTAX. me back, Jer. xxxviii. 26; ^yt.'b. to slay me, Ex. ii. 24; I::j_ to seek me, 1 Sam. xxvii. 1; v. 10; xxviii. 9; 1 Chron. xii. 17. The same construction takes place with a verbal noun analogous to the Infinitive, as t'in"-h..t knowledge of Jehovah (prop. the knowing Jehovah), Is. xi. 9, xxx. 28. 2. The subject of the action is commonly put immediately after the Infinitive, sometimes (where the Inf. is regarded rather as a substantive) in the genitive, but generally in the nominative. E. g. 2 Chron. vii. 3, ~tsn r1 the descending of the fire; Ps. cxxxiii. 1, rt D Sn. Mt. that brethren dwell together; Ex. xvii. 1, there was no water Wt l trlbt for the people to drink (prop.for the drinking of the people). The genitive relation of the subject is quite plain after Infinitives of feminine ending, as in Is. xlvii. 9, 'if. tWl. hMIS although thy enchantments are very numerous; Gen. xix. 16, rtS b:l f by Jehovah's pity on him; and also when it is expressed by a suffix, like ~Wl when I call, Ps. iv. 2, 4 (yet also incorrectly ~.=t. when I return, Ez. xlvii. 7, for S.l.). On the contrary the genitive is excluded, and the subject to be considered rather in the nominative in such cases as these: Ps. xlvi. 3, rag "'1. (not '1W1.) when the earth moves; Deut. xxv. 19, Tb; i.l when Jehovah gives to thee rest; 2 Sam. xix. 20, i.b-.:OT Qib. that the king should lay it to heart; also when the Inf. and the subject are separated, as in Judges ix. 2, A5I:.3r. t:3 b'n %M?. t. b L.t. as. whether seventy men rule over you? or one man rules over you? Ps. lxxvi. 10. See farther in No. 3. 3. When both subject and object are connected with the Infinitive, the rule is, that the subject should come immediately after the Inf., and 4hen the object. When the latter is plainly in the accusative, the subject is then put, as in No. 2, sometimes in the genitive, but chiefly in the nominative. The genitive (which prevails in Arabic) appears, e. g. in Deut. i. 27,.ti: fi^ n, s.l because Jehovah hates us; Is. xiii. 19, MD't r'b ri'W. z.- as God overthrew Sodom; Gen. xxxix. 18,.hp t'.. as I lifted up my voice; but the nominative is found, e. g. in Is. x. 15,.' i-nb t t trnpI3 as if the rod could shake them that lift it up (where we should have had??:1D, if Dt were in the genitive). Accordingly the subject is usually to be considered in the nominative, as 1 Kings xiii. 4, tWfSnbt. 'Atts nr. ri.?2Q.

Page  249 ~131. USE OF THE PARTICIPLE.24 249 as the king heard the word of the man of God. Gen. xiii. 10, 2 Sam. iii. 1 1, Ez. xxxvii. 13.-If the finite verb governs a double accusative, the same construction 'is employed also with the Infinitive, as in Gen. xli. 39, rtky~-rit 1 ni no5 rlim"'r since God kath caused thee to know all this. Now and then the order of the words is different, the object being put immediately after the Inf. and the nominative of the subject coming next (as a supplement), e. g. Is. xx. 1, 1i~iO inkr*03 when Sargon sent him; Ezra ix. 8 1-, 1S lvirq that our God enlighten our eyes; 2 Chron. Xii. 1, =Ml nG when Rehoboam had established the kingdom. Is. v. 24, xxix. 23; Ps. lvi. 1. SECT. 131. USE OF THE PARTICIPLE. 1. The only existing form of the Participle is used to express all the tenses, as rt~ dying (Zech. xi. 9); he who has died, dead; he who is to die (Gen. xx. 3); he who falls, has fallen, will fall; '#. facturus (Gen. xli. 25; Is. v. 5); though it most frequently has the signification of the Present. The passive participles therefore stand also for the Latin Participle in -ndus, e. g. X'1 metuendus, terrible, Ps. lxxvi. 8; $~1' laudand us, worthy to be praised, Ps. xviii. 4. 2. The Participle, standing in place of the finite verb as predicate of the sentence, denotes: a) Most frequently the Present:* Eccles. i. 4, bt K blJ~; nl n generation goes, another comes; vs. 7, WI~ W~M~ all the rivers jiow; Gen. iv. 10. If the subject is a personal pronoun, it is either written, in its separate form, in immediate connexion with the participle, as "til$ DO I fear Gen. xxxii. 12, n'V40 ivint we are afraid I Sam. xxiii. 3; or it is appended as a suffix to the word 04 (is), as Judges vi. 36, iz25im J,1 u if thou savest. In the same manner it is appended, in negative sentences, to 1,m; e. g. I1' ~W ta if thou send not away, Gen. xliii. 5. Hence b) the Future (conceived of as present, comp. ~ 124, 4). Is. v. 5, I will tell you ftv igh IM5 n o what I do, for what I will do. Gen. xix. 13; xli. 25. Also c) the Past, especially when it stands connected with the statement of other past contemporaneous circumstances. Job i. 16, ml i$ jj XK1M1 12r1 the one (was) still speaking and another came; vs. 17. Gen. xlii. 35; Ex. ii. 6; Judges xiii. 9; 1 Sam. xvii. 23. But it is also used with *In Syriac and Chaldee it is more frequently used for the Present than in its proper signification as a participle.

Page  250 250 PART III. SYNTAX. reference to past time, and even for the perfect Preterite, without any such connexion; e. g. Deut. iv. 3, ris<rn B',3'g your eyes which have seen.* With the verb,4t1 it serves to express the Imperfect.t Job i. 14 nwJ'n d.h the oxen were ploughing, Gen. xv. 17; Judges i. 7; xvi. 21. Rem. 1. In all the above three cases, a, b, c, I.t is employed before the participle for awakening special attention. E. g. (a) For the Present, In 3n behold! thou (art) with child Gen. xvi. 11; xxvii. 42; Ex. xxxiv. 11. b) For the Future, Gen. vi. 17; Is. iii. 1; vii. 14; xvii. 1. c) For the Past, Gen. xxxvii. 7; xli. 17. 2. Frequently the participle is by a change of construction immediately followed by a finite verb; the pronouns that, who, &c. (,'t~.) implied in the participle, must then be mentally supplied before the verb. So Part. and Pret. in Is. xiv. 17, that made (Di) the world as a wilderness, and (who) destroyed (tn) the cities thereof. Also Part. and Fut. (Present), so that the second clause begins with l or without it, e.g. Is. v. 8, a"sr4 in ~A._i"mp m =,be rinn. r,. woe to those who connect house with house, and (who) join field to field; vs. 11, 23; xxxi. 1; 1 Sam. ii. 8; Prov. xix. 26; also with Vav conv. e. g. Gen. xxvii. 33, s=' '.s_ 'lT2- that hath hunted game and brought it; xxxv. 3; Ps. xviii. 33. (Compare the strictly analogous deviation from the Infinitive construction, ~ 129, Rem. 2.) SECT. 132. CONSTRUCTION OF THE PARTICIPLE. When participles are followed by the object of the action which they express, they are construed in two ways: 1) as verbal adjectives having the same government as the verbs to which they belong; e.g. 1 Sam. xviii. 29, '7-nrt:A David's enemy (prop. one hating David); 1 Kings ix. 23, PwZ trChn they who rule the people; Ez. ix. 2, 0Tud tl:b clothed with linen garments: 2) as nouns followed by a genitive (~ 110, 2); e. g. Gen. xxii. 12,:FtoS.. rt' one that fears (a fearer of) God; Ps. Ixxxiv. 5,.t1. me inmates of thy house; Ez. ix. 11, D.:n t,'3_ the one clothed with linen garments. This latter construction with the genitive is properly confined to active verbs (~ 135). The participle of the verb iaz, to enter in, is also construed thus, as this verb is followed by the accusative (comp. ingredi portam); e. g. Gen. xxiii. 10, _t' 'I those who enter in at the gate. Bu there are also examples of the participle, regarded as a noun, being fol* For the use of the article here before the predicate, see ~ 108, 3, Rem. t In Syriac the Present is expressed by interficiens ego (comp. letter a), and the Imperfect by interficiens fui = interficiebam.

Page  251 134. PERSONS OF THE VERB. 251 lowed by a genitive in cases where the verb to which it belongs is construed only with a preposition. E. g. Vt?', 'It those who rise up against me,-against him, for Vb, ^b. ho.p Ps. xviii. 40, 49; Deut. xxxiii. 11. 2. The difference explained in No. 1 holds also in regard to Lhe suffixes. After the first method we have:9d. he who made me, after the second 'i.W my maker. SECT. 133. EXPRESSION OF THE OPTATIVE. We have already seen (~ 125, 3, b) that the Future, especially as cohortative with the ending o, and with the particle a?, is employed to express the Optative. It remains to mention two other forms of circumlocution by which it is expressed, namely, 1. By questions expressive of desire, e. g. 2 Sam. xv. 4, 'i r b.uti. who will make me judge? i. e. would that I were made judge! Judges ix. 29, 1 Dt.:l ^-r..... would that this people were placed in my hand! Ps. Iv. 7; Job xxix. 2. In the phrase 'It?. the proper force of the verb (to give) is often wholly lost. and nothing more is expressed than would that! (utinam!) God grant! It is followed a) by an accusative, as Deut. xxviii. 67, Ap Jr..'I. would it were evening! (prop. who will give evening? b) by an Infinitive, as Ex. xvi. 3. rl".z? t1:rt 0 that we had died! c) by a finite verb (with or without )j, Deut. v. 29, n'b my =l b rmm j.n-. 0 that they had this heart! Job xxiii. 3. 2. By the particles OS si, 0 si! 0" Osi! especially by the latter, Ps. cxxxix. 19. The particle is followed by the Fut. Gen. xvii. 18, by the Part. Ps. lxxxi. 14, seldom by the Imp. Gen. xxiii. 13. When it is followed by the Pret. the desire expressed has reference to past time; as Num. xx. 3,.:1 ib would we had died! SECT. 134. PERSONS OF THE VERB. 1. In the use of the persons of the verb there is sometimes a neglect of the distinctions of gender: especially are the masculine forms (as being the most readily occurring) employed with refer

Page  252 252 PART III. SYNTAX. ence to objects which are feminine. E. g. t.PT. Ez. xxiii. 49, t"r.t Ruth i. 8, rhi.r thou (fer.) hast made a league Is. lvii. 8; comp. Cant. ii. 7. (Compare the analogous use of the pro. noun, ~ 119, Rem. 1.) 2. The third person (most commonly in the masc.) is very often employed impersonally, e. g.;'1 and it happened; h 1! and Bt '"I (lit. it was strait to him) he was in trouble; ib n and tib:T3 he became warm. It is also employed thus in the fern., e. g. 1 Sam. xxx. 6, '1.b '2r.1 and David was in trouble; Ps. 1. 3; Jer. x. 7. The Arabic and.Ethiopic commonly employ here the masc., and the Syriac thefem. form. 3. The indeterminate third person (where the Germans use man, the French on, and we they, one) is expressed, a) by the 3d pers. singular, e. g. SM8 they (prop. he) called Gen. xi. 9; xvi. 14; 1 Sam. xix. 22; xxiv. 11; b) by the 3d pers. plural, as Gen. xli. 14,.W3. and they brought him in haste, for he was brought; c) by the 2d pers. singular, e. g. Is. vii. 25, NM'tTrb 1~tO there shall no one go thither; so in the common phrase I{h b or alh until one comes; d) by the passive voice, as Gen. iv. 26, Mp. b5Tnn t then they began to call upon -. Rem. 1. In the first case (letter a) the force of VSt. (impersonal, as we use one, men, they) is implied: the full construction occurs in one instance, 1 Sam. ix. 9, OS. u nS,t ib '.:.v i formerly they said thus in Israel. The poets employ also another construction, viz. the repetition of the verb in the form of the participle as a nominative; e. g. Is. xvi. 10,..nst JTi-'S the treader shall not tread, for they shall not tread = there shall be no treading; xxviii. 4; Jer. ix. 3; Ez. xxxiii. 4. The last not unfrequent in Arabic. 2. When the pronoun is to be expressed with emphasis, it is written separately before the corresponding verbal form. E. g. 1frt 1 have anointed,.?.t_ blt Ps. ii. 6, I (myself) have anointed; Judges xv. 18; 1 Kings xxi. 7; Ps. cxxxix. 2; also after the verbal form, Judges xv. 12, and this occurs in the later writers without any special emphasis, as 'I. ". Eccles. i. 16, beginning; ii. 11, 12, 13, 15, 20; viii. 15. 3. In the poets and prophets, especially, there is often, in the same construction, a sudden transition from one person to another. Is. i. 29, '9. * Sometimes on the contrary the impersonal dicunt must be understood as strictly the passive dicitur. Job vii. 3, nights of pain have they appointed me, for are appointed me (sc. by God); iv. 19; xvii. 12; xxxii. 15; xxxiv. 20. So in Chaldee very frequently (Dan. ii. 30; iii. 4; v. 3) and in Syriac.

Page  253 ~135. VERBS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE.23 253 on '-c etm Vlb"lixz for they shall be ashamed of the groves in which ye delight, where both the third and second persons are employed with reference to the same subject, lxi. 7; Deut. xxxii. 15, 17; Mic. ii. 3.-Ia Job xiii. 28, the third person is probably employed dewrtxc~g for the first, compare also vi. 21 (according to the reading is). SECT. 135. VERBS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. All transitive verbs govern in general the accusative (~ 116). On this rule we remark: 1. There are many verbs which are construed both without an object (absolutely), and with one (in this latter case the verb in German and English often takes the prefix be). E. g. *10= to weep, and to be-weep; It to dwell, and to dwell in, inhabit; N2"Y to go forth, and also like egredi in the form egredi urbem k(Gen. xliv. 4). Here notice further: Rem. 1. Several verbs of this kind take after them their own substantive, i. e. one from the same root and with a corresponding signification, as ~ri r i= 'ooaiv vo'cio0' "121 'j, =jVIEa'stv flov).rv'; most frequently an a specification, or as a limitation of the general idea of the verb; e. g. Gen. xxviiL 34, 11TIuM '*~ '1pT P~ he cried a loud and bitter cry; vs. 33; Zech. i. 14; 1 Chr. xxix. 9. 2. Verbs which signify to flow, to stream, take in the poet's an accusative of that which is represented as poured forth in a stream. Lam. iii. 48, -iriv Vin my eye flows down streams of water. Joel iv. 18, the hlsfow milk.S orn to flow, Jer. ix. 17, Pt~t to distil, Joel iv. 18, and ~t0 to gush forth, to flow abundantly (hence to bear along as does a torrent), Is. x. 22: similar, but more bold, is Prov. xxiv. 31, *Z MiT MIMI~ vii~r and behold it (the field) has all gone usp to thorns. Is. "v. 6. Compare in Greek, 7rqoq8'E&v V'wq, Hymn. in Apoll. 2, 202; &txqva (na&essv. 3. It is also to be regarded as a mere poetic usage, when verbs which signify to do, to speak, to cry, and the like, take an accusative of the instrument or member with which the act is performed. Most clear is this, for our view of the subject, in H~i' 't~ P~ to cry a loud -voice (coxnp. Rem. 1), for to cry with a loud voice, Ezek. xi. 13; to speak a lying tongue (Ps. cix. 2), hence Ps. iii. 5, trpl 'cip with my (whole) voice I cry; ITN1 'in lxvi. 17, with my (whole) mouth I cry; so, to speak with the mouth, Ps. xvii. 10, with the lips, xii. 3; to labour with the hand, Prov. x. 4; to help with the right hand, with the hand, with the sword, Ps. xvii. 13, 14; xliv. 3; lx. 7; 1 Sam. xxv. 26, 33; in which cases the accusati'ou instruimenti is employed. In the same cases I instrumenti is also used, e. g. to praise with the mouth Pis. lxxxix. 2; cix. 30; to supplicate with the mouth Job xix. 16; on which account it has been customary to assume, in the above examples, an ellpsis

Page  254 254 PART III. SYNTAX. of. But the same use of the accusative is found in Greek; e. g. nrgofat. vsEi no'6a, 7raEltv lq0)o (see Porson and Sch&fer ad Eurip. Orest. 1427, 1477, Bernhardy Synt. Gr. Sprach. S. 110); and that the accusative is actually dependent on the verb in these cases, is clear from a comparison with those given under Rems. 1 and 2. In like manner* in German the instrument is sometimes construed as the object of the verb, as in the following examples, which are strictly analogous to those given above: Schlittschuhe laufen; eine herrliche Stimme singen; eine tiichtige Klinge schlagen [so in English, to ring the bell, to sound the timbrel, &c.]. 2. Many verbs govern the accusative in consequence of a peculiar turn given to their signification, when the corresponding verbs in Greek, Latin, and German are construed with other cases. E. g. n2 to reply to (like cuCi/'ouccl rtvac, prop. to acquaint one); a. causam alicujus agere (prop. to defend him before the judge); 'A'S to bring good news to one, to cheer him k.d to commit adultery with one (prop. to embrace one adulterously); Elg to become suretyfor one (to bail him). Rem. 1. In the same manner are construed even the passive and reflexive conjugations Niph. Hoph. Hithpa., the verb sometimes assuming under these forms a signification which requires the accusative, as st: to prophesy, Jer. xxv. 13; 2t: to surround (prop. to place themselves around), Judges xix. 22; bnin lIam made to possess, Job vii. 3; b53nr to plot against, Gen. xxxvii. 18; 1i.'rt to consider Job xxxvii. 14. 2. In very common forms of expression the accusative after such verbs may be omitted without injury to the sense, as rl_, for b.n rn_ to make a covenant, 1 Sam. xx. 16; nbm to stretchforth, sc. e the hand, Ps. xviii. 17. 3. Whole classes of verbs which govern the accusative are: a) those which signify to clothe and unclothe, as ftb to put on a garment, btD' to put of a garment, n"T to put on as an ornanament; e. g. tS2?l.t.~b the pastures are clothed with flocks; Ps. lxv. 14; cix. 29; civ. 2; b) those which signifyfulness or want, as Rtt to be full, ]6 to swarm with (Gen. i. 20, 21), ' to be satiated, PI to overflow (Prov. iii. 10), qCn to * The Hebrews used also, on the other hand, the I ins'-umenti where we have the accusative. They used indifferently, as we:, jiay, the constructions io shake the head (Ps. xxii. 8), and to shlat' ain the head (Job xvi. 4); to gnash the teeth (Ps. xxxv. 16) and to gna,, with the teeth (Job xvi. 9), where head and teeth may be regarded as the object of the verb and as the instrument. But there is a deviation from our mode of expression in these phrases, viz.,fl.a 1S1 to open the mouth (Job xvi. 10, prop. to make an opening with the mouth), i'Qb W:'T48 to spread out the hands (Lam. i. 17, prop. to make a spreading with the hands), comp. hipa jn) and 5ip Aid.

Page  255 ~ 136. VERBS WITH TWO ACCUSATIVES. 2655 want, bb5 to lose (children); e. g. oRn VYN blMnI. and the land was filled with them Ex. i. 7; p't.1..nn. i.~n. s atn.t lit. perhaps the fifty righteous will want five, i. e. perhaps there will be lacking five of the fifty Gen. xviii. 28; b;Wt:.s:. Dt (why) should I lose you both together Gen. xxvii. 45; c) most verbs of dwelling, not merely in a place, but also among a people, with one, as =W,..; e. g. 3z?' n;5 I dwell among those that breathe out flames Ps. lvii. 5; v. 5; cxx. 5; d) those which express going or coming to a place (petere locum); hence Nil, with the accus. to befall one. With this is connected the accus. loci, ~ 116, 1, SECT. 136. VERBS WITH TWO ACCUSATIVES. Two accusatives are governed by 1. The causative conjugations (Piel and Hiphil) of all verbs which in Kal govern one accusative. E. g. mu=n Mn. 7 Iv. I have filled him with the spirit of wisdom Ex. xxviii. 3; tb! tt51. In Sfs he clothed him in (caused him to put on) garments of fine cotton Gen. xli. 42. And further, T.1 to gird one with Ps. xviii. 33,:t1 to bless one with Deut. xv. 14, '1. to cause one to lack something Ps. viii. 6. 2. A numerous class of verbs which have in Kal a doubly causative signification; such e. g. as, to cover or clothe one with any thing (Ex. xxix. 9; Ps. v. 13, hence also to sow, to plant Is. v. 2; xvii. 10; xxx. 23; Judges ix. 45; to anoint Ps. xlv. 8); to fill, to bestow, to deprive (Ez. viii. 17; Gen. xxvii. 37); to do one a favour or an injury (1 Sam. xxiv. 18); to make one something (Gen. xvii. 5), e. g. t1p tnria "pr Ihi mtr. and make it a holy anointing oil* Ex. xxx. 25. In such combinations as the one last mentioned, we often adopt another construction, viz. and make of it a holy anointing oil, i. e. we treat the first noun as an accusative of material, 1 Kings xviii. 32, naT:-2.r. r r-in and he built of the stones an altar, prop. built the stones into an altar; Lev. xxiv. 5. More notable examples of this construction are those in which the material is placed last, as Ex. xxxviii. 3, ltn5 rf bb. * On the passives of these verbs see ~ 140, 1.

Page  256 PART III. SYNTAX. 256 all its vessels he made of brass; Gen. ii. 7; Ex. xxv. 39; xxxvi. 14. There is another use of two accusatives after the same active verb, viz. when the second serves to limit the first, by expressing more definitely the object of the action. This nearly resembles the adverbial use of the accusative (~ 116). E. g. AnW 'I MIn to smite one on the cheek, for to smite his cheek, Ps. iii. 8 (comp. Deut. xxxiii. 11); tt. 'm,n- to smite one as to his life, i. e. to smite him dead, Gen. xxxvii. 21. SECT. 137. VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS. The Hebrew language has no verbs compounded with prepositions. Those modifications of the verbal idea, which other languages indicate by composition with prepositions, are expressed in the Hebrew either a) by appropriate verbal stems, as ti to re-turn, VI to pre-cede,,~p to oc-cur; or b) by prepositions written after the verb [as in English], e. g. bj to call, with b to call to, with a to call upon, with tnbt to call after; bi to fall, with b? to fall upon and also to fall of, with %t. to fall down before; J:^ with "nnI to go after, to follow. It belongs to the Lexicon to show the use of the several prepositions with each particular verb. Of classes of words construed with this or that particle we shall most properly treat under ~ 151, 3, in explaining the construction and use of the prepositions. SECT. 138. CONSTRUCTIO PREGGNANS. Sometimes a verb stands in a construction (especially one implying motion) to which its signification is not strictly adapted; and another verb (the force of which was, in the writer's mind, involved in that of the verb he employed) must be mentally supplied in order to complete the sense. This is called constructio prcegnans. E. g. b* tI to turn or look in astonishment to one: Gen. xliii. 33; 1,n?1 dt it. for ' 13M r.b.t. b N. t to fill up to follow Jehovah, i. e. to follow him fully, Num. xiv. 24; Ps. xxii. 22,.?.:'r. Ca.t. hear (and save) me from the horns of the buffaloes; Is. xiv. 17,,ItZ )IMD 16 14. his prisoners he did

Page  257 4 139. TWO VERBS TO EXPRESS ONE IDEA. 25 257 not release (and let go) to their homes; Ps. lxxxix. 40; Geri. xlii.- 28; Is. xli. 1. SECT. 139. CONSTRUCTION OF TWO VERBS TO EXPRESS ONE IDEA. When one verb serves as the complement of another, the second is construed as follows, viz. 1. It'stands in the Inf. both absol. (~ 128, 1) and (more commonly) constr. after the other verb, e. g. Deut. ii. 25, 31,PM. ~M I begin to give; Gen. xxxvii. 5, 9 t and they went on to hate; Ex. xviii. 23, *IVn- IV' thou canst endure; Is. i. 14, Nt r"b Iam weary to bear. But still more frequently, 2. It stands in the I?~,f preceded by ~,as Deut. iii. 24, H5M Hb'IM thou hast begun to show; Gen. xi. 8, ra e and they ceased to build; xxvii. 20, bk b thou hast hastened to find, i. e. hast quickly found, &C. These two are the usual constructions in prose after verbs signifying to begin (b~Th'i, ~'bt'ir), to continue ( i),to hasten (I2),to cease ('m t*b), to be finished (uMni); so also, to make good (t'),to make much or many (I'l~-), and the like modes of' action expressed, for the most part, by Hiphil, to be willing (mb I r~) to refuse ('),to seek, to strive for (t~~,to be able (~b9 th latter signifying to know (how) to do), to lea-rn,(1), to permit.* It is to be remarked, however, that in poetry the is often omitted where it is used in prose, as 111t to be willing, with the ~ Ex. x. 27' with the mere Inf. Job xxxix. 9; Is. xxx. 9; xlii. 24.t 3. It has, like the first, the form of the finite verb; they are then construed, a) With before the second verb, which then agrees with the first in tense, gender, and number, both making up but one idea as in Nos. i and 2. (Comp. our expression he was pleased and went for he was pleased to go).-Judges xix. 6, 1* W-bt~ be pleased now and lodge; Jos. vii. 7.-Gen. xxvi. 18,'r and he returned (repeated) and digged, for he dged again; *To permit one to do a thing is expressed by rniivv 'n 1%: and 'D -'r! Miy0,prop. to give or grant one to do a thing Gen. xx. 6,mr I mb6I hatv not permitted thee to touch. t So after words which include an analogous verbal idea, e. g. 'nt 1M it ise not permitted to enter in; 1-i~ I-im (poet.) there is not to be compared, Ps. xi. 8; '7"rM ready, prepared, commonly with ~,without it in Job iii. 8. 1 7

Page  258 258 PART III. SYNTAX. xxxvii. 7; 2 Kings i. 11, 13; Gen. xxv. 1, he added and took a wife, for he took again a wife. Esth. viii. 6, v?'1. b5.n tmis how should I endure and witness, for how should I endure to witness.-Cant. ii. 3; Eccles. iv. 1, 7. The construction can also begin with the Fut. and proceed in the Pret. with 1 (according to ~ 124, 6), as in Esther viii. 6; Deut. xxxi.:2, that they may learn (Fut.) and fear (Pret.) for tofear, Hos. ii. 11; Dan. ix. 25. And on the contrary, it may begin in the Pret. and proceed in the Fut. with 1, Job xxiii. 3. b) 1A6vvASrodg, i. e. without 1 and, both verbs being of the same tense, gender, and number (as under letter a), but with a closer connexion of the second with the first. Deut. ii. 24. tM inn begin and take possession; Hos. i. 6,:n.b?pti. 9S I will not go on and have pity, i. e. I will no longer pity; 1 Sam. ii. 3, ~ lll ~ n. b do not multiply and speak =speak not much; Is. liii. 10,.un }rMt, ";n1" Jehovah was pleased and he afflicted; Lam. iv. 14,.?r.tie bts so that they could not touch; Job xix. 3; Hos. v. 10. This construction is more poetical than that under letter a. Comp. e. g. CqihT with? following in Gen. xxv. 1; xxxviii. 5; but without ) in Hos. i. 6; Is. lii. 1; though it occurs also in common prose, as in Neh. iii. 20; Deut. i. 5; Jos. iii. 16; 1 Chron. xiii. 2. c) Likewise cd6vvsrco-, but with the second verb in a close subordinate connexion in the Future, depending on the conjunction that implied. Job xxxii. 22,;12.^.= "qit3n. I know not to flatter (prop. I know not to begin, that I should flatter = I cannot flatter). 1 Sam. xx. 19, ' t5P-I and cause on the third day, (that) thou come down, for on the third day come down. Is. xlii. 21. In Arabic and Syriac this construction is very common,* in Hebrew rare; but it was necessarily used in those cases where the second verb was to be distinguished from the first in person or number. Is. xlvii. 1, tb ]-'x.~a bm.tS n thou shalt not add (that) they shall call thee, for thou * The Arabian says volebat dilaceraret, for he would rend; and so the Syrian y.xa~ [Js volebat tolleret (Luke xviii. 13), he would lift up, but oftener with the conjunction that, 14-f? as, he would come. The Latin also may omit the conjunction in this case: Quid vis faciam? Ter. Volo hoc oratori contingat, Cic. Brut. 84. So in German [and in English] Ich wollte es ware; Ich dachte, e, ginge rI would it were, I thought it went].

Page  259 ~ 140. CONSTRUCTION OF PASSIVE VERBS. 29 259 shalt not continue to be called; Num. xxii. 6, ut1mi-m~w-Dr perhaps I may be able, (that) we shall smite him, and I hl drive him out. All three constructions (letters a, b, c) and also another akin to that under letter c, are found alike in some verbs in Syriac. He could go may, for example, be expressed by potuit et ivet (letter a), potuit ivit (letter b), potuit et iret (not in Hebrew), potuit iret (letter c). See Agrel~l. Suppl. Synt. Syr. p. 33. 4. It takes the form of the Participle, Is. xxxiii. 1, ~M I — "Mt when thou shalt cease as a destroyer, e. to be a destroyer =to destroy;t 1 Sam. xvi. 16. In the same manner is construed also the verbal adjective, I Sam. iii. 2, his eyes r~i'M 6.M began (to grow) dim. Of this construction is Gen. ix. 20, 61I7RM wt5~ 11~ 2 and Noah began (to be) a husbandman. Rem. 1. In very many of the above examples the first verb only serves, in effect, to qualify in some manner the second, and hence we translate it by an adverb. Compare farther Gen. xxxi. 27, 2 M M ht~ wherefore hast thou secretly _fled; xxxvii. 7, your sheaves stood around and bowed, for bowed around; 2 Kings ii. 10, LittZI' n-tr thou hast dealt hardly in asking, i. e. hast made a hard demand. The verb which qualifies the other may also occupy the second place, but never wvithout special cause; e. g. Is. liii. 11, =nin4 )Mti' he shall see and be satisfied (with the sight), and lxvi. 11, that ye may suck and be satisfied (by that act); xxvi. 1 1.-Jer. iv. 5, 1 —i means, call ye (and that) w~ith full voice = call aloud. 2. Of another construction are those verbs which take after them (in place of an accusative) a sentence or clause depending on "V or 110 that (~ 152, 1); such e. g. as to see (Gen. i. 4, 10), to know (Gen. xxii. 12), to believe, to remember, to forget, to say, to think, to happen. On the omission of the conjunction before such clauses, see ~ 152, 4, c. SECT. 140. CONSTRUCTION OF PASSIVE VERBS. 1. When a causative conjugation (Pidl, Hiphil) has two accusatives (~ 136), its passive retains only one of them (the second, more remote object), taking the other as a nominative, or including itin itself. Ps. lxxx.l11, 'I~2: IilID -the mountains are covered with its (the vine's) shade; 1 Kings xxii. 10, M'156 U"' clothed with garments (prop. made to put on garments); * For r~(~ 20, Rem.) Inf. Hiph. of tnn t This construction also is common in Syriac (see Hoffmanan's Gram. Syr. p. 34, b), where it is by no means -to be -taken (as is done by J. D. Michaelis) for a Grteem'M.

Page  260 260 260 ~~~PART Ill. SYNTAX. Ex. xxv. 403 'M~ 'ol —t which was shown thee (prop. which thou wast made to see). Several striking phenomema in the construction of the Passive are readily explained. if we regard it as an impersonal Active (dicitur==they 8Jay), just as, on th contrary, the impersonal Active often supplies the place of the Passive (see ~ 134, Note). We may thus explain those cases, in which a) It takes the object of the action in the accusative. Gen. xxvii. 42, liVV) Min-rt'U'l and they made known to Rebecca the words of Esau; iv. 18, 1111- 11 r one bore (for his wife bore) to Enoch Irad; xxi. 5, tpMr1-4- 1 — at th e time of bearing (6v T64 TUEsIh) to him Isaac; xl. 20, -'1r'Vnt r1 Ine i the day when Pharaoh was born; xvi 5, - 'rt '...~ they shall no longer call thy name Abram. Lev. xvi. 27; Jos. vii. 15. b), It does not agree (as often happens) in gender and number with the noun, even when preceded by it (comp. ~ 144); because the noun is, in this case, regarded not as the subject but as the object of the verb passive. Is. xxi. 2, '"flz' M~ rtt MIM vieionem diram nunciaritnt mhi (the noun in - '.v...., ' the accus.); Dan. ix. 24, septuag-inta septimanas destinarunt (.1~); Is. xiv. 3; Gen. xxxv. 26; Hos. x. 2. The efficient cause, after a passive verb, most frequently takes ~,and is therefore in the dative (as in Greek), as ~R.Iln blessed of God (,rc t946), Gen. xiv. 19, Prov. xiv. 20, Neh. vi. I., 7. More rare, but equally certain, is the same use of II; (prop.' from, by which origin, source, in general, is often denoted) Ps. xxxvii. 23, Gen. ix. 11, Job xxiv. 1; 'lg a parte, Gen. vi. 13;.2 by, Num. xxxvi. 2, Is. xlv. 17. Sometimes this relation is expressed without a preposition with accusat. instrumenti (comp. ~135, 1, Rem. 3), as Is. i. 20, *:11 -W by the sword shall ye be devoured, comp. Ps. xvii. 13. Rem. Many neuter verbs are sometimes used as passive, in consequence of a peculiar application of their meaning. E. g. Vi', to go dowvn,-spoken of a forest, to be felled; lb* for to be brought up (on the altar), Lev. ii. 12, to be entered (in an accou.nt) 1 Chron. xxvii. 24; KbtV to be brought out of) Deut. xiv. 22. * Comp. Olslhauaen Emendationen zum A. T., S. 24,25.

Page  261 ~ 141. MANNER OF EXPRESSING THE COPULA. 261 CHAPTER IV. CONNEXION OF THE SUBJECT WITH THE PREDICATE. SECT. 141. MANNER OF EXPRESSING THE COPULA. THE union of the substantive or pronoun, which forms the subject of the sentence, with another substantive or adjective as its predicate, is most commonly expressed by simply writing them together without any copula. 1 Kings xviii. 21, 3'b" Stlno Jehovah (is) the true God; Gen. ii. 4, rit5 l rint. this (is) the history; ii. 12, 3 Mtt rbt, LO 'T the gold of that land (is) good; Is. xxxi. 2, W7 N.1 o also he (is) wise!-In this construction, a personal pronoun of the third person, which refers to the predicate, frequently serves to make prominent the union of the subject and predicate (see ~ 119, 2). More seldom the copula is expressed by the substantive verb Vill. Gen. i. 2, and the earth was (ins ) waste and empty; iii. 1, the serpent was ( cll) crafty; vs. 20. Also by to and l"pi (which inc ude the idea of the substantive verb) when the subject is the pronoun and the predicate is a participle (see ~ 131, 2, a). On the gender and number of the copula see ~ 144. Rem. Instead of the adjective the Hebrew often employs the abstract substantive as a predicate (~ 104, 1, Rem. 2); especially when there is no adjective of the required signification (~ 104, 1), e. g. y' htin. his walls (are) wood = of wood, wooden. Here the sense is the same as if the substantive, which stands as subject of the sentence, were repeated, in the constr. st., before the predicate (Y hi't R qi'tp). This full construction occurs Job vi. 12, n'.:x n tj n. is my strength the strength of stones? Similar examples are: Cant. i. 15, t:is Sti thy eyes (are) doves'-eyes; Ps. xlv. 7, t thy throne (is) a throne of God=solium divinum;* second member (with the full construction) n1kio r5 tm:bqm e aa righteous sceptre is the sceptre of thy dominion. So also especially with 3 of comparison, as Ps. xviii 34, nrqba ^n1 my feet like hinds' feet; Is. 1xiii. 2, rnl rq.3j71 thy garments (are) like the garments of one treading the wine-press; xxix. 4. * But see Hengstenberg's Psalmen, II. p. 415. Philology requires no other than the simple and natural construction, " Thy throne, O God!" &c., which is given in all the ancient versions as well as in our own.-Ta.

Page  262 262 PART III. SYNTAX SECT. 142. ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS IN A SENTENCE; CASE ABSOLUTE. 1. The most natural arrangement of words in a simple sentence in calm discourse is properly this, viz. subject, copula, predicate; or, when the predicate consists of the verb with its object, subject, verb, object. Adverbial designations (for example, of time or place) may stand either before or after the verb; a negative always immediately before it.* But the Hebrew can, at pleasure, render either of these members prominent by giving it the first place in the sentence; thus: a) The verb: Prov. xxviii. 1,thereflee, when there is no pursuer, the wicked. Gen. xlii. 30. This is its common position when there is implied in it an indeterminate subject (the impersonal construction ~ 134, 3), as Gen. i. 14, ri':t.,1 let there be lights, D"".:? they howl (to wit) the jackals Is. xiii. 22 (comp. il vient des hommes); and also wherever the sentence or clause is connected with a preceding one by 1 (of course wherever the Future with * is employed), 'It or by; as Gen. iii. 1, all beasts A V F tS which Jehovah had made; ii. 5, d Motn db ma for Jehovah had not caused it to rain. b) The adjective; and this, when it is the predicate, is commonly placed first as the most important member of the sentence. Gen. iv. 13, "~it b'tl great (is) my sin. c) The object of the verb, which is then immediately followed by the verb, as Prov. xiii. 5, lying speech hates the righteous man; Is. xviii. 5, a ripening grape becomes the blossom) viii. 14; Gen. xlvii. 21. Very rare is the arrangement as in 2 Kings v. 13, some great thing had the prophet commanded thee. Ex. xviii. 23. d) The adverbial expression, which is then immediately followed by the verb. Gen. i. 1; Jos. x. 12,?l. bla TR; Judges v. 22. Another arrangement, viz. subject, object, verb, which is common in Aramaean (Dan. ii. 6, 7, 8, 10), is seldom found in Hebrew, and only in * Rarely the object is inserted between the negative and the verb (Job xxii. 7 xxxiv. 23. Eccles. x. 10), also the subject (2 Kings v. 26), or an adverbial expression (Pa. vi. 2).

Page  263 143. RELATION OF SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 263 poetry. Ps. vi. 10, nip nt.m rnnr; xi. 5; Is. xiii. 18; xlix. 6. See Gesenitus's Comment. on Is. xlii. 24. On the absence of inflexion in the predicate when put first, see ~ 144. 2. But the greatest prominence is given to any substantive in the sentence (whether it is the 'genitive, or accusative of the object, or employed by way of qualification of any kind) by permitting it to stand, absolutely, at the beginning of the sentence, and then representing it, in its proper place, by a pronoun (compare c'est moi, qu'on a accuse). E. g. the genitive, Ps. xviii. 31, l-o ur. bnr God-perfect is his way, for God's way is perfect; xi. 4; civ. 17;-the accusative, Ps. lxxiv. 17, winter and summer - thou hast made them, for thou hast made winter and summer; Gen. xlvii. 21, hns 'i.nn?thr the people - he removed them; xxi. 13, comp. Jer. vi. 19.* The suffix may also be omitted, Ps. ix. 7, and the connexion indicated by 1 as sign of the apodosis). Ps. xviii. 41 (comp. 2 Sam. xxii. 41). Job xxxvi. 26, 1n P ti n:~ Wq., sc.:b the number of his years - there is no searching (to them). Gen. iii. 5. The use of the participle in this manner is peculiar and resembles the Latin ablative absolute, Prov. xxiii. 24, tabt. ban Ib.i.' he who begets a wise son (i. e. when one begets, &c.) then he tay rejoice. 1 Sam. ii. 13 '.n) ti i. ~T. naz tJix-.b when any one brought an offering, then came the priest's servant; ix. 11. SECT. 143. RELATION OF THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE IN RESPECT TO GENDER AND NUMBER. The predicate (verb, adjective, substantive with copula) conforms, regula ry, to the subject in gender and number. From this rule, common to all languages, there are many deviations, partly occasioned by regard to the sense rather than the grammatical form of words (constructio ad sensum), partly by the position of the predicate before the other members of the sentence. In respect to the first cause we remark: 1. Collective nouns, e. g., ~'i1 people, rT. family, and nouns used as collective, as atr men (see ~ 106, 1), are usually. ' Such a case absolute may also have i (in respect to) before it, e. g. Pa. xvi. 3, Is. zxxii. 1.

Page  264 264 PART III. SYNTAX. construed with the plural. Judges ix. 55, bS'tt.t. ' W.l acnd the men of Israel saw; xv. 10. 1 Kings xx. 20, Of. 031. So when the collective is itselffem. but represents individuals which are of the masc. gender; e. g. 2 Sam. xv. 23,?.'D T'tsl-b} the whole land (i. e. its inhabitants) wept;* 1 Kings x. 24; Gen. xlviii. 6; 1 Sam. ii. 33; xvii. 46; and vice versa, Job i. 14, niP h "ow 'mn the cattle (cows) were ploughing. For examples of the predicate with the singular form in such cases, see Gen. xxxv. 11; Is. ii. 4 (comp. Mic. iv. 3). Often the construction begins with the singular (especially when the verb is placed first ~ 144, a), and then, when the collective is introduced, proceeds with the plural. Ex. xxxiii. 4, ~e ibm...:.. t- -l and the people heard... and mourned; i. 20. 2. On the other hand, plural nouns with a singular signification (~ 106, 2) are construed with the singular, especially the pluralis excellentice. Gen.'i. 1, 3.t Ex. xxi. 29, rlt. 1*?V his owner shall be put to death. So feminine forms with a masculine signification are construed with the masculine, as in Eccles. xii. 9, =a it*P ln the preacher was wise. 3. Plurals which designate beasts or things (but not persons), whether they are masc. orfen. readily take the construction with the fem. sing.$ (comp. the feminine form with the collective meaning in ~ 105, 3, d). Joel i. 20, *irl- iMt tir=t the beasts of the field pine for -. Job xiv. 19, fMP.D Eb.t. its floods wash away. Jer. xlix. 24, 'rln. M.n. pains have seized upon her. Ps. xxxvii. 31; Job xii. 7. The same principle applies to pronouns in connexion with their antecedents, Job xxxix. 15; Is. xxxv. 7; 2 Kings iii. 3. * Sallust. Jugurth. 14, pars in crucem acti, pars bestiis objecti. t 1I:.N"5 is construed with the plur. only in the older biblical books, and in certain forms of expression which perhaps had their origin in polytheism. Gen. xx. 13; xxxv. 7; Ex. xxii. 8; Ps. lviii. 12. The later writers studiously avoid this construction as polytheistic; comp. Ex. xxxii. 4, 8, and Neh. ix. 18; 2 Sam. vii. 23, and I Chron. xvii. 21. See the Lexicon. t Perfectly analogous is the Greek construction a 7rqoefara flalvEt, where the Attics admit the plural only when persons are designated: z a&vYciTroSa i'iaoov. In Arabic, such a plural is called pluralis inhumanus (i. e. not used of men) and is construed chiefly with the fer. sing., like all its so-called pluralia fracta (collective forms),

Page  265 ~ 144. SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 265 4. Moreover, those plurals also which designate persons are construed with the singular, when, instead of the whole sum of individuals spoken of, the attention is directed to each one of them (comp. 5b for omnes and omnis). Prov. iii. 18, m't, sWth happy (is every one of) those who retain her; xxvii. 16, t,37].r512T; xxviii. 1; Gen. xxvii. 29; Ex. xxxi. 14. 5. Dual substantives have their predicates in the plural, since verbs, adjectives, and pronouns have no dual form. Gen. xxix. 17, nrV n1.b '.:. and the eyes of Leah were tender; Is. xxx. 20; 2 Sam. xxiv. 3; 1 Sam. i. 13, HtI,?nrite her lips moved; 2 Chron. vii. 15, rlp _:.w rnr~i. n s Y; vi. 40; Micah vii. 10,,'~?~ AD my eyes shall see. Jer. xiv. 7; Is. i. 16; Job x. 8; xx. 10; xxvii. 4; Ps. xxxviii. 11. Rarely the principle stated in No. 3 of this section is extended also to the dual; e. g. Mic. iv. 11. SECT. 144. SUBJECT AND PREDICATE IN RESPECT TO GENDER AND NUMBER. The other cause of deviation from the general rule is the position of the predicate at the beginning of the sentence. The subject, to which it would regularly conform, not being yet expressed, it often takes its simplest and readiest form, viz. the masc. sing., even when the subject, which comes after, is feminine or plural: the predicate in this case is not subject to inflexion. E. g. a) The verb: Is. xlvii. 11,,W? J._ ts there comes upon thee evil; Mic. ii. 6, ti$. A? t reproaches do not depart. Ps. lvii. 2; Deut. xxxii. 35; Esther ix. 23, I:1~.1? b.p? and the Jews undertook. 2 Kings iii. 26,,Ta.t.B pMT hard was the battle. 1 Sam. xxv. 27. Often the verb may here be regarded as impersonal, as in il vient des hommes, il a paru deux volumes (~ 142, 1, a). More seldom before the plur. fer. we find (at least) the m asc. plur. Judges xxi. 21,,i'. ' rH=.' r.W when the daughters of Shiloh come forth. 6) The adjective: Ps. cxix. 137,.'tPat. ftl' righteous are thy judgments; vs. 155, t P..... piT far (is) salvation. (The German also neglects, in this case,'the infiexion of the adjee. tive: gerecht (sind) deine Gerichte.)

Page  266 266 PART III. SYNTAX. c) The participle as substantive: Gen. xlvii. 3, 'S.f lS t7 h shepherds (are) thy servants. Also d) The copula, when it precedes the subject.* Is. xviii. 5, 'h-?.W,n? bD. the blossom becomes a ripening grape; Gen. xxvii. 39; xxxi. 8. But if the construction is continued after the introduction of tlhe subject, the verb must conform to it in its gender and number. Ez. xiv. 1, %t lq-Ol 0 2ts_:: in,'l; Gen. i. 14; Num. ix. 6. Rem. 1. In general, the language is at times sparing in the use especially of the feminine forms (comp. ~ 110, 1, Rem. 2), and, when a feminine substantive has more than one predicate, contents itself with giving to the nearest one the appropriate feminine form. This is well illustrated by the following examples: Is. xxxiii. 9, yt mn'bt b=s the land mourneth and languisheth; xiv. 9, 9ti: a? 1'r:.... n, nnrt'_ tI Sheol beneath is moved.... it stirreth up the shades to thee. Examples of the masc. form in remote predicates, Gen. xxxii. 9; xlix. 15; Levit. ii. 1; v. 1; xx. 6; in such as stand in dependent sentences, Job vi. 10, binm b: (-in) lrbnq; xx. 26; after '3, vi. 20. On the same principle pronouns which refer to plural nouns, take the form of the singular when they stand remote from their antecedents. Job xxxviii. 32; Deut. xxi. 10. 2. The cases in which the predicate follows the subject without conforming to it in gender and number, are mostly those in which a verb passive is to be regarded as impersonal and in construction with the accusative (~ 140, 1, Rem.); or the predicate is a participle used as a substantive; e. g. Gen. iv. 7, yen rb:n IM~5 at the door (is) sin, a lurker (i. e. a lurking lion).-Eccles. ii. 7, h' n1.n r.i -4' verne mihi sunt (where hi nrt is to be understood as I have). Gen. xv. 17, 11tt M bj and darkness, there became (with a special emphasis on the noun,-the verb standing impersonally). SECT. 145. CONSTRUCTION OF COMPOUND SUBJECTS. 1. When the subject is composed of a nominative and genitive, the verb sometimes conforms in gender and number to the genitive instead of the governing noun,-viz. when the word in the genitive expresses the principal idea. E. g. Job xxxii. 7, en rslrt.t.:.: the multitude of years (i. e. many years) should * Independently of this arrangement, the.n1 standing for the copula is retained between plur. and fern. unchanged. Josh. xiii. 14, Irnn bt:...... lt the offerings of Jehovah..... that is his inheritance. Comp. Jer. x. 3,

Page  267 146. USE OF THE PARTICLES. 267 teach wisdom; Gen. iv. 10; 2 Sam. x. 9,,ltMln B.!D rM.n there was the battle-front against him, i. e. the battle was turned against him. Is. vi. 4; Job xxxviii. 21. With the substantive Vb the whole and the numerals, this construction is almost universal; e. g. Gen. v. 5, aIt ^'b3 W17 and all the days of Adam were; Ex. xv. 20; Gen. viii. 10. 2. When several subjects are connected by and, their common predicate usually takes the plural form, especially when it follows them; Gen. xviii. 11,:O.T titN =:1l, Abraham and Sarah (were) old. When it precedes, it often conforms in gender and number to the first (as being the nearest) subject. Gen. vii. 7, V.I nM5 b1ti there went in Noah and his sons; Ex. xv. 1; Num. xii. 1, TpI1Rl t '. IrI there spoke Miriam and Aaron; Gen. xxxiii. 7; xliv. 14. Rarely the preference for the masc. appears; Prov. xxvii. 9,:a'1. m b'pl lO '. l ointment and perfume rejoice the heart. If the construction is continued, it is always with the plural form, e. g. Gen. xxi. 32; xxiv. 61; xxxi. 14; xxxiii. 7. CHAPTER V. USE OF THE PARTICLES. SECT. 146. OF the particles, as connected with the system of forms and inflexions (~~ 97-103), we have already treated in their relation to the other parts of speech. We are now to consider the signification and use of these words, which are so necessary to the nice perception of the sense, and hold so important a place in the philosophical treatment of the language. We shall present, in a general view, their most important peculiarities, leaving the more complete representation, as well as the necessary proofs, to the lexicon.

Page  268 268 '268 ~~~PART III. SYNTAX. SECT. 147. OF THE ADVERBS. The most important adverbs, classed according to their signi. fication, are: 1. Adverbs of place: =5 there; Fit:' ml and rm, hic, here t~o and t hither, the latter also here (from the Chald. Ir t his), Ih~l thither, farther on (prop. to a distance), hence I'h p!- (from thee hither) on this side of thee, and MNsl'qt. M (from thee farther on) beyond thee, 1 Sam. x.2,37. Is. Xviii. 2; "2 more commol above, ~ blw M~Vr upwards, I'~ downwards, V-Ir outside, y-Iri' on the outside, 11zn and 1112t within, VI -1 before, on the east, Vnirlhm behind, rthttrI backwards, 'I over against, I'r, to the right, I-m~ on the right, t" on the west (prop. on the side towards the sea), Vit and Vi~ around, Mn~j upright. To many of these adverbs I; ia prefixed, or the accusative ending h1 -appended, indicating respectively the relations from and towards. E. g. ct there, == thence, thither; V~IM outside, fIIS- outwards. There are several which occur only with i-. appended, as rir-, 7 bh Both these additions, however, express also the relation of rest in a place, as Ib~it sometimes there (not merely thither), on the right (not from the right). The M- is in both cases accusative ending (~ 88, 2), and J' properly denotes hanging offfronm an object, and hence being upon the side of it, like a dexctra et sinistra, a latere, a tergo, and in French dessous, dessus, ded ans, dehors.t 2. Adverbs of time: these are in part the same with those which have been mentioned as adverbs of place, and which, by an easy transition are made to express relations of time; as WJ then, like icelb; Ml" now; M~l'and contr. IM1- hitherto. Exclusively such are; IM at the time, hence, now, at this time (also without the pure designation of time, like v'v v&,and presently, soon; Ci-11 (this day) to-day; minn 7 i, at this day, now; ~ iurxt yesterday, and then of old; 13M yester-evening, last night; t~t~ (from CUr three, and t~i") three days ago; 'IM to-morrow; VIM on the morrow; =i by day; I*1 by night; and =WtIb in the morning, early; the whole day, then all the time, always; 'IV"r- perpetually, always, ~b~' ~ fr ever, riW, riV. continually; Tt$ then, with reference to both past and future time, Tt$m long since, formerly, V= do., '= (length) long since; hiijY (to repeat) again, repeatedly, commonly yet, with a negative no more; 'IrMttZ (as one) at once. together; do., Mit~tx' at Probably for fit a hardened form. of 111 in hoc (loco);, like IHM so, for 1Z sticut hoc. t Cant. iv. 1 li,~ -IMlt5 they lie along the declivity of Mount jGilead, e monte quasi pendentes. Comp. Soph. Antig. 411, Xa,9~,~UE U'XQWV?X 7TU'aWV; Odyss. xxi. 420 &6c riqqto xa*7Usvog.

Page  269 ~147. THE ADVERBS.26 269.first, J~ "'IM (afe iwasoafterwards, ITVItn speedily,I n itr nstanhly. 3. Adverbs for other modal ideas, as a) of quality: '.i' (see above) and so; 'I~tm very, 'in" exceedingly, very, 'Ili more, too much, M~Dwholly, WO (about or near nothing, about i. e. within a little =wanting little) almost, WIE5 so, so then (Job ix. 24), hence often used intensively in questions (see ~ 150, 2, Rem.), nio and Vn:911 well, ~~ (in connexion with other adverbs) wholly, just, as 'lV- wholly (just) so long, Job xxvii. 3. b) Of quantity: IbVI much, ti abundantly, Jimi (riches) richly, j followed by the genitive (prop. smfliciency), enough, as ~!- what is enough for thee, rnV much, enough; '1= ~ Mi (in separation) alone, the former also with suffixes, as!9'= 1 alone; 'Ifl9 together. c) Of asseveration: $, 'Ub truly, lot$ (prop. Inf. Hiph. from Il:D for 1'11 certainly, indeed) and by apocope J.~; ~tb truly, also (corrective) nay rather, immo Gen. xvii. 19; 1 Kings i. 43;'1 perhaps.* The expression of asseveration may easily pass over into that of opposition (comp. verum, vero) and of limitation; and hence some of the abovementioned affirmative particles are partly adversative and restrictive, as * only, ~, x (especially in later usage) but. Most strongly adversative is lmI- on the contrary (the LXX ov' pis ~U'W), thus used almost exclusively in the Pentateuch and Job. Restrictive also is PI (used before adjectives like ~)merely, i. e. only. d) Of cause:, r',therefore. e) Of aceso: A also, and (more poetical, and expressive of accession) ~t adeo, yea more, even, -both which, howevv, often take the character of conjunctions. 4. Adverbs of negation: on these see ~ 149. 5. Interrogative adverbs include all the former classes: thus the question may relate to place, as "t, I M" where? the first with suff,. illb where (is) he? so Ml '9, Ill~ rl~bt, 9t where?- "i whne MA (from 'Im~) whither?; to time, as "11 when?;1'a '1 until when? how long? MM '10 the same; to quality, as MVN 'J.,9 M=9bt how?; to quantity, as Mr.j how much? how often?; to cause, as 1h2. and V117 (~97, 3) wherefore?-Respecting the pure interrogative particles 1, Mt see ~ 150. Most of these interrogative particles are formed by prefixing 'qb bq5 which in itself signifies where (comp. Germ. wovon? wohin?), but by usage becomes also a mere sign of interrogation before particles of place, time, &C. In this manner, and by the application of the ending fl-., of the prefix and of the relative lib, are formed whole classes of correlative adverbs, as MI~ here, h4 hence, I'l "91 where? 11' "N'whence? MM '4h * Compounded of it and '9 =, comp. Aram. whether not, perhaps, 1s4 ' re. It is once employed in the, sense of '1~ if not in Num. xxii. 33, then whether not., (who knows) whether not, consequently perhaps, expressing doubt, solicitude, and also hope.

Page  270 270 270 ~~PART MI. SYNTAX. whence (relative); Inr there, IMM thither, =%37 thence, W5 '1b where, 6inbw5b whither, tm InO whence. SECT. 148. CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS. 1. Adverbs not only serve, in general, to qualify a clause or sentence by expressing circumstances of time, pl,.- &c., but also to qualify single words, as adjectives, e. g. '7flt =IT -V good, and even substantives (like iX z91,,c zyi~ukcc). With the latter they stand either a) in apposition (out commonly after them), MM M' innocent blood I. Sam. xxv. 31, =fl 131:b few men Neh. ii. 12, h1t~ r111IM 'M- very much wisdom 1 Kings v. 9; or b) in the genitive, IB ~t- innocent blood 1 Kings ii. 31, where the adverb is treated substantively, as in sponte sua. The adverbs also appear in the nature of the substantive, when, as in the later writers, they take a preposition; e. g. J; in the so =,Esth. iv. 16; tnM- prop. for in vain Ez. vi. 10. 2. The repetition of an adverb sometimes denotes intensity, and sometimes continual accession; e. g. '*' 7S&f 'iM exceedingly Numn. xiv. 7, also more and more Gen. vii. 19, Mt Mt lower and lower Deut. xxviii. 43, T.Oc = by little and little (peu apeu) Ex. xxiii. 30. On the use of verbs with the force of adverbs, see ~ 139, Rem. 1. SECT. 149. OF WORDS WHICH EXPRESS NEGATION.1. The most important adverbs of negation are: 9=ovx not, 5R =z- y that not, 1b =~ 95 there is not, IMl not yet, Ottno more. Almost exclusively poetic~ are 51, '1 M not; negative conjunctions, 5b, J, that not. We subjoin a more particular view of the use of these words: V~, like ov', ov'x, is used principally for the objective, unconditional negation, and hence with the Future expresses prohibition (~ 125, 3, c).-In connexion with ~b-, when the latter is not followed by the article and therefore means any one, any thing, it expresses the Lat. nullus, none (comnp. Fr. ne-personne). Gen. iii. 1, '~- V- ~b 'a tiomA ye shall eat of no tree of the garden. Ex. xii. 16, 16o16m-n no labour shall be done. Ex. x. 15; xx. 4; 2 Chron. xxxii. 15; Prov. xii. 21; xxx. 30. (The nega

Page  271 149. WORDS WHICH EXPRESS NEGATION. 271 tive is here closely connected with the verb, and and there does not happen any thing is = there happens nothing. So also l'e = t- 6b; Eccles. i. 9, ttmJn-b? 'ot there is nothing new. But the case is different when MD is made definite, where it means all, the whole. Num. xxiii. 13, rtr. ib I all of him (his whole) thou shalt not see (but only a part). On the use of Kb in interrogative sentences, see ~ 150, 1. On the position of Ki in the clause, see ~ 142, 1, and Note. ib is properly pu, Lat. ne, for the subjective and dependent negation,* with reference to the views and feelings of the speaker,-hence exclusively with the future. The phrase gm i_ ne veniat, may stand either for he shall not come, or for may he not come, see above ~ 125, 3, c, and ~ 126, 2. Sometimes it stands absolutely, without the verb (like pu for u TOiTro yvrtaL), nay I pray, not so, i. e. let it not be; e. g. Ruth i. 13, rbn b. not so, my daughters. On the interrogative use of it, see ~ 150, 1. ':t is the negative of tt there is, and includes the verb to be in all its tenses; e. g. Gen. xxxvii. 29, 'miz t"i'l Joseph was not in Che pit; Num.xiv. 42,.:?p llp nl'i 1 Jehovah is not among you. The same formulas are expressed positively with dto and negatively with axM as Gen. xxxi. 29, 4' sb4-'.. it is in my power (prop. it is in the power of my hand; Neh. v. 5, ^ r'n IN it is not in our power. It follows, moreover, a) that the personal pronouns, when they are the subject of the sentence, are appended to FT as suffixes; as "WI. lIam not, I was not, I shall not be,.Is, M:4, &c. )) When the predicate is a verb, it almost universally takes the form of a participle, the verb of existence being implied in it..; Ex. v. 16, ilp 1't... straw is not given; vs. 10, (5 ^~?X. I will not give; viii. 17: Deut. i. 32. y) As &5 sometimes signifies to be present, to be near or at hand, so 0 M is used in the contrary sense to be not present or at hand;.tK he was not present = was no more, Gen. v. 24. From 't? is formed by abbreviation the negative syllable E, employed in compounds as a prefix: it is found in Job xxii. 30, P.'~. not guiltless. In AEthiopic it is the most common form of negation, and is there used even as a prefix to the verbs. On the formation of the interrogative "'. from l_, see p. 273...b*' (prop. constr. st. with the ending 4- (~ 88, 3, a) from rb. want, non-existence, stem-word ria) is most frequently employed before the Inf. when it is to be expressed negatively with a preposition; as 5bFi to eat, b.t s'5.a not to eat, Gen. iii. 11. Rarely with a finite verb it means that not, Jer. xxiii. 14. 1q (removing, a clearing away) is the same as ne, that not, lest, especially after the mention of an action by which an apprehended evil is to be prevented or shunned (Gen. xi. 4; xix. 15); or after verbs signifying to fear, to beware (like o&l&w p, vereor ne) xxxi. 24, 31;-also at the beginning of the sentence, especially in the expression of apprehension or fear, as Gen. iii. 22, in rt5br- niw and now, lest he stretch forth hts hand. 2. Two negatives in the same sentence, instead of destroying * This view of bs is omitted in Geenius's last edition, and in Rsdiger'a. TB.

Page  272 272 PART III. SYNTAX. each other as in Latin, [and English] make the negation stronger, like ovx ozvXig, ozVX ozacqcz3;. 1 Kings x. 21, l*p intW.tb 1tM.b ri silver was not at all regarded for anything (in the parallel passage, 2 Chron. ix..20, 9b is omitted). Ex. xiv. 11.-Zeph. ii. 2, big~'~b:D lit. before there shall not come, (so in Germ. ehe er nicht kommt, and in Lat. priusquam... non). Is. v. 9,:it" ]Ztt prop. without no inhabitant. 3. When one negative sentence follows another, especially in the poetic parallelism, the negation is often expressed only in the first, while its influence extends also to the second. 1 Sam. ii. 3, multiply not words of pride,-let (not) that which is. arrogant come forth from your mouth. Ps. ix. 19; Job iii. 10; xxviii. 17; xxx. 20. (Compare the same usage in respect to prepositions, ~ 151, 4). SECT. 150. OF INTERROGATIVE WORDS AND SENTENCES. 1. Interrogative sentences are sometimes, though rarely, distinguished as such merely by the tone of voice in which they are uttered, e. g. 2 Sam. xviii. 29, '~13b ht*i is it well with the young man? Gen. xxvii. 24, 1W A.T,,ITs_ art thou my son Esau? This is somewhat more frequent when the sentence is connected with the previous one by I; Jon. iv. 11, D1.l 9b ". and should I not spare? Job ii. 10; x. 8, 9, 13; Judges xi. 23; xiv. 16; and when it is introduced by the particles D (Zech. viii. 6) and ~t (Job xiv. 3). But negative sentences still more readily take, in utterance, the interrogative character; e. g. with 9b, when an affirmative answer is expected (nonne?). Job xiv. 16, 'lttrl b Sran-b_ dost thou not watch for my sin? Jon. iv. 11; Lam. iii. 36, 38; with b_, in expectation of a negative answer, 1 Sam. xxvii. 10, Z'.n O1nptl-b' ye have not then made an excursion in these days?* Even the few interrogative particles originally expressed either affirmation or negation, and only acquired by degrees their interrogative power.t * In the same manner are used ovx (nonne?) and u'; the former (Hom. II. x. 165, iv. 242) in expectation of an affirmative, the latter (Odyss. vi. 200) of a negative answer. t So in Greek and Latin, originally affirmative and then interrogative are a,

Page  273 ~150. INTERROGATIVE WORDS AND SENTENCES.27 273 Respecting, M and its original demonstrative signification (being irelated to the article), see ~ 98, 4. Probably Nx where? sprung from a negation; full form brt (hence '5 whence?), prop. not there, is not' there,-uttered interrogatively, is not there?==where is? mtu is4 he not there? for where is he? Job Xiv. 10, man dies i~'nx and where is he?=~-Wbt and he is nonmore. In Arabic 'itm has become an interrogative pronoun = " who? (coinip. the German wo (where), and Eng. who); but this is rnot its original use. On the abbreviation of lott into.1see ~ 149. 2. Most commonly the simple question begins with He interrogative "#,-the disjunctive question with 11 followed in the second clause by Mt( - =utrumz-an ),as in 1 Kings xxii. 15, I... PJl shall we go.... or shall we forbear? The indirect form of inquiry differs only in having, Mt more frequently in the simple question, and' in the first memnber of the disjunctive question. More particularly:The t1 is strictly a sign of the simple and pure question, when the inquirer is uncertain what answer may or should be given. Job ii. 3, haqt thou considered 'J~ r-imiV11) mny servant Job? Often the inquirer expects a negative answer (num?), which may be expressed in the tone itself; Gen. iv. 9,4~ ~'T14 am 1 the keeper of my brother? Job xiv. 14, if a man dlie, TI'Vrt" will he live again? Such a question may have precisely the force of a negative assertion; 2 Sam. vii. 5, rvi ~-r.=n -i.x shalt thou build a house for me? (in the parallel' passage, 1 Chron. xvii. 4, IM msktb thou shalt not build a house for me:) and, vice vers4, the negative form of the question has the effect of an affirmation; At! nonne?7 is it not so? for NI~ behold! 2 Kings xv. 21; xx. 20; comp. 2 Chron. xxvii. 7; xxxii. 32.* On the other hand, the question niay be so uttered as to show that the speaker expects affirmation and assent; when ticre sponds, in efect, with the negative form of the question in English: comnpare the use of In y~q and 7Q y~O' for is not?7 and of the Lat. - ne for nonne?t Job xx, 4, nl2l NXIIr dost thou (not) know this?7 This simple question is very seldom introduced by Mt and then always in connexion with something already implied which gives a; disjunctive sense, like our or perhaps (German oder etwa), Lat. an, as in Is. xxix. 16;- 1 Kings i. 27; Job vi. 12. numn( nunrc), an (probably, perhaps); originally negative and then interroga. tive,-oVoc pir,-ne, in German nicht woar? (not true?)- nicht? (not?). *In a similar manner tJ1m what? [why?] spoken with indignation expresses prohibition under the form of reproach or expostulation. Cant. viii. ~ '4, 'M why do ye rouse? Job xvi. 6; xxxi. I. This negative force of Mmn is vcry fre'. quent in the Arabic. t See Heindorf ad Plat. Pheedr. 266. Ileusinger ad Cic. de Off. mii. 17. 18

Page  274 274 PART III. SYNTAX. The disjunctive question (utrum -an?) is usually expressed under the form t - -t, also btl - -, Job xxi. 4, with emphasis on the first question It3 - rl, xxxiv. 17; xl. 8, 9. Yet also as in German [and English], with '1M or before the second clause, Job xvi. 3; Eccles. ii. 19. The form of the indirect question is, in general, the same. After verbs of inquiring, doubting, examining, the simple question takes t (whether), Gen. viii. 8; Ex. xvi. 4, and Mt, Cant. vii. 13; 2 Kings i. 2; the disjunctive question (whether-or) Wt --, Gen. xxvii. 21, and also f —f, Num. xiii. 18.-The formula tsVI 'T " (who knoweth whether-not, is also used affirmatively like the Lat. nescio an, Esther iv. 14. For interrogative adverbs of place, time, &c. see ~ 147, 5. The words Mtt (~ 120, 2) and K'st quite, then, serve to give animation or intensity to a question (like 7role, tandem, Eng. then, now); as J;-M~n TimQt what aileth thee now? quid {ibi tandem est? Is. xxii. 1; WiNK 'Ks where now? Job xvii. 15. 3. The affirmative answer is given, as in Latin, by repeating the predicate of the interrogative sentence; Gen. xxvii. 24; xxix. 6; Judges xiii. 11; the negative answer is 95 no, Gen. xix. 2. SECT. 151. OF THE PREPOSITIONS. 1. The simple* prepositions, like the adverbs, originally denote for the most part physical relations, viz. those of space, and are then used tropically of immaterial relations, as those of time, cause, &c. The prepositions of place originally denote either rest in a place, or motion from or to a place; but in each class there are some (several in the first, few in the second), which take also the signification of tile other. a) The most important prepositions of place are: a) Of rest in a place, 3 in, by, at, Ac upon and over, rM_ under, 't, 'tm._ after, )b before, a, r., tn, b before, opposite to, q, me. with (apud), by, near, 'r_, '.s (prop. in separation from) about (aipUl), behind, srm between, I'I on the other side of, beyond. f) Of motion, t. from, bM and b to, towards, 'b. unto, as far as, -and also (from the former class) B to (usque ad), b_ upon, towards. b) Very many of the above-mentioned prepositions express also relations of time, as a in, within, ], s, b'E. * Among these we reckon such forms as 1b?, 2 rf, which in themselves considered are indeed compound words, but as prepositions they express only one idea, and are thus distinguished from the compounds under No. 2, e. g. ":5. from before.

Page  275 ~151. THE PREPOSITIONS.27 275 c) Of those which denote other relations we'may mention, T as,~3 410 according to), tM together with, with, ln1- j '* besides, 4n. )z ith,out, besides, j, ~ on account of,:4 (prop. as a reward) for, becaume. 2. The composition of these particles exhibits a great degree of dexterity, and accuracy of discrimination, in expressing those relations which are denoted by prepositions. Thus those of motion are set before others denoting rest, so as to express not only a change of relation, but also the local one which was existing previously to the change, or which follows as the result of it, as in French de chez, d'aupres.' So a) With I;: 'ITNl away from behind, out from between, 5 v away from upon or above, I= MM de chez quelqu'un, Ml- away from under. b) With ~R (more seldom): VIM h to behind or after; 7~M without, i. e. on the outside of, '~ VI forth without, Num. v. 3. Thus also compound prepositions, which have adopted an adverbial signification, take after themn; (more seldom J') and again become prepositions. E. g. b (adv.) above, '~ b= above, over, MlttlJ (adv.) below, rimm (prep.) below, under, ~ I (prep.) without, '11 separately, aside, J'P' l aside from, besides. This accessory preposition may also precede the adverbial form; e. g. -r;Z h besides, without, Syr.,cmo-;trreyiti wholly wanting, as r~n' for In~ in Job xxvi. 5. 3. We will now present a few prepositions,-such as occur most frequently and have the greatest variety of meaning,-with their principal significations, in order to explain their construction with verbs (~,137) and the most important idioms connected with them.t When the Hebrew says, he tookc the offering Mmu ~v from uspon the altar (away from the Lop of the altar), he presents the idea fully; while it is but half expressed in the Fr. it prend le chapeau sur la table, the Germ. er nimmt den Hut vom Tische weg and the Eng. he takes his hat from the table, the Fr. omitting one relation, the Germ, and Eng. another. t In the Syr.,~o~ means over as preposition, but \.h. ~a above as adverb (see Hoffmanni Gram. Syr. p. 280 ult.). The Hebrew in like manner says J7Z~ from (a starting point) onward, for ',precisely the Lat. ts8q" t0i ueqiee ex, eonrp. also inde. t For fuller information, Geseniuse's Lexicon must be consulted..-Ta.

Page  276 276 PART III. SYNTAX. a) a, which has the greatest variety of significations of all the prepositions, denotes, 1) prop. rest in a place (6v), hence in with reference to time, and to state or condition, as yo n r, n av, oib,-with reference to a company, or number of individuals, among, e. g. t.IA, —with reference to bounds or limits, within, as t3t.. ~ within the gates,-of high objects, upon, as tsd.. upon horses, Is. Ixvi. 20; rarely it has all these significations after verbs of motion = s-i (like ponere in loco). The Hebrew says a) to drink in a cup (for, to drink what is in it), Gen. xliv. 5 (so in Arabic and Chald., Dan. v. 2, iv noTnlqa,, V /XvwXu ri'vEL Xen. Anab. vi. 1, 4,3, Ezra iii. 6, in ossibus bibere in Florus, French boire dans une tasse), [f) in the manner. in the model or rule, for after the manner or model (comp. ev Tr v6oc, hunc in modum), as 't "n3 according to the command, '6 rnM according to the counsel of any one,.lM?.T sin' in (after) our image, after our likeness Gen. i. 26; vs. 27 and v. 1, 3, Adam begat a son imst% imnm. Somewhat different is the signification in Gen. xxi. 12, in Isaac (pnt.) = after Isaac thy seed shall call themselves. In this signification of the particle is to be understood y) the a essentice or pleonasticum of the grammarians, which every where means, as, tanquam (Fr. en). Ex. vi. 3, I appeared to Abraham, &c. t6 i8. as God Almighty. Is. xl. 10, the Lord will come pnD as a strong one. The most striking use of it is before the predicate-adjective after the verb to be (=conduct or behave as), Eccles. vii. 14, in the day of joy t'=:.,2 be thou joyful; Ex. xxxii. 22, thou knowest the people st. Va 'a. that they are evil; Job xxiii. 13, InMN Mn he is one [without a rival]. (In Arabic this idiom is frequent; see Thes. Ling. Heb. p, 174). 2. Nearness, vicinity (Lat. ad, apud), at, by, on; -t- r=6e noauc., by the river, Ezek. x. 15; '.V2 in the eyes of=before the eyes of one (EV aalpuolos, II. 1, 587). In this sense it frequently indicates motion (Lat. ad), to, unto: it differs, however, both from 5b to, towards, and 's unto, usque ad, since it denotes that the object towards which the motion tends is actually arrived at (which is not determined by the use of ).), and yet does not fix attention specially upon this point, as is done by '. Gen. xi. 4, a tower nWae itZ'h whose top may reach to heaven. Hence it expresses the relation of verbs of motion (and others analogous to them) to their objects. E. g. I tMi to lay hold on, X V1 to touch, a i S to ask at, to consult, a WI to call upon, a t to look upon, I sna to hearken to. Verbs having the signification of the last two, often include the idea of the pleasure or pain with which one sees or hears any thing. Gen. xxi. 16, I could not witness the death of the child! Hence, in a tropical sense, in respect to, on account of, as a nriv to rejoice on account of, i. e. to have joy in something. With the idea of vicinity, nearness, that of accompaniment, and of help, instrumentality (with), readily connects itself. Gen. xxxii. 11, with my staf (.p.') Ipassed over this Jordan. Ps. xviii. 30, by thee (Fi) have I rushed upon troops. Verbs of coming and going, with M (to come, or go, with) express the idea of bringing; e. g. Judg. xv. 1, Samson visited his wife with a kid, brought her a kid. Deut. xxiii. 5.

Page  277 ~r ~ 151. THE PREPOSITIONS. 277 b) 3., which is most nearly related to X, signifies upon (Grl) and over (veQ); very frequently of motion (down) upon or over a thing. In the sense of (resting) upon, (coming) upon, it is used after verbs signifying to be heavy, i. e. burdensome, afflictive (prop. to lie heavily upon), Is. i. 14; Job vii. 20,to set or appoint over (commission), as. 'T1p,-to pity, to spare, as bV bwr (prop. to look tenderly upon). With the primary idea is connected that of accession (conceived as a laying upon) and of conformity, after, according w (with reference to the rule or pattern, upon which a thing is laid to be measured or modelled), and of cause (ob quam), on account of [prop. upon something as ground or motive], although. In the signification over, it is often used with verbs of covering, protecting, b. hod, b5 1.3 (prop. to place a covering, a shield, over); and also with those of kindred meaning, as bS ti~a. to contend for one (prop. in order to protect him), Judg. ix. 17. It is used for at, by, chiefly in cases where there is an actual elevation of one of the related objects above the other, conceived as an impending over; e. g. t: n b by the sea [or as we may literally render it on the sea]; but also where this is not the case, as 'b I", like our on the side. Hence it expresses the relation of motion to the object at which it terminates,-to, towards, so that in the later Hebrew style and in poetry it is often used for bt and b; e. g. Job vi. 27; xix. 5; xxii. 2; xxxiii. 23. c) 1 (~ 100) indicates motion, removal, away from any thing. Its fundamental signification is separation from a whole, derivation, descent. As constr. st. of the noun l: part, it properly means part of, hence off, from, used at first with reference to the part which is taken from the whole, as to give, to take part of==from. Most clear is this fundamental signification when it expresses some (more rarely one) of; e. g. 'I:p, some of the elders of Israel,::'. some of the blood (Fr. du sang). It has the same signification when (apparently pleonastic) it is connected with the words one, none, in the often misapprehended idiom of the Hebrew and Arabic non ab uno, i. e. not any one, not the 'least, prop. not even a part, a piece, the least portion, of one. Lev. iv. 2; Deut. xv. 7; Ez. xviii. 10. In its most common use, with reference to motion away from, it forms the opposite of ba, '13, and is employed not merely after verbs which express actual motion, as to depart (from), to flee (from), but also those of kindred signification, as to be afraid, to hide, to beware: comp. in Gr. and Lat. xoavtraZo &Io, custodire ab. In its tropical use with reference to time, it may mean either from (a time) on, in which case the reckoning is to be made from the beginning, not from the end of the period specified (like nro vvxo'g, de nocte, from the coming on of night), as o'4M., Job xxxviii. 12, from the beginning of thy days onward; or it may mean next from, i. e. immediately after (4 'qlarov, ab itinere), as '"p.R,, Ps. lxxiii. 20, immediately after awaking. Gen. xxxviii. 24, %5'.n GJl t' after three months. Hos. L. 2. For the use of it to denote rest on the side of an object, where the idea is that of near distance, or being just off from (the prope abesse ab, pendere ex aliqua re), see ~ 147, 1. For its use in the expression of comparison, see ~ 117, 1. d) t, bit (prop. regions, directions, hence towards), denotes motion

Page  278 278 PART III. SYNTAX. and also merely direction towards (with reference both to material objects and the operations of the mind), whether one reaches the place towards which the motion is directed, and even passes into it (in the former case equivalent to st, e. g..fts.-bt even unto his mouth Job xl. 23, in the latter to:i't-M, e. g. rnn -r b t i. to go into the ark) or not. It is certainly an unfrequent and improper use of this particle (though sustained by unquestionable examples), when it is employed to denote rest in a place at which one has arrived. Jer. xli. 12, they found him t?"-bM t>M1 by the great waters in Gibeon. It is so used especially in the formula tOipt3'bT at the place, Deut. xvi. 6; 1 Kings viii. 30; $'t b on the mountain, 1 Sam. xvii. 3. Compare the Gr. ic, Is, for iv, e. g. Ig 60povg isE'Yv, Soph. Ajax. 80. The German use of zu in zu Hause, zu Leipzig, is quite analogous. e) b (an abbreviation of bx, but more commonly used in the tropical significations), to, towards, denoting motion or merely direction, either of physical objects or of the mind: hence employed as a sign of the dative, and also of the genitive of possession (~ 113), and then with the signification with respect to, on account of, in behalf of. Such a dativus commodi is used pleonastically (especially in the language of common intercourse and in the later style) after verbs of motion, as to go, to flee, especially in the Imperative, e. g. t..5 go, get thee away, "-irM flee (for thy safety): but also after other verbs, as b.r.'t be thou like Cant. ii. 17. It is a solecism of the later style (common in Syriac), when active verbs are construed with b instead of the accusative, as Ib b, Lam. iv. 5. Very often also, especially in poetry, it denotes rest in a place,-hence at, or in, with reference to place and time; as jqn5 on thy right, V15? at evening. On the use of it after passive and other verbs to denote the efficient cause or author, see ~ 140, 2. f) 3 (as an adverb, about, nearly), as a prep. as, like to; for denoting similarity it is doubled 3 — as-so, and also so-as in Gen. xliv. 18, in later authors I.. —; according to, after, from the idea of conformity to a model or rule; as a designation of time, about (circa). A pleonastic ~ or Kaph veritatis, as the grammarians called it, is nowhere found with certainty. In all cases the comparative force applies. zWr' is indeed=t=tn little, but prop. as a scrap; Neh. vii. 2,for he was r1n.fio as a true man must be. 4. A preposition (like the negatives, ~ 149, 3) may be omitted when the relation which it expresses is repeated, as e. g. in the second member of the poetic parallelism. E. g. I, Is. xlviii. 14, he will do his pleasure on Babylon (b5=1), and his arm on the Chaldeans (V::'t for 0.ttO.). Hab. iii. 15, Job xii. 12. So also b, Job xxxiv. 10, Is. xxviii. 6; t,, Is. xxx. 1; Gen. xlix. 25; rnM, Is. lxi. 7. The numerous ellipses which have been assumed of the various prepopositions, are in the highest degree uncritical. Even the cases in which it

Page  279 ~ 152. THE CONJUNCTIONS. 279 has been customary to supply a, especially after:, are all to be regarded as examples of the accusative used adverbially or governed by an active verb: in a few cases the noun is actually in the nominative. SECT. 152. OF THE CONJUNCTIONS. 1. The Hebrew language, considered with reference to the number of its conjunctions, frequently consisting of several words combined, and its ability to form still others from most of the prepositions by the addition of '..t and ' (~ 102, 1, c), exhibits no small degree of cultivation and copiousness compared with its usual simplicity. But writers often neglect the means which it furnishes for accurately expressing the relations of sentences and members of a sentence, contenting themselves with less perfect modes of connexion:* hence the various uses of certain favourite conjunctions (particularly 1, by, 't ), which, though they may not actually have in Hebrew as great a variety of signification, must yet be as variously expressed in translations into our Western languages, where we are not permitted (see No. 3) to retain the loose and indefinite connexions sometimes made by these particles Of the most extensive application is 1, 1 (~ 102, 2):t a) Properly and usually copulative (and), connecting single words as well as whole sentences. When three or more words stand in connexion, it is used either before every one after the first (2 Kings xxiii. 5) or before the the last only (Gen. xiii. 2); rarely after the first only (Ps. xlv. 9). In certain phrases it is commonly omitted, as yesterday (and) the day before= heretofore, Ex. v. 8. The tone of animated description or narration may also occasion the omission of it (constructio asyndeta); as Judg. v. 27, at her feet he bowed, he fell, he lay. Job xx. 19; Cant. ii. 11; v. 6; Is. xxvi. 17. As connecting words it is often explicative (like isque, et quidem). 1 Sam. xxviii. 3, i'Sv' no Mn in Ramah and (==even) in his own city, 2 Sam. xiii. 20; Amos iii. 11; iv. 10; even when the second idea is subordinate to the first, and would properly be expressed as the genitive after it (the ev 81t voltv of the grammarians), as Gen. iii. 16, I will multiply.T.SW J? S. thy pain and thy conception, i. e. the pains of thy pregnancy. * Comp. ~ 105, 1, Rem. ~ 144, Rem. 1. t See fuller particulars on the use of Vav copulative in Gesenius's Thesauru L p. 393 et seqq.

Page  280 280 PART III. SYNTAX. b) Adversative (and yet, while yet); Judg. xvi. 15, how canst thou say 1 love thee.r. le abl and (yet) thy heart is not with me (i. e. white yet), Gen. xv. 2; xviii. 13. c) Causal (for, because); Ps. v. 12, let them ever shout for joy, because (when, since) thou dost defend them. Is. xliii. 12, ye are my witnesses 3b"A:-. and I (am) God, that I am God. d) Inferential (then, so then, therefore); Ez. xviii. 32, I delight not in the death of him that dieth — ttni therefore turn ye. In this sense it may stand even at the beginning of a sentence, when it implies an inference of some kind from circumstances already mentioned; 2 Kings iv. 41, and he said nip-.rnpt then take meal; Ps. iv. 4,.l:. then know ye; ii. 6, 10; 2 Sam. xxiv. 3. e) Final (in order that, so that); in this sense chiefly with the cohortative or jussive (~ 126). Of scarcelyiess extensive application are the two relative conjunctions (prop. relative pronouns) 'It and = -- tl, quod, quum, that, because, — running almost parallel with each other in their significations, except that ') occurs as a conjunction far more frequently and in a great variety of senses, while that 'itZ is generally a relative pronoun and takes prefixes. Both are prefixed, like quod, to a whole clause, standing in place of an accusative, and governed by the preceding active verb as its object. ttQ is even preceded by the accusative particle Mr; Josh. ii. 10, rM.:3t,,rTi tg.iqT,-'t~ we have heard (id quod exsiccavit) that Jehovah hath dried up,-more commonly 't..:rQ, and still oftener E.t.:t. Hence the following uses of 'n; a) it is employed before words directly quoted, like the Gr. OZk (very seldom 't, 1 Sam. xv. 20); b) it is temporal==o-e, prop. (at the time) that, (at the time) when, sometimes passing over to the conditional power of Mt [Eng. when =if differing only in the form of representation], Job xxxviii. 5, comp. iv. 18 (seldom A'I, Lev. iv. 22; Deut. xi. 6),-but often with an accurate discrimination between the two, well illustrated in Ex. xxi.; c) causal, eo quod, because, fully.3 Aft, 'it 1}!, propterea quod, also for = ya&; repeated ( -:., Is. i. 29, 30, Ei. —d because-and because, Job xxxviii. 20), when more than one cause for the same thing is assigned; d) adversative (in which sense.S only is used) either a) after a negative, but,-prop. but it is because, e. g. thou shalt not take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites-but thou shalt go to my native land,=-for thou shalt go, &c. the former being prohibited because the latter is to be done; or P) where negation is only implied, e. g. after a question which involves denial (~ 150, 1, 2), when it may be rendered no, but,-but no,-for surely (&lla ya4) Mic. vi. 3. what (injury) have I done to thee?.... far surely I brought thee up, &c. Job xxxi. 18. See on ti E. below in No. 2, i. 2. We will now arrange the remaining conjunctions according to their significations, exhibiting together, however, the different uses of each wherever it may be first presented. We must here

Page  281 ~152. THE CONJUNCTIONS.,28 281 confine ourselves to a brief general notice, leaving the more corn plete view, with references and proofs, to the Lexicon.' a) Copulatives: besides I, I 1, the properly adverbial forms also, and ~t intensive, there is added, wholly, even, once combined tqJ~ and even also, Lev. xxvi. 44. The first is often used with plural forms emphatically, to include all, e. g. t:t tq both the two, b~D M all together. It also merely gives emphasis to the following word; Gen. xxix. 30, and he koved T R a chelI (not, also Rachel) more than Leah; 1 Sam. xxiv. 12, -"M ~t is prop. add that, hence not to mention, nedum,-according to the connexion, much more, much less. b) DAsjunctive: its or ( will, choice, hence prop. vel, but also aut exclusive, 2 Kings ii. 16). Sometimes it stands elliptically for '1Z lit~ or (be it) that, or (it must be) that, when it may be rendered unless that, e.g. Is. xxvii. 5;-hence the transition to the conditional sense, if, but if, Ex. xxi. 36 (the LXX l1cv Ui, Vulg. sin autem), if haply, 1 Sam. xx. 10, which has been contested without reason (comp. on "~- ~ 147, 3, Note). Repeated, i-x - itt, sive - sive, it is the same as - c)Temporal: "Z7,1 bItt = t~e, ui (see above), for which more rarely.s used the conditional particle Mtt (Is. iv. 4; xxiv. 13); h1a 'I~t IV~ am "IV until that, also th 'IV wt nix i until that when, '1 also during, so long as, biv h same, n~ ilri after that, Mt$' (for Inb Mtt) since that, ~tpnu and tn before, Ml for.-*~ttnm?l' before (Ps. cxxix. 6). di) Causal: (besides 'in and '~1ittb, No. 1, e, c) 'I~ IT because, or merely ~,with the omission of 'ItIh (~ 102, 1, c), Ps. xlii. 7; xlv. 3. (Gen. xviii. 5; xix. 8; 2 Sam. xviii. 20), and -15bt (Job xxxiv. 27), for -1. -12b 1~;t 'IM -iJl ~., -it)bt r~i-it ~ prop. for the circumstances that =forr this cause that, and emphatically -t~ n-ltt~n ~ for this very cause that, '15. '10M 1 (prop. on the account, that), and " Z -m (therefore that),: eo quod because,:~(prop. as a reward that) that. e) Final: 'It. JtI to the end that, '"t~h~ I in order that (also causal), ) that =in order that (see above),"perhaps ~,1 Kings vi. 19. With a negative force: ~ ' that not, lest (~ 149). f) Conditional: principally Mtt and i6 (for which rarely!iltt), if. The first (which is also a particle of interrogation, ~ 150, 2) is purely conditional, leaving it uncertain whether what is expressed by the verb is actually so, is actually done, or not (rather the former),-as, if I do-have done-s9hall. do; on the contrary, 6 I expressly implies that it is not so, is not done (if I should do-had done), at least that it is very uncertain and even impro-. bable. Hence ~tt may properly stand where t6 would express the thought ''See especially Gesenius's Heb. Lexicon. t See on these groups of particles Geaenius's Thesaurus II. p. 692. 't 6 in full bt* I is radically not different from M6 i, ~&, not; hence it becomes, when uttered interrogatively, first an optative particle (~ 133, 2), as MM6nonne vivat? for would that he were alive, then a conditional particle, if he were alive (which is however not the case).

Page  282 282 PART III. SYNTAX. more accurately (Ps. 1. 12; cxxxix. 8; Hos. ix. 12), but 5 cannot be used for Mt. Especially in solemn asseveration, expressed under the form or conditional imprecation, tx is always used; Ps. vii. 4-6, — rA I.5'.z-tlr 'F. tr'a if I have done this-then let the enemy persecute me, &c. g) Concessive::s, with the Pret., even if (= though) I am, Job ix. 15, with the Put. (though one were), Is. i. 18; x. 22; 5 (for 'nt 5S), although, Job xvi. 17; '3 ta even when, although. h) Comparative: NttOn as, quemadmodum, with 1 in the second member, as-so, Is. xxxi. 4; lii. 14, 15.-'ts. may be omitted in the protasis, Is. Iv. 9; Ps. xlviii. 6, and 'lo in the apodosis, Obad. 15. Exact conformity is expressed by lb. m'-5 in all points as, Eccles. v. 15. i) Adversative: (see on the adverbs, 6 147, 3). Decidedly belong here, ^ tO.N only that= but, nevertheless, and the difficult combination Wt: '-, prop. that if, for if most frequently but if, in the sense of "' explained underNo. 1,e,d,but united with b. to form a connexion with the verb. Ps. i. 1, happy the man who walks not (if he walks not) in the counsel of the ungodly.... 2, but if (:xS ).) his delight is in.... Then simply but, Ps. i. 4; Gen. xxxii. 29, but if but when, Gen. xxxii. 27, and merely but= except (after a negative), xxxix. 9; xxviii. 17. k) On the interrogative particles see ~ 150, and 1) The optative particles above under letter f 3. A certain brevity and incompleteness of expression (see No. 1) appears in this among other things, viz. that instead of the compound conjunction, by which the relation is fully expressed, may be used one or the other of those composing it. Thus instead of the full form bat ]2 on the account, that = because, we have the shorter 1?" or 'i.; instead of ttn. as (conj.), - Is. lxi. 11, and 't1s Ex. xiv. 13; 1 Kings viii. 24. 4. This brevity of expression is sometimes carried so far, that the conjunction, which is required to show the relation of one sentence or part of a sentence to another, is omitted altogether. This occurs, a) In conditional clauses: Gen. xxxiii. 13, drive they them hard, then they will die,-for, if they drive them hard, they will die. Job vii. 20, (if) I have sinned, what have I done unto thee? Gen. xlii. 38. * More rare is pleonasm, or an unnecessary fulness of expression; e. g. CN '3 for if, Ex. xxii. 22, comp. old Germ. wenn dass (prop. if it is that) and old Eng. "if so be that." On the contrary, a degree of pleonasm in the particles is quite characteristic of the Chaldee; e. g. '"q'pI.' (Germ. alldieweil) wholly-for -that = because, 'h6 tp-5 just for this = therefore. Emphatic, not pleonastic, is the repetition of the conjunction in 1r~s ct' because, even because Lev. xxvi 43.

Page  283 ~ 153. THE INTERJECTIONS. 283 b) Where comparison is expressed: Ps. xiv. 4, =.S.? A. t. tsk who devour my people (as) they would eat bread, prop. (as) those who eat bread. Job xxiv. 19, drought and heat bear off the snow-water,.LR $ibt (so) Sheol (those who) sin. Jer. xvii. 11. c) In members which are usually dependent on the relative conjunctions. Gen. xii. 13, say. sr.rht thou art my sister, commonly R. frit. h. Ps. ix. 21, that they may learn, they are men. Is. xlviii. 8, for I knew, thou art utterly faithless. Ps. xvii. 3, I have purposed, my mouth shall not sin. In all these cases, the second member stands properly in the accusative; comp. ~ 139, 4, Rem. 2. SECT. 153. OF THE INTERJECTIONS. The interjections which correspond to our ah! oh! alas! woe! expressing denunciation as well as lamentation (tn, iG,;in), are connected with the objectpf the threatening or lamentation either by the prepositions b_, b, b, or without any inter7ening particle, as IOb lat woe to us! ht1 in woe to the people! Is. i. 4; nt %'n alas, my brother! 1 Kings xiii. 30. On the construction of nrn with the suffixes, see ~ 98, 5.

Page  284 0

Page  285 PARADIGMS. IN the Paradigms of the verbs, those forms which serve as models for others (normal forms), and which therefore the beginner should especially notice, are marked with an asterisk. Thus in the regular verb the 3 fern. tRB is the model for ftbR, both being formed by the addition of a vowel only;.bb? is the model for irt, ft.bR,.:b3?, where a toneless or unaccented syllable beginning with a consonant is added to the root bt?; and:rbtP is the model for I..iOp, as each is formed by adding a syllable beginning with a consonant and having the tone, l

Page  286 A. THE PER NOMINATIVE OF THE PRONOUN, OR SEPARATE PRONOUN. ACCUSATIVE OF TH E VERBAL SUF A. SIMPLE FORM. Singular. 1. corn. 'tt in pause bTX; ttt, in pause I. pause i frl ('Ilb, prop. {. m., 3. he. -she., jin pause T (-h (eos) (eas)J me.,thee. Plural. 1. corn. m5b (tb) n9 we. him. her. Us. you. them. 2.; 3. ye. }they. -* The forms with an asterisk are exclusively po.. 286

Page  287 SONAL PRONOUN.* PRONOUN, OR FIX. GENITIVE OF THE PRONOUN, OR NOMINAL SUFFIX (PRON. POSSESSIVE). B. WITH ~ EPENTHETIC. ~ h. 2F' (.I^ ) not found. T V not found. not found. not found. not found. A. SUFF. TO NOUNS SINGULAR. B. To NOUNS PLURAL AND DUAL. my. I — my., It-, in pause ' 'h } thy. jk4L.1 i - thy. I-, I; 9 Ih (o1() Ahis. T- 1-, vr* his. nit T; T 0bS1 t 1. r' D 1'.1 * 1T 11;w^h her. nT. ~T our. T1. her. our. your. % your. their. t1n^_, 5tv^ * their. etical, and those in parenthesis are of rare occurrence. 287

Page  288 B. REGULAR KAL. NIPHAL. PIEL. PRET. 3I m. 5~p *.T. * PS* p T,:*,...:.. 3. f. rt M T- * r* It Z pi t * ier -4 IT T ~; *r * 2. m. rUp * _p?* T: - rT* -T T:: *: Plur... c..* p tt5tp 2. m. '5ap* l=SI*G 5ap? b51tp 1. c. lSap "1?s liDtp: tr5sp INF. absol.?itup* 5bpb, 5bpi* 5te* IMP. m..5b * I=n*r 51 i * b 5E* f* ^ '?* ^ ss*. * ^5n3* '5tE* Plur m. m. tp inas 5iin a!p f. ~Rlp* -rO:as* tr5 in* * r r T: T: FUT. 3.m. 5jj2* 13^* l)j@* 5t!j1* 3. f. 5tp'iFl tYn 5'p 5 *jn 2. m.e 5tpi n:.) 5I..n; 5t.:. 2. f. ^'p5l* * lflh* * *,. * ' * 1. c. bbp t;5) ba^ bYep Plur. 3. m. iipp t1 ' t5^ toph 2. m. m t5p. l;1n\n t)gR t.5Ft-3r FUT. apoc. (Jusive.) PART. pa2. 5 t* p 288

Page  289 VERB. ~ 42-53. PUAL. HIPHIL. HOPHAL. HITHPAEL. bp* ~b^p* p. * n btt * t5_p * h to^. h_ ~* _Wi?, * EI1 l tp* vbtp,* r pi* oMLspwi* T z - \ T, -I *T: - T*J -;.-. ro%! Fop l itop in. hpTi *. * _ ' ** -. * -......:Tl -..-i... r311p I5p ll 9Itp II i t, 5tej;* ' * ^tipn*p btop* ^pn* wanting 28<" wantin9g!:53!:5.toprn 5fvpnr b5pI* b^p * bph* TO * b~rin b~cpn bton,btt 5prn bm.prn b 5nni)nl p 5ltbps PrpR* 5bt nabiop n fitPr) ^tiP n?^lir.: c rb: mP - E 'r 531* b5ttp* lt?1?* *r,. 19 289 k.1... I..~ 1. -.. I, ' '..''.': C:

Page  290 C. REGULAR VERB SUFFIXES for 1 Sing. 2 Sing. m. 2 Sing. f. 3 Sing. m. I PRET. Kal. 3. m. 3. f. 2.m., 2. f. It 1. c. Plur. 3. c. 2. m... 1. c. ^bp~~ltsp t rp T '-Tl1 i tTTtt p;11>5tp-_ * T;:-Tl.T TTp pribtopi'iPi~a~n pi '!5tR ~~~~r5ti mmb -''- n t Biinp t —i rt:5.pi]: - ^4p 0) in^ INF. Kal. IMP. Kal..51 -- -.p FUT. Kal. 3. m. bFt..pi tl o5t.p. tQ2.1; with Nun epenthtic. -. t. T —:. Plur. 3. m. =bl p 5 7ffi -5t290 PRET. Piil. ^bSt Ibp 1t.r; 290

Page  291 WITH SUFFIXES. ~ 56-60. 3 Sing.f. 1 Plur. 2 ur.. Plur.f. 3 Plur. m. 3 Plur.f. itipW t:p is tp tfbttpR pbo b ts 1hv r rh r rh ***~; -1 ~*;-: h T T~ rfiap ttrop o tsp mbtp.p i p T- T*:- T::- T::- T: - T -T T mn-I~:p t light Iv ----p ^I l n^Ffctti-P' — 1 0]? RT l? )? ti T.: T.- T:; T. TM btte *t tprn-tp rlp T V T,,8:5tP PtitP 1-t~:5R ssPbt) 18:5a.5p l-^p I! 1-5t - 1p: b5 6 T 1 T T 1 r } tz5: i.2 strp..; IT IlrrT ~J l~ T Ttt! ||^ 1^ ttt^ -^ Cfct9 1 25wF}. t5 Tp. at 5tP 5W Bb P n95*...;obtp I.*L A.P 1pbtr aYthp.1 1Tp I.*: w~* T:~ JT;~ 291

Page  292 I D. VERB PE GUTTURAL. ~ 62. HAL. NIPHAL. HIPHIL. HOPHAL. PRET. 3. m. ht' *S. * *I b'* l'n;* 3.f. f*2 ~y S* 1a"n ia"ri* 2. m. fiV7J2: TZ.a.1I'I2 FY:'i T: "T T:' -- ".1 " T: -::I. T;-T'. IT 2. f. ~7's Fl~..~ ~r"~tn V?'~:St:1-2.: -r. IT 1. c. hrayg v1nays Frnagn Waynrg *: T * - - *: '-V: *:- IT Plur. 3. c. 157Y.Vy2.lTYZ7 '7Y1t: IT *:1' "*:: 1':: T IT 2. om. tr * _Riya omayn Oayn3; -':. —..._.Is- * -T: IT 2.f. f r1 7ye laay vi rllW 1T:Z -: 1'-::: -Tr IT INF. ' T:,y* 7'1^. * ',C*:a1,'in - *' T '~ - -r. IT T - **- 2-..-. IMP. m. a %* p~ * 7t *,ay, * /. 7> ]TYMn ITy~n 7:1- wanting Plur. m..7y~ ipt.n s. ~'yTn 1~~n t S: -, T —: Y; "T " T * * —:' - FUT. 3. m. h*s. * plrF * '7'S, * 1^* * -~-:1- - ' " ~T" ~ *' -:-n- -T ~.IT 2. m. 7iyn1 prtri tasy T'ayn 1 r.i 2.f. J'af y n* f'tRFl* *'tm 'lWFI "T^~-~* -- *- ~, *:IT*'. * -:1- *: TIT IF. ac. Tr* p (Jusi 'e.) Y s Plur.8.. M t. * IpTn.* I'Ty; tbg 17^' PT. acm.h/J w piTi* h17? ) * Jia T* 2. f. wtr~'a'ng pT~n t yn Tro n '.' -: ' T'. ' T: -:1- T: -.':: '': T: * T ** T: * —:1- T~: -r. IT 2* c. 7fayJ pTffl "7N WrJ l^7ys tSa FUT. apoc. (Jussive.) Sta PaKT. act. ta m BV* 7aya* tava* *pcr ~ ~ T *.-. * -; r T:T IT C. "fta panr-.M.. V Pi" tz -1=1 ITz V I.:I' 4 3 I 11 292

Page  293 E. VERB AYIN GUTTURAL. 63. KAL. NIPHAL. PIEL. PUAL. HITHPAEL. - T tjs Tms p*?h* VZ rnlil TT- T-'*I * *IT.< ~rs F\:,n -. ~ t::' r". -: -:e* - - T. iilUd* * *t *rr,- *,: IT* * IT wanting:: T * IT T -. * * * T* 't * T** ^umhm* ^unm* ^:n* ^*r ^r: -. * - IT ~*: wa nt.t. T * -: * ' T: T *-:-t FuT. wwh Suf. btet ' — ~ ~* ~ T: " 't1r'.o; nE mh* th *ti _:j T: - ~ * T -~* T -:'T:.; m T " T 2 293 ~t '~ T ~~~ "t4:-',

Page  294 F. VERB LAMEDH KAL. NIPHAL. PIEL. PRET. 3.. 5.ti rh5 r: IT T::' rt 2. f. 1. c. nt b Mzj Y Plur. 3. c. 'ti.r.':. 2. m. ant ribtin io. Ct 2. f. wn l5d lnh3 1. c. wbl lIv5vwi Ivn;t INF. hMbt * bn5.,* ~: * INF. absol..r * i * tj* n * IMP. m. t57 * h5t* n32 * _.r.- T. - -m. -. Plur. m. m. -. ta' t.'. ' FUT. 3.m. nb* rm1* t7i' 3. f.. n: t5- __ -. 2. m. ai.n t5us niv 2. f.with tn. 1. c. rS nSt) )ntr 3.. fy* ' n. rn -* 2. m. tii 5r S29 2. f T -n, T: n - 1. _. — FUT. apoc. (Jussive) FUT. withA Suf.j. PART. act. r\ * h5t toa * T;* - *pass. -~P * 294

Page  295 GUTTURAL. ~ 64. PUAL. HIPHIL. HOPHAL. HITHPAEL....oo:,-. Trh *,r rW- * o wat. _ bing. w nt i.-gwg *... - - -ThrjT sri~ n P?^n h *n* ti: n)* an" * p * -.-..: -. v -- T —:. 295 wanting wanting pn ni~n t?^^^^5rv hh\ tnjn r^^ t!^5WR t5XP ti T. - '.. T. - -T 5 1... nbrr.w nnwi:5>oN t>r.., t. -. '

Page  296 G. VERB AYIN DouKAL. NIPHAL. PRET. 3. m.* ~ * 3.. nTS f'.2. m.ri * rl: 2. f.a Ma= 1. c.M * =* Plur. 3. c. C* 2. m..TO *; 2. f. ii' 1. c. ii'jM Plur. m..... f-T * *. T ' * FUT. 3. m. b* ab * * 3. f.. 2. m. Zt nb tbM 2. f. 't) * F i. * T *: * _,* 1. c. bs * 5E Plur. 3. m.. 5h 'iD '.9.. 2. m. T.:. sr -2. f.:,rJ.'rI r*. - 'n 1. c. ' FUT. with Vav conv. 0D 1 * T TFUT. wtith Suf. ^ * PART. act. * o..r. pass. =. 296

Page  297 BLED (W). ~ 66. HIPHIL. HOPHAL. POEL. POAL. *rt * at" aI* fi * L" "4T.... t T(T -T aOTi ^aew ^aafj Broj * * * *oir.( ~ i-: in..- 'i:: i.::' * ~ '* T ". -- ro^t& * >7n~sa* hi * T * a^m~r* a * )a a ~ - T I ' 4. ~-.4. _ * *c-* T* *a 4,, ~, T - _ 4,.., ico B* 2 TV.;; I.,_ 2,ii Xn9

Page  298 H. VERB PE NUN ( 6). ~ 65. KAL. NIPHAL. HIPHIL. HOPHAL. PRET. 3. m. 2, * 3.. fr.T7 r; 2;7 2. m...T. * TI r I * 2.. ni. 2. f.ive ~-n 1 c regular 'r 'r r;' Plur. 3. c..aJ7:..j 2.m.Btni;i o 1n m.D n 2. fT.?r7S 'i! la. 1. c. ~ w 3.3: W % INF. n1. 3*,.* INF. absol. *tii 7.; i. * TT *~ * - IMP. m. JZ * * f..-.:IT'.I >- wanting Plur. m..m.a.I.7. IT * 3. f. *'T: - T; ''T * ' T: ' - FUT. 3. m. i'~" * ~'Y'a W " * tJ'3 * 2.m. D 1r Wrn 2. f. d I C. co t.~ot ~1. c.* ^ regular: - -. Plur. 3.. *m.^ ' it 3.f. Mt 3a n^ Ia n 5ro - I T: —* T.; *-' T:- 2. m. -tO;.J^ rP 2. f. nrt;pi r o o 5 1. c. t" 3 T FUT. apoc. (Jussive) * PART. act. *t15:i ta* ^ ** iDa * ~ T'* - T * T9. T. panss.?3 298

Page  299 I. VERB PE ALEPH (IS). ~ 67. KAL. NIPHAL. HIPHIL. HOPHAL. PET. 3. m. 5:~ ti * 5^n * t,, * ' — T -%%'17 * %*: i7 "TI IT Like the Verb Pc Guttural, in Paradigm D. INF. 5 5n * t ^N N:: * -: r -r. M INF. absol. E'1i b ''n T T -~ IMP. m. 5b * I KbSln v: ** T * **- r Jf. -:- STC. ETC. wanting Plur. m.. iS FUT. 3.m. m 5, * 9^ *.i sh* 5 s *.. y * -:r -T:It 3.. 5m 2. m. binl 2. f^ ETC ETC. ETC. 1. c.* Plur. 3. m..[ 3. f. n: 5s 2. m. t15ste 2. f. *^, rn 1. c. '^ FUT. Vav corn. 5.l,* wtt. * PART. act. - fit teti 5sna? 5ns..... pass. btti 2 299..,s *.

Page  300 K. VERB PE YODH KAL. NIPHAL. PRET. 3. m. r ii: * 3. f. tTrn7i 2. m. P.,Da 2. f. i 1. c. regular. Plur. 3. c..tid 2. m. 2. f.. 1:i: 1. c. -^3'1 INF. mrv*, "l r.t.* INF. absol. T' T IMP. m. I * 71 * '.i1; * Plur. m. ^ b. FUT. 3. m. * TDT * *tDV * 3.. f. ~T n., 2.. f. 7P w Plur. 3. m.. lb. 3. f.dnn t T: - * T: - * ' i *T - 2. f. tt-? 1. c. 'w 'T a.'. FuT. apoc. (Jussive) FuT. with Vav conv..d'D * PART. act.,tD zt1*,, T pass. =,. 300..~, I 4 - I I I I I I! I-. -.

Page  301 'B (orig. 1). ~ 68. L. VERB prop. PE YODH ('I). ~69. HIPHIL. HOPHAL. KAL. HIPHIL. etj,2 *:ttt *:t er3n * ~.~.. - ~:..._regular. n l.b in.wan.ting::,m/i* n:~._*: =,j m*:Tm: *::::* *~ 1" * *.... T J r. T:. ' — ~ -:...;IBIFh l *s e bi *tt oTn aat l'~N ~~lrjl~n * l~rj~n * aitt;r 301 '.~.. s~~~~~ ~ -.,,1'. K

Page  302 M. VERB AYIN VAV KAL. NIPHAL. HIPHIL. HOPHAL. PRET. 3. m..* B3* l,. l 2.m. ap~ taT * MaTpi * pm. * **I 2.. nap 1. c. ^a:,, ~alp:,,P-<p.T Piur. 3. c..t.s. ~ -; ~. 2. m. taop oDlphiBapt i.._. 2. f. aja^ ap7 ia Fr.tO INF. t:.p* lij- * p ~ in* m _.,n*, INF. absol..MCp* t:i * t, t: t * IMP. m..l.p* * p p* P fur. m.. hj:s t ipn7. wanting Plur. m. blpp b3 t4l T: Fu 2. f. p *. TP 3. f. 1:pT.,p S: i.1 c ~ crTp ~ t~ipuiT 2.m. i.r;i; pin 2. C. tna ~pi oapi ra nsa 1. c.pai13 3T_ FUT. apo. t.p?*.?* FUTT. with ' conV. rll, tP- *3?p *T FUT. Uith Suff. a ^1 ^1? * 2.302 PART. aCt. 9* * pass. * 302

Page  303 ('). ~ 71. N. VERB AYIN YODH (^'). 72. PILEL. PULAL. KAL. NIPHAL. aai'p'1' a* tpa* us*. * _* Vaap * ta7ip T r: * 1 T JriaalP Fiaa'i'p TT*.V r* V. ' m7aalp '>7Pia vo 'r* n'~."r ln27alp naalnp 0sa M39 nr: ll I 5i t,=iP tapiap,.i 1,'i>m,,mLpn:=..p::_~p 1,=. tm ~:~'ip;a3p q:":%I I qIt lns= aaip oa~p ~ pa1 - ili% 1*'p * 8727aal2.S~~P~ ^"aF 3 as ti tl:. iip -tl7ip 1. T 1 tUip# l7.pS: 1 * T m't~ipni brotpt rr::i, 303: T ba'p~.i T p. - * T A;. 303; *"' " - *> *'-:-cc~~~~cccc~~~ ^M^. ~^I; "

Page  304 0. VERB LAMEDH KAL. NIPHAL. PIEL. PRET.3. m. S7 * MSS * It 3. f. =s7a f:7 Ja "T T I 2. m. rRS * -t't,* rR.* T T T T ' *~ T.. - 2. f. IrI7 rD:! tA.-: CT T < 1. c. 4h:Y1 ht\273 'hr\S. Plur. 3. c. tS.ta Is': 22't 2. m. srI~2 BM=Sas a' ~ I.: %'..: ~%.. ~ 2: "T ~.. - ' 2. f. %2Mlt ]BMM 1. c.*Ux INF. absol. Sij^s '27a IMP. m. *7 ML' sM-i t.aa T: ". $ "TPlur. m.. 4R1..ZI ":a' f: *,. IT ~ T *:T T *T V - FUT. 3. m. Sk,:** N=*R T; ' " T *-. 3. f. nr:a p! a-i a 2.m. 7r p^'n a7i T: *~ * T * '' - 2. m. *anml A= 'n 2. f. ^sS7:r1 r1 m 2M 1. c. sr. R stis T: % "... Plur. 3. m.. tlr:.t=ls. ~R.1? 2. m. ^ MS7BMt- t2s t ranI 2. f. T *: * JsD~i XM ts K' IT: T. c.: I~ " T ~T. -: FUT. apoc. (Jussive) FUT. with Suf. t~.~7 PART. act. S" L$.'?: A pass.. 304

Page  305 ALEPH (X). ~ 73. PUAL. HIPHIL. HOPHAL. HITHPAEL. ~.c * b. 27^ 'an *.7^:a. T*. *: * T '. -: 4 T:. T T *. r: wnting wn A 'anting.: * - s7 -. *.. -. 2.: '.. ~.: i- ':.-: * *.: ~ 4ssa1' ~ 1 %*: ' — %; ~:,c?";B,c': — T: %.. —: * * - % -...:.... 20 S:,30 s5n 20%:1 05*-'s T. —: T.***:T *:~:- T *: -: * T *. * $:T:.. *_.

Page  306 P. VERB LAMEDH KAL. NIPHAL. PIEL. PRET. 3. m.;nb* a* i%. * 3.. ta* 'n5*i h* 2. m.i r5.) *D 2. f.^al rP 1. c.. bah 'i t'.. s' |INF. r1a* tet* h.* INF. absol. cT T - IMP. m. * * * f. Pur. m. I* * *nZ..T T VT T 2.IPl...* br *1 Plur.3m. TV. 11 3. fo. *, ' * * TV * T - FUT m.. m.;i * T r ~. ~" UT3. t'pOs. f.... -. 2. m. iSi h5a i-i Plur. 3., m. 1*, 3. f. b5 jm m, m:.1 h rJm, 2F. m.l ts^ ^ *' it1,. *,_ 2. f. tb,s;b.: T FUT. wimth SufJ~. 5.~;s1 * F50* PART. act. t5n * *155 * pass. 306 - ~~-~,

Page  307 HE (,b). ~74. PUAL. HIPHIL. HOPHAL. HITHPAEL. ta* ht*. bn* _ * n-r5a* t5-* n r:.* ~*,~.~* rI* - ^ nt 1' ^h ^ r)t- %. ' * j: T I * nhrL:rijn, t~I5;r nn^b~! wanting an anting ''.^ *": * ": T.-* nia* win* ntibn* ria * wanting -inn.*,..,.... =' " T ~. - "T: '" - * "- dfk;~.. ri^n rStwi t~jr t^za * * ai* -a *::a* * -.:'.;:: - *::t3.07 rr~n* n^Ri* 3r5ani* ni~rar* **.: T*: T *: r V ni*f mb:ibaN Fa ii~m T **.: T ':: -T ':: TT '- t *:-.: *:-*.: T v- *: * barf * -. tsi *. a taina* -''' ib" cai,.

Page  308

Page  309 INDEX OF TEXTS, ILLUSTRATED OR PARTICULARLY NOTICED. OLD TESTAMENT. GENESIS. 1.61,107,220, 233, 262 1,3..107, 264 2....202,234, 261 3...211, 238 4....107, 116, 211 4,10......259 5......... 79 6........198 7......... 61 8........215 9......238 14.....262, 266 16.........223 20, 21......254 21....165, 174, 215 22.........129 24.....172,240 26....208, 209, 276 27.........276 29...."55,234 31........ 215 2: 2. 229, 233 4.220, 246, 261 5....233, 238, 262 7.... 139, 256 11.........214 12..49,202,261 16. 238 18.........246 19.......227 21.........199 23.....49, 112 2: 1.... 261, 262, 270 3, 4..142, 245 5.....126, 263 7. 225.... 10, 11. 233 11.....64,271 12.........100 13.........33 14, 17, 22..233 16.........279 19..........79 20........261 92....152, 235, 238,271 24........217 4: 1.....233,240 10:21, &c...17 bis, 7........266 23, 226 9.....233,273 22......... 17 10... 249, 267 26......... 9-2 13...: 262 11: 1.........241 14.........26 3.........232 15.........191 4.....271, 276 15,24.....192 5,8.......142 17......... 79 6.........135 18.........260 7.... 135, 209. 23......... 103 2137 25..........47 8.........257 26.....226,252 9.........252 5: 1, 3.......276 10........240 5.........267 12-15,27, 5,8.......142 28.......240 20......... 224 26,32......142 24.........271 28........217 6: 2........220 12: 1.........!241 9,10,&c.. 55, 4......2. 4 220,240 8.........174 13.........260 13.....242, 283 16.........208 13: 2.2...212, 279 17.........25o( 3....174, 229 19....9......1 7.........212 21.........235 9........120 7: 7........267 10.........249 9,15..225,233 11.........232 11...55,2-24 bis 14: 1........241 13....191, 202, 4......... 222 231 5, &c., 240 19....... 270 10. 16 20....... 231 13......23,213 8i 3.........245 16.........218 5.........225 19.........260 7, 8-.213, 274 23........197 9.........231 15: 1,2.......240 10.........267 2.........280 11.........218 12.........247 12.........139 13....226,230 13.....143, 225 17.....250, 266 15.........224 18.... 228,2334 22........202 19,20......212 9: 2.........112 16: 1,2.......240 10.........215 4,5.......134 11.... 237, 260 8. 23...... 7 14.........49 11.....185,250 20.....214, 259 14.........252 21.....149, 174 17: 1.........241 22.........227 5.....255,260 24......1...39 8......... 0 26........199 10.........243 27.........150 12.........243 10: 1......... 240 13........245 6, 15, &c... 17 17.....196, 223 9,10,15,19.240 18.........251 12.o.....214 19.....185,269 17: 20....2....234 26,27......143 18I: 1........221 3.........203 5.........281 11........267 12.......231 13........280 20........217 21.....196, 211 25.....211, 247 29, 29, 30, 31, 32... 105, 255 19: 2..... 274 7, 8,19...203 8.........281 9.....131, 244 11........212 13.........249 14........ 59 15........271 16.........248 19....125,234, 235 27........233 33.........126 34.........156 20: 3.........249 Ii....111,257 7..202,2412 bis 11........236 13.........264 16......2...25 18.... 233 21: 1, &c. 240 8. 111 12... 27... 276 13....... 263 16.15..161, 276 24.........112 22: 1.....41b1 3.....231 4.....241 12....231, 250, 259 35.........225 17.........150 23: 1..... 24 4, 6..113, 204, 206 10.~~~.250 11........234 13....234,242, 251 24; 1, 2..240, 242 12..2......7 23......228 40.........235 61........267 63...206 65. 90....g 67.........213 25: 1...2..8bis 5.....55 7,17...223 19, 20, &c..240 21.........112 27.........214 31,33...... 92 26: 1.........241 8.........241 13.........246 18.........257 28.........148 29...130, 150 32.......228 33.........228 27: 1.....241, 246 4.239.....= 20.........257 21.........274 24.....272, 274 26, 38...... 49 29.........265 30......... 233 33.....250,23 34.....226, 253 36.....2... 228 37.........255 39........266 42.....250, 260 43,44......238 45.,...247, 255 28:17.........292 19.........215 29........236 29: 1.......206 6........274 29: 7.....213,246 9.........218 10........134 15.236..... 17.....233,265 21...,.....239 38..... 281 1~~~~125 30: 29.~~~~~184 38.........105 31: 6..........38 8........ 026

Page  310 310 INDEX OF TEXTS. 31: 13.........213 41: 1.........222 14.........267 12......23,218 15.........244 14.........252 18...... 184 17.........250 20.........233 21.....174, 184 24,31......271 23........ 227 27....130, 259 25.....249, bis 29........271 26....214, 215, 30.....111, 24425 bis 32.....124, 23 34.........238 35........234 39.........249 39.........172 40.........222 40.........151 42.....212, 255 47.........18 43.........24 -50.........213 49.....150, 211 32; 6.........241 51.........114 9.........266 42: 1.........118 11.....234, 276 6.........214 12.....235, 249 11......87,225 16........206 13.........223 17.........210 18.........242 18.........144 25.........210 21......60, 239 28.........257 23.......215 30.....209, 262 27.........282 34.........239 29.........282 35.........249 33: 5.........28 38.....236, 282 7......267 bis 43: 3.........244 8.........28 5.........249 10.....236, 241 7.....238, 244 11.........145 14.........235 13.....214, 282 15....... 222 19.........214 32......23, 237 34: 7.........101 33.........256 16.........109 44: 4.........253 22......... 143 5.........276 27.........237 9, 10......230 30.........204 14.........267 35: 3........250 18.....238, 278 7.........264 22.........236 8.........116 33......... 38 11.........264 45: 4.........229 21.........174 12,13..214,236 26.........260 18.........242 36: 2-4.......24046: 3.........238 37: 2.....215, 240 4.........244 5.........257 27.........211 7....250, 258, 47: 3.........266 259 4.........218 8.........244 9.........216 15.... 237 21.....262, 263 17.........167 23..........92 18.....233, 254 48: 6.........264 19......90, 205 11.........148 21.........256 49: 10..........60 29.........271 11....172, 174, 32.........196 189 33.........245 12........181 38: 5.........258 15.....241, 266 11.........221 1.........211 16.........37 23.........134 17.........227 25.........278 24.........277 50: 17.........203 39: 4.....129,230 20.........143 5.........230 6.........216 9.......282 11..........92 EXODUS. 13, 15, 18, 19.......241 1: 1.........108 14, 17..23, 129 7.........255 18.....247, 248 10.........105 40: 3.........219 11.........220 5.........218 18, 19......105 10......... 20.........264 14......... 234 21.........227 15..23,114,245 2: 1.........221 18.........247 3..........60 20.........260 6.....227, 249 2: 10.........125 26: 33.....109,117 17.........125 27: 18.........225 20.........103 28: 3......... 255 24.........248 39.........213 3: 3.........239 29: 9.........255 18.........165 27.........208 4: 2.........93 29.........204 10.....181, 205 30.........125 13.........231 30: 25.........255 5: 5.........236 31: 4.........212 8.........279 13.........125 10.........271 14........265 16.........271 32: 4, 8.......264 23.........245 6.........243 6: 3.........276 22.........276 6.........236 25......... 122 8: 4.........241) 33: 3..........76 11.........116 4.........264 17.........271 12.........150 9: 18.........67 13.........174 27.........214 34: 11.........250 10: 1.........215 35: 2.........238 8......... 228 32.........212 11.........129 36: 2.........101 15.........270 4.........231 17.....143, 240 14.........256 27.........257 24,25...... 224 11: 8..........48 38: 3.........255 12: 5.........205 6.........224 16.........270 48.........238 LEVITICUS. 13: 2.........114 18.........134 1: 2.........231 14: 7.........180 2: 1.........266 1.........272 12........260 13.....230, 282 4: 2........277 15: 1, 21...59, 267 22........280 4.........204 5: 1....... 266 5.....122, 150 6: 3.........227 14.........105 10: 19.........196 16.........157 11: 43.........146 20.....105, 267 12: 4.........145 16: 3.........251 13: 19........216 4.........274 39.........216 6. 7........236 14: 21.........116 14.........120 16: 27.........260 29.........231 18: 7.........150 7: 1.........248 19: 9.........126 3.........184 20...150 bis, 245 4......... 236 20: 6......... 266 13.........104 23: 32.........224 18: 20......230 bis 24: 5.........255 21,25......192 25: 21.........14< 23....100, 257, 26. 15.........247 262 33.........114 26.........104 34........148 19: 8.......227 43.........282 13.........139 44.........281 25......... 227 20: 4.........270 - 8.........246 9......... 222 NUMBERS. 15.........238 20.........227 1: 2.........210 25.....141, 143 47.........118 21: 1-36......280 2: 33.........118 29........264 3: 6.........128 36........281 24.........214 37.....206, 208 39.........192 22: 8...... 264 4: 20.......130 22.....150, 282 5: 3.........275 23: 20.........230 8:13.........128 21.........112 19......... 198 30.........270 9: 6.........266 31.........122 15.........247 25: 39.........256 10: 2........101 40.........260 4.........225 26: 3......232 11: 11.........146 11: 12......... 138 25.........136 12: 1.......267 13: 18......93,274 14: 2.........235 3..........77 7.........270 24.....236,256 42.........271 15: 28.........122 35.........245 40.........235 16: 26.........242 17: 6, &c.....143 10......... 134 20: 3.........251 10.........242 17.........239 20.........208 21: 1.....112, 149 30.........162 22: 6.....229, 259 14,16......139 30.........229 33.....226, 269 23: 2.........150 8......... 122 13.....123, 271 25.........246 24: 3,15..172,189 7.........142 17........163 24......... 23 26: 10.........128 14.........192 27: 4.........130 19.........128 31: 49.........214 32: 14......... 61 32......... 87 42......... 67 35: 19.........246 36: 2.........260 3.........130 DEUTERONOMY. 1: 5.........258 17.........105 27.........248 32......... 271 44.........134 2: 24.....137, 258 25, 31......257 27.........239 3: 7.........135 24.....215, 257 4: 1, 22.....100, 138, 238 3.........250 56:12.........246 24......49, 227 26.........251 6:17.........246 7:18.........246 8: 1.........138 3, 16......100 13.........149 9: 14.........150 26.........240 11: 6........280 14: 2........223 17.........156 22.........260 15: 7........277 14.........25 16: 6.........278

Page  311 INDEX OF TEXTS. 311 17: 8.........198 1.........129 19: 1.........138 20: 5-8.......142 21: 8.........120 10.........266 22: 7.........130 28........216 23: 5.........276 25: 13.........210 19........248 26: 1.........138 12.........116 27: 7......... 59 2d: 43.........270 49.......229 57.........14-i 59.........175 63.........150 67.........251 29: 12.........247 30: 4........125 31: 12.........28 16.........180 32: 6.........196 7.........210 8.........116 15,17..230,253 21.........233 22........137 26.........121 32......... 6; 35.........265 36.........100 37.........149 39...;.... 226 33: 11.....251, 256 16.........172 21.........152 2.3........137 34: 9.........216 JOSIIUA. 1: 2.........927 2: 6........247 10.........280 17.........125 20..... 215 3: 5.........118 14.........213 16.........258 4: 6,21.... 93 14..... 114 6: 13.........214 17.........151 7: 7.....128, 257 9.........150 15.........260 8: 4.........202 32.........104 33.........213 9: 24.....117, 150 10: 12...238, 262 24..66,100,211 13: 14.........266 14: 8.........150 15: 21.........171 17: 1.........214 12........247 19: 51.........218 22: 9.........136 17........221 4 4:19.........209 32.......214 JUDGES. 1: 3.........109 7.........250 19.........247 28.........244 2:20.........237 3:15.........214 4:20.........122 5: 7....... 92 10.....165, 219 12.........14 15..61, 165,170 22......262 26.........105 27.........279 28.... 52, 129 6: 9........114 16..... 235 17......... 92 20.........90 30.........240 31.........144 36......249 7: 4.........179 25........210 8: 1.........1 8 10.........191 9: 2......48, 258 9.........234 10..... 103 17.........277 28.....228, 243 29.........251 45.........255 65........263 11: 5......... 61 13.........234 18.........134 23.........272 25.........144 26.........198 33.........224 12: 6.........27 13: 3.........236 5, 7.......18 6.........145 8.........114 9.........249 11.........274 23........235 14: 6.........212 10.........239 16.........272 17.........224 18.....156,222 15: 1.........276 10.........264 12.........252 13.........244 18.........252 16: 5, 6, 15...215 9........212 15....... 280 16..49, 62, 112 16, 25......241 21........250 28.........168 17: 2........ 88 3.........116 18: 23...... 133 29.........114 19: 4.........116 6.........257 19.........214 20......... 80 22.........254 20:15,17......118 16.......207 20: 25......... 191 15: 23......... 241 3: 34......... 102 31........ 131 16: 1......... 130 4: 6......... 2-27 21: 9... 16......... 259 5:10......... 245 21......... 265 18......... 218 6: 3......... 215 17 3......... 278 7: 5......... 273 14......... 223 23......... 264 17......... 225 8: 1......... 207 RUTH. 21......... 2(8 10: 9......... 267 23......... 249 11: 25......... 29-1 1 I......... 109 25......... 125 12: 6......... 192 8......... 252 26...... 90, 215 13t 5.....ioi5o 13......... 271 32......... 235 12......... 150 14......... 152 34.....212, 221 17......... 220 19......... 174 40......... 227 20......... 279 2 3......... 18 44......... 243 32......... 144 8......... 104 46......... 264 39......... 216 8,21......105 58......... 214 15 4......... 25t 9......... 151 i8: 29......... W' 23......... 264 16......... 246 19: 1......... 247 25......... 226 17......... 222 4......... 184 33......... 149 2i.....206, 226 13, 16...... 1209 16 5......... 244 3 2......... 174 252 13......... 180 4, 18...... 105 23......... 226 17 0......... 919 9.......... 236 20 6.....111, 244 18:14......... 230 15.....1521 225 6, 28...... III N......... 65 4 I......... 142 10......... 281 18......... 220 i5......... 124 11......... 221 20........ 28i 16......... 954 23......... 242 18......... 236 29......... 272 19......... 258 19: 2......... 241 1 SAMUEL. 22,37...... 268 20......... 248 31......... 205 27......... 206 7......... 239 38......... 165 20:19......... 207 13......... 265 21: 2......... 171 21......... 117 14......... 105 3......... 119 21: 9......... 222 16......... 205 8......... 218 12......... 15t 20.....100, 145 14.....149, 227 14......... 112 24......... 231 22: 7......... 210 20......... 222 28......... 145 13......... 243 22: 33......... 143 3.....258, 272 20......... 218 371 40, 48..199 8......... 2.50 0: *1......... 249 41......... 263 13......... 263 24: 6......... 221 44......... j65 16......... 66 9......... 213 123: 6......... 174 26.......... 245 ii......... 252 8......... 165 28......... 245 12......... W I 11......... 214 29......... 241 18......... 255 24: 3.,...265, 280 33.....116, 264 25: 5......... 145 24......... 244 3: 2......... 259 7......... 116 %5......... 112 7......... 238 8......... 152 4: 6......... 93 10) ll......%36 19......... 138 14......... 143 6: IO.....134, 248 15......... 219 1 KINGS. 6: 12.105,140,244 18......... 6s 7: 3......... 240 24......... 226 1 Kings........ 108 9: 2......... 222 26......... 243 1:27......... 273 6......... 244 26,33...... 253 43......... 269 8......... 236 27......... 265 52......... 20.5 9......... 252 31......... 270 2:31......... 270 11......... 263 26 12......... 167 3 7 237,246 13......... 105 27 I......... 248 18:::: 227 19.......... 225 10......... 272 24......... 211 24......... 2ii 23 3........ 279 5 9......... wo 10: 6......... 151 9......... 248 15......... 218 13......... 151 10......... 60 25......... 239 23.........!2V 14......... 182 6 7......... 217 12: 13.... 100,144 15......... loo 19......... 28t 13: 3....:.... 213 30: 6......... 252 7:14......... 216 15......... 215 31: 2......... 116 37......... 174 21......... 92 8: 24......... 2ft 14: I......... 90 30......... 278 14......... 2W 38, 43...... 105 16.....217, 218 28AMUEL, 48......... 100 22......... 116 9: 8......... 134 24......... 152 1: 9......... 217 21......... 241 33.......65,146 m......... 100 23......... 280 36......... 135 26......... 151 26......... 2W 15: 9.....134, 216 2 -. 8......... 218 27........ 48 19........ 143 3: 1......... 945 10: 6......... 215 20....:.... 280 II. 0 O... 0 a 02a 21.0...... OM 20: 25.........191 31........131 21: 9.........118 21.........265 RUTH. 1: l.........10 8.........252 13.........271 14.........152 19.........174 2: 3.........218 8.........104 8, 21......105 9.........151 16.........246 17.........222 21.....206, 226 3: 2.........174 4, 18......105 9.........236 15.....152, 225 4: 1.........142 15.........124 1 SAMUEL. 1: 7.........239 13.........265 14...... 105 16........205 20.....100, 145 24........231 28........145 2: 3.....258, 272 8.........250 13.........263 16.........66 26....... 245 28....2... 45 29.........241 33....116, 264 3: 2.........259 7.........238 4: 6.........93 19.........138 6: 10.....134, 248 6: 12.105, 14!, 244 7: 3.........240 9: 2.... 222 6.........244 8........236 9.........252 11.........63 13........105 19.........25 24.........211 10: 6.........151 13.........151 23..2.....223 12: 13....100, 144 13: 3........213 15.........215 21.........92 14: 1......... 90 14.........222 16.....217, 218 22....... 116 24.........152 33.....65,146 36.........135 15: 9.....134, 216 19.........143 20.........280 15: 23.........241 16: 1.........130 16...... 259 18.........218 17: 3.........278 14.........223 17......... 21.........208 23.........249 25.........125 26......90,215 32.........235 34.....212, 221 40.........227 44.........243 46.........264 58.........214 18: 29......... 19:.........247 4.........184 13, 16......209 22.....215,252 23.........226 20: 6.....111, 244 6, 28......111 10.........281 11.........221 16.........254 18.........236 19.........258 22,37......268 31.........205 38...1....165 21: 2.........171 3.........119 8...... 218 14.....149, 227 22: 7.........210 13.........243 20.........218 23:.........249 24: 6.........221 9.........213 11.........252 12.........281 18.........55 255: 5.........145 7.........116 8.........152 10,11......236 14.........143 15.........219 18......... 68 24.........226 26.........243 26,33......253 27.......265 31.........270 26: 12.........167 27: 1.........248 10.........272 23: 3........279 9.........248 10...... 60 14...... 182 15.........106 30: 6......2..52 31: 2.........116 2 SAMUEL. 1: 9.......217 23........100 26........151 2: 8......218 3: 1.....2.. 45 11.......249! 3: 34.......102 4: 6.........2-2 5: 10.........245 6: 3.......215 7: 5.........273 23.........264 8: 1.........207 10: 9.........267 11: 25......... 1 12: 6.........192 13 5....102,150 12........150 17.........220 20.........279 32.........144 39.........216 15: 4.........51 23.........264 25.........226 33.........149 16: 5........244 13.........180 17: 22.........919 18 14.........230 16.........65 18...... 220 20...2.....81 23.........242 29..... 272 19: 2.........241 20.........248 27.....2.06 20: 19.........207 21.........117 21: 9........222 12.........151 14.........112 20.........222 22: 33.........143 37, 40, 48..199 41.........263 44.........165 23: 6.........174 8.... 165 11.........214 24: 3.,...265, 280 24.........244 25........112 1 KINGS. 1 King........108 1: 27......273 43.........269 52........205:31.........270 3: 7....237, 246 18.......7 24.........211 5: 9.........270 165........218 25.........239 6: 7.........217 19.........281 7: 14.........216 37.........174 8:24.........282 30.........278 38, 43.....105 48.......100 9: 8......134 21.........241 23.........250 26.........207 27........ 48 10:.........215 21.........

Page  312 312 INDEX OF TEXTS. 10: 24........264 11: 5.........06 15.........113 12; 15.........247 17.........241 24.........105 13: 4.........248 7.........49 30.........283 14: 2..........88 3.........130 15: 4.........247 25.........224 31.........218 16: 10........224 17: 14.........151 18: 21.........261 3.........255 44.........122 19: 11.........215 o0: 20.........264 35.........151 36.........213 37........244 21- 7.........252 10....142, 202, 240 15........137 19........226 22: 10........259 13.........22 15.........273 25.........151 30.........46 35........140 2 KINGS 1: 2.........274 7..........93 8.........205 11, 13......258 2: 10.....114, 259 12.........217 16.........281 21.........151 24.........206 3: 3.........264 16.........210 23.........245 26.........265 27.........237 4: 13........247 25.........90 41.....137, 280 43.........245 5: 9.........218 13.........262 22.........242 26.........262 6: 13.........167 16.........39 8: 21.........110 9: 17.........156 10: 21.........198 11: 5........105 13: 10........224 15: 21.........273 16: 14.........213 18.........156 17: 29.........210 18: 1.........24 11.........150 26......23, 25 30.........220 9: 3.........138 23.........174 19: 25.......66 20:20.......273 21: 8.........247 22: 1.........224 23: 5.........279 15.........134 17.........213 25: 29....... 151 1 CHRONICLES. 4: 27.........24 5: 18.........197 7: 5.........210 9: 13.........217 11: 10.........218 11.........165 12: 2..........68 17.......248 28.........192 33.........210 13: 2.........258 15: 12.........230 27........120 17: 4.........273 21.........264 18: 5.........192 20: 8..........90 21: 23..........61 25: 5.....223, 224 26: 28.........211 27: 24.........260 30.........110 29: 2.........214 9.........253 17.........211 2 CHRONICLES. 3: 3.........224 6: 11.........229 29,33....,.105 40.........265 7: 3.........248 15.........265 8: 18.........207 9: 20.........272 10: 7.........92 11: 4........105 12: 1.........248 13: 7.........118 16: 12.........151 9: 2.........247 20: 35.........117 36.........221 21: 4.........118 23: 4........105 26: 5.........247 27: 7.........273 28: 23.........116 32: 15.........270 32.........273 35: 21.........226 EZRA. 1: 1.........108 2: 55.........207 3: 6.........276 12.........138 4: 5..........35 8-6: 18....18 18.........209 5: 11........226 3. 16.......29 7: 12-26.......18 17,18......234 24.........209 26..........68 8: 25.........211 4: 3,4.......215 9: 3.........108 5.........241 8.........249 ]2, 15, 16..239 13.........102 17.........237 18.........280 NEHEMIAH. 19.........253 20.........133 Nehemiah......23 5. 1..........55 1: 7.........246 8.........239 12.........233 12.........149 2: 12........270 16.........157 3: 6.........215 18.........151 20.........258 21.........215 5: 2-4.......232 6: 2.........245 5.........271 3......80, 211 6: 1,7.......260 9.......238 8......65, 146 10.........266 7: 2.........278 12.....261,273 57.........207 14.......239 9: 6, 7.......226 20.........266 18.........64 21.........253 32.........221 26.........130 35........215 27.........277 10: 38.........211 7: 3.....252, 254 13: 21.........144 9........241 23,24.......27 13.........34 24..........23 20.....277, 282 8: 8..........66 18.........129 21....66, 151 ESTHER. 9: 2.........233 15.....119, 223 Esther..........23 21.....231, 239 1: 1.........108 24.........269 3: 1.........114 10: 8........ 265 4.........210 8, 9, 13...272 '13.........134 10, 11......239 4: 8......47, 72 13........233 14.........274 16........240 16.........270 18.........239 7: 5.........98 19.........235 8: 6.....258, bis 20.........239 11.........134 11: 17.........239 15.........217 12: 7.........264 9: 23.........265 12.........278 24.........217 --! — 13: 5.........240 13.........229 JOB. 25.........221 28.........25.3 Job........53, 197 14: 2.........241 1: 1.....231,233 3.........272 3.........191 9.........I115 5.2....22, 238 10....104, 241, 7.........237 273 14....206, 250, 14.........273 64 16.........272 15.........208 19.........264 16.........249 15;13.......165 19.........206 22..... 145 2: 3........ 273 27.........115 4.........237 31.........240 10.....233, 272 16: 3.........274 11.........211 4.........254 3: 3..79,136,230 5.........125 bis, 238, 239 6.....239, 273 4, 6, 7....149 7.........116 204, 238 9.........254 5.........125 10.........254 5,6, 8.....238 12.........154 8.........257 14.........212 9.........38 17.........282 10........272 19.........209 11........239 17: 1.........211 13.........235 2......60, 240 17: 12.........25 15.........274 16.........105 18: 2.........219 21.........219 19: 2.....125, 150 3.........258 5.........277 15.........125 16.........253 23.........134 20: 4.........273 10.....141, 265 17.........240 19.........279 23.........199 26.........266 21: 4.........274 16.........235 23.........231 32.........211 22: 2.....199, 277 6, 7, 8....239 7.........262 18.........235 20.........174 21.....116, 242 28.....79, 142, 240 30.........271 23: 2......204, 223 3.....251, 258 13.........276 24: 1.........260 9.........230 19.....230, 283 21.........139 22........165 24.........134 26: 5.........275 9.........120 13.........201 27: 3.....217, 269 4.........265 23.........199 28: 5.........222 17.........272 29: 2.........251 10.........100 12,13..231,239 14.........125 21.......60, 68 30: 14.........22 20........272 31: ].........273 5.........143 10.........165 18.....226, 280 21.........141 22.......52, 67 32: 6, 10......138 7.........266 11.........136 15.........252 18......66,146 22.........258 33: 4.........151 5.........128 13.......:.144 23.........277 25.........120 34: 5.........233 10.........278 12.........171 17.........274 20.......252 23.........262 27.........281 35: 10.........184

Page  313 INDEX OF TEXTS. 313 95: 11........136 36' 26..... 263 32.........208 37: 3.........112 6.........150 14.........254 38: 3.........127 4.........138 5.........280 7.........134 12.........277 14.........22-2 20.........280 21.........267 30.........222 32.........266 39 9.........257 15.........264 24.........151 40: 2.........246 8, 9.......274 22.........135 23.........278 41: 7.......215 15...... 100 17.........163 25.....68, 149, 211 42: 2.........10, lo.........174 16.........166 PSALMS. Psalms..........53 1: 1.....234,282 4.....212, 282 6.........136 2: 2.........211 3.....106, 239 6.....227, 252 6, 10......280 7.....100, 138 3: 3.........157 5.........253 8.........56 4: 2, 4...59, 248 3.........105 4.........280 8.........230 5: 5.........255 9.........139 10.........207 12.........280 13.........255 6: 2.........262 4..........87 10.........263 7: 4-6.......282 8.........142 10.....215, 238 12.........214 8: 2.........242 5.........241 6.........255 9: 7.....226, 263 14..........59 18.........171 19.....136, 272 21.........283 10: 3.........234 11: 1.........218 2.........105 4........263 5.........263 12: 3....210, 253 4.....116, 207 12: 8.........215 45: 10..........60 13: 5.........125 12.....149, 240 14: 1.........218 13.........207 4.........283 46: 3.........248 16: 3.........263 48: 6.........282 5......47, 110 49: 6.........135 6........156 13,21......230 17: 3.........283 15.........212 10....210, 253 50: 3.........252 13,14......253 6.........241 13.........260 10.........172 18: 3........ 230 12........282 4.....215, 249 21.........246 17.........254 23.........123 28.........215 51: 4.........150 30.........276 7.........129 31.........263 19........217 33....211, 250, 55: 7.........251 255 19, 22.......47 34.......261 56: 1.........248 37, 40,48...199 57: 2.........265 40,49......251 5.........255 41.........263 58: 5.........219 44.........163 8.........174 48.........211 12.........264 19: 10.........211 60: 4.........151 11.........211 7.........253 20: 4..77, 106 bis 13.........156 8.........228 62: 4.........215 9.........228 63: 2.........215 21: 2......79, 211 65: 5.........231 22: 2..... 15 10.........125 8.........254 14.........254 9.........243 66: 17.........253 16.........208 67: 2.........135 22.....236, 256 68: 3.........134 27........242 22.........217 23: 4......... 239 69: 4.........134 24: 4.........216 10.........124 25: 1-22......33 36.........138 11.........236 72: 15.........122 28: 8.........199 73: 10.........199 29: 1.........210 14.........231 4.........204 20.........277 30: 8.........227 74: 2..... 228 31: 6.........234 17...... 263 7......... 233 21...... 142 8.........239 76: 3.........168 15.........234 8.........249 24.........128 10.........248 32: 1.........151 78: 17...... 116 2......... 230 44.........149 4.........239 79: 2.........172 33: 7.........21 12...... 192 34: 1-22.......33 80: 11..... 259 35: 6.........204 14.........120 14.........181 81: 6.........231 16.........254 14.........251 23.........227 84: 5..... 250 37: 1-40......33 87: 5.....210, 231 20..........80 88: 19.......204 23.........260 d9: 2.........253 27......... 242 40. 957 31.........264 51.........215 38: 11.....119,265 90: 15.........219 40: 6.........257 91: 4.........134 13.........234 6.........221 15........ 61 92: 16.........157 42: 2.........206 94: 1.........116 5.........239 20.........114 7.........281 102: 4.........134 44: 3.........253 5..........76 5.........225 103: 3,4,5....173, 20.......149 174 27.........157 104: 1.........234 45: 3.........281 2.........251 7.........261 3.........211 8.........255 7.........142 9.....165,279 8.........228 104: 11,20....17 17......26 18........21, 20........24( 29........131 * 105: 24........15( 109: 2........25 13........141 29........254 30........25& 110: 3........201 4........17S 112: 7........11 113: 5-9......17 114: 8........17' 116: 6........11 1........174 15... 156 118: 11.....135 bi, 18........ 11 119: 1-176.....3 22......134 30, 40.....234 101........151 137........26 155........261 120, &c.........2 5....... 25' 124: 4.....15 127: 2.....67, 15 128: 3........14S 5........24 129: 6.......281 132: 12........171 133: 1........248 134: 2........ 137: 1-9.......27 3........144 6....122,223 138: 6........139 139f: 1-24......27 1........125 2....144, 252 5........173 8....239,282 11....199,242 19........251 20........136 140: 10........151 13........100 141: 5........152 8........149 144: 2........165 3........241 8........210 14........206 145: 7........215 149: 2........207 150: 2........182 PROVERBS. Proverbs........531 1: 5.. 139 10.........150 22......... 24 28.........125 2: 11.........122 3: 10.........2.54 18.........265 4: 21.........143 25.........139 6: 17.........215 7: 2.........242 13.........135 8: 27.........134 30.........206 9: 6.........242 1 10......... 209 10: 4......... 53 II: 3.... 59,134 12: 21......'.270 1 26.........143 13: 4.........172 5.... 262 4 l.........221 1 14: 3.........104 1 10..........65 20.........260 15: 20......... 237 1 16: 20........247 1 7: 4.........136 8.........204 1 19: 8.........247 26........250 20: 2.........217 9.........238 1 13.........242 4 16.........128 1 21: 15.........247 22: 19.........226 21......6 50, 216 24.........149 23:15.........226 24.....144, 263 24: 5.........205 31.... 253 27: 9.........267 16.... 265 28: 1.....262, 265 i 29: 6.........135 12.........214 30: 3.........209 6.. 78 30.........270 31......... 9 31: 3.... 165 4.........201 27.........149 ECCLESIA8TES. 1: 4.........249 7.........249 9.....231, 271 1 16.........252 17.........35 2: 7.........266 11, 12, 13, 15,20.... 252 13..68 223 19.........274 22..........9 3: 15.....231,247 18.........92 4: 1,7.......258 9,12......224 5: 15.........282 18.........225 6: 1.......230 8, 9.......139 7: 14........276 16.....118 bis 26.........212 8 12.........151 15.........252 9: 12.........114 15...114,211 18.........151 10: 5.....151,230 10.........262 17.........174 11: 3.........149 12: 9.....114,264

Page  314 314 INDEX OF TEXTS. CANTICLES 7: 2.........208 24: 20.........212 41 23.........149 6......... 80 25: 1.........125 25.........152 1: 1.........218 14....145, 1P5, 6.........184 42:21.........268 6.....125,227 250 10.........142 22......80,210 7......... 92 15.........243 26: 11.....105, 259 24.... 243, 257, 15.........261 17, 18, 19..107 17.........279 263 2: 3.........258 18,20......228 27: 5.........281 43 8.........116 7.........252 18.........236 10.........212 12.........280 11.........279 25.....222, 252 28: 1.........217 28.........108 14.........184 8: 9.........242 3.........105 44: 8.........138 17.........278 10.........243 4,16..219,252 12.........140: 7.........227 12.........105 6.........278 15.........199 8.........110 14.........262 7,15......163 18.........143 1.........268 23.........171 9.........219 45:11.........242 9.........125 9: 1.........234 12.........66 17.........260 16.........210 2.........219 16.........110 20.........227 5: 6.........279 3.........222 21.....215,222 21.........243 9.........125 10.........241 29: 1.........219 22.........242 7:13.........274 11.........241 4.........261 46: 4.........233 14.........210 13.........241 5.........212 6.........211 8: 1.........145 10: 2.........247 7.........222 11.........233 4.........273 6.........239 8,11......212 47:1-15.......28 5......124 bis 12.........217 9.........243 1.........258 7.........231 14......212bis 14.........110 2.........128 10.........146 15.........248 16.........273 9.........248 16.........137 19.........215 10.........174 -22.....253,2?82 21.........212 11.........265 30.........242 30: 1.........278 12.....230, 242 ISAIAH. 11: 1, 2, 4, 6, 9.........257 14.........124 10.......234 11.........201 48: 8.....114, 283 1: 4.....181,283 9.........248 12.....126,247 14.........278 9......235 bis 13: 6.........242 18.........219 18, 19......242 10.........217 9.........247 20.....219, 265 49: 6.....134, 263 13.........237 18.....114, 263 23.....184, 255 21.........114 14.....257, 277 19.........248 26.......247 50: 1.........208 16.........265 22.........262 28.........248 2.........240 18.....212, 282 14: 3.........260 31: 1.........250 4.....2....1 20.........260 9.........266 2.........261 51: 9.........222 21.........172 11.........184 4.........282 12.........241 292........212 17.....250, 256 7.........227 21.........219 25.....210,222 19.........117 32: 1.........263 52: 1.........258 26..........22 25.........247 33: 1.........259 14,15..182,282 29,30..252,280 15: 2.........139 6.........219 15.........229 31.........182 16: 2.........212 9.........266 53: 3.........116 2: 4......60, 264 10.........259 10.........H17 6.........212 7, 8.......241 17: 1.........250 12......... 60 8.........199 9.........241 4.........204 20.........242 10.....150, 258 20.........227 5.....205,208 34: 4.....134, 212 11.....215,259 3: 1.........251) 10.........255 5, 7.......114 55: 5.........122 8......44, 208 18: 2.........268 10.........198 9........282 15.......59.93 5.....262,266 11.........156 56: 9.........172 16.........108 19: 3.........135 35: 2.........219 10........219 17.........174 4.....209, 215 3.........215 57: 4.........181 4: 4.....235,281 9.........165 7.........264 5.........135 6: 2.........255 10.........216 9.........215 6......... 61J 3.........242 18......... 29 36:11,13...... 23 8.........252 5..243,249bis 20. 1..........249 11......... 25 58: 3.........60 6.........253 4.....165,170 15.........220 59: 3.........111 8.........250 21: 1.........247 16.....213, 242 5......77,156 9.....244, 272 2.....208, 260 37: 16.........226 16.........108 11,23..219.250 5.........245 18.........241 60: 2.........212 12.....204, 234 12.........149 22.........217 7, 10......125 13.........234 14.....136, 152 24.....174, 204 11.........114 14,17,25, 17.....205,216 26......... 66 14.........246 26.......234 22: 1.........274 30.........242 61: 7.....253, 278 15,16......241 7.....144,204 38: 5.........110 11.....240, 282 17.........222 7,8.......241 9.........247 62: 2......... 61 19........ 106 13.101,243,246 16.........217 63: 2.........261 20.........214 16.........172 20.........247 3, 5, 6.....108 24.....247, 249 17.........244 40: 1-31......210 3.........116 '30.........228 18.........212 10.........276 65: 14.........139 1.........241 23: 1.........242 20.........114 17.........112 2........ 168 2, 4.....242 22,23......211 18.........242 4...108,267 11.......116 25.......150 23.........138 7.........236 15.........222 30.........138 66: 3.........214 8.....125,20924: 3.........134 41: 1.....227,257 11.........259 9.....243, 244 9.........134 2.........150 20.........276 10.....235, 242 12.........134 7......79, 110 11.........235 13........281 8.........229 - JEREMIAH. Jeremiah 22 1: 5.....140,238 2:19.........125 35.........246 36.........136 3: 5.........131 6.........150 12.........142 25.........240 4: 5.........259 11.........134 19,21......240 5: 6.........59 22.....123, 125 26.........134 6;10.........240 19.........263 29.........134 7: 18.........243 19.........231 8:14.........135 9: 2.........116 3.........252 4.........243 17.........253 10: 3.........266 5.........105 7........252 11.........18 12: 5.........119 9.........91 17.........114 13: 3.........225 17.........138 19.........148 14: 5.........245 7.........265 17.........217 15: 10.........125 17: 2.........77 11.........213 17.........150 18: 2.....130, 171 19: 3.........133 13.........211 22: 10.........244 14.....165, 168 15.........11 20......... 4c 24.........12) 23 4......... 42 14.........271 17.........244 39......67,230 25 3.........116 13.........254 26 6.........156 27: 16.........171 28 4.........215 9.........214 29 8.........116 15.........171 30:16.........134 31:21.........100 33125 33.........125 32: 4.... 111 11.........213 12.........213 33.........114 35.........146 44.......;.245 36: 2.........230 37: 9.........231 38: 26.........248 40: 6.........142 41: 12.........278 42: 6.......56,87

Page  315 INDEX OF TEXTS. 315 44: 17.........43 13: 18.....165, 167 18.........197 20.........174 19........122 14: 1.........266 25.........141 3....111, 112 29.........142 16: 1-63......208 46: 8.........136 4......65, 117 16.........215 5........101 20.........66 27.... 27 48: 2.........134 31.........154 31.........139 33......... 61) 32.........213 50........105 36.........231 05.........141 49: 3.........117 57.........142 8.........102 60......... 42 11........125 17: 7.........112 17.........208 18: 7.........27 24........264 10........ 277 50: 34........144 32.........280, 51: 9........151 20: 18......... 76 34.........151 34, 41, 43...14<2 35.........227 21:15.........150 50.........139 19..,......225 56.........114 22: 20.........131 23: 5........128 15.........207 20.........106 LAMENTATIONS. 48.........12 48,49......174 I: 1-22......208 49.........252 1.........172 24: 3.........137 3.........208 25: 3.........134 4.........165 13.........171 8.........143 26: 18.........165 14........231 27:19......... 60 17.........254 31.........156 20.........119 28: 13.....145, 156 3: 12.........156 15.........225 14.........165 16.........151 36, 38......272 17.........148 48.........253 24, 26......142 58...........144 29: 3.........226 4: 1.........151 9.........226 5.........278 31: 3.........1:34 14.....111,258 4.........112 32: 19.....102, 117 -- 320.........103 30.........142 EZEKIEL.,32.........117 33: 4.........2 I; 6.........168 12.........112 11.........174 30.........18E 14.........246 34: 2, 8, 10...231 3: 15.........135 14.........114 5: 12.,...150,173 17......... 8 6: 10.........270 31......... 8 7: 2........191 35: 5......... 4c 17 16836......16 36:35......... 9( 27.........11 37: 5,6.......12i 8: 17.........255 7.........12; 9: 2.........250 13.........24! 11.........250 38: 22........ 9 10: 3...27......27 39:........21 15.........276 40: 16.........17, 11 13.........253 19.........15 17.........142 43......... 6 12 19.........217 41: 7.........13 13 11, 20...... 88 15.....121, 17, 11, 13...... 92 43: 10.........22 11........130 44: 8........10 44: 30.........24713: 14........182 47: 2.........13514: 3.........217 4........219 4.........229 7.........243 15.........213 17, 18, 19..221 20.........22 JOEL. 48: 1........213 1: 20.........264 2: 4,7, 9....142 18,19......241 DANIEL. 233.........241 4: 14.........210 1:12.........150 18.........253 13........150 ].........184 2: 4 7, 28......18 6, 7,8,10..262 AMOS. 30.........252 3: 4...... 252 1: 11.........247 5: 2...... 27627 13: H.........27S 3.........252.. 7: 18.........209 4 3......... 10 8:13... 85 10.........271 {7 10........2. B n y7 22..05,241 5: 4, 6 242 27.........232 15.........139 9: 2......144 9: 6.......241.........245 8.11624 13.........2-21 1] 24.........2... 25.........258 26.........224 10: 11,13......244 11: 6,8....232 OBADIAH. 15.......210 31.........214 10........21. 12: 11.......214 11.........12 13.......165 12....1.....11 15.... 1...28B HOSEA. JONAH. 1: 2......181, 231 JONAH 6, 8...114,258.1: 5.......23 bi 3: 5..... 22 2: 5........222 4: 11.....272bi 11......258 17.........222 3: 1.........128 4: 2.........245 5: 10........258 MICAH. 6: 1.........240 2.........277 1: 2........22 9..........67 8.........13 7: 4.........156 11, 12......20 1 12..........68 15........15 14.........139 2: 3.........5 8: 2.........130 6.........26 7.........115 13.........24 29: 9.........22 4:3........26 12........282 8.........13 410: 6.........260 11.........2 6 12......242bis 5: 8.........14 2 14.....66,142 6: 3.........2 512: 1.........209 7: 8,10....20 1 10......... 10. 49,2( 113: 2.........215 14.........1 8.........206 1I 6 3 7 8 7 2 3 65 1 4 15 42 )7 15 72 8G 8......... 128 14......... 173 3: 7.... 114, 161 17....:.... 165 HABAKKUK. I: 13......... 130 15......... 128 2: 3......... 244 17.......... 61 3: 9......... 130 11......... 171 j5......... 278 ZIPHANIAH 2: 2......... 272 14......... i72 3: 3......... 166 9......... 222 HAGGAI. 1: 4......... 226 2: 17......... 2% ZECHARIAH. I: 14......... 253 2: 17......... i 43 3: 8........ 213 4: 10...:143, Q08 26 5: 4......... 151 6: 7......... 118 7: 5......... 226 14......... 114 8: 6......... 272 9: 5.......... 77 11: 7......... 219 9......... 249 17......... 172 12: lo......... 230 14: 10......... 215 MALACHI. 2: 14......... 100 I MACCABEES. 10: 19......... 209, It: 31......... 2w NAHUM. 1: 4.....139, 41 2: 4.........114 8.........128 14.........173 3: 7.....114, 161 17........165 HABAKKUK. 1: 13.........130 15........128 2: 3.........244 17..........61 3: 9.........130 11........171 15.........278 ZEPHANIAII 2: 2.........272 14.........172 3: 3.........166 9.........222 HAGGAI. 1: 4.........226 2: 17.........22 ZECHARIAH. 1: 14.........253 2: 17.........143 3: 8.........213 4:10....143, 208 213 5: 4........151 6: 7.........118 7: 5.........226 14........114 8: 6.........272 9: 5.........77 11: 7........219 9.........'249 17.........172 12: 10.........230 14: 10.........215 MALACHI. 2: 14.........100 1 MACCABEES. 10: 19........209, 11: 31.........209 NEW TESTAMENT. MATTHEW. LUKE. JOHN. ACTS. 1 CORINTHIANS 6:33.........17 5: 2.......23:..........23 8: 34.........214 18:13.........258 10: 12.........213 22 2..........23 1: 18........ 17 12: 25.........214 19: 13, 17, 20...3 26: 14.........

Page  316 INDEX. (THE NUMBERS REFER TO THE PAGES.) A-sound, 43. Abbreviations, 33. Absolute case, 262. Abstract for Concrete, 159; expressed by the Feminine, 207; takes the Article, 212. Accents, 52, seq. Accusative, indicated by rM, 220; by the ending t -, 171, 220; governed by the Verb, 253; double, 255; as adverbial case, 195, 221, seq. Adjective, circumlocution for, 205; with the Article, 214; with a Substantive, 215. Adverb, 195; expressed by a Verb, 259. Alphabet, 31. Apharesis, 58. Apocopated Future, 106. Apocope, 58; of Verbs rib, 148, seqq. Apposition, 216, 219. Arabisms, 66, 92, 105, 106. Aramuean Tongue, 17. Aramaisms. See Chaldaisms. Archaisms, 25. Arrangement of Words, 262, seq Article, 91; its Syntax, 211-215. Aspirates, 35, 51, 61. Assimilation, 57: 117, 131. Case absolute, 262. Case-endings, Traces of, 170-173. Cases, 168, 220. Celtic Tongues, 20, Note. Chaldaisms, 27; in the Form of the Infinitive, 101; in the 3d pers. fern. Fut., 105; in Piel, 114; in Verbs hb, 150; in Verbs:f, 134; in Verbs sY, 143; in the Plural, 165; in the Feminine, 156. Chateph-Pattach, 49; shorter than Chateph-Seghol, 77. Chateph-Qamets, 49. Chateph-Seghol, 49. Chireq, different sorts of, 44. Cholem, 45. Cohortative, 106, 239. Collective Nouns, 207-210; their Syntax, 263. Common Nouns, 206. Commutation of Consonants, 57. Comparative Degree, 222. Composition of Words rare, 85, 157. Compound Notions, how put in Plural, 210; with art., 214; with suff., 227. Conditional Clauses, 282. Conjugations or Derivative Verbs, 94 -97; Number and Arrangement of, 95; unusual Forms of, 118-120. Conjunctions, 201, 279-283. Consonants, Pronunciation and Division of, 33; softened into vowels, 37, 58, 65-69. Construct State, 168, seq.; its Use. 216, seq., 219, seq.; with Art., 214. Construction, avriV to), 258, seq.; pregnant, 256. Contraction, 58. Copula (logical), how expressed: 261. Daghesh, 50, seq. Daghesh forte, 50; various Sorts of, 59; where used, 59, seq.; excluded from Gutturals, 62; and from ', 65 ' omission of in Verbs, a:, 132. Daghesh lene, 51, 61. Dative, 220, comp. 218. Declension, 155, Note, 175, 186. Degrees of Comparison, 222. Diphthongs, 37,42;how avoided, 67, seq

Page  317 INDEX. 317 Doubling of Consonants, 59; its Effect, 112. Dual, 167; of Numerals, 192; Syntax of, 215, 265. Ellipsis of the Relative, 230; of other Pronouns, 229; other cases (real or assumed), 220, 221, 230; of the Conjunction, 282. Epiccene Nouns, 206, seq. Epithets, poetic, 205. Feeble Letters, Vav and Yodh, 67, seq. Feminine Gender, Endings of; 155; Vowel Changes of, 184, seq.; in Construct State, 169; in Plural, 165; other Indications of, 205; Use of in abstract and collective Nouns, 207; form of in the Infinitive, 101, 131, 137. Forme mixtre, 154; dagessande, 70; aucti et nude, 157. Future, Name, 103, Note; Formation and Inflexion, 103; shortened and lengthened, 105; with Vav conversive, 107, 139; with Suffixes, 125; Syntax of, 236, seq. Ga'ya, 55. Gender, 155; agreement in, 215, 263-266. Genitive, how expressed, 168, 218; Use of, 216. Gentilic Nouns, 164, 213. Geographical Names, 207, 212; with Genitive, 219. Gerund, 101, 244, 246. Gutturals, 36, 62-65; in Verbs, 126 -130. Hebrew Language, 22; Monuments of, 23; Dialects of, 27; Copiousness of, 27; its Grammatical Exhibition, 28-30. Helping Vowels, 78. Hiphil, 114-117. Hithpael, 117, seq. Homogeneous Vowels, 41, Note, 68, seq. Hophal, 116. I-sound, 44. Imperative, 102; shortened and lengthened, 107; with Suffixes, 126; its Syntax, 242, seq.; other Tenses and Moods stand for it, 235, 238,245. Imperfect, by circumlocution, 250. Impersonal Construction, 252. Indo-Germanic Tongues compared, 19, 20 and Notes. Infinitive, 101, seq.; with Suffixes, 125; use of the Inf. absolute, 243-246; use of Inf. construct, 246, with i, 257; Infinitivus historicus, 245. Instrument, expressed by I and by accusative, 253. Interjections, 202, seq.; 224. Interrogative particles, 273. Jussive, 106, 239. Kal, its Form and Meaning, 98. Kaph veritatis, 278. Kethibh, 56. Lamedh auctoris, 218. Letters, liquids, 36; quiescents, 41, Note; incompatible, 83, Note; dilatable, 32. Mappiq, 52. Maqqeph, 55. Matres lectionis, 41, Note. Methegh, 47, 55, 79. Milel and Milra, 53. Moods, how expressed, 96, 237, 25L Negatives, 270, seq. Neuter Gender, wanting in Hebrew, 155, 206. Niphal, 110, seq. Nomina unitatis, 207. Nouns, their Derivation and Sorts, 157-165; with Suffixes, 173-176; their Declension, 176-188; irregular, 188; Syntax, 204. Number, 165-168; agreement in, between Subject and Predicate, 263 -266. Numerals, 189-193; signs of, 33; Sys tax, 223. Nun, assimilated, 57, 131; epentbcht (demonstrative), 122,

Page  318 318 INDEX. O-sound, 45. Onomatopoetica, 19, 82, seq. Optative, 238, 251. Paradigms of Nouns, 178, 186. Paragogic Letters, 170-173. Participial Nouns, 159. Participle, 109; with Suffixes, 125; its Syntax, 249-251; changed for Verb, 250. Passives, their Construction, 259. Patronymics, 164. Pattach, 39, 43; preferred with Gutturals, 63-65; furtive, 41, 63; in Pause for Tsere or Seghol, 80, 112; in Piel for Tsere, 112, 114. Pause, 78. Perfect, see Preterite. Phoenician and Punic Language, 17, 24, 38, Note; 48, Note:; 58, Note; 92, Note; Writing, 21. Piel, 112, seq. Pleonasms, of the Pronoun, 226, seq.; of the Particles, 224, Note; of the Negatives, 271. Pluperfect, 233; Subjunctive, 235. Plural, its Endings, 165-167; in Prepositions, 200; its Use, 208-211. Pluralis excellentiee or majestaticus, 209; its Construction, 215, 264, seq. Poetical expression, 25. Pointing of the Hebrew Text, 38. Potential, 238. Predicate, usually without the Article, 213; its connexion with the subject, 263-266. Prefixes, 197; with Suffixes, 198. Prepositions, 196-201, 274-279. Present, how expressed, 233, 237, 241, 249; Present Subjunctive, 235. Preterite, 99-100; with Vav conversive, 107; with Suffixes, 123; its Syntax, 233-236. Pronouns, 86; Personal, 86-88; Suffix, 88; Demonstrative, 90; Relative, 92; Interrogative and Indefinite, 93; Suffixes to Verbs, 121-126; to Nouns, 173-175; to Adverbs, 196; to Prepositions, 198-201, Reflexive Pronoun, how expressed, 231, seq.. Syntax of Pronoun, 225-232. Proper names, with Article, 212; with Genitive following, 217. Prosthesis, 58. Pual, 112. Punic tongue, see Phoenician. Qamets, 39, 43. Qamets-Chatuph, 39, 46; distinguished from Qamets, 46. Qeri, 56. Qibbuts, 39, 45. Quadriliterals and Quinqueliterals, 84. Quiescents. See Letters. Radical Letters, 81. Raphe, 52. Relation of the Irregular Verbs to each other, 152. Relative Pronoun, 92, 229; Relative Conjunctions, 280. Repetition of Words, 210. Roots, 81-85. Scriptio plena et defectiva, 42. Seghol, 39,43, 45; with Gutturals, 63, before Gutturals with Qamets, 76. Segholate Nouns, 160, 181. Servile Letters, 81, 157. Shemitish Languages, 17-22; rela tion to each other, 18. Sheva, name, 48, Note; simple ano composite, 48 49; moveable or vocal, 48; simple under Gutturals, 64 the moveable, a Half-vowel, 71. Shureq, 39, 45. Sibilants, 35; transposed, 58. Silluq, 54. Square Character, 32. State, Absolute, how far for Construct, 218, 219; Construct, its Ending, 169; its Vowel-changes, 169; its Use, 216, seq.; when takes the A, tide, 214. Stem-consonants, 82, seq. Stems, different from Roots, 82. Subjunctive, 237.

Page  319 INDEX. 319 Suffixes, see Pronouns; their Syntax, 226; Grave and Light, 178, Note. Superlative Degree, 222. Syllables, theory of, 70-73. Syriasms, in the Pointing, 66. Tenses, their Use, 232, seq.; Relative, 235, seq. Tone, 78-80; Signs of, 53. Transposition, 58, 117, seq. Tsere, 39, 44. Vav Conversive, 107; Origin of, 108; with Preterite, 109; with Future, 108; Copulative, 107; its Form, 202; its Force, 279, seq. Verb, its Form and Inflexion, 93-97; Irregular Verbs, 97, 126-130; Middle E and 0., 98; with Suffixes, 120, 126; Contracted, 130-135; Feeble, 135-151; doubly Anomalous, 151, seq.; Defective, 153; Syntax of, 232; with Propositions, 256; in Combination, to express one Idea, 257 -259. Vocative, with the Article, 213. Vowel-Letters, 37; see Feeble Letters. Vowel-Signs or Points, 39. Vowels, 37-39. SUPPLEMENTARY INDEX. t, as Consonant and Guttural, 36; prefers -, 64; as Feeble Letter, 38, 65; as Dilated Letter, 32; interchanged with,n, 1, and ', 66; omitted, 66. it, 281. "It_, 269, Note. ',i, Interrogative Particle, 273. ~U, ITIM, 271. b, 271. b, 277. =, its difference from!h, 251, 281. 'tK, as Relative Pronoun, 92, 229; as Relative Conjunction,280; } lnt, 218. ns, sign of Accusative, 198, 220, Note; as Preposition with, 198. a, Preposition, 197, 200; its Use, 276. l.K, 230, Note. n, with Mappiq, 52, 66, 146; as Feeble Letter, 66. *t, see under Article.,n, Interrogative, 196, 273. n-", ending of Cohortative and Imperative, 106, 107; of Nouns, 155, 169. xna and Din, 88; how distinguished from Mn, 228. rn, its Anomaly, 149; with the Par ticiple, 250; with b before Infinitive, 247. 1, as Vowel-Letter, 37, 41, 67. 1, see Vav Copulative and Conversive of Preterite. ~, see Vav Conversive of Future. M1, Prophetic Formula, 236.:,, Historic Formula, 241. ', as Vowel-Letter, 37, 41, 67. mrin, with Prefixes, 198. MMbb, 104. 3, with Suffixes, 200; its force 278. ", 280. So s., 282, Note. 3 ' 3, 281. b, with Negative, 270; with Substantive, with and without the Article, 214, seq., its Pointing, 198; with Suffixes, 199; its Meanings, 278; as Sign of the Dative, 220; for the Genitive, 218, seq.; with the Passive, 260. 2t, 270; in Prohibition, 238. b, its Etymology and Use, 281, Note, 251. iau, with Plural Force, 199, Note. 7, Sign of Participles, 112, Formative of Nouns, 164.

Page  320 320 INDEX. *~ for re, 93. *~ for l, which see. tn and "n, 93. i, Poetical Addition to Prefixes, 200. IPn 'a, 231. ]n, Preposition, its Pointing, 197; with Suffixes, 200; its Senses, 277; with Comparative, 222. ', see Nun. >, its Pronunciation, 34; as Guttural, 62, seq. _, Prep. 277. 't, 191, Note t. I, as Guttural, 64; Doubled, 65., Prefix, 92. r, Feminine ending, 155, 169.


Page  38 THE following First Lessons in Translating have oeen selected and arranged with much pains, in order to secure a great variety of forms in short and interesting phrases, and to conduct the student gradually from the simplest forms and constructions to those which are more difficult. - The first examples of the Irregular Verb are ca (f (( (( of the classes I( and 3.. Verbs Jy and Iy occur first in nos. 83 and 93. It may not be thought best that the student should commit to memory all the paradigms to which such forms belong, whilst he ii going over these lessons the first time: but the inflexions of nouns, and of all the classes of verbs, should be made familiar before the study of the First Lessons is laid aside. Some previous practice in translating is essential to the profiao.e study of the Syntax. The author's view of the use of the tenses ( 123 - 126) should be well understood, however, before much progress is made in the First Lessons. The necessary references to the other parts of the Syntax will be understood on a moment's inspection of the passages referred to. In the notes (designed merely to aid the learner in his first grammatical study of the language) the writer has endeavoured to remove every difficulty which might embarrass the attentive and persevering student, without "encumbering him with help." In the First Lessons the usual sign of the accent (>) stands on the penult syllable when it has the tone, except at the end of a sentence, where it is marked by Silluq. l

Page  39 FIRST LESSONS IN TRANSLATING:,-,tn,, ad, 1 '.. IP D Pn. _ 4:,NT,! OW,-nE 83tj mv" C >: 1PW:-bV ",! 8:Mn..Ir WIN,-Dj tX9,>li 10 ' Optt r K? Or, 16"2: Oi?,.,iV ) of '. 17 'De toit aid 19: t'. 3 of*'1 20.:n tnort3j 5~1nTrn 5mr:!;D lH3.1t?Pay1: ^t:?ityi~l a ~5~ blao;'CT ": a ~:::Pi: ~r,~ ri: C, "':: ';"JI `~,.r" ~ -* -~ -.~~) i'~ n i 1:.= ,e:. ~ k''.~ r c * ii j '' ~C;,,

Page  40 40 CHRESTOMATHY.-READING LESSONS.; 21: 'a4 - J,^ nj^ ~5 26 P'r b2-89 ttNr 2: n5 ",o-ty'n arc'n '~ m:*; ^ nuo nee nFi.1 324 j i^ jo: t~-3: 4': b^n^t J -nr nY '1' 26;Sj in-1'f ~KniiT, 27. -,; nJ p-n 29:ri,' ~ n 1sV ~~ 40:*{^-nw W^1' ~.9ib 31:'T.r:,'!,~r t_, 41:." t7, '.,. 4:n0 v;-'rrt n-3 4 -nIt tle 9.K n'ld 48:f;n~; i~np^d nN q9> l'40:;'~n iK 'hR clg,!,83 45

Page  41 FIBST LESSONS IN TRANSLATING. 41 D t~pf nTJa Jr& " 47:,n;.^ r:s; rt rn ~! n 52 '*? Iyn ~ni- ~ ^.~ I~ - 'J 51. rn5, in%^T. mi:~_~ -~ nv, ~-t_~ so:*,;,nD5 l' b, 5,, 47..n Qi t:: bp ^ ^ T *iht.l 55 h;uip f! rK ft t lip! 56:6 Pr! lt -na 1t 61.4D ^t, tlt~M^ ~60:ny " nt;p~- IIP ^ 6~ ^ n~?h1;. 6 s\^.-: *~~~~~~

Page  42 42 CHRESTOMATHY. -READING LESSONS.: hr. -i ^h-Jn 3 f t nj> n]rM 72: tJ'># 'DD bK-'r i 73,:~ v; K,;1 [n74 '(3: t-'K 'K B ~'I~. DNr'K 75;rr,3ra ni3h bv>*l76; ^y T^'^i ^^i n^^? ^^ n N V i.79: nj 1,' V i Mj 82 I' f I:' >: ~v:T n 3',.K nn'.'2 s83:;3in:bla^rY1,nK bt, M 3 84 b175 a3CK nwn MitM- 1? 85: 3p~E'D'-llK Dlpt t;, j ~1.86.*l^1;.' Joel 1'>pK tln:5 87:5Y1.,n3na,n 88 {tr~na nnln } o. itrh ' IHK ~ pow t3 89 nIT4 I1J;'-K8, 8DQ-5P '>~b jNvrK T..W;m 90: iji "iWK itjiir.r-ne nTO2 rtrw 91:;' 't^ no t' 93:i K ijin KiY D)N3.:: >< 'i-U'a l94:'2*K WiCl'33 I',J D'tpnD 95: i;? inir'on 'o-t 96

Page  43 FIRST LESSONS IN TRANSLATINO 43;# blm nn< IK h' i. K. '-. 98: ='-p j.nn->T.' 99:K',7 nn.rT n_ D 100 oo K:Ka n, - l.,..-na1 n"" 103 p: l.O D^N- ni 105:l1 t ' 108 t:D nbnV M nI UK n4l 'XNK 110 *'i~:^ ^: D --? 3?, n 3tn t a!In a.vo~a, O!1:;!I iw,. o,- n m 11 *mr n150t4nr!? ' IIInn- 114:!:ut< Dp^^n-i 0~-Dy' n ~^ ton.l 118;o~p3 5yFK ^I M,,,:=1 ~np-n~n-nN i~ n~jn~rtci ~ ''sa* 11:~'l'J!pr~ Ncn ~r n~l~n 0-5.1

Page  44 44 CHRESTOMATHY.-READING LESSONS. \itsnM B^ to p-9i1 timK-n wtm lw-rg 120:oat~ n'v 1 0,1,?i^'s'n{ nT3 KtS'. D'D' neltj n1y3 121:; 17:3 ny-Dio nn 3- 5 - -.: o-e:n'15 n',~ nr, -.~ ~ 'o! l';': np.i' n," 123 {^;K' I^N ^Nb-^O 5-np- bM~? 125 sn~~.^. o l? -. y 7pA' D' tie iF..1126: 1 K%-I:irll'

Page  45 GEN. CHAP. 12. GENESIS, CHAPTER XII.?i. a. I. 3.O 7 1 D1':mK fih- n,:s ' n I '1? rTJ'X!: r.W r T T^ T 2C^,:n:KNJ e:, rro,!:,. K S1 3A:IT -:r- IT T: 1 A. kT - _ JIT-: I*:)-; T S T C: * I * _* T:I -,2._ IT T - IT 'l~'!~.~-' t:~:lO T A -a bn i..^K n D Tq. i - tT C n2 D h.T Sn i " ~ T:. -.~ '~. T I.. /A~T T S VT ~: T! m ^i l tK *J 3VN1 nMt: tX9K:'7 - C- T ~ "T *-: - I * AI-M -A ": ' Dt, tf K-n r t3;i -n^t mi5P'! -5^)tT. ~. Df~;1 ~T rar Yni? tO n DCT 1! yt?..;r ni^ T T IT i, * s T IT T f T J.T Dja nK n3, 1WK 2t3n;p.K a'i4K..y^ in K.-.,. n!" On:: n~ -n, s,; nI T: a n,69 r 311.nxl rIN n1 Di tn b i JT tIS 1 ' 1 n < n I:; * 1:P a7 M AT17: n+ '1

Page  46 46 CHRESTOMATHY. -READING LESSONS..ATIl i 0o1:pENa K4S1,= 11ti1 ^^ telj 14 - <r: T 7 ~nn 7 77'<;%*O 7in n5 J'~ 7tyti-n a -.T o: - | T. ~ - n*n npKn rnK 1~ nn,~r?. n iw. T,, k.T * |T i'1 -.. -;-. ~,T J -I-: - - -- I- T - 1V ',, 3..t3, D,17$.:Vi'> n7, 7e ' - -* -:1-; - - -'r 4 in^-nK DN 3 K nir-~ji bl. rirn >m~ D1 K. oiK Id K1, 'p an Dlo np'?i?:1 K3 19 ~.-: T * J -: T: - T <T T: * i jl. 1..n, J7. 1. n * * Ani I!n ' K nnK k in J. DkJ J- T i — 1S T: P~ t7 T CHAPTER XIII. U1i'1 l1?'") 1NW W1 flK1 R! Dt'lY O: DI:K W1 19 ^Pi3.37'~t nmom 1-711-p ^K; NNl 20 J-: - (*(** IK T T. K. T I. -; ~.-.: T ~: 1:: -.: 3 qT? V'73 DtK ' n wy~, n=tr b ip,D: yn r ^t I* T DWT TI >T T- D# -: -P;* T I TT ~: ' i- % -: I- ': --: m: ~ T KT v - o. ) 4 */?. S.?, r T i: ICT i i: TT nT: - " o'73~ P1?'! ll Dtj'i3" n~!T*3 0-mnm na t Y1K:IT: T T <T T - AT: - 1' T T P'I % K-njpo ~y7 ~ a -'". -- 7 I " I --: -I:: -': ( T - 'fr'

Page  47 GEN. CHAP. 13. 47;rp1 a * tK ' m'T1s1 zy9jT 8m -,n, ~yt: ~ T )".T * *: -: ' -: —: -: " * *.~ I~9 rnnP tr n ^r-^ ai-K OIK -or 8o: ITJK D'I T: '. ' T T-': 7 J Y T -"' A 'Y i t7 KbrptDK m. D K' 1.-..3 -n. p r.l Wi nT T? '~. t~ '.7-K't_:,Ut7'Kt:Kl I',~'?t'~ k,'K Jo J "T:- T -: -I - T ' *:,,~1,nI^:N n;I t? n:i'_,_ r-~:,-! '_ 'it':rrT ltlK N 7 tY": Tn- -II ~:D i )1. tn. -- T J * t r k 1 *13 A6 n to 5 toi II. Y nn m,n, o tsni D #: DmD ^Ki: D'ID- i r n, 1 3.fTK - 7 - 3T: T: "..- T T t'7-n nnK D;.?;N - 'nt,n,,:NSN-,K -.:1-: -T -T T I — J? J r~ 7 * 2 3:7: r 3 18;-!Ti-n-, ~:,K, ~ ',.;.r.*,XSjT! Dt, ri "'.J' ~N $ 'T TITT:T "r T T rT T t T DffY'lftr:It 1:l; *: ~: "' IT -- ~ ' -j:* ^n~nn i,~ {n^t tr D.,. ).i-n i1? 17, tz.r.. ^~nam6 -.n6N' ]i %': | — T )' T:: 1': T T 't~?-l~~~~~~... ST- T; IT

Page  48

Page  49 NOTES ON THE FIRST LESSONS IN TRANSLATING. 1. Word of Jehovah. oi Parad. IV. 2. Is. 1: 10. Hear ye the word of Jehovah. Art. omitted, as in the form Jehovah's word, ~ 108, 2. PjVP ', Parad. F. 3. Judg. 6: 10. I [am] Jehovah your God. ~ 141. Parad. I. ~ 22, 2, b. ~ 8, 4. Plur. maj. ~ 106, 2, b. Suf. ~ 89, table. 4. ibid. Ye have not hearkened to my voice. Position of the negative, ~ 142, 1. 'ip, Parad. I. to, ~ 100. 5. Deut. 21: 7. Our hands have not shed this blood. s, Parad. II. - (3)* 10-2V. (4) ~ 115, 2, and Note. ~ 27, 1. (5) art. ~ 35; Di, Parad. II. - (6) ~ 37, 1, and Rem. 1. 6. Gen. 3: 10. Thy voice I heard in the garden. (2) ~fp, ~ 8, 4. = g (Sect. IX. 6), p), Parad. VIII. - ~ 29, 4, a. Arrange. ment of words, ~ 142, 1, c. 7. 1 Chron. 11: 1. Behold, thy bone and thy flesh [are] we. (1) ~ 103. (2) qr., ( Pr), Parad. VI. a. (3) 'IV, Parad. IV. 4, Sect. IX. 3. (4) ~ 32, table. 8. 2 Sam. 4: 7. He lay upon his bed. (2) Kal. Part. ~ 131, 1, & 2, c. (3) ~ 99, a. ~ 101. (4) rp, ~ 93, Parad. A. 9. Lev. 19: 2. Speak to the whole congregation of the sons of Israel. '13'1, Piel, Imp. -K, ~ 101. ~3, a noun in the constr. st. (whole of) from VD. (Parad. VIII.), see lex. n&. 1, and observe the limitation of the following noun by a succeeding genitive. (4) nril, ~ 92, Parad. B, b. (5);, ~ 94, inflected in plur. like Parad. II. 10. Gen. 24: 58. Wilt thou go with this man? (1):I, ~ 150, 2, 2d ~f, ~ 98, 4. 'PO (see lex. 3 defective verb ~ 77), kal fut. 2f. sing. of ~j2, Parad. K. (2) ~ 99, a. (3) VPt, ~ 94, #7 art. (4) no. 5, art. ~ 109, 2. Ii. Ps. 104: 1. Bless, 0 my soul, Jehovahi tZ1, Parad. E, Piel. (2) dp (t7), Parad. VI. a. *t The words in each sentence are thus indicated, by numbering them from the right. 7

Page  50 50 CHRESTOMATHY.-NOTES ON THE READING LESSONS. 12. Gen. 41: 57. Sore was the famine in the whole earth. Arrangement of words,~ 142, 1, a. (2) -n~, Parad. IV., art. ~ 35. (3)L, no, 9. (4) yi~ (Sect. IX. 8), ~ 29, 4, a, and c, Rem. - Article, ~ 109, 1, Rem. 13. Prov. 4: 2. For good instruction I give to you. ntj 1i1) Parad. VI. Sect. VIII. 3. (3) ~ 110, 1. (4);ril, Parad. H. 65., Rem. 3. ~ 124, 3. (5) ~ 101, '2, table, a. Arrangement, no. 6. 14. Gen. 42: 38. My son shall not go down with you. Arrangement, no. 12. (2) *Vf,, Parad. K. (3) no. 9. (4) ~ 101, Rem. 2. 15. Jer. 7: 2. Stand in the gate of the house of Jehovah. (2) 'jr(),Parad. VI. d. Sect. VIII. 3. constr. st. Omission of art. ~108, 2. (3) nl',' ~ 94. Sect. VIII. 3, a. Parad. VI. h. 16. Gen. 44: 16. God hath found out the guilt of thy servants. (1) no. 3. Art. ~ 107, 2. (2) Parad. 0; with plur. nominative ~143, 2. (4) 1lVr, Parad. III. ~ 8, 4. Art. omitted (no. 15). (5) '~(?:,Parad. VI. a. 17. Gen. 32: 27. Let me go, for the morn ariseth. n~&, Parad. F, Piel Imp. tl0 with sufi.(~5,tbe-an 3, b); for the falling away of the final vowel,~ 27, 3, b. Accent()= to a comma or semicolon, (~ 15, 3), class II, 5. - D, ~ 21, 1, comp. Sect. III. (3) Parads. D and P. (4) 'irlj (~tVi~), Parad. VI, d. 18. Ex. 17: 4. What shall I do to this people? (1) ~ 37, 3. (2), Parads. D and F, Kal fut. 1 Sing. (3) Sect. IX. 6. r, Parad. VIII. a. (4) no. 5. 19. Gen. 3: 16. In sorrow shalt thou bring forth children. n~i (0!) Parad. VI. a. (2) Y~ Parad K. (3) no. 9. 20. Gen. 40': 1 1. And Pharaoh's cup [was] in my hand. (1) MDi, Parad. I. (3) Sect. IX. 2. 21. Prov. 3: 1. My son, my law forget thou not. (1) no. 9. Accent ()~15, class II. 7, comp. no. 17. () ~93, Parad. A. (4) n~- 125,3, c. 22. Gen. 3: 17. Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife. (2) nos. 2 and 4. (3) omission of the art. no. 15. (4) n, ~ 94. ~ 93, expl. 3, Rem. - 9, 4, b. 23. 2 K. 20: 14. What said these men? (2) Parad. I. (3) no. 10 (3); n art. (4) ~ 34, 1, and Rem. ~ 109, 2. 24t Gen. 28: 1. Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan. (2) np~, ~ 65, Rem. 2. Form of prohibition, comp. no. 21, and ref. (4) ri, ~ 94; infiexion of plur. ~ 93, Parad. B, a. Ip~, Sect. IX. 4, Lex. 1. 25. Ps. 103: 14. He knoweth our framte. (2) Parads. K and F (3) ~ ~,Parad. VI., b, with suff. Sect. V. I., 3. 26. Ex. 9: 35. (2) no. 17.

Page  51 NOTES ON THE FIRST LESSONS IN TRANSLATING. 5 51 27. Prov. 4: 2. My law forsake ye not. (1) no. 21. (3) zi Parad. D, ~ 29, 4, b. - comp. no. 21. 28. Ex. 10: 1. For I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants. (2) ~ 134, Rem. 2. (3) 'ip Hiph. see lex. Kal 5, Hiph. 3. (5) ~ Parad. VIII. (8) no. 16. 29. Gen. 9: 13. My bow I set in the cloud. (2) fNp., Parad. VI, a. (3) no. 13. (4) pet', Parad. IV. Prep. and art. ~ 32,B, and Rem. 2. Use of the art. ~ 107, 3, Rem. 1, b. 30. Prov. 6: 20. Keep, my son, the commandment of thy father. (3) y,~ 93, Parad. A. (4) n1$, ~ 94. 31. Gen. 9: 3. I have given to you all (2) no. 13. (4) no. 9. 32. Job 35: 2. This dost thou regard as rHight? (1) no. 10 (1), and ~ 34, 1. (2) ~ 124, 3. (3) Parad. II. prep. for right =as right, see lex. ndi Kal 2. 33. Lev. 22: 2. (1) no. 9. (5) ibid. 34. 2 K. 19: 22. Whom hast thou reproached and blasphemed? (2) comnp. 18 (1). (3) Parad. E, Piel. (4) Piel. 35. Ex. 17: 2, Why should ye tempt Jehovah? (1) lex. B. and C. Gram. pg. 290, note. ~ 37, 1, Rem. a; comp. Sect. IV. at the end. (2) no], Parad. F, Pielfut. 1 47, Rem. 4.-~ 125, 3, d. 36. Judgr. 20: 25. All these drew [lit. (were) drawers of] the sword. (1) no. 9. (2) ~ 34, 1; omission of art. ~ 108, 2. (3) 9~0 Kal Part. Parad. VII.; construction, ~ 132, 2; omission of the copula, ~ 141. (4) ni~n (ro). 37. Gen. 32: 30. Tell, I pray thee, thy name. (1) '11, Parad. H. Hiph. Imp. m. sing., lengthened form (~ 48, 5. ~ 52, Rem. 3). (2) ~ 127, 1. Dagh. f. conj. ~ 20, 2, a. (3) D3V, Parad. VII. suf. '~ (see table) in pause; elsewhere 38. Num. 10: 30. To my land and to my kindred will I go. (1.) prop. subst. in the constr. st.; sMe ~ 101. (2) Sect. IX. 8. (4) rn~in, ~ 93, Parad. D, a. (5) no. 10 (1). 39. Jer. 6: 20. Your sacrifices are not pleasant to me. flui Parad. VI. e. ~ 91, Expl. 6, Rem. 1, 2d ~[. (4) ~ 101, 2, a. 40. 1 Chron. 10: 4. Draw thy sword and thrust me through therewith. (1) no. 36. (2) ibid. (3) lp. Imp. h witsf. ~57, 3, b. ~ 60, 2. comp. ~ 91, expl. 6, Rem. 4. (4) 101,'2, a., Rem. ~ 151, 3, 2,2d~If. 41. Ex. 10: 3. Let my people go, that they may serve me.(1 no. 17. (2) no. 18. (3) 'IV Kal, fut. plur. 3 m. ri~tr.; with suf. ~ 57, 3, a. ~ 8, 4, and ~9, 9, l, b. Use of i with~ the I'ut. ~125, 3, a. comp. ~ 126, 1, c, and ~ 152, 1 st ff, and let. e. 42. 1 Chron. 12: 18. Peace to thee, and peace to thy helpers; for thy God helpeth thee. (1) Parad. III. (4) ba, Kal Part.

Page  52 52 CHRESTOMATHY. - NOTES ON THE READING LESSONS. (Parad. VII.) plur. with suff.,~89, 2, Rem. 1. Accent and fol mute, comp. no. 17. (6) 'IM Kal Prest. 3 m. sing. with suff (~57', 3, b) '1, which unites with itself the final stem-letter. Vowel changes, ~ 27, 2, a, and 3, a. -~124, 3. 43. Ex. 10: 24. Go, serve.Jehovah. (1) no. 10 (1). 44. 1 K. 5: 22. I have heard that which [the message which] thou hast sent unto me. (2 and 3) ~ 121, 2. (5) ~ 101. 45. Judg. 17: 2. Behold, the silver is with mie; I took it. (1) no. 7. (2) JP P.( Parad. VI. a. (3) nN, prop. a substantive, accus. of place, (~33, c. ~ 116, 1, b); with suff. ~ 101, Rem. 1. Accent comp. no. 17. (4) emphatic, - I took it; comp. no. 28 (2). (5) Sect. IX. 15. 46. Prov. 4: 1. Hear, ye children, a father's instruction. (3) Parad. IL. 47. Jer. 16: 2. Thou shalt not take for thyself a wife, and thou shalt not have [lit, there shall not be to thee] sons and daughters, in this place. (2 and 4) no. 24. (3) ~ 122, 1, b. (6) 1j Parad. P, Kal fut. plur. 3 m. (9) no. 24 (4). (10) prep. and art. Sect. IX, 6. -Parad. III. 48. Ps. 104: 24. The earth is full of thy creatures. Arrange.. ment, no. 12. (1) btn, Parad. 0, ~ 73, Rem. 1. (2) ~ 91, expi. 6, Rem. 1. (3) p~ Parad. IL 49. Job 35: 3. What will it pro~fit thee? (1) ~ 37, 1, a. (2);201 fut. f:30; ~ 27, 1. 50. Job 35: 6. What wouldst thou do unto him? (2) V'xIW Parads. P and D. Kalfut. ~ 125, 5. (3) Dagh. f. conj. ~ 20, 2, a. 51. Prov 7: 1. My son, preserve my words, and my precepts shalt thou treasure up with thee. (3) 'ist Parad. VI. b.~ 29, 4, a. (4) no. 30. ~ 8, 4. (5),~ 125, 3, c. (6) no. 45. 52. Ex. 9: 5. To-morrow will Jehovah do this thing, in the land. (1) comp. ~ 98, 2, b. (4) no. 1. (5) no. 5. accent Tiphhha. (6) No. 12. Sect. IX. 6. 53. 1 K. 5: 20. And the wages of thy servants will I gi-be to thee, according to all which thou shalt say. (1) n~v Parad. IV (3) no. 13. (4) accent Zaqeph-qaton. (7) final Tseri, ~ 67, 1. 54. Lev. 20: 2. The people. of' the land shall stone him with stones. (1) omission of art. ~ 10S, 2. (3) 011, comp no. 41 ~143, 1. (4) pti. (.I) Parad. VI., lit, with the stone (2, no. 40), 107, Rem. 1, b. 55. 1 Sam. 12: 10. But now, deliver us from the hand of outenemies., and we will serve thee. (1) ~ 152, b. ~ 147, 2, 2d 'ff.

Page  53 NOTES ON THE FIRST LESSONS IN TRANSLATING. 63 (2) Pl, Parad. IH, Hiph. Imp.; suff. l.w attached to the full form, ~ 52, Rem. 1, and 3. (4) 3:y, Kal Part. Parad. VII. (5) no. 41. suf. 57,4. 56. Lev. 20: 14. With fire shall they burn him and then (eas). (1) Parad. VIII.; prep. and art. no. 54. (2) indeterminate third person, ~ 134, 3. (3 and 4) ~ 101, Rem. 1. 57. Num. 6: 24. Jehovah bless thee, and preserve thee. (1) Parad. E; ~ 59, Rem. 4. (3) ~ 59. Suff. 1:; the Sheva becoming Seghol in pause ~ 29, 4, b, the final vowel of the verb falls away as before other suffixes beginning with a vowel. 58. Ex. 10: 25. Thou shalt put into our hand sacrifices. (1) no. 53. (3) no. 39. 59. Gen. 22: 12. Stretch not forth thy hand against the lad. (2) no. 17. (1 and 2) no. 21. (4) no. 38; lex. A, 3. 60. Judg. 6: 8. I brought you up from Egypt. (1) no. 28. (2) no. 17, Hiph. (3) no. 56 (4). 61. Ps. 105: 11. 62. Judg. 6: 13. Our fathers have told us. (1) '^, Piel. (3) no. 30, ~ 86, 4. 63. Jer. 43: 9. Take in thy hand great stones. (1) no. 24. (4) biPn, Parad. III. fern. ~ 92, 1; declension, ~ 92, Parad. A. ~ 8,4. 64. Judg. 17: 6. In those days there was no king in Israel. (1) Dil, ~ 94. (2) ~ 32, Rem. 8. (3) prop. subst. p;s const. st. i't (Parad. VI. h) nothing of a king = no king. ~ 149, 6th ~[. 65. Ex. 9: 33. And rain was not poured upon the earth. (1),'Ir, Parad. IV. (3) Niph. Parad. H. (4) He local, ~ 88, 2, a. 66. Lev. 21: 23. Unto the altar he shall not approach, because a blemish [is] in him. (2) ni!o, Parad. VII. (4) Parad. H; accent Tiphhha. 67. Gen. 42: 33. By this shall I know that ye are true. (1) ~ 34, 1. comp. ~ 105, 3. (2) no. 25. (4) p, Parad. I. 68. Ex. 10: 21. Stretch forth thy hand towards heaven. (1) 'It (~ 75, 2, b), Parads. P and H, ~ 65, Rem. 1. D:r0t, ~ 86 b Rem. 69. Ex. 17: 2. Give us water, that we may drink. (1) no. 13. (3) ~ 86 b, Rem. (4) rni; use of I with Fut. no. 41. 70. Judg. 6: 16. (1);1, Parad. P. (2) no. 14. 71. Ps. 104: 24. (1) no. 9; lit. their whole. (2) "ln? (. =- 92. Parad. A. (3) no. 50. 72. Gen. 1: 29. (5) ~ 109, 1, Rem. (6) Parad. VI. ~ 90, expl. 6, Rem. 2.

Page  54 54 CHRESTOMATHY. - NOTES ON THE READING LESSONS. 73. Judg. 9: 10. Go thou, - reign over us. (1) no. 10. (3) I'-?, Imp. ~ 46, Rem. 2. (4) ~ 101. prop. a plur. noun (accus. of place, ~ 116, 1, b, in the space above, ~ 106, 2, a), with a nominal suf. 74. 2 K. 20: 15. (2) r~. (3) no. 15. 75. Num. 1: 4. And there shall be with you a man of each tribe. (1) no. 45. (2) no. 70; plur., as required by the sense. (3 and 4) distributively, ~ 106, 4. (5) rito (with prep. and art.), Parad. IX. L ~ 113, 2;- t h e tribe (i. e. which he represents). 76. Gen. 8: 20. And he ofered burnt oferings upon the altar. (1) rnij, Hiph. fut. apoc. ~ 48. ~ 74, 5, and Rem. 3, d. Vav conversive, ~ 48 b. ~ 126 b. 77. Gen. 42: 33. The dearth of your households (their necessities = what is necessary for them) take and go. (2) jinn~, Parad. III.; the penult vowel falling away in the constr. st. a helping vowel is required under the first radical, ~ 28, 1 and 2. (3) no. 15. Methegh, ~ 9, 1, Rem. (4) no. 24. (5) i, ~ 102, Rem. d. - No. 10; ~ 29, 4, b. 78. Judg. 21: 18. But wv e cannot give them wives of our daughters. (3) L ~ 77, Rem. 1. (4) 1 for 'I * pointed thus before miany monosyllabic words, and dissyllables with a penult accent. 1 no. 13; Inf. constr. ~ 65, Remn. 3. ~ 27, 1. (5) ~ 100, 2, c. (6) no. 22. (7) no. 24. 1p, orig. signif. part of, ~ 99, a. ~ 151, 1, a, J, and 3, c. Lex. 1. 79. Gen. 8: 16. Go forth from the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons and thy sons' wives, with thee. (1) NY 75, 2, d. Parads. 1 and 0. (3) Znrl, ~ 93, Parad. A. (7) no. 78 (6). (9) no. 45 Division of the verse by the accents nearly as in the translation. 80. Ex. 17 1. And there was no wbater for the people to drink. (1) no. 64 (3). (2) no. 69. (3) ibid. (4); Inftn. -constr. with '~ lit. fior the drinking of the people, ~ 129. Do$31, sulject, ~ 130, 2. 81. Prov. 11: 28. He that trusteth in his riches, he shall fall. (1) nn, Kal Part. ~ 131, 1. ~ 142, 2, Rem. whoso trusteth. (2), Parad. VI. c. (3)110. 28 (2). (4) Lnl, Parad. H. 8(2. Ex. 18: 3. I am. a sojourner in a strange lned. (1) Parad. 1. (2) no. 70. ~ 124, 3. (4) femn. of ",D] ('Pe and., ~ 85, 5); for the doubling of ', camp. ~ 91, expl. 8, Rem. 3. 83. Judg. 17: 3. And now I will return it to thee. (2) nnj/, Parad. JIl, Hip/. fut. Suf. ~ 57, 4, table. 84. Gen. 3: 19. (2) Parad. IV. 85. Gen. 2: 18. (3) no. 70. Infin. constr-. ~ 129, 1, a; followed by the subject, ~ 130, 2. (4) art. ~ 107, 2. (5)?, prep. in; ~ noun, Parad. VIII.; i, suff.; ~ 98, 2, a. * ~ 100, 2, c.

Page  55 NOTES ON THE FIRST LESSONS IN TRANSLATING. 5 6 5 86. Gen. 9: 9. And I, - behold I establish my covenant with you. (1) comp. ~ 142, 2. (2) ~ 103, 2. ~ 33 2. For forms with suffixes see lex.; for the falling away of 'n final, comp. ~ 74, Rem. 19. (3) no. 83. ~ 131, 2, a, and Rem. 1. (5) Parad. I. fern. gender, ~ 91, a. 87. Ex. 8: 5. How long shall I pray for thee, and for thy servants, and for thy people? (1) 11iy; comp. ~ 98, 2, a. * (2) 'i, Hip h. (4) no. 16. 88. Ex. 2: 13 IWherefore wouldst thou smite thy fellow? (1) lex. D, 3. ~ 147, 5. (2) 71M, ~ 75, 2, b. Hiph. fut. ~ 125, 3, d. (3) n, Parad. I. 89. 1 K. 5: 15. (5: 1) For he had heard that him they had anointed king in the place of his father. (2) pluperf. ~ 124, 2. (4) no. 56. (5) no. 56 (2). (6) Alx A, 3. (7) subst. in the constr. st. prop. space beneath; he ( lx. 2) place, stead; here acc'us. loci, ~ 116, 1, b: comp. ~ 99, a. 90. 1 K. 5: 19. Thy son, whom I will put in thy place upon thy throne, he shall build the house to my name. (1 and l) ~ 142, 2. (4) no. 89; plur. ~ 101, at the end,~ 106, 2, a. (5) orig. a subst. (space over or abov~e) constr. st. of ~,and accus. of place; comp. ~101, at the end of the ~.(6) h4P.P, Parad. VII. see expi. 7, Rem. b; omission of JDagh. f ~ 20, 3,b. With the accent the suff. IT: becomes ~ ~29, 4, b,); -without the accent the form is on account of the guttural. (8) 1r13. (10) Sect. IX. I. 9 1. Jer. 44: 25. We w ill perform our vows which, we have vowed. (1 and 2) ~ 1'28, 3, a. (4) 'il Parad. VI. 92. Judg. 20: 28. Go up; for to-morrow I will deliver him into thy hand. (5) sz~ffi. sing. (thy) collectively, with reference to the people as a whole; comp. no. 94 (3 and 5): ~ 144, Rem. 1, 2d ~f, is not applicable here. 93. Job 40: 4. Behold, I am vile! what shall I answer thee,? (2) Y~p~. Parad. G; for accent, see ~ 15, table (14), and Rem. 2. (4) no. 83; suif. ~ 57, 4, table; with two accusatives (~ 136, 1), see lex. Hiph. 2, b. 94. Lev. 19: 33. And if there shall sojourn with thee a stranger in your land, ye shall not oppress him. (1) prop. aid when; see Gram. p. 280, 6th~I, b, and Lex. B, 3. (2) 'i;.2, Parad. M. (4) no, 82. (7) -, ~ 75, 2, e. Hiph., fut. F -orm qf prohibition, comp. nos. 24 and 21. (3 and 5) suff. comp. no. 92. 95. Lev. 19: 2. Be ye holy; for koly ant I. (1) Parad. IIL (2) no. 70. Arrangement, ~ 142, 1, b. 96. 2 K. 19: 22. Agtainst whom hast thou raised the voice? (3) M% Parad. M3, Iliph. (4) strictly, indefinite: Dagh. f. cotqj. ~20, 2, a. *And i. 147, 5.

Page  56 5 6 CHRESTOMATHY.-NOTES ON THE READING LESSONS. 97. 2 Chron. 11: 4. (3) accent Pazer. (7) lo~ Niph. (9) nx ~ 94. 98. Is. 37: 10. Let not thy God, in whom thou trustest., deceive thee. (2) m~ (~ 75, 2, a), Parads. H and 0., Hiph. fut. Kw2, with su~f. 1: which becomes ~. (~ 22, 3) on account of the guttural; see ~ 59, Rem. 4, and ~ 73, 2, 3d ~1. - ~ 8, 4. (4 and 7) in whom, lit, who - in hi.m; ~ 121, 1, and Rem. 2. (6) no. 81. 99. Ex. 17: 2. Comp. no. 305. (2) nln, Parad. N, Kal fut. (uljj) with Nun paragog. (~ 47, Rem. 4); for the shifting of the tone, comp. ~ 71, 6. (3) ~ 101, Rem. 2. 100. Esth. 1:11. For fair of aspect was she. (2) niv fern. nn~i, ~ 92, 1; inflexion ~ 93, Parad. A; connexion with the following subst. ~ 110, 2. (3) Parad. IX. 101. Ps. 104: 24. (1) I B 2. (2) Prd.()Pr ad. X. l4, ~ Prd.()Pr 102. Num. 10: 29. (1) no. 10; Kal Imp. with fl, paragog. ~68, Rem. 01. (2) suff. ~ 89, Rem. 2, 2d 'f. (3) -ni ~ 77, where (in order to conform to the lex.) ',l)' should be added as Hiph. of nio Use of Pret. (and we do thee good), comp. ~ 124, 6. 103. Is. 62: 11. (2) no. 24 (4). - ~ 105, 3, d; see ]ex. 5. (5).V., Parad. E Abstract for concrete, ~ 104, 2, 2nd 'ff (6) (corneth) btl.n, ~ 75, 2, f,104. Gen. 3: 19. (1) n. 93, Parad. A. (2) qk, Parad. VIII. (3) Parad. I. (4) (ga#,) Parad. VI.; see Rem. 1, 3d~1 (5) ~99, a. (6) (thy returnzng) Inf. constr. with sef. governed by the prep. -v; ~ 129, 1. ~ 130, 1.-~- (7) ~ 151,y 3, d. (8) ~ 93, Parad. B, c. - ~:in (with penult accent) ~ 29, 3, b. 105. Jer. 6: 22. (4) constr. st. (5) Parad. III. 106. Ps. 105: 42. (5) Parad. VI. c. (4 and 5) ~ 104, 1, with suqf. ~ 1 19, 6; lit, his word-of-holiness. 107. Prov. 6: 6. (3) fern. - plur. n'7-, ~ 86, 4. (6) Parad. VI. a. (7) nn, Kal Imip. ~ 46, 2, Rem. 1. 108. Jer. 14: 21. (2) 'vn. Parad. G, Iliph. fut. (3) no. 86 (4) n o. 102. 109. 2 Chron. 11: 4. (1) no. 104. (2)~ 122, Rem. 1. (5) lit from with me, see ~ 151, 2, and a. (6) nl, see lex. Niph. 1. 110. 2 Chron. 10: 10. (2) no. 28. here, literally, made heavy. (4) 73Y, Parad. VIII. (5) but; t h o u, no. 28 (2). (6) no. 93; Hiph. Imp.; 127, 1. (7) ~ 151, 2, a, with sujf. of plur. noun, ~101; - lit, lighten from upon us. 1 11. Jer. 6: 26. (2) ~ 98, 3. (3) no. 103. (4) sr'itO, Kal Part. 112. 1 Sam. 25: 35. And to her he said, -go up, in peace, to #7&;f house. (4) 42;L?~ 151, 3, e, 2d ~f. But comp. Lex. B, 3.

Page  57 NOTES ON THE FIRST LESSONS IN TRANSLATING. 6 57 113. 2 Chron. 10: 11. (1) see lex. (3) o?2g, Hip/i. (4) no. 110 (7). (5) no. 110 (4). (8) ~ 77, Rem. 1. - 8, 4. (9) ~ 151, 3, b. 114. Ex. 17: 5. () Parad. IX. (2 and 4) no. 98. 4, no. 40. (3) no. 88. (6) -1k omsion of Dagh. f. in ~ 20, 3, b, - use of the art. ~ 107, 3. (7) no. 63. 115. 2 K. 19: 22. (1 -4) no. 96. (5) bt3 ~ 75, 2, a; Vav, conversive, no. 76. (6) Parad. Ill. accus. ~ 116, 1. (7) Jim Parad VI. h; Dual with sujf. 116. Judg. 13: 11. (1) Dwp, Parad. Al. (2) no. 10. (1 and 2) converse fut. ~71, Rem. 4. ~ 126 b, 2. (4) prop. plur. noun, space behind (comp. ~106, 2, a); construct state and accusative of place, in the rear of -, hence as a prep. after; comp. ~ 101. (5) no. 22. 117. Judg. 20: 32. (3) accent Zaqeph-qaton. (4) ou, Kalfut.; with He paragog. ~ 48. ~ 126, 1. (5) pL3 Kal Preil. p., ~ 20., 2, b. Stiff. him, collectively, as often in English. - ~ 124, 6; let us5 flee, - and we draw them away, 4-c. (7) nli'. (9) ~ 93, Parad. A. 7P (without Dagh.) ~ 20, 3, b. 118. Ex. 10: 22. (1) no. 68 (1). ~ 75,2, b; converse fut. no. 116. 1 19. Neh. 1: 8. (2) 2'A? ~ 29, 4, b; should ye deal faithlessly =if Ye - comp. ~ 125, 5. (4) flu, Hip h. 120. Ex. 10: 23. (3 and 9) ~ 122, Rem. 4. (5) no. 97. (8) no. 109. (9) no. 90 (4). (10) ~ 95, 1. ~ 118, 1, a; accusative designating length of time, 116, 2, b. (ii) no. 64. 121. Gen. 40: 13. (1) in, and 1Wi, Infln. absol.' of the verb 'iij, in the continuing = whilst yet; comp. lex. nip, 6. (2) time how long as in preced. no. (4) no. 115. (7) ~ 94. (8):n; Synt. no. 117 (5). (10) p., Parad. VIII. 122. Jer. 7: 23. (3) then am I. (5)?(~28, 2. ~ 23, 2,-), comp. L?~ lex ~?A, 3. 123. 1 Sam. 16: 2. (1) ~ 93, Parad. A. (2) Parad. IV. ~ 106, 1. (5) tone, ~ 44, Rem. 5, b. (6) rin?, I~f. constr. ~ 139, 2. (7) ~100, line —. (8) no. 103. 124. Ex. 4: 2. (1) ~ 37, 1, a. (4) no. 114. 12,5. Gen. 6: 21. (2 and 3) 7, ~ 151, 3, e. (4) all kinds of, ',109,.1, Rem. (5) Parad. II. (7) Parad. I; ~ 125, 3, d. 126. Gen. 35: 9. (1) nx-, Niph. fut. apoc. with Vav conver. sive; ~ 74, Rem. 7. (2) omission of art. ~ 107, 2. (5) no. 121. prop. Inf. absol. in the accusative expressing a qualifyingr circumstance (~ 128, 2) with repeating = again; ~ 98, 2, d. (6) at (or in) his going = when he went; 93 (~ 8, 4) no. 103, Inf. constr.:,comp. Sect. IX, 19. (7) pp, Parad. IL. (9) ~.without Daghesh, ~20, 3, b. 8

Page  58 58 CHRESTOMATHY. - NOTES 'ON THE READING LESSONS. GENESIS, CHAPTER XII. V. 1. (5 and 6) no. 10; ~ 15t, 3, e. (8) no. 38; verbal form denoting often the place of the action,~ 83, 14. ~ 84, III. (udt.) 'i141, Hip/i. with suf. ~ 74, Rem. 19. ~57, 4, table; with two accusatives,~ 136, 1. V. 2. (1) g., helping vowel ~ 28, 3. Methegh ~ 16, 2, Sect. II. Rem. 3. (2) ~ see lex. A, 3. (4) no. 57. (1 and 4) ' without Dagh. I. ~ 21, 2, c, and ~ 57, 3, b.. Divide thus: vlie'eVs6k& vxabha-re'khc1-kha; so vs. 3, iiWmeql1l1lckha'. (5) jparagog. fut.; with Vav conversive, ~ 48 b. (7) ~ 10.2, 2,C.In this and similar cases, Methgh may have indicated such a delay of the voice upon the short vowel, as is required in an open syllable: compare its use in the combinations -: i- &c. ~ 26, 3 Rem. d. Sect. [ I. Rem. 2. - Equivalent to thou shalt be, ~ 127, L. (ult.) Parad. B, c. V. 3. (2) Piel Part. plur. (3) no. 93; Piel Part. sing.; with suff ~ 91, expl. 7, b. The change from the plur. to the sing. is merely a poetic variation in the form of expression. (4) 'Ti. (7) followed by a definite substantive. (8) nnp. O, Parad. B,~ 93., expl. I, 3d [.(ult.) no. 104. V. 4. (3) according to what = as. (4) ~ 51, Rem. 1. (5)~ 101. (8) no. 45. (11) ~ 104, 2, c. (12 - 15) ~ 118. (16) no. 79; at his going forth = when hie went forth: mt~, my; comp. ~ 23, 2 V. 5. (12) Parad I. with suff. D., (14) ~ 29, 4, b. (16) Parad. VI. (ti'DI). (21) no. 10. ~ pointing, no. 78 (4); use with the infin. lex. C, 1. (22) comp. no. 65. Last word but one, 'iMt$ (Hahn's ed.) by mistake for nrv (23 and ult.) ~,20 2, a. V. 6. - Observe the modifications of the general idea of motion in the verbs myx, Y W: l (5) no. 47. genitive (in place of apposition), ~ 112,, 3. (10) art. ~ 107, 1. V. 7. (1) no. 126. (10) ~ 34, 1, and Rem. 1. (11) flu, convers. fut. ~ 74, Rem. 3, a. (13) no. 66: ~ 83, 14, -place where sacrifice is offered. (15) 'M11 Nip/i. Part.; art. ~ 107, 2d ~ff, fine. V. 8 (2) ~ 147, last ~1 (3) 'V (with the art. 'vm) Parad. VIII. comp. ~. 81, 2; with He local, ~ 88, 2, a. (4) (~pip) Parad. VI.; o n the east, comp. ~ 147, 1,Y 3d [.(7) no. 1 18. (8) ~]K,k ~ 91, expl. 6, Rem. 3. (I1) on the sea, i e. on the side towards the sea. ivo and jri (art. ~ 107, 3) in the accusative (the casus adverbialis) as adverbial designations, - wit/i Bethe., on the wvest, and Ai on the east. V. 9. (1) V~J. (3 and 4) absolute Infinitives, used adverbially (eundo et castra movendo) wit/i going and removing, i. e. continuallyj removing; ~ 128, 3, b, and Rem. 3. (5) Z;; (Parad. VI.) with art and He, local.

Page  59 NOTES ON GEN. CHAP. 12, 13. 59 V. 10. (1) converse fut. of nl, ~ 74, Rem. 3, e;; (without Dagh.) no. 126 (9). Methegh may here indicate a delay of the voice upon the vowel, in an open syllable, - vs. 2 (7), - or in a closed one of the form described Sect. II, Rem. 1: comp. its use in h,6 1Niltz, and before 7i, l, n, ', when the article is prefixed (2) no. 12. (4) no. 14. (6) ni local. (7) no. 94 (2). '~, vs. 5 (21). (10) Parad. V. V. 11. (2) vs. 4; here with reference to time. (3) xR, Hiph. (4) no. 103. ~ 139, 2. (6) 1, comp. ~ 126 b. — (15) fem. I-I, (~ 92, 1, Parad. IX.), Parad. B, a. (15 and 16) Synt. no. 100. V. 12. (1) comp. ~ 124, 4. (2) when, ~ 152, e, 3d ~l, b. (4) no. 56. (6 and 9) ~ 124, 6. (ult.) Piel. V. 13. (3) 94. (5) I ln, ex. A, 2, to the end, it may be well -that it may -. (6) Parad. L. (8) ul (nit.) Y~,lex. 2. V. 14. (2) 3, lex. B, 5, b. - Infin. constr. followed by the suiject in the genitive, ~ 130, 2: the form has here the effect of the pluperfect;- -when Abraham had entered. (ult.) ~ 98, 2, b. - see ~ 32, Rem 6, 2d ~. V. 15. (3) ~'. (5), Piel. ~, ~ 10, Rem. a; comp. ~ 20, 3, b. - (9) no. 24; ~ 65, Rem. 2. (11) ~ 116, 1, a. V. 16. (1) ~ sign of the dative ~ 115, 1. (5) see lex. C A, 4, b. V. 17. (5) V;A (r!!) Parad. VI. (1 and 5) ~ 135, 1, Rem. 1, 3d ex. (9 and 10) lex. f 4. V. 18. (5 and 6) comp. nos. 67 and 124. (8 and 12) Daghi. f. conj. ~ 20, 2, a. (11) no. 37. V. 19. (5)~ 126 b,4th~ * (7)~ 122, 1.(8) for a wife, comp. lex.? A, 9, last ex. (ult.) I ~ 102, Rein. d. V. 20. (1) 'MY Piel fut. apoc. ~ 74, Rem. 9. (2) lex. 51_ A, 2, f. (ult.) ~ 113, 1. * As an exercise on the use of the accents, point out the tonesyllables marked by them, and the instances in which they divide the verse in accordance with the sense or otherwise. CHAPTER XIII. V. 1. (1) Kal fur. comp. no. 76; ~ 74, Rem. 3, d, and Rem. 14. (nit.) see lex. '1~ a. V. 2. (4-6) prep. and art. Sect. IX. 6. ~ 107, Rem. 1, b. (4 and 6) Parads. IX. and IV. V. 3. (2) y'n, Parad. II. The phrase expresses the manner or mode of proceeding, (by encampments or stations), and hence I? may be referred to lex. A, 9: according to (or by) his encampments, i. e. from one encampment, or station, to another. (9 and 11) ~ 121,, and Rem. 2. comp. no. 98. (13);'71*1~,Parad. A. (14 and 17 * And ( 152, 1, e; in edLCLeL, that I might take.

Page  60 60 CHRESTOMATHY. -NOTES ON THE READING LESSONS. I,-,constr. st. of II, (Parad. VI.) a dividing, or separating; prop. a noun in the accusative, as an adverbial designation (4 116); with a dividing or separating of Bethel (to the one side), and a dividing of Ai (to the other); hence, in the midst, between. V. 4. (7) Ifsin V. 5. (2) ~ as in 12: 16 (5). (4) ~ 151, 1, a, W.(nt.) ~ 91, expl. 6, Rem. 3. (3) ~ 107, 2d ~,~fine. V. 6. (5) 'ei for dwelling = so that they might dwell; lex.' 0, 4. (6) 'in, prop. a subst. in the accusative (4 98, 2, b), with suff - in their union = together. (I0):i Parad. VIII.; in pause, ~29, 4, a. (12) no. 78 (3). (13) 4 139, 2. V. 7. (4) rniy, Kal Part. (Parad. IX.) plur. constr. st. (4 -6) Abraham's herdsmen, ~ 112 1. V. 8. (5) 4 149, ~m - (7) comp. 12:10.. ~ 126, 2, b. (8) Parad. A. (16 and 17) nos. 23 and 97. ~ I11. V. 9. (1) 4 150, 2, 2d~[ (4) nn (as Parad. IX.) lex. D, 2. Lin (lex. B, 1). (5) nnn- for the penult accent see ~ 29, 3., b. (7) lex. '7j?, A, 3, and C, II, 2: comp. 4 151, 3, b. (9) '7ntv~t with art.; accus. of place whither. (10) It), Parad. K; fut. paragog. ~ 126, 1. then, ~ 124, 6, Rem. 1. (12);p Parad. III. (ult.) L,-t~ (10 and uit.) 4-38, 2, c. V. 10. (5) 2~ ~ 74, Rem. 3, c. (8) Parad. II. (I1) no. 71. (12) Parad. IX.; omission of the copula, ~ 141. (13) vs. 9, plur. constr. (14) rnnV Piel Inf. constr.; in the genitive, followed by another genitive as the subject and by the accus. of the object (4 130, 2 and 3), - before Jehovah's destroying Sodom. (13- 19) parenthetical. (20) no. 6. (20, 21) comp. lex '7m, 3, 2d~f (24) mi Infin. constr. with suf (2 pers. ~ 134, 3, c); in the accusative (4 116, 3), - to thy coming = till thou comest, i. e. along its (the Jordan's) course to Zoar. V. 11. (8) 13: 9. (10) see lex. 1p, 3, c. mid. comp. 4 147, 1, 3d IT. (12 and 14) no. 120. V. 12. (7) no. 117 (7). (8) art. 4 107, 2. V. 13. (3) Parad. VIII. (5) 4 100, last ~1; comp. wn lex. ~zA, 1. V. 1 4. (5) no. 116. (8) 4 151, 2, a. (9) ~ 75, 2, a. Imp wvith mi. ~ 127, 1. (18) no. 105. (18 -21) with fl. local, ~ 88, V. 15. (6 and 7) ~ 1319,2, a. V. 16. (1) and I make, ~ 124, 4, and remark. (4) no. 84. (6) for, lex. B, 3. (8) no. 78. (9) ~ 122, Rem. 2. (10) fl~, In~fln. constr.; complement of preced. verb, 4 139, 2; followed by the proper case of the verb, ~ 130, 1. V. 17. (4) lat P arad. VI. (5) nvij, do. THE END.


Page  6 0

Page  7 READING LESSONS. I. SCRIPTURE PHRASES AND SENTENCES. n-.... t *:,nC n ~1 2 * r n*,.:. i:: b t1 Z' lb2 IIT 4 IT T 1 I " i 6;?~p W3 p. u 7 * 4)'I IJII.IhnIhias t tA;Inh&<C *P? ^;~1 11 flnrw^ n^^ pn ' 12 rT: - *.- ~"T:?'P,1':u-nr p3 s10 rnsitht y9 s 7n t 14:'1z@yn;P&'a itas 15: * v *: *- * -\ Vill dhI It nIU hI1 16 JIM 1-: * s s oCr?11 1 t Vrn Ms I )? 17:oy^ nT ~n t7 18: t: n 7 221:M- r tt s^|Sen iip-rn~ sS'ats?25 ~r'~ sJa ~m~5 s * The accent or tone of words in these Phrases is always at the end, except when marked on the penultima by the sign (-) or by one of the regular accents (~ 15).

Page  8 1. SCRIPTURE PHRASES AND SENTENCES. sS i Cs nrb 4~-g- T ~ ~ -- 1~~ 26:tywrmp ito^.: rl7 la:hth-D aSom n27: htt-iS 5a-b tsw tyi-b? >8rion tnib s t ns c, shJ5 5ns t I ~29 r^i p tinnm WtB. it 31 TIT - T: IT: * * T T:: z r1'- 3-2 {TOj~~ isl st ^ 33 h:?wttO z ^t~ t szsn Sr^ET;n^& 3^' r5 nsiT 35 T IT - * - T - T: *. * iTll7F-: ^^t-r ^ n Ki1 rt?-rln 36 I lv 'Itt; ' im 39: s f r17 n 5i ^ bt-1 -5M 40.. ~ s- s: 541: * 5 * ~: * A t: S *: IT: T -:: T sp trt 61t.5&tI a I ' I -lrr 43:-1ft ^a TttY tI"tt p~irltl-lt 44 r. - -:. -: ~ - * T r* -.* w w - T[ * ft'n 4 7 j r r t:l te t lIl t tnbt Mn. $Mn'I 45 Vv:: T s -.. snnn ^w P1 F]Kg qi;i 4a:t:~ b: 51 r Q- Ttit T~t T~ T 3 s t.?sn.: t3?^ Iin i vie tpb-t 54: is nn n^ wy? 'n^'^;Ifc? s " 55 tWM ttb =.5 5 tssb^ m ns n.n boipt -1i 58 tiR~t rrisj nin^f bnin cimn aittb 59

Page  9 II. EXTRACTS IN PROSE. 9.ts My - RI Inn r in i? 60- T -: r t t orT T:..1:?~ cw. ~ "'.1a5 "'-t-i^rl ^.l -tl'-i r t '13i^ 63 l bolt ^1w3 1y- 64 t.=? ~,1? ~? btM:bi S~~:8 ~-~s %,: AT t IT T::W uF ri^'-nS riri rb n~Tn-br i Szn i II. EXTRACTS IN PROSE. 1. THE PRIESTS' BENEDICTION. Num. vi. 22-26. 4: v2 b ni-bt -biv 2":-inm ni DW"Ct7Nir j;b I 1 njn^:^ 2 s6 '5311^1 I..S t i 35 T T rIC. sa % 2. JOTHAM'S PARABLE. Judges ix. 6-15. ST*Q^tlK 00^'~? ti5b s85u nt'83-l i:.f 15U~'M MlL1 6 ft.j j W- on i.5 VT 7.0 =ft:1Ut Jlih ^ g ~ V, -'..8,i. on. b.5 n.':, Qn rSp r. c.~ o~? ow: 1" n ^0^ t-a^5 oht I? ro^^? u 0tZi 17. 10 T.. c r'I 5 w v. 8. *mp 7

Page  10 10 II. EXTRACTS IN PROSE. *n*rinn i5rin Ct"i trgn- 11:i vb rba ncb^ tbm=5 obs n 4n*n^i 12mh: | o: 13 {:a -pb n iran w isp r. 7 ^ li t v. 12. 12 2 Kings ii. 1-12. I' "; tl - ~ - t *.. IT - - T: r ": A T: r I: on n g 1t * v. t - Vni 13 *b tT RKib ngs tT 1 - 1.2 t: - T:." '*. *: - T: r - r:: - - i. IT lt1^l 15 Mtn- - J."Jj 'r t:-bRt957 s rbD 1 nwItg>l 14u - I-T T T ~AT T IT. v ": r 2 Kings ii. 1-12. T * '-.p- * it r - (T T 1: - T * " V* T < -r::T * * ri @- ^T * * - tn T ^^iitR 2 Ttit 1 IT^n i^^ pT --- 5~-: ninn g:-~m,~,~-nr^: nbt,: " - T; I: *:r: r *::- r ': ': - T * *: w- i -: T:.j: - T * V::" * I" *: J -: J' ~: -- r: f- i. r: o- I h r *t * - T ~ < J 1" JT * T: I '. - '. -: r ~: r-T r - - <,t~~~t: T - ' r * t ':; -: r: -: T: - T.. v. 1 -.: T. lmusbnl rtt^ -bs 'in^ K ing n mts 1 tin -12 -.* v: T I: r T - bil l sn. ^I I 5- ' I...M W N15 6; h^ n IT' h-O 0' -*: T ~: ': - " T:':: r. J: -: - T * - T. S - - I"': - - -.,: IT. - ': ' TI':.....: -- ": (- < ~: T T T J; TT-: - T T:. 3T J": " T. 1 ~f c ", V / J- T8 * r: I' T * J T * T: J- 'A * I" rr * ' r T * V r. JT -: T <: I T j * - r::: * * r: J X T T ' V T< - ' AT T '- - ': J * V: r: * J T X:~g ay p T l5^psi w wr^n- snil nn, -,n 12 nsmmt I ' T t ' - * '- T T r; ' - T T: * *.'r " V A T T: T T IT

Page  11 III. EXTRACTS IN POETRY. 11 III. EXTRACTS IN POETRY. CHARACTERISTICS OF HEBREW POETRY. BEFORE the student begins to translate the following Extracts, it is proper in a few brief statements to call his attention to the subject of Hebrew Poetry. Those who may desire fuller instruction are referred to Lowth's Lectures on Heb. Poetry, especially Lect. xix.; Herder's Geist der Hebr. Poesie; De Wette's Einleitung in die Psalmen; Ewald's Poetische Biicher, I.; and Nordheimer's Hebrew Grammar, ~~ 1120-1130. The greater part of the Old Testament is poetical in its composition, though only the Psalms, Job, and Proverbs (technically called ra, from the first letter in the Hebrew name of each) are generally termed poetical books. The style of these writings is, however, very unlike what is called poetry in most other languages. It does not consist in metre, like the versification of the Greeks, the Romans, and nearly all other nations; and much less does it exhibit rhyme (see below), like most of the poetry of modern Europe and Asia. In its form or structure, the poetry of the ancient Hebrews was distinguished from prose, chiefly if not solely by brevity of expression and by impressing the sentiments in the way of repetition, comparison, or contrast. Hence it has some characteristics of language, viz. the use of peculiar words, forms of words, &c., as explained in the Grammar, ~ 2, 4. But the grand characteristic, which in fact constitutes its rhythm, is a proportion or correspondence in thought and expression* between the clauses of a sentence, which accordingly in its simplest form consists of only two members (loreTlov). Hence the poetry or rhythm of the Hebrews is generally termed parallelism,t as consisting in a mutual correspondence between the members of a period. And the different modes of exhibiting this parallelism mainly constitute the vareties'of the poetic style, of which these are the principal:-1. Lyric Poetry, consisting chiefly of such compositions as the Psalms, distinguished by the effusion of pious sentiments. 2. Epic Poetry, as in Job-at least the style of this book resembles the epic more than any other production of the classic muse. 3. Didactic Poetry, as in the Proverbs. 4. Pastoral Poetry or * Sometimes the proportion or correspondence appears only in expression, while the thought runs on in the common way of prose, as in Job ix. 2, 3, 4. t It is very often of essential service to the interpreter of Scripture to notice this parallelism. There are numerous expressions and passages to the meaning of which a clue may thus be obtained. For example, in Ps. lxxvi. 3 (his tabernacle is CJ.., and his dwelling place in Zion) it has been doubted whether Ot means in peace or in Salem; but the doubt can scarcely remain when one considers the corresponding clause, where in Zion stands parallel to the term in question and determines it to mean in Salem.

Page  12 12 III. EXTRACTS IN POETRY. Idyls, such as the Canticles. 5. Prophetic Poetry, which is best exemplified in the earlier prophetic books (Joel, Isaiah, Habakkuk, &c.), for in the later (e. g. Ezekiel, Haggai, Zechariah) it scarcely differs from prose. Parallelism is generally distinguished into three sorts, according to the relation in sense between the corresponding members, which relation may be synonymous, antithetic, or synthetic. 1. Synonymous Parallelism. In this the second member is more or less a repetition of the first. These examples may serve to illustrate the correspondence:Prov. vi. 2. -..- ~: Ta: -i.. Thou art snared in the words of thy mouth; Thou art taken in the words of thy mouth. Job v. 6.. -. AT T T 'I XIT - * T T -: - For affliction comes not forth from the dust; And trouble springs not forth from the ground. Sometimes each member of the parallelism consists of two parts, so that we have four clauses, as in Gen. iv. 23.* wrvt7 nn^3 i;$ -it5 ): - T * * *' -: - V ': ": * This passage strikingly exhibits rhyme as well as parallelism. The same is found in many other poetic sentences; e. g. in Job vi. we find it six times, viz. in vs 4, 7, 9, 13, 22, 29. But there is no satisfactory proof, that in these or other cases the rhyme was (as De Wette, &c. suppose) designed by the poet. On the contrary, it is almost certain, that the poet had no such design. For if he had, he might with perfect ease have given in Job vi. ten more rhymes, e. g. in v. 8 there might be as good a rhyme as we find in v. 9, by a very simple change in the arrangement of the words; thus, instead of the present order: * T * t ' t * - - T he might without affecting the sense, have written::nipSN t:rin1)r T rT * - T. * *: As another proof that rhymes in Hebrew Poetry are undesigned, we may point out the fact, that they consist in the recurrence of like su.fixes or terminations in

Page  13 III. EXTRACTS IN POETRY. 13 Adah and Zillah, hear my voice, Ye wives of Lamech, hearken to my speech; For I have slain a man to my wounding, And a youth to my hurt. As another instructive example of this parallelism with four clauses we may adduce Ps. xix. 8: s6i rrvatt * nt - ' The law of Jehovah is perfect, Reviving the spirit; The testimony of Jehovah is sure, Making wise the simple. It may be remarked in general, that under this synonymous parallelism, which is the most frequent form of the Hebrew rhythm, we find an exceedingly great variety of constructions. 2. Antithetic Parallelism. In this the idea c' the second member stands in opposition or contrast to that of the first. This construction is specially frequent in the book of Proverbs, where very many of the sentiments are thus illustrated or impressed by antithesis. E. g. Prov. x. 1: T — ~ T T3 >mty 11 n1 In. A wise son makes a glad father; But a foolish son is the heaviness of his mother. For other examples see Ps. i. 6; cii. 27, 28; cxlvii. 6; Is. i 3. 3. Synthetic Parallelism. In this the idea of the first member is enforced not so much by repetition or antithesis in what follows, as by expansion and modification. E. g. Ps. xxvii. 4: 6:ni-m.a -i trn the inflexions of nouns and verbs, so that they actually often appear also m um plainest prose, e. g. Josh. xxiii. 11: #a infB) 87 Itf trs8i V h j- ~ - ~ I / InY* t - V t *|

Page  14 14 III. EXTRACTS IN POETRY. One thing I ask from Jehovah, It will I seek after,My dwelling in the house of Jehovah all the days of my life, To behold the beauty of Jehovah, And to inquire in his temple. In most editions of the Hebrew Bible,' the poetry is not given (as in the above examples) in lines according to the parallelism, but appears in the same form as the prose (except in Ex. xv., Deut. xxxii., Judges v., and 2 Sam. xxii.). The accents, however, serve to indicate the divisions or lines. Thus a simple parallelism is divided into two members by At/mach ( —)or Merka with Mahpakh (.-); and in a compound one the subdivisions of the members are usually made by Zaqeph-qaton (-L) and Rebhia () 1. PART OF THE SONG OF MOSES. Deut. xxxii. 1-4. I IT -hT V. T P I Inwo~b6 5, Isaiah 3.17 I. a: I-TT T 1 IIT J T A V r~~~: -j- re MT3 I~~ IT Tr JTV a T J- IT:

Page  15 III. EXTRACTS IN POETRY. 15 rvit vi 8tt tr6Vn MnV 0S itr:S *nV Atrnh t V'6 Vt T*- I* eV t *: "r* r %J V r s r un)^1 r1a btu nm Dn 7:Vita P st=W rvis Ci am r~ *s sVs* V: rs t VJ. ^ AT t * T V t s 3. PRAISE OF A GOOD WIFE. Prov. xxxi. 10-31. ntfiS t 13 ri: n 5n ^^ ^3 i k rlT 12:Inn t S Ptt rtit T: m Tr -: r t J: J-T.: IT * *V J T - pftQl b io tlis nnn 14: T n v S ont TO: t p.s Vi * t. t n b I t e i i i:n 15:sTZ VrC t V S P V: t T n 17: n T 6 V M: T j: *: m: I *:J T: - r s * r * - *: *v f t n V *sr- tV5 * I s- *V VTV% V*T is ts t r f Is * 6! * T T r V A T T J n: JT * *t * T I * *V ft tr t- rrt: T rt A; VttJT;-V Si T tnr r-~ iTt: Vt Jr tV V*. 1:r -t - A b vli n9 'T-r s" - JT;I r *~ - T > rT* n** V* * tV:nttna;nnn&:n 26:r. 0n b pnten ItT^ TO1"-t8 F T Mi f-n? nts tin tni 8n 7 o 30 V t n, -bV MPt ~ tih bnr v.16. 1O5. t I" v. 16. Tp ts v. 18. Mtflto e "p tnh 'V. 25. ^ a" V. 2. V9 htT'>

Page  16 NO0T ES. I. SCRIPTURE PHRASES AND SENTENCES. N. B. For the derivation of Nouns, the Lexicon must be consulted; but thus necessity can occasion no difficulty, even to the beginner, now that he can have Gesenius's with the words in alphabetical order. 1, Perj' ghb'-dh~l le-bha'bh.* Fruit-of greatness-of heart, i. e., boasting. P3"ri' is a noun masc. sing. in the constr. state (see ~ 87), and belongs to class or Parad. VI. i. (~ 9 1): the la has Daghesh lene (see ~ 6, 3, ~ 13, 1, ~ 2 1, 1). Gho'dhil, noun masc. sing. constr. st. Parad. VI. c.: the I without Daghesh lene (~ 6, 3) because preceded by a word ending with a vowel and closely connected (see ~ 21, 1, at the end). Lebhtt'bh, noun masc. sing. absol. st. (see. ~ 87, 1, at the close),,Parad. IV. a.-This example shows a) that the relation of the genitive case, or what is called the constr. state in Hebrew, is indicated essentially by mere closeness of connexion between words as uttered, for there is no change whatever in the form of p~ri and ghodhel, though each is in constr. state (see ~ 87, 1, and Note t); b) that there may be several successive nouns in the constr. state depending on each other (see ~ 112, 1): see also below in No. 3.-The sign (: ) at the end is ~Soph-pws~q, which is always preceded by the accent Silluq (~ 15). 2. Debhar h~sm-nid-16kh hf~g-ga-dho'I. Word-of the great king. Illbhdr, noun m. sing. constr. st. of '11 Parad. IV. Here notice how the close connexion in utterance, or the constr. state, occasions a change of the vowels (see 87, 1).-HdmW~maek, noun mn. sing. absol. st. Parad. VI. a; with the article (111) prefixed (see ~ 35). Hdggaldho't, adj. m. sing. with article; on A with Dagh. forte see ~ 13, 3.-Observe how the adj. stands after the noun, and agrees with it in gender and number (see ~ 110, 1) and in taking the art. (see 109, 2). 3. Yem6' shen6' ch~y-y6' abhio.tha'i. The days-of the year8-of the life-of my fat he rs. Pmem"' noun in. pl. constr. st.; the sing. t:4 irregularly inflected *For the sounds of the consonants and vowels as here employed to express the Hebrew pronunciation, see ~ 6 with Note t on page 35 and Note * on page 39, also ~ 10.-On Hebrew syllables see ~ 26.

Page  17 NOTESe 17' (~94). Shen(f, noun fern. p1. constr. at.; sing. Mt~ (~ 93, Parad. B, a) bui here with masc. plural (see 1 86, 4). Cheiyy(o, noun in. pl. constr. at.; sing. "r Parad. VIIL-the pl. form used with sing. sense (see 1 106, 2, a). '"Mith noun mn. pl. (but with fern. form (~ 86, 4), with suff. 1 pers. sing. (.-. for - because of pause Silluq, ~ 29, 4, a); sing. Z-4, irreg. inflexion (~ 94).-Observe here the succession of three nouns in the constr. at. (~ 112, 1), and the effect of the close connexion in utterance not only changing the vowels (as in No. 2) but also eliding or slurring over the consonant t ("a for ImM4 &c., according to ~ 87, 2, a).-Observe also the absence of the art. bef'ore the nouns, owing to their being in the constr. st., and as such not needing the art. (see 1 108, 2); comp. our expression God's word for the word of God (see Note, p. 213). 4. Ze'-kh~r tsM~-dI'q libhi-ra-kha'. The memory-of a righteous (manr,", for a blessing, i. e. is blessed. Ze'kh&r, Parad. VI. b; art. omitted (~ 108, 2);constr. st. without any change (see above No. 1). Tstdddi'q, adj. in. sing., agreeing with W1. man, which is understood. Libhrdkh4', noun f. sing., absol. St., Parad. B, c; with prep. to prefixed (~ 100, 2), here with short Chireq (a according to 128, 1.-Observe the ellipsis of the copula (i. e., the verb to be), according to 141. 5. At-ta' yehova' tobh vesid I-Wch. Thou, Jehovah, (art) good and forgiving. AMa' pron. personal or separate, 2 pers. sing. znasc. (see ~ 32). Ychovd', pr. n.; for the signification and the pronunciation of this word, see Lexicon. Tobh, adj. in. sing. agreeing with 161'1. Psd'lldch, adj. mn. sing., with conj. and prefixed (~102, 2).-Obs. ellipsis of copula (art) according to 1 14 1. 6. Tiq-to'l elo'ah ra-sha'. Thtou wilt slay, 0 God, the wicked. Tiq-to'l, verb 2 p. sing. in. fut. Kal; root ~Lr! Parad. B. fm~t noun mn. sing., Parad. I; the b. with Mappiq (1 14) and Pattach furtive (see 1 8, 2). Rasha' (on omission of -', see p. 35), adj. xin. sing. agreeing with Wi understood; art. omitted in poetic style (see p. 211.-Observe the arrangement of the words (~142, 1). 7. MI yish-ko'n beh&'r qbdhi-she'-kha. Who shall dwell in the mountain.. of thy holiness, i. e. in thy holy mount? Aft, pron. interrog. (137) used of persons. Yishko'n, r. 1~t Parad. B. Beh4'r, noun in. sing. constr. st. Parad. V111. a; pi. W41 for W4-i because "I excludes Daghesh f. (see 22, 5). QWdh.'kha, noun (tl-~ Parad. VI. c ) with stiff. 2 p. sing. masc. (~89, 1), joine by eansof (.) because of the pause Silluk (~ 29, 4, b).- s.ubt used to express adj. (see 1104, 1); and for the position of the suff. nsee 1 119, 6. 8. Kat-bhe'dh hat-ra-a'b ba-a'~-rdts. Heavy was the famine in the land. 'in, verb 3 p. sing. masc. pret. Kal (see Parad. B), agreeing in gend., numb., and pers. with its nominative (1 143 at beginning). =1117, noun (Parad. IV.)f with art. M (see 1 35, 1). noun (Parad. VI. a) with prep..% prefixed with Qamets, because it displaces the art. and takes its pointing (.% for M.%, see 1100, 2, 6, and 1 23, 5); see also 1 29, 4, a, 1 91, Rem. 1, for the (-)instead of (-7) under M~.-The arrangement is the same as in No. 6. 9. Ay-ye, so-phe'r dth-lham-migh-da-1i'mn. Where (is one) counting the

Page  18 Iis NOTES. towers? Sapher, act. part. mn. sing. Kal; r. NM Parad. B. -ro, sign of the definite accusative (see ~ 115, 2, and Note), here followed by Maqqeph (~ 16 1), and hence wvith ( —) shortened to (-) see I27,. 1t, noun n. pl. absol. st., Parad. II., with art. prefixed (~ 35); in accus. case, governed by soph~r (see ~ 132 and ~ 135). 10. Ts&6-dh~q mish-shft-ma-'-yim. nish-qa'ph. Righteousness from heaven looked dowm. Vvt' noun m. plur. but seemingly dual (see ~ 86 b, 1, Rem. 2), with prep. bl- prefixed (~ 100, 1); on plur. form in this noun see ~ 106, 2. verb 3 p. m. sing. pret. Niphal, r. ~bt Parad. B; here with ()for ()because of the Silluq (~ 29, 4).-Obs. the proper sense of this verb in Niph. is reflexive, viz, to bend one's seifforward (see ~ 50, 2, and the Lexicon under t~ 1 1. The iniquity of his fathers shall be remembered. '11 ( iz-za-kh9'r) verb (r. '11 3 p. sing. m. fut. of Niphal, which has here a passive force (see 50, 2, d); Parad. B. Ii (avd'n, not a0n, because the cholem, requires a consonant before it, which must be the ~I, and not the:0 which has the Chateph-Pattach, see ~ 26, 1) noun in constr. state (Parad. III.), governing the verb in gend., numb., and pers. (see ~ 143). Tib (abho-thdv, see ~ 8, 5) compare on No. 3; there scriptio plena, here scriptio defectiva (~ 8, 4).The arrangement is according to ~ 142, 1, a. 12. Who hath tried the Spirit of Jehovah? am (see ~ 37, 1). 1,~r (thikkeni without Daghesh lene because the prec. word ends with a vowel, and is in close connexion, ~ 21, 1), verb (r. bj~r) in MO~, which has here intensive force (~ 51, 2, a), Parad. B. -rpt sign of accus. here before a noun made definite by the constr. st. (see on No. 9). tVi'l (rfach, with Pattach furtive, 22, 2, b), noun in constr. st. (Parad. 1). 13. Honour thy father and thy mother. "In verb (r. h1=, see on No. 8) 2 p. sing. m. imper. of Pie (here causative of Kal, ~ 51, 2, b),. agreeing with Mim. thou (see No. 5) understood; Parad. B. -rim (twice) before a noun made definite by the suffix (see on No. 9). 2'. (a,-bhi'-khit), noun irreg. (=I$ ~94, 2) with suff. 2 p. singe. masc. (~ 89, 1, Rem. 1). copulative conj. prefixed with Sh~va (~ 102, 2). J= noun (tb, Parad. VIII.) sing. fem. with suffix, here appended by Seghol instead of Shelva, on account of the pause accent Silluq (see ~ 29, 4, b). 14. His blood from thy hand will I require. 1,,' (miy-y4-dhekh4', 2nd syllable with Methegh (~ 16, 2) to show that the vowel-sign -~ stands for 4 not 6, see ~ 9, 12, Rem. 1, a) noun f. sing. (I4 Parad. II.) with prep. 1' prefixed (~ 100, 1) and suff. appended. tp= Parad. B. On the arrangement see ~ 142, 1, c. 15. 1 was stolen from the land of the Hebrews. V= veb(. TPrd B.) 1 singe. corn. pret. of Pual (the passive of Pi~l, ~ 51, 2). 7', prep. (I') prefixed according to ~ 100, 1. M art. (see No. 8). 16. He has made heavy my chain. V'I;to, 3 p. sing. m. pret. of Hiphil (causative of Kal, ~ 52, 2); r. 'IM Nech&sh-ti' (ra~r1, ~ 93, Parad. D, b) 17. Upon Jehovah I was cast f~rrom the womb. aln:;R7 (h6sh-lds'kh-ti) I p. sing. c. pret. of Hoplial (passive of Hiph. ~ 52, 2); r. 1~5 Parad. B. tM'

Page  19 NOTES. 19 noun, Parad. VI. (here with - on account of' the pause accent, ~ 29, 4, a, and 27, Rem. 2, c). 18. I will keep myself from, my iniquity. 'IM~tp 1 p. sing. c. fut, of Hithpael (with reflexive force, and here with transposition of' M, see ~ 53, 2, a, and 3); r. 'nt), Parad. B. '~tvv (see No. 11 and No. 15). 19. And now let your hands be strong (lit, shall be strong). Mp`M (ti ch ezd~q-n!, rl has Dagh. lene because a distinctive accent, Pesiq (1), precedes, (~ 21, 1), 3 p. pl. f. fut. Kal, r. r-M Parad. D (or verb Pe Guttura.&);-fut.. used for imper. according to ~ 125, 3, c.=1V9 dual of "'9(~'9'see ~86 b) with suff. 2 p. pl. masc.-On the use of a plur. verb with a dual noun, see ~ 143, 5. 20. The generation of the upright shall be blessed. 'I% noun constr. st. Parad. IL t91' adj. p1. masc. (agreeing with W'3b men understood), Pa. rad. IV. II=" 3 p. sing. m. fut. Pual (see Parad. E, but here with - because of' Sillutq), agreeing in gend., numb., and pers. with the subject. 21. Because thou lhast forgotten the God of thy salvation. rtIM!0, (8hikhel'-ch6tit see ~ 28, 4, Note t), 2 p. sing. fern. pret. Kal of' M (verb Lamedh GtuaParad. F). 41r6., constr. st. plur. of tbli~b (the Mi loses both Mappiq and Pattach furtive, because it ceases to be final, ~ 22, 2, b): on the plur. use of this word (plur. excellentie,) see ~ 106, 2, b. YtZ4, noun, Parad. IV. e, with suff. 2 p. sing. fern. 22. A wise son will gladden his father. On position and agreement of' adj. and subst. see No. 2. 1'9=bt, see ~ 94, 2. 23. Jehovah will keep thee from all evil (lit, all of evil). T'=54 (yishmdr8~-khd', ~ 9, 12, 1, a; ~ 10, 1, at end; ~ 21, 2, c) 3 p. sing. m. fut. Kal, with suff. 2 p. sing. masc., see Parad. C, and ~ 59. ~~ (here -~n k.51, because followed by Maqqeph, which takes away the tone of' the word and so makes a closed unaccented syllable, which cannot have a long vowel, see ~ 26, 5), prop. a noun (but commonly rendered as an adj.) in constr. st., Parad. VIII. c. T1, with - for - according to ~ 29, 4, a. 24. Cause me to walk in thy truth and teach me. 414'1 (r. J.' Parad. E), 2 p. sing. in. imper. Hiphil, with suff. 1 p. sing. corn., see Parad. C, and ~ 60. Jm1: (rbtu see Lex.), noun f. sing. (Parad. D) with prep. ~ (here with - according to ~ 100, 2, a) and with suff. 2 pers. sing. masc. 25. When you hear (lit, according to your hearing) the voice of the trumpet. nMtZ~ (k"h,5m-akhe'm&), inf. Kal of =0 (Parad. F) with prep. ~ ~100, 2) and suff. 2 p. pl. masc., see ~ 60, 1, and ~ 64, 2.-On the use of' Z before infinitive, see ~ 129, 2. 26. This (has been) thy way from, thy youth~for thou hast not hearkened to my voice. MIT, see ~ 34. J:.~ noun sing. masc. Parad. VI. a, with suff. 2 p. sing. fern. see ~ 89, 2 and ~ 106, 2, a.-Obs. the effect of' prep. 21 on the sense of I'a which here means to hearken = obey, but without the (as in No. 25) it means simply to hear =perceive sound. 27. They encompassed me like bees, they were extinguished like fire of thorns. 1-4- Pual, Parad. E. 28. The door will turn on it. hinge, and a sluggard on hid bed. Zirl

Page  20 NOTES. 3 p. sing. fern. fut. Kal of =q (verb lr., Parad. G), agreeing in gend., numb., and pers. with rti. irnsn-Msee ~89, 4. 29. Then they began (lit, it was begun) to call on the name of Jehovah. ~rl- 3 p. sing. in. pret. Hophal of ~~ (Parad. G): see ~ 134, 3. I with Dagh. lene because of the distinctive accent (Tiphcha.-) under the preceding word, ~ 21, 1. 30. Ps. cxix. 69. See on No. 23. '*b, 1 p. sing. corn. fut. Kal of 111 (verb JE, Parad. H). 31. Gen. xiv. 21. Ir,2 p. sing. rn. imper. Kal of 11~ (Parad. H and ~ 65, 1). ~,~ 101, 2, a. T6 noun sing. but here with collective force, ~ 106, 1. lip, 2 un~ (treated as a verb ~,Parad. H, and partly after Parad. F; see ~ 65, Rem. 2). J~ for J, on account of pause, ~101, 2, a. 32. Judges xiii. 16. "VVO 2 p. sing. mn. fut. Kal of ill (Parad. D) with suff 1 p. sing. corn. (~59). On the position of the negative, see ~ 142, 1. 1 P. sing. corn. fut. Kal of (verb MI, Parad. I., see ~ 67, 2); here with - instead of.- on account of the conjunctive accent Munach (T~~67, 1. See on No. 7. 33. Jer. xxvii. 14. 4h~tiri, imper. Hiphil of YV05 (verb ~,Parad. K). mo~b 1 p. sing. fut. Niphal of WO" with He paragogic (~ 48, 3): see also ~29, 4, b. 34. Job xiv. 1. '76", pass. part. sing. masc. Kal of '~ in constr. st. according to ~ 132, 1. On the constr. st. of the adjectives 'i; and VnQ see ~ 110, 2. Conjunction I prefixed with Shureq, before simple Sheva, according to ~ 102, 2, b. 35. Genesis xxviii. 12. =Vn part. sing. m. Hophal of "12 (verb 4"' of 3d class, ~ 70) or Z. (verb ~,Parad. H). MWR -vs with He paragogic or ancient case-ending for the accusative, ~ 88,2: so also in last word. VI7 part. sing. m. Hiphil of Y~(after Parads. H and F). 36. Is. xxxvii. 23. iM~rI, MIl, Parad. E. On next word the accent (-~ Zaqeph-qaton, ~ 15. Inm'm Hiphil of W- (verb I"Y, Parad. M). 'iwith Dagh. forte conjunctive, ~ 20, 2, a. 37. Judges xiv. 14. ~ZI part. sing. mn. Kal of..,t, with art. M(~ 35 1) and prep. 19 (~ 100, 1). li%. verb '4'D and it', Parads. K and 0. 38. 1 Sam. ii. 27. 1-6 i~n~f absol. Niphal of MiA (verb ba, Parad. P), with He interrog. prefixed according to ~ 98, 4 (see its use in ~ 150, 2): this inf. stands before the finite verb to make it emphatic, according to ~ 128, 3, a. Mr', constr. st. of r11 (Parad. VI. h). 39. Ps. xxxi. 14. lnt inC. Kal of Mrt (Parad. H, ~ 65, Rem. 2), with prep. prefixed according to ~ 100, 2, c, and ~ 139, 2. In'= verb VI (Parad. G) inflected here as regular (after Parad. B, see ~ 66, Rem. 10, also ~ 29, 4, b). 40. Num. x. 30. '11nlim noun fern, sing. (segholate, Parad. D) with suffix. (Parad. K) from or J~M see ~ 68, Rem. 8. 41. Prov. vii. 1. (ft-rnts-vo-thut', see on No. 11) noun fern. plur. (Parad. A) with suff. appended (~ 89) and conj.? prefixed with Shureq before the labial m (~ 102, 2, b). for ~n (prep. Mt~ ~ 101, 1, Rem. 1), see on No. 31

Page  21 NOTES. 21 42. 3cr. xliii. 9. MP1~ see in No. 31. WV noun common gend. (~ 105, 1, c) plur. (1S~ Parad. VI.), governing rase in fern. pl. (~ 1 10, 1), but the suff. of the next word in the masc. =-=1 (lit, and thou hast hid them) pret. for imper. according to ~ 124, 6, c. 43. Ps. civ. 24. Mz prop. interrog. pron. but here an adverb of interrog. lit, as to what? then how? see ~ 98, 2, e, and Lex. sub voce).!.%I (Parad. G) pret. for present according to ~ 124, 3. Under 1,12 (Parad. IX.) Methegh and the accent Athnach - (~15). bKv, Parad. 0, ~ 73, Rem. 1; see also a 1353 b. y~Sbl always so for 'rIM o the sake of euphony with the art. (~ 35, 1 and ~ 91, Rem. 1). 44. Judges xiv. 18. See ~ 37, 1, Rem. for -M and Mz. tt' noun in. (Parad. VI., ~ 91, Rem. 4) with prep. 1p; (~ 100, 1), which here denotes the comparative (see 1 117, 1). 45. Gen. ix. 20. '~r~j 3 p. sing. m. fut. apoc. Hiphil of ~~ (Parad. G), with Vav conversive (see 1 48, 2) giving to the fut. the sense of the pret. (see 1126 b). rui from =rz (Parads. H and F). 46. Ps. xxxvii. 8. ~r1#'h (r. In' Parad. P) imper. Hiphil shortened from 611. (see ~ 74, Rem. 15, and 1 48, 5). Conj. I with Pattach according to ~ 28, 2. 47. Ex. xxi. 12. *1M part. Hiphil (r. I'~, Parads. H and P) in constr. st. according to 1 132,; 1. roMI (lit, and he has died ==so that, &c., see 1152, 1, e), pret. Kal. of 111'u (Parad. M, 1 71, Rem. 1) with I according to ~102, 1, d. Inim inf. absol. put for emphasis (1 128, 3, a) before 11V 3 p. sing. in. flut. Hophal. 48. Gen. iii. 13. See on No. 45. ',"~ Hiph., Parads. H and 0. (see on No. 32) Fut. with Vav conv. (1 48, 2): obs. distinction between Met hegh and Silluq, according to Note on p. 54. 49. 1 Kings v. 8. In sign of def. accusative in its separate or absol. form 1115, 2). ltbt rel. pron. (~ 36) here implying the demonstrative = what (121, 2). 50. Lev. xx. 14. tjbt= for t~t11 ~ 35, Rem. 2.-Obs. the two forms of 11b with suffixes (1 101, Rem. 1). 'I! fern. suff. 3 p. plur. 51. Judges ix. 10. "Z~ 2 p. sing. fem. imper. Kal of J"(Parad. K, see on No. 40).?np pron. 2 p. sing. fem. (1 32, 2), here expressed with the verb for emphasis (see 1 134, Rem. 2). li~ (m611-khi'), see ~ 46, Rem. 2; and for the absence of Dagh. 1. in Z, see 1 21, 2, a. See 1 101, 3. 52. Jer. xliv. 25. -no (d-sd', 1 8, 2, Rem.) inf. absol. for emphasis (see on No. 38). itli (na-dha 'r-n12) I pl. pret. Kal, with -, for -_ on account of Silluq. 53. Amos ii. 10. See 1 134, Rem. 2. M*v (Parads. D and P). 54. Deut. xvi. 19. tI6 (1 98, 1) before fut. rfl'jr~ (Mp~, Parad. G) to express prohibition (see 1 125, 3, c). (ylft-ve'r, see Note f on p. 50), MO~ of 111 (not Parad. M, see 1 71, Rem. 10). %r dual constr. st. of 1~ (Parad. VI. h). 55. Is. xxxvii. 10.!'t~ (1 98, 1) before fut. to express dissuasion (~ 125, 3, c): distinction between ~b and b6, see in 1 149, Rem. r~w fut. Hiphil (see on No. 48) with suff. according to 1 64, 2, Rem. jO~' see on No. 21,

Page  22 CIO AWQ NOTES. also ~ 143, 2. i=-tb (lit, who-in him== in whom, ~ 121, 1). See II 1314 2, a. 56. Ex. xvii. 2. See on No. 31. Vi dual in appearance but plur. in fact (see ~86 b, 1, Remn. 2). nritn 1 P. pl. corn. fut. Kal (Parad. P); and== that, ~126, 1, c. 57. Jer. xiv. 21. "I, Hiphil of "I~t (Parad. G), see ~ 125, 3, c. h prep. with suff. (see ~ 89, 1, Rem. 2). 58. Josh. i. 3. See on No. 55. 14I (I have given it), 12(~ 65, Rem. 3) suff 3 p. sing.-On the arrangement of this sentence, see ~ 142, 2. 59. 2 KingCs x. 32. V'I VV (compare vulgar Eng. in them days), ~ 120, 1. ~rlr Parad. G. ritt'n?, Pifl, Parad. P; see ~ 139, 2. 60. 2 Chron. x. 10. noun (Para.VI.c:acn aehqtn ~Pri imper. Hiphil. of ra.VI.):acnZqehatn 6 1. Prov. vi. 6. 62. 2 Chron. xi. 4. 63. mn. x. 1. ~ see on No. 45. J." Q= verb 1'i and i) Hiphil fut. apoc. (for 111" ~ 65, 2 and ~ 74, 5 with Rem. 14). -Invc, noun (Parad. IX.) with suff. 3 p. sing. m. (Nl. for the usual Ii, tm:distinctive accent Tiphcha (~ 15). See ~ 118, 5. 64. Job Al 4. 'ifki- Parad. G.;1=40, fut. Hiphil of =it with suff. with Nun epenthetic (see ~ 57, 4). "Mi~ Parad. M. im~, see ~ 101, 2, Rem. 65. Mal. ii. 10. Ellipsis, ~ 141. b (Parad. VIII. c) with suff. (~ 89, 1, Rein. 2). Expression for reciprocal pronoun, ~ 122, Rem. 4. ~~1r, reg. inf. constr. Pi#,l, see ~ 66, Rem. 10. 66. Lev. xii. 4. On the construction of the numerals see ~ 118, 1 and 3. =* Parad. K. -Tr (r. TM) with -for..on account of the pause accent Rffbhia (~ 15). rA~ ~ 73, Rem. 2. M'wn (tO-hfrd2h, see p. 47, No. 2, a, and ~ 14, 1), ui~C35 (Parad. VI. f) with suff. 3 p. sing. fern., distinguished by the Mappiq fromi the ending of the fern. noun (Mi-i t6-hd). II. EXTRACTS IN PROSE. 1. THE PRIESTS' BENEDICTION. Num. vi. 22-26. V. 22. Vav. conv, prefixed without Daghesh forte (~ 48 b, 2, and ~ 20, 3, b, Rem.) 'It5n (Dagh. f. conjunctive, ~ 20, 2, a), inf. with prep. (lit, to say) for -Ix according to ~ 23, 2, and ~ 67, 1, Rem. V. 23. itnn Parad. E, see ~ 10, 2, Rem. "limm~, inf. absol. standing for fut. or imper. according to ~ 128, 4, 6. V. 25. "NW, IHiphil of ~'i4b (Parad. M, jussive form, ~ 126, 2). I-UM"I (r. Parad. G) 3p. sing. m. fut. Kal with suff. with Nun epenthetic (~ 57, 4), and I prefixed according to ~ 102, 2, c. In reading these Extracts, it may be well to learn more of the names and uses of the Accents (~ 15).

Page  23 NOTES. Ott 2. JOTHAM'S PARABLE. Judges Ux. 6-15. V. 6. ~wwoi fut. Niphal (Parad. D). =0 prep. at or by, see Lex. B, 2. V. 7. VI Pi (r. 'iM) 3 p. plur. used according to ~ 134, 3, b. V. 8. See ~ 128,3 a.O s. ri~'M with small circle referring to the mar. gin, where a different form of the word is given (see ~ 17). Both the K~thibh Mi'Mand the Qri Mn~ have the -game senve and stand for 2 p. sing. m. imper. Kal with He paragogic (~ 48, 5). This K~thibh form of the imper. is not recognised in the grammars, but it occurs also in Ps. xxvi. 2: comp. verse 12 below. V. 9. ~1~pret. IKal (the Chateph-Qamets irreg. for Qamets, with He tnter. (~ 98, 4, Rem.), used forfut. according to ~ 124, 4. 1* "MV Inb which in me God and men honour (see ~ 125, 2). "r,*~ pret. with Vav. cony. (see ~48, 3 and ~ 124, 6, a). ~t (inf. with prep.) to-w wave. V. 10. See on No. 51 above. V. 11. %pm (Prj3, Parad. VI. e). MI~to'l adj. femn. sing. with the art. because its noun has a suff. (see ~ 109, 2 and ~ 110, 1). V. 12. Kethibh il~ but Q~ri "bZM see on verse 8. V. 13. MM 2' part. with art. (prefixed according to ~20, 3, b) answering to our relative pron. with the indicative, which cheers. V. 15. 1-) from MM. a=i see ~ 107, 3. 3. ELUAH's AscENSION 2 Kings Hi. 1-12. V. 1. 10i9 fut. apoc. (~ 74, Rem. 3, e) with Vav cony. (~ 48, 2) used for tense of narration (~ 126 b, 2). Hiphil of M~ (see ~ 129, 2 and also ~130, 3). M-VY (~ 10, 2, Rem.-comp. I'IV- in verse 11) with Chat ephQamets irreg. which is noticed in the margin 'rzp PtZU1 '10 i. e. the t) with Chateph-Qamets.-See all these marginal notices explained at the end of Tauchnitz's editions of the Hebrew Bible, which are the best and cheapest. V. 2. ~see ~ 127, 1, Rem. r,~ 4MI 444 (lit, living is Jehovah and the life of thy soul) as Jehovah liveth and by the life of thy soul, a form of oath: "M constr. st. ~ 87, 2, c). W- if ==not, see Lex. 0, 1, c. ~MM". (also in next verse) in the adverbial accusative, ~ 116, 1. V. 3. i' prop. the day ==this day, see ~ 107, at begin. g1454 plur. excellentice (~ 107, 2, b). M5M V. 5. im",I prep. 2 prefixed according to ~ 100, 2, a. * See ~ 5, Rem. 4.

Page  24 24 NOTES. Re. 2. ~ 107, 3 and ~ 88, 2. WV'9t their two - both of them, ~ 5 V. 7. Construction of the numeral, ~ 118, 2. v. 8. lp, see above on No. 54. r~~t~ noun fern. (Parad. D). bill, see above on No. 63. 1 conj. with Qamets, see above on No. 47. prep. with art. (~35, 2, B, b and Rem. 2). V. 9. tn"V inf. with suff. and prep. ~ 129,2 (see also above on No. 25). I and = —that after "16t-91. 'I 40 M-9- then (I inferential, ~ 152, 1, d) shall be, pray, a portion of tw'o in thy'spi`rit to'me, i. e. may I have a double portion (twice as much as any one else) of thy spirit: 1iM, see ~ 94. V. 10. ~Iixt5 M-~31 lit, thou hast made hard to ask, i. e. thou hast asked a hard thing, see ~ 139, 4, Rem. 1. m for MIp'm, see ~ 51, Rem. 5. V. 1 1. Lit. and it was, they walking to walk and to speak, that lo! a chariot, &c.: see ~ 131, 2, a or c, and ~ 128, 3, b. ~- - fuat. Kal of Mi'. 90 -adverbial accus. (~ 116, 1). V. 12. *1 according to ~ 28,2. part. Pie], ~ 63, 3. Y91-~-Iq=" Israel's chariot and his horsemen.-Obs. that in Hebrew two or more nouns cannot be in the construct state before the same genitive (see Note $ on ~ 112, 1). e. g. ~Wi~ 95-M 1' would be utterly inadmissible in this place, and hence the language required either the expression of the genitive after each noun (b~t'V9 *'905IV ~bt?' =i as in v. 11, Wm~t 4W- %tt=:6 or the use of the possessive pron. after the secon-d noun (as exhibited in this verse), or the periphrastic construction (see ~ 113) which expresses the genitive in the way of the dative (~W)Wi9~ In:t lt- ) the chariot and the horsemen to Israel). MI. EXTRACTS IN POETRY. 1. PART OF THE SONG OF MOSES. Deut. xxiii. 1-4. **In this extract the parallel members are clearly exhibited in separate lines. V. 1. Article before vocative, ~ 107, Rem. 2. min ~ 126, 1; ~ 29, 4, b V. 2. ~-V verb fD. -' ~ 101, 3. V. 3..itm, verb ". prep. (~ 100, 2, a). V. 3. "VIII! the rock, i. e. Jehovah, case absol. (~142, 2).-Large I (so the marginal notice calls it) to mark out the word as having a peculiar use or mystic sense attached to it by the Masoretic authors (see ~ 3, 2). * t't hits both vowels unchangeable (see p. 138, No. 4, Rem).

Page  25 NOTES. O2 2. PARABLE OF TEE DEGENERATE VINEYARD. Isaiah v. 1-7. V. 1. Kt M'1'4 (~ 126, 1, a). 11'1V'3 concerning my beloved, i. e. Jehovah. V. 2. =23 with double accus. (~ 136, 2). riq, ~ 74, Rem. 3. M ~ 74, Rem. 9. V. 3. Zti" and U5't collective (~ 106, 1, c) and hence with verb plur. (O 143, 1). V. 4. See ~ 129, Rem. 1, 2. V. 5. i"~ with two accus. (~ 136, 1). ftlY part. for fut. (~ 131, 2, b). 010 and yn, ~ 128, 1, Rem. "Iwn~ lit. for to eat up = to be eaten up. V. 6. '~I IrI * (6 124, 6) and it Mhall go up (i. e. grow) brier and thorn (~ 135, 1, Rem. 2). bntivovi lit, from to rain (~ 129, 2). V. 7. Observe the striking paronomasia or alliteration between U0072 and mibn and between MP11 and Mr which we can partly copy in translation, thus,-he looked for right, and behold might I for weal, and behold woe! 3. PRAIsE OF A GOOD WIFE. Prov. xxxi. 10-31. *,* This piece is Alphabetical, a sort of Hebrew Acroetic (S 5, Rem. 2). V. 10. rtsl, ~ 94, 2. V. 11. Pret. for present (~ 124, 3). V. 12. Vnn'~= (~ 58, 1, a and Rem. 3). V. 14. nisz#x (k6-oniy-y'th, see p. 47, No. 2, Rem.). V. 15. 'iY?, either as noun (in continuance of) or as infinitive (in continuing of ~ 129, 2), while it is yet night. Fut. with Vav conv. for present (~ 126, 3, a). V. 16. r1'ev, see above on No. 39. Q'ri 'MI referring to the wife; but Kthibh either =3 referring to the husband, or =03 (Niphal, is planted) agreeing with V12 as subject. V. 18. Sense of Q'ri and Kcthibh is here the same. V. 20. "'a~, ~ 100,2, b. V. 21. ' 6:, pass. part. with accus., ~ 140, 1. V. 27. 'iqi0, ~ 74, Rem. 5. Qdri nin"111 but Jlthibh (with same sense) ni*,'n the latter probably derived from J.54, but the former from 1S.!M V. 29. VI~', adj. put before the noun either for emphasis, many women &c. (see ~ 110, 1, Rem. 1), or as predicate (many are the women who, &c. (see ~ 142, 1, b). ri*2 for the usual 1, ~ 89, 1, Rem. 2. V. 30. '1 r-14 MWK a woman fearing Jehovah, put prominently in nom. ease absol. (~ 142, 2). Observe, the crowning praise of a good wife is the fear of the Lord or piety. See ~ 53, Rem. at the end.

Page  2 I

Page  3 SYNTAX OF THE VERB. ~ 123. USE OF THE TENSES; GENERAL VIEW. 1. From the poverty of the Hebrew language in the means of expressing the absolute and relative circumstances of time (~~ 40 and 48), we might naturally expect some variety in the uses of the same form, especially as in some cases (where the relation of time has little or no influence) both tenses are employed with equal propriety. 2. We are not to infer from this, however, that there was scarcely any well defined and established use of the two tenses of the Hebrew verb. On the contrary accurate observation shows, that the idea of the past, and of those relations of time and mood which stand connected with it, predominates in the one, and in the other that of the future and of the kindred relations of the subjunctive and optative moods.* It is only in certain clearly defined cases that they coincide; in all others they are essentially distinct. It is a partial and false view, which regards the so called Praeter and Future not as tenses, but as designed originally to express distinctions of mood (Indicative and Subjunctive) rather than relations of time. As examples of the Praeter and Future used expressly to denote opposite relations of time, we refer to Is. 46: 4, Wt# '1''.t ', I have done it, and I will (still) bear (you); and vs. 11, R 'Dn1lI n"'.. 1.. IrJ Y,, n '.r, I have spoken it and will bring it to pass, I have purposed and will accomplish it. * The uncertainty, conditionality, which belongs to the subjunctive, and the reference to the future which is apparent in the optative, have in all languages a clear analogy with the future; comp. e. g. dicam, dices and dicam, dicas.

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Page  6 a

Page  7 EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR SECTION I. EXERCISES ON THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE CONSONANTS AND VOWELS, AND ON THE MANNER OF WRITING THEM IN CONNEXION. [ 5,6,7, 8.1 The student should carefully observe the manner of writing and pronouncing the vowels in connexion with the consonants, as exhibited in the following examples, that he may learn to distinguish to what consonant each vowel in a word belongs. *** Every syllable begins with a consonant; see ~ 26, 1, where the only exception is given. The accent is commonly on the final syllable (~ 15, 2): when it is on the penult, this is indicated as in the Grammar (~ 15, Rem. 3). a) Open syllables: 2 ma, n me, t me, D ml, b mo, D mu, 7 I la7 l, nla, j no,, nu, t, tO te,? ha,,6 hi,. tse,. tsu, X tso, ' she, V sa,! vd, t zd, t zo, h ro, ] ye, ' ya, D st, b so, p qe, J1 qu, 3 ba, 3 bo, S go, 6T di, de,? ku, 5 ko, 3 pe, b p),.l te t o, n1 ti. b) Closed syllables; PD lam, '3 bar, DV Slhem,

Page  8 8 - & ~~~EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. bTIha-dh, -le sha-ir, D0 sadm, J1~ hth, j92 lq, IV' giv, 11vav. c) Vowels in connexion. with their homogeneous vowel-letters (~ 8, 3): * 1~ ftJ,.j~ Ili, II g ~ ii, u5J Here the sound of I and ' is not heard separately from that of the preceding vowel, - i. e. they are pronounced as vowels: see ~ 7, 2. The feeble consonant power of N and M1 is also often lost after a vowel (~ 23, 1,95), like that of the English h in ah, oh. E. g. Nn ba, so N (~ 23, Rem. 3) after I and I'when pronounced as vowels; NI.0 pi, We~ sh~ig N'1~ n, RID kii, N ~ilii, Hholem is written over the consonant to which it belongs (and after which it is pronounced), unless Ior tN is- the following letter, over which it is then written; as rhijp, qg3m, P6, h3'-vgt/l, %', l5. When it belongs to it is commonly written over the following letter; e. g. 6~ l5t; but often as i~7. - Shureq is never written except in the bosom of its homogeneous vowel-letter () ha6-Ml, In za6-bha'Ydh, ZNx zi-NiMb,?7Pi had-man, V11i11 ti-rjIh, 'Ze yj-sh~bh, 17V shei e - 1 v, v~ Njmdr, ~5 ya-khl, IAr had-ldm, O ~ shda-l-m, > qa-tin. -Examples containing feeble letters sounded as vowels: ThM ra-thii, t'e s/id-ni, e~ shaA-l5sh, ' Until the student has learned to distinguish cases of quiescence he will be guided by the pronunciation appended to the Heb. form, which contains the English repre. mentative of the feeble letter whenever it retains its power as a consonant. t The consonant sound of y.

Page  9 PRONUJNCIATION OF THE CONSONANTS AND VOWELS. 9 9 4'% ~ lii-lI '1~2 bU-thi, tIW li-ni, r'~- iibhn (~26, For explanation of the following examples, see Reins. 2 and 3 under ~ 8, 2: e0 pish, 1t' san, ji!/ shin, vi~m ~I~ v-shj5dh. The student should adopt some pronunciation for those consonants whose original sound is unknown, or for which the English language has no representative. The frequent repetition of the following- exercises will aid him in expressing the sounds which he may adopt for these letters. fl (commonly expressed by strongly rolling the palate): M! (hha6), 1-T, I, (hh5), ~M:T, tr7 DM~; flj, j, fillll ll lf 1, t,,7,7f,7t,., V ~ ~6, No. 3, note): ' (kh6)),. ), =, I, 1 -bri, i1b1;-I 7.Probably the nearest expression of the original sound of this letter, and the one which best exhibits its guttural character, is that given by Gesenius (~ 6, 2). But even the "1wholly false Jewish pronunciation ng " is preferable to the entire omission of the letter in reading. 17r~ 0 T U9Vv V!- (ddA7) a 7 a~7 V-dhA), ~ TV *Wm7, I., PV, ~1! (17it),?'7(VinJ,1~7 0' 7 M. A slight appulse of the breath before or after the vowel, according as it stands at the beginning or end of 2

Page  10 10 EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. a syllable: in the latter case it is buc seldom heard separately from the vowel, and then resembles h in eh! uttered softly. E. g. \KR me-Wen, RK3 ba-KNsh, 'R_ pd-Kir; Ib. * yeK'-sr, *t.L' ye -tar. M. The full English h. Its sound before a vowe. requires no illustration: when uttered after a vowel it has the fullest sound of h in hah! eh! E. g. 7,it" * yih-labh, M'Or _ v leh-mdr,; 1iD;T luh-math, D I,? tsahram. In regard to ' it may be added, that the proper pronunciation of r after a vowel (formed in the throat and the back part of the mouth, without the vibration of the tongue) better expresses the guttural sound of the Hebrew )I than the rolling French or Irish r. Write the following words in Hebrew characters:badh, ledh, 'abh,t 'obh, hel, hWl, hw, len, uin, 1on, bon, ban, ban, "mn,t "ets, pin, pots, doth, ladh, son, sun, shen, shadh, shibh, shem, sin, sav, szv, ten, tom, tubh, shoth, shith, lov, ros, sor, losh, lhsh, lash, tse-nd, tsi-thd, qo-tel, qd-tul, tsad-yzth, dd-bhar, 'd-bhadh, o- i-na, tsul, ne-saph, ta-von, n?'-sheph, sui-sl, so-tay, sa- an, shodh, sho-'s, mo-"edh, pd-nay, pa-ne-kha, no-shen, bo-rats, bo-rd-tson, qo-bhedh, qo-vdz, tso-'em, md-tho, tso-vz, iu-ghdz, he-vots, 1o-resh, so-ter, ye-shl, yo-shebh, qu-mu, pe —lcgh, pa-lagh, pa-khar, p-lthon, peq, p7-khol, pi-non, pl-shon, pi-le"-ghesh, pd-lahh, pu-lit, pa-lil, pd-ndgh, pd -, p p al, p- il, qad-yts, ra-ghaz, re'ghel, re'-vhh, ro-hhgbh, rd-zahh, rd-kh's, rd-kh-l, ra-khash. *** The student may find it most convenient to omit K and I in pronunciation, and to make no distinction between. and., D and D, according to the practice of many teachers. It is desirable, how. ever, to preserve as far as possible those peculiarities in pronuncia * One sign, which the learner would not yet understand, is omitted under K and,. t In these exercises the sound of K is indicated by the spiritus lenis ( '), and that of y by the double spiritus asper ( "), as in the alphabet

Page  11 EXERCISES IN SYLLABICATION. 11 tion, which serve to explain the laws of the language. It is impor tant, also, that the language should be addressed to the ear, as well as to the eye. It may be added, that the trouble of acquiring the pronunciation of such a language as the Hebrew, is sufficiently rewarded by the knowledge of +he powers of the human organs of speech, and the command of his own, which the student thus obtains. SECTION II. EXERCISES IN SYLLABICATION. [~~ 9-14. ~ 15, 1, 2. ~ 16. 26.] As the use of Sheva (~ 10), and the distinction oetween long and short Qamets (~ 9), depend on the theory of the syllable exhibited in ~ 26, it is found most convenient to present the subjects of these three sections in connexion. The other sections referred to above are to be read with care, in order that the occasional allusions to them may be understood. Use of Sheva (~ 10). Sheva (emptiness, vacancy,) merely denotes the absence of a vowel, and is written, with the single exception given in ~ 10, 3, under every vowelless consonant.* Of course it has properly no vocal power. When, however, two consonants precede a vowel, the organs of speech spontaneously supply a slight vowel-sound under the first. Thus in such forms as ktol, gmul, gthar, the k and g are uttered with a very short and slight vowel-sound, k'tol, gemol, g'thar. Sheva, therefore, is vocal (indicating a kind of half-vowel) only when it stands under the first of two consonants before a vowel. Accordingly it is silent in, 1-17I|ip? qd-tal-td, 7tbl.1 yq-tol, M117p miq-ne, tl|P? hadq-tel: and vocal in, bp. q'tol 1, l bha-dh, r 'peri, p qd-teli, 'tml vthe-ledh. * The feeble letters when pronounced as vowels of course ao not take Sheva.

Page  12 12 12 ~~EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. There is but one case in which the learner finds any difficulty, viz. when simple Sheva occurs between two vowels (tM J1" j, In this case, the letter under which it stands might be the final consonant of a closed syllable (silent Sheva), or the initial consonant of the next following syllable (vocal Sheva). Thus VW' might be ndiph-shi or nai-pheshi, ~12toj! q6atelii or qat-lii, '0~tn qjm-n d or q&men, Mln X'bh-r6o Ne`bher6a. Whether Sheva, in this case, is silent or vocal delpends on the nature of the syllable as taught in ~ 26. A vowel sound is naturally prolonged unless interrupted by a consonant. Hence an open syllable has properly a long vowel (~ 26, 3). - A syllable closed by a consonant, though its vowel is naturally short, may have a long- vowel when the tone causes the voice to dwell upon it.t Accordingly, as a general rule, Simple Sheva is silent under a final letter, and under a letter which is preceded by a short vowel or an accented long vowel: in all other cases it is vocal. E. g.* Silent Sheva: T1 d'ikh, 'J}~7f yFI-Ukh i&?je q miiq-tdr, J1Y1 e'r -vdth. Xki-sdth-ni, '2 akha"LldthnW, j"~ m6d.Vt7;-16, y a4-dh&V-ta. Vocal Sheva: (~10, 1, a) T bekha', 9~% vi; -1) ~ nthe6, T~l~ n-lihd =1 fiibhen~; - 2) *The examples which follow are adapted to the treatment of the subject in the Grammar, as well as to the above representation of it, and should be carefully studied with reference to both. - Teachers will observe, that the rule here given is intended merely to guide the learner, at first, in the division of syllables. t Comp. ~ 26, 5 & 7, Rem.

Page  13 EXERCISES IN SYLLABICATION. 1 13 srith ~3)~?t~2 = ~~j2(see ~ 12, 1,1)qttl, 7'IV (~ 12, 1, note) = p' ts1v-vekha'.* The composite Shevas are always vocal (~ 10O,2t),and of course always stand at the beginning of a syllable. E.. ' eA er sid Vob3 y k4a'-js, 'r$ x'0bhM Wn'1 Exercises on the use of the composite Shevas will be furnished by the paradigms of nouns, of verbs withi gutturals, &c. Promiscuous examples: II1112 -IP~ T1P eN, Rem. 1. When Daghesh fis omitted at the end of a syllable (~20, 3, b, & Rem.) the simple sheva which commences the next following one remains vocal. There is here a sharpening of the preceding short vowel (comp. ~ 22, 1. ~ 26, 2, e, Rem.), the consonant in which Daghesh is omitted being pronounced rapidly between the two syllables, as if it belonged to both. E. g. tljp (for liprr) h1idmmcbhijq.qjsh, 71.)~ (for npnnn) hemmekhds-si, M330 (for n~i"%) Ihassebha"-n~th, anj (for Imt') 1hdycan, D'I~(for 0iv~jl) ldsyesha-rim, irM (fr irjl)' hlhaiyeth3, 6Y7n (for 6~n) h,6lleli2, nni (for 7i) vdoychi, wfa:' (for uxt?!) y/ZsseXUf, The instances of this omission of Dagh. f.will be pointed out until the student learns to distinguish them by his knowledge of forms. Rem. 2. The exceptions mentioned in ~ 26, 3, a - e, exhibit no essential deviation from the general principle. Thus in the forms given under a, T~', 1~ for example, are nearly equivalent to y~rlrbhi, mdlekh, the first vowel of which, in rapid pronunciation, * It will be perceived from the examples, that Nos. 2 and 3 are essentially the same,-Sheva being- always vocal in the midst of a word when preceded by ani. other Shev~a. t Comp. ~ 26, 7, Rem.

Page  14 14 14 ~~EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. strikes the ear nearly as if uttered in a closed syllable. In all the remaining cases, the voice (under the influence of the tone, or of the half-accent Methegh = bridle, i. e. restraint, delay, ~16, 2) dwells upon the vowel, so that, - though not strictly long, it may properly stand in an open syllable. Rem. 3. It should be added, that a short vowel may also stand in an open syllable followed by the same vowel, viz, when the latter, in the course of inflexion, takes the place of the corresponding composite Sheva; see ~ 28, 1, 3. In this case, also, it has the supm port of Methegh. Exs. n-o n~jmda (o ~') yd-.ihim-dhii (for r'I7pp, Y- nd-ld-klrA (or?1?) Qamets-Rhatuph (~ 9). Qamets-Hhatuph = ~ O, like the other short vowels stands properly in a closed syllable: but it may also, like them, stand in an open syllable followed by the corresponding composite Sheva (,:), or by another short o (see Rem. 3 above) which, in the course of infle'xion, has taken the place of the composite Sheva. In both cases it has, like the other short vowels, the support of khd. (foro T I t ub-d m.V Ika Ino regard) totemen fdhistnushn hotfo lon viz, ) whn it( tand net'Vbefoedheon-ylabe Qand si is floe byff simplet osherva wiethout aMthe fghr intervening; for in this case long Qamets is invariably followed by Methegh (~ 16, 2, a*); e. g. * The distinction here made is not affected by single instances of the irregular or -erroneous application of Methegh; as Ip qdr-ban, -~~,jslhm-rd, tp'-17 ddr-bdn, v't- d~ljy4v.

Page  15 DOUBLING OF CONSONANTS. 15 Kokh-ld, (but with Methegh,;'., d-kheld): b) when it stands in an unaccented syllable, and is followed by Dagh. f.; e. g. ':tn (for 'th=): c) in a final closed,syllable without the tone; e. g. DIpl, vay-yd-qom. The student should therefore confine his attention to these cases, until he can distinguish the quantity of Qamets by his knowledge of forms. It is generally long: and the occasional examples in which it is short will be pointed out in the Exercises and Reading Lessons. It would be better to make no reference to Methegh, as a means of ascertaining the quantity of this sign, except in the case marked a. SECTION III. DOUBLING OF CONSONANTS. ASPIRATION OF THE MUTES. [I 20, 21.] Distinction of Daghesh forte and Daghesh lene. It will be perceived, by comparing the two sections, that Daghesh forte is always preceded immediately by a vowel, which is never the case with Daghesh lene. Es. Dagh. f.: 1'' yedhdb-ber,; Dt3 m'sh-shdm, nrtq yzq-qaihh, If-TK Nt-tad, t -. ts'v-vd, Atle shadday, ':.. mib-ben. Dagh. 1.: D:O!WS yash-kem, ra3lt yiz'-bhh,.tl' gesh~i, It'n1 tzr-gezt. Promiscuous examples. 'Di', 7'73V', ' n3, v3.1, o*, j Q: -o, ts'a, -9 1, nnvn,.t. j, ~ V rv,a33n 71 -t (I 14, 1 ), ^, ' n. Use of Daghesh lene (~ 21). The learner will observe, that the hard sound of the letters 3, J, ', 3, D, l, is the original one, (i. e. they are properly Mutes), and that it is the intermingling of a preceding vowel-sound which produces the softer or

Page  16 16 EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. aspirated pronunciation. By comparing Nos. 1 and 2 of ~ 21, he will perceive that the statements which they contain may be briefly expressed thus: these letlers take Daghesh lene except when preceded by a vowel or a vocal Sheva. A vowel in which one of the feeble letters quiesces (the vowelsound alone being heard in this case) of course aspirates the following mute in the same manner as a pure vowel. Often, as in the following examples, the aspirated letter begins a word, and the vowel-sound which produces ihe aspiration closes the preceding one, - the two words being uttered in so close connexion that the effect is the same as if they were*but one. E. g. 1 '., Gen. 31: 1, words of the sons of -; -17, '', Gen. 30: 34, be it according to thy word; [for the omission of Dagh. 1. in l (r1:), composed of T11 and ~), see ~ 21, Exceptions, a]; vrt,'I.'')l, Gen. 31: 8, and all the flock bare -: W,-t7 R'ln, Gen. 45: 1, put forth every man. - Sometimes, however, the two words are so separated in pronunciation (the former standing at the end of a clause,* as indicated by one of the distinctive accents, ~ 21, 1. ~ 15, 3) that the closing vowel-sound of the first does not affect the pronunciation of the following mute. E. g. l3q'_ ',. 1 (,: ~ 15,., Class II, 6), Judg. 11: 5, it happened, when; ',3 N':, (. ibid. 7), Gen. 38: 27, it happeed, at the time -; '3 'tr i, Gen. 32: 27, let me go, for -; 3PJ '.'J. ^.D3.. (, Class IV, 19), Gen. 44: 2, my cup, the silver cup; '.3.' S.1 (, Class IV 20), Gen. 48: 7, and as for me, when I came. Promiscuous examples: 19), nnw', i>:, '~313, OiWvtr,._^., _ r't, D 3,.n*r *i. e. of a division of the verse in reading; but these divisions are often made by the accents without regard to the sense.

Page  17 QUIESCENCE OF THE FEEBLE LETTERS. 17 Daghesh f. Euphonic (~ 20, 2) will be pointed out as it occurs, in the Reading Lessons, and the student will soon learn to distinguish it. SECTION IV. QUIESCENCE OF THE FEEBLE LETTERS. [~ 23, 24.] The vowel-letters ' and ',* when they are said to quiesce, are properly sounded as vowels (~ 7, 2. ~ 8, 3). Of a different nature is the quiescence of, and X: the former represents no vowel sound, the latter only that of long a, for which, however, it is very rarely written (7 7, 2. ~ 8, 3, and ~ 23, 4, Rem. 1). These two letters are lost to the ear, when preceded by a vowel, merely in consequence of the feebleness of their sound.t Hence (with the single exception of K used for long a,) they are not treated as homogeneous with the vowel in which they quiesce (~ 8, 3), or as rendering it immutable (~ 25, 2). - But the two cases may properly be treated together, as, in both, the effect on the pronunciation is the same (i. e. the sound of the consonant is not heard separately from that of the vowel), and instances of quiescence are distinguished by the same rule. For convenient reference, we present at one view the feeble letters in connexion with the vowels in which they quiesce. * The sound of 1 is more nearly represented by w (better still by the German w) than by v; but the latter is employed for representing the consonant power of 1, on account of the difficulty of making our w heard as a consonant after a vowel. The readiness with which 1 dissolves, as it were, or melts into a vowel, will appear if we give it the sound of w as heard in water, in the examples 1_, 1 (~ 24, 2, b),,. - The sound of flows into a vowel with equal facility, as may be seen by pronouncing it as the consonant y in ',t, - In the loss of the original consonant power of these letters at the end of a syllable, the English and Hebrew exhibit the same analogy, except that in the former it is universal. t Compare h in eh! hah! where final h is sounded, and in ah, oh, where it is lost to the ear. 3

Page  18 EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. N'in all the vowels (~ 23, 1); 9 - b, NV tsd, W nF ND p, N1 ri, NK lai- (~ 24, 2, fine), ND. pit, NID p5 We shy, Z kii, ~ 23, 4, Rem. 3. FiHholem, 'i t' Qamets, mami Qamtsn a ~ 23,3 and 5, Rem. Seghol, i n me~ Tseri, r U JF I in Hholem, tS ot 8 3. Shureq, -lt Hhireq, ' I? i ) in Tseri, '1gg ~8,3. Seghol, 'or h- ) The following rule will enable the pupil to determine by the punctuation when these letters quiesce, and when they retain their power as consonants. The feeble letters are to be regarded as quiescent when they have no vowel or Sheva, and also, at the end of a word, when they are preceded by vowels in which they are accustomed to quiesce. This rule is founded on the principle (~ 10,1,3) that every con sonant must have either a iowel or a Sheva: when the feeble letter stands at the end of a word, where Sheva is not written, the character of the preceding vowel must determine whether it is to be sounded or not. He Mappiq (ri ~ 14, 1) of course retains its power as a consonant, whatever vowel may precede. Examples of quiescence: =t0" yi-taibh, 1"12 berith, =1(n me~-tdbh, 111Z Uh, #'7'nl yd-mF-hd a~ yj-khF19 t9VY ts~n, h.-D k59 -1N ts~th, "Inl-' di-bh-rF t eh' ra~sh, MIND Pii-rd, "I be1~, g~~I~K~s a. s il~' ri-shin, N1? lii, N1Z berY, '-I&? la'-dhi-ni (~ 24, 2, Compare the punctuation of these letters in the following examples, in which they retain their power as consonants: OM hem, ZU' yeN\X-tabh, qN1b' yc-Xesiph, nk) ve~ith, I-T'll yMh-djph, ThIM yia-har~gh, L)j kh'j4 61 C 't d' N I y a~) ~h.

Page  19 QUIESCENCE OF THE FEEBLE LETTERS. 19 Point out in the following examples the instances in which these letters quiesce, and those in which they retain their power as consonants, and give the pronunciation of the words: IN, D,',,t"l n), V.O, I,-, inn-, nm, n~~,-it, am n5, Lw n -,., n —, 2KWJ), 'r9,, N, n, ' rn, ^g, 'K, 1j'I * (. o, '3:5, ID, l N"'.1?,^ t, 'K Kp'., ^'iK'3, ltKn,,r W, nec: (. = o). The principles which regulate the quiescence of the Ehevi (^1q.) are very fully illustrated by the examples given in the Grammar (~ 24): exercises for practice in the application of them will be furnished by the inflexion of some of the irregular verbs. ** Otium of the Ehevi. The term otiant has been applied to K, in some instances in which it is preceded by a consonant with silent sheva: e. g. Kon, r2_I, KI, kinly, where the feeble sound of K was lost in pronunciation, at least the authors of the vowelsystem have indicated this, by leaving it without punctuation. Compare, however, ~ 28, 4, note t. - With these instances of K otiant are sometimes classed the few examples of ' preceded by a consonant with silent Sheva: as his, '- n. But the cases are different, - the latter having the pointing of other forms without ' (i), n:i.), their proper punctuation being 8P", nl3t. Yodh is arbitrarily passed over in pronunciation in the plural suffix I-, which is sounded av (~ 8, 4). - He has also been represented as otiant before Dagh. f. conjunctive, in such forms as for n.i!,n,: w-nn: but n is quiescent here, and this case belongs to ~ 27, 1. Note. The vowel-letters (1, ', and K when sounded as long a), "written in the line as real letters" (~ 1, 5), are original and essen. tial elements of the words to which they belong: hence the vowelsigns written in connexion with them (merely as representatives of the different vowel-sounds into which these feeble letters naturally flow (~ 8, 3) ) are also essential elements of the word, and of course, whether written fully or defectively, are immutable (~ 25, 1, 2). This, however, does not prevent the occasional, though very rare, exchange of one representative of the same vowel-letter for another; as, of I (defectively written..) for I., of; (defectively written. ~ 9, Rem. 9) for i: see ~ 27, Rem... - Analogous to this is the other case in which a vowel becomes essentially immutable; see ~ 25, 4.

Page  20 20 EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. SECTION V. CHANGES OF VOWELS; RISE OF NEW VOWELS AND SYLLABLES [f 25, 27, 28, 29.] I. Changes of Vowels. (~~ 25, 27.) From a comparison of nos. 1, 2, 3, of ~ 27, the student will perceive that a vowel, a) is exchanged for the kindred short vowel, when it loses the tone in a closed syllable (comp. ~ 26, 5); b) is exchanged for the kindred long vowel, when the syllable in which it stands is changed from a closed to an open one (comp. ~ 26, 3); c) falls away, when the tone is thrown forward. In applying the rules given in ~ 27, it should be observed that in some cases, when an addition is made to a word, the principles of syllabication allow of more than one change in its form. Thus, 1. The addition may begin with a vowel-sound (as b, '.) and be appended to a word ending with a consonant (e. g. DLt _, 07, y): the final consonant of the latter must, in this case, be united in a syllable with the initial vowel of the former (as n-, '3-, 'O-), because a syllable cannot begin with a vowel (~ 26, 1). The preceding vowel, when the tone is thus thrown forward, and the support of the consonant which closed the syllable is removed, must either be passed over so slightly as to be heard only as a half-vowel or vocal Sheva (t-jo, (aR) ltDpj; 9W, ('.) '.W), —or be dwelt upon with the full long sound required in an open syllable. The most perfect amalgamation is effected by the former method, and hence it is found in the inflexion of verbs by person, gender, and number. The other method is most commonly used in connecting the suffix pronouns with nouns and verbs, where, from the nature of the case, a less perfect amalgamation is

Page  21 CHANGES OF VOWELS. 2] required than in the inflexion of the verb by persons, &c. E. g. (in the inflexion of verbs) t.O1, (,.T) nptP; 7bj!, (I).toj..; lpVi, ('.) Lt.9): (in the union of suffix pronouns with nouns and verbs) D''Y, ('.) 'tWy; Ap_:,(D..) only. 2. An addition beginning with a consonant (as 11, O>) may be made to a word ending with a consonant. The final vowel is then treated according to the principles contained in ~ 26, 5. Hence, (1). When the tone is not thrown forward, the final syllable suffers no change. E.g. bip7, (,;b ),TD1p; iD5p ' 1p; ma (0:, ) Ut (2). When the tone is thrown forward, a) The final syllable, if its vowel is short, remains unchanged. E. g. minD, (D.1); (D3) oD7tDp. b) If the final vowel is long and unchangeable, the closing consonant must be united with the accessory syllable (since a long vowel cannot stand in a closed syllable without the tone), and of course must take a vocal Sheva. E. g. DD, (i) T1I.D; n'O, nT1'; Died;, (or) DOtplii^. c) If the final vowel is long and changeable, the original division of syllables is usually retained, and the vowel, standing in a closed syllable without the tone, is exchanged for the kindred short one (~ 26, 5). E. g. DQ7M, (Da:) D~lot7iY;., o;?|osi; 7t.?p, (I) -fi^tsi?; ^bod J1p (first. o= ); 0U, (nn) Dbnnj ( = rip, (-]) nimi?; nm, (Dp) DbO)|o; 179 or, ( ) l|7]jp1. - Here also, as in the preceding case, the final consonant might unite itself with the accessory syllable, and leave the preceding long vowel to stand in an open syllable (as '1(, () "?|13; jp, (1) SIV; C3?K,.:i..); but this is rarely done. 3. When an addition is made to a word ending with two consonants, the second of the two is united with

Page  22 22 EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. the accessory vowel or syllable; the pronunciation of two consonants after a vowel occasioning a harshness which is avoided where it is practicable, and hence occurs only at the end of words: compare ~ 26, 7. E. g. Cn, ('l) ^:l,.;." i, (D:) D:?._;,D., -"p1.. II. Rise of new Vowels and Syllables. (~ 28.) Three consonants may, in the course of inflexion, come before a vowel (~ 28, 1), 1. When a consonant without a vowel is prefixed to a word whose initial consonant is also destitute of a vowel: e. g. when 17, &,?,,, i, ',, &c., are prefixed to such forms as 'nO ('n-,I &c.), 17bp, '! V, '., 7 N. Write, with the proper pointing, 17,,, 1, before i' t, or e; ',, 7; be fore; before ', l7M.; ' before '!', ~,:N. 2. When a vowel, preceded by two consonants, falls away on account of some accession at the end, which causes the tone to be thrown forward one syllable (~ 27, 3, b): e. g. 7p, ( '.) '1D.; t?, (). p.. (~ 22, 3); ''I.V, (n,) l..; '', ('.). L.; TV>, ( j!) Jtn; 9A, (l ) i; - T I'( =), (0..) ZD.': supply the proper punctuation in each of these examples. 3. When the tone is thrown forward two syllables (~ 27, 3, *). Give the proper pointing to the following examples: Ilt, (with the plural ending D'.) D'.p, ~ 27, 3, a, (with the tone again thrown forward upon:the suffix ID, amalgamated with the plural ending so as to form the two syllables D'..) Q3'p.t; Wt, (T.'..) (hence; nIw'i (D.) 0a3t; a.?, (oa.n ) Doth.) (hence DtfJ: with _ in place of. as in a few other cases.) * The ult. and penult. vowels having fallen away, a helping vowel is supplied?n place of the first. This is Gesenius' explanation, and obviously a more simple and natural one than that given by Rodiger, loc. cit. For a still better one, se* page 30, Note t.

Page  23 PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES. 23 SECTION VI. PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES FOR REVIEW OF THE PRECEDING SECTIONS. Point out in the following words, 1. The division of syllables (distinguishing open and closed syllables, silent and vocal Sheva); 2. Instances in which the feeble letters quiesce, and those in which they retain their power as consonants; 3. Examples of Dagh. f. and of Dagh. 1. (giving the reason for the insertion or omission of the latter), of Pattahh furtive, and of.Mappiq. 4. Substitute a guttural in place of the letters enclosed between perpendicular lines, and supply the proper punctuation. WeDi, rl%,, nrja, nrp, )W3, n1t4, n111 9, mn:"1, 'TOI, ty1;, ny8l:, rn91 3^, *jPII^, w,.:'3,,ib?!vo ' 1',n, lw, Y, ainD?, n-p (composed of;1 and 1i.), it (~ 9,) i^JnrT, T,!'W, 3 ^|pJ, DJ:'KwIl,,1'9 (N, and t), n, (g 29, 4, a),.h,., |i, |5,.,,5n%, pnSK1, ntM, rT3G tol|, 8n.,n1., nHAW'., with prefix 3, ~ 21, Except. a), 'n', D'iM3 1'1, link (. = ), n=t.T, x', 'T"nh, un'ntOn,D.K, i5::, Ki.l, DJ35p, 3-1~X, nrb, rrn5,W, TO, o.5'J, nt (r-t and r), -i- (~ 29, 4, a). For a further review of these principles, the First Lessons in Translating may be used as exercises in reading. Give the reason for the changes (or for retaining the original form) in the following exercises, and supply the

Page  24 24 EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. proper punctuation where it is omitted. A perpendicular line marks a division of syllables. -I, D?,n-; n,i, (~ 1, 2i; '~, " r, ni'; ('n) '11i (~ 28, 4); FIUt (for fl 3);:, (for 1Dp?,, 1; n, 21t 1 (~ 2), 3); ft, 1; It,; p q ip'l; (~ and -|?1; D'J ('._ and )r; 2pixn (nfor un ); pbt, lbJy; i'j, 'i1; ' (', andrt;:1p^,X DVIIa (~ 21, Exc. c); jnn, i31n; pt, I tr, m: (^ 28, 4, compared with ~ 22, 2, a), toVJ;.7^, (C.) tnl-t1 ( 28, 4); tpnI (for [~tDM); 'J].1 (for 1 *".z); OM, OK; Oar?, M-11MM (~ 25, 3);?(, 'Sit; 17lD,>) (t7lOM and N); CM! (~^ and 1);: Z7,, (for Z1t70); D >p:, 13i=p; f^?, ti3=; In' (.! ~ and ~), ~ 24, 1, a; lt.., (j,),nj'" (~ 28, 4); 'tY ('g. and 1); 2', (D3) D.. "r; Dp, (1):]ljp; -tn, ('.) '.1,:;: ), ('.) n3; (1) n'-33; WP-, () iti;!K, 7; ', ('..J) '.j; YKxJ, iSx. SECTION VII. [ 30- 37.] INFLEXION OF THE VERB. [~~ 38-53.] The sufformatives employed in the inflexion of the Praet., Imp., and Fut., and the preformatives of the Fut. (~ 44, 1. ~ 47, 1, 2), are the same in all the conjugations, and are presented in the following table, which contains also references for explanation of the variations from the several ground-forms.

Page  25 INFLEXION OF THE VERB. 2 25 Preet. 3m. ~ o17 2 m.~ 2 f.J~ 1. I'M Plur. 3..1 l 2 f. t 1__~ 1., IP. M. __ f. Plr. M..IFut. 3m. -' ~ 27, 3, b, Sect. V. 1, 1. (ib.) (as 3 f.) ~ 27,3, a, Sect. V, I, 2, (2), a.I (ib.) ibid. (as 2 m. sing.) 4 - 71.. 0 ~5211 I ibid. 3 f. 2 na. 2 f. 1. Plur. 3 m. 3 f. 2 m. 2 f r. r. t r. N -1 t ~p ~27,3, b, Sect. V, I~ I1.&II, 2. ~ 28,1 Sect. V, I,2, 1. Niph. ~D1!! Sect. V,1II 1. jHiph. 17t~j~t~ i~28,1 L j Hoph. T:!? (as Imp. Sing.f) V (as Imp. pl. f.) -1 r7lP7 1..~~ (as sing. 3 in.) It is at least natural for the voice to dwell less upon a long vowel in a penult than in a final tone-syllable. On this principle might be explained the transition (under the influence of the tone) from'. to the shorter vowel.. (Compare ~ 27, Rem. 1) in Iliph. lFat. asr well as that from',. to - in Hiph. Prart., and from.. to - in the Prcet. of the Verb mid. E, and of Piel, - Pattahih having, in the formation of the verb, arbitrarily come in place of '. and.. merely as a shorter vowel-sound. When the forms of the Regular Verb have been made familiar, the student sh-ould go through the other paradigms t * If the first syllable is pronounced rapidly, it will be perceived that the slight mound of Ile is easily lost to the ear. t Except Paradigms F, L, M, and 0, which must be explained chiefly from the section placed at the head of each. 4

Page  26 26 EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. (in connexion with the section referred to at the head of each) and give the reason for every deviation from the general form given in Parad. B. E. g. Inf. const. jdiph. Dt,.t; Parad. D (~ 22, 1. ~ 27, 2, b), Parad. I (ibid.): Pret. 3 m. JV'iph., Hiph., and Hoph., 17%j %D:, 1'Drni,; Parad. D (~ 22, 3, Rem. 2, b); Parad. H (~ 19, 2, a, 20, 1, b, for Hoph. comp. ~ 52, Rem. 9); Parad. K(~ 24, 1, a, and 2, b, compared with ~ 68, 2); Parad. L (~ 24, 2, b. ~69, 1); Parad. O (~ 27, 2, c).-Imp. Kal, tbD, 3 (~ 46, 1. Rem. 1); Parad. H (~ 19, 3, a); Parad. K(ibid.); Parad. O (~ 27, 2, c). - Fut. Kal, 7ptDL, 13'; Parad. D (~ 22, 3. ~ 28, 2); Parad. H (~ 19, 2, a, 20, 1, b); Parad. I (~ 67, 1, - ); Parad. K(~ 68, 1); Parad. L (~ 24, 2, a). After he has thus made the structure of these paradigms familiar, he will be able to recognise their forms when pointed out in the subsequent exercises. They may in this way be gradually impressed upon the memory, - or a paradigm, or part of one, may be learned as a daily exercise. In making the forms of the Verb familiar, care should be taken that the English expression for a tense, person, &c. may suggest the corresponding one in Hebrew. To the following exercises, which are given as a specimen, others should be added by the instructor or by the learner himself. tp3 to visit (prop. he visited, ~ 39, note), qnS to learn, 1nf to cut of,:n to tread: I shall visit, thou (f.) wilt -, she will -, they (m.) will -; we have learned, ye (f.) have -, she has -, thou (f.) hast -; Piel, he has taught (caused to learn), they have -, thou (f.) hast -, she has -, ye (m.) have -, I have -, we have -, thou (f.) shalt teach, we shall -, she shall -, they (f.) shall -, teach ye (f.), teach thou (m.), I shall -, ye (m.) shall -, they (m.) shall -; Niph. I have been visited, ye (f.) have been -, thou (m.) hast been -, I shall be -, ye (m.) shall be -, thou (f.) shalt be -, she shall be -, we shall be -; Pual, taught, to be taught, 1 shall be taught, she shall be -, ye (m.) shall be -, thou (m.) shalt be -, we shall be -; to cut of, cutting of, cut of (Part.), cut thou of (f.), Hoph. I am cut of, we are -, tkou (m.) art -, they are -, ye (f.) are -, she is -, we shalt

Page  27 DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 27 -, thou (f.) shalt be -, ye (m.) shall be -, I shall be -, they (f) shall be -; tread thou (m.), tread ye (f.), they (m.) shall -, thou (f.) shalt -, ye (m.) shall -, Hiph. he hath caused to tread, they have -, I have -, ye (m.) have -, she hath -, thou (f.) hast -, cause ye (m.) to tread, cause thou (f.) -, cause ye (f.) -, he will cause to tread, I will -, ye (f) will -, she will, they (m.) will -, thou (f.) wilt -, ye (m.) will-. SECTION VIII [~ 78 - 93.] DECLENSION OF NOUNS. The portions of the Grammar to be studied in connexion with the following remarks are ~ 33, 1- 4. i 86-91. The declension of Hebrew nouns is very simple, the general principles which regulate it being few and easily applied. Attention to the following suggestions, and to the table of references subjoined, will make the subject plain to the learner. When he has made himself familiar with the general forms of inflexion exhibited in the paradigms, the occasional deviations from them, which he will meet with in reading, will cause him no embarrassment. 1. Construct State. By this is meant the state of the noun when it is connected, in grammatical construction, with a following one for expressing the relation of the Genitive (~ 87, 1). The two nouns being thus nearly connected in sense, are also uttered in very close connexion, almost as one word; and as the tone is principally thrown forward upon the second, the vowels of the first (if mutable) are naturally shortened in pronunciation. Thus in the constr. st. sing. a long and mutable vowel in an open penult syllable falls away (~ 27, 3, a); a long and mutable vowel in a final closed syllable is shortened (~ 27, 1.) E. g. D1, blood; blood of bullocks, D'. D1*': Fl, word; word of God, ~n * Pronounced together, as a single word, expressing the compound idea bullock's

Page  28 28 EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. DO',"i.': p'1, prefect; prefect of the Levites, ''lp D17i,-: '1, hand, dual.!''1, hands; hands of the artist (artist's hands), tV n,'' (~ 87, 2, a): t3'nI, words (~ 27, 3, a); words of peace, D1i 't1.. (the ultimate and penult vowels of ':1 being both mutable, ~ 27, 3,andhence D017 '11t Rcm. In some forms of the noun (see Paradigms VII, VIII, b, IX,) the tone is retained upon the final syllable in the sing. constr. st. Its stronger tendency to the final syllable, in this position of the noun, affects the preceding vowel (if mutable) as in the other paradigms, and in Parad. IX. occasions the substitution of Tseri for the feebler final vowel, Seghol: comp. ~ 74, 1, remarks 3d ff. 2. The declension of nouns exhibited in the first five paradigms consists merely in the application of the principles presented in Sect. V, I, to the last two vowels: in order to decline such nouns, therefore, the learner needs only to know the character of these vowels. Parad. VII. follows (with one exception, b, plur. absol.) the analogy of the verb, to which so many of the nouns thus declined properly belong (~ 91, expl. 7). Comp. ~ 27, 3, b, and the two modes of receiving an accession which begins with a vowel, Sect. V, I, 1. 3. Nouns of Parad. VI. are declined fiom the original monosyllabic root,* which, in derivatives from the regular verb, has the three forms T 17,?ED, Btj (~ 83, 11). This root, when it has no addition at the end, always appears under the forms ltj' (~ 27, Rem. 2, c), IDD, tWpq, i. e. with a helping vowel, according to ~ 28, 4. With a final guttural the helping vowel is Pattahh (~ 22, 2, a. ~ 28, 4); with a middle guttural, the original Pattahh also, in the first of the above forms, may be retained: e. g. jn"t, from lVt; It_, from "t1. blood. Compare the manner of connecting suffixes with such compound expressions, as if they formed but one word (~ 119, 3); as Vi.p 'll, word-of-holiness (for hoil word); j'jp I13" his word-of-holiness = his holy word. * Except that in the Plural, light suffixes are attached to the absol. st. according to the ge;eral rule, ~ 90, b.

Page  29 DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 29 Some nouns of the form '. have Hhireq under the first radical when they take suffixes. When, therefore, the inflexion of a noun of this form is required, its form with suffixes should be given,* as this can be known only from observing some instance in which the noun occurs with a suffix or other accession (as a paragogic letter, ~ 88) at the end. E. g. y.I land, 'je (Num. 10: 30) my land; the suffix form or monosyllabic root is therefore y..e: 1q] womb,:1t'] (Gen. 25: 23) thy womb: suffix form.tl3. Analogous to these are the monosyllabic roots derived from irregular verbs; viz. a) From verbs I, and '', (~ 84, IV. 11), rni for J.: (~ 24, 2, b), n't for IT3 (ibid.); with a helping vowel n't. (~ 27, 2, a), na (~ 28, 4), which is always its form except when some addition is made at the end. b) From verbs A1? (~ 84, V. 11), 'i, Kr,:I?, 'T. These forms would, by analogy, take a helping vowel ('^, &c.), and hence are properly ranked with Segholates, though, on account of their final feeble letter, they take the forms "'3,K,, '17 (~ 24, 1,b. ~ 27, 3, b). For their inflexion, see ~ 91, expl. 6, Rem. 6. 4. Declension of Feminine JVouns. (~~ 92, 93.) a) The original fer. termination n -, which in the absol. sing. usually appears in the weakened form I7 (~ 79, 2, comp. ~ 89, 4), remains unchanged in the constr. st. and before a suff. beginning with a consonant; comp. Sect. V, I, 2,2, a. E. g.,'tV, constr. Jt, with suff. nn1. But if the accession begins with a vowel, the final closed syllable becomes an open one (Sect. V, 1, 1), and - is lengthened to,; as I'A ~ 27 2, a. The final n also unites itself with the suff. J (~ 90, 2, c) with the same effect on the preceding vowel; e. g. g1. nT. b) The fern. plur. ending ni suffers no change in the constr. st., and only the preceding vowels (if mutable) are affected by this position of the noun. In the Plural, all suffixes are of course attached to this shortened form; comp. ~ 93. * as in the Lexicon of Gesenius.

Page  30 30 30 ~~EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. Parad. II. light suff. Sect. V. 1,1. grave suff. (a) expl. 2, Rem. Plur. absol. (as sing. light suff.) constr. ~,87, 2, it. ~S 27 3, a. light suff. ~91, h. grave suff. 6 9, 2. Dual absol. ~S86. constr. (as plur. constr.) III. ~ 87, I. comp. ~ 27,3, a. ~ 27, 3, a, Sect. V. I, 2, (2), b. ~% 87, 2, a. ~ 22, 2, b, 2d IT. DECLENSION IV. ~S27, 3, a. Sect. V. 1, 1. ~27,3, a, &1. Sect. V. I, 2, (2), c. ~87,1. ~ 27,3, ~28,1. Sect. [V. II, 3.t (as plur. absol.) (as plur. constr. See Sect. [V. II, 3, note.) Parad. constr. light suff. grave stuff. Plur. absol. constr. light suiff. grave suiff. Dual absol. constr. VI. d. (absol. 4' constr.) ~ 22, 2, Rem. 1. expl. 6. Sect. V. 1, 3. ~ 22, 3. (ib.) ~ 28, 3. expl. 6. (ib.) ~ 89, 2. II ~87, 2, a. b$ e, e, f. ** Sect. V. 1, 3. ~S 27, 1, (fC) comp. [~ 22 3, Rem.29,bh. ~9f 2,a. (c &f) Rem. 3. - ~27, 1,b. (b) comp. expl. 6, Rem. I, 2d ff (c) ~S 27, 1. **A dash denotes that the same reference * The light suffix everywhere takes the place of the Plur, as well as Dual termination. f It would be more simple to derive this form, and the next hut one, immredhftetly from the Pier. absol., applying the rule given Sect. V. II, 2. No. 3 of that Sect. wa added merely to preserve the representation given in the Grammar.

Page  31 DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 31 OF NOUNS. V. (b) as in Parad. IV. (a & b) expl. 5. comp. expl. 5. IV, I & V, c. lO 22, 3. I ~ 28, 3. ~ 22, 3. VI. a. (absol. 4. constr.) expl. 6, Rem. 1. expl. 6. Sect. V. I, 3. (ib.) expl. 6. (ib.) I ~S 87, 2, a. VII VIII. iX. no. 1. (b) no. 1. Rem. no. 1. Rem. ~ 87, c. O 27, 3, b. Iexpl. 8. comp. O 66, 3. 27. I. i~~~~Qt7, 1. ~~~S 27. 1. ~~~~~~~~~~comp. 74, 19. (a) as sing 1. sI$ I)62 (b) 86,4. Sect. V. 1, (b) 1. 86,2. (b) no. 4, b. 25 3. }b) no. 4, b. (as plur.. absol.) (b) ~ 27, 1. ~ 87,2, a. is to be made as in the preceding column. The Dual termination is appended to the monosyllabic root, except in derivatives from verbs;;L (see VI. i). Parad. f follows in its inflexion the analogy of the kindred forms ttj &c though, on account of the composite Sheva under the guttural, the first syllable r. mains an open one. ft But befcre Maqqeph, as

Page  32 32 EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. The following examples (chiefly from the Lehrgebaude) will show the nature of the occasional deviations from the Paradigms, and may be of service to the learner after he has made himself familiar with the general forms of inflexion. I. t3160, O'.Dbi (~ 27, Rem. 1); iDOrJ, ='.tV0. III. D'01, constr. D"!D, but D''ID, constr. 'D'1D and 'D')D, 1''1"D; '"3, constr. r"Il, but D'f"3, '" 3.; pl'tO, constr. ti'rn, niJ'r1U; '.mi1,,ilo~; DJ,,Duo; ~7-n, -J, - t, ~ -tW~ (. =( ~); 1?', D'Vln. IV. K~, constr. N?. (~ 27, 2, c); t"V, constr. e1lY and t4i; PJY, constr. pV2 and Yy,,'U. v. VK., constr. s bn (~ 27, 2, c); np.3, constr. 311p, 'lpl; iZ":, constr.. t:,,t N. VI. The following nouns of the form:, have Hhireq under their first radical in the suffix form: TJt1, t3, n3, t.1, ce), enJ! b j, tfT, nzt., mnv~, m1n, KD,' np?, Jn:, p, D, yrt, D, -itU, ^*j, i fl, ^Q, h s, p1y, nr2n,:-)p, '"ep, p.,: vn, to n, I pV.., t~rs, pn. The following take Seghol under the first radical: 7r, n'2, A, %,.J.; -nI, 'tnS and 'n1?; tn1 (constr. ''%), ',1" f nn,M with He parag. nT.n; 7,r, 7,n, ''3n; ~1$n,,'~', but with 3, '.:_l.-n-Y, -y), Y3_'nf, constr. Xlir (once),!y"I, y'/t. - ".', i'13 and 1'31; D'nn3l and D'"D, D?'"0); ' i't, 1'. and '.W, D D:~':;,.),v; % ' 3; 'Si, q%.-~'-J,!~J; r/', ]' 7, D~.iT. -. w, w'n, ".e", plur. D' '0W, O'.t,.D W.;.f.AI, DO. i D. VI.. - 1; ry, '.; 3, ',n, 3-..-Final Hholem pure is treated like the final Tseri of this paradigm, in ipIp, 7-n jp.; I WK, rni7tX (but see Lex.). VII., 13;.ny,.UL7.-?t', 'r7., Tt! and T!I.-p-h, 'pr and 'pi., 1.t.1P (see ~ 27, Rem. 1).- D, ID'.D; n1, 0D'3; 3D, lb DO.- t2, D'?V; iDO, constr..?DO;

Page  33 EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 3 33 rv~, '~ D'4~; ~ - 11, D'J~and Msl~ and 0'11; n!, ~~ ~IX. Seghol is sometimes retained in the constr. si. as inM MOV'7. SECTION!X. EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 1 7&,to my name: De' name, Parad. VIL.; '. my, '~!my name;' to (~ 1 00,2); 'tV&? (Sect. V. II, 1), (~ 28, 1). 2. 'nj~ in, my hand: n, ~ 100,2; 'T hand, Parad. 11. ~Write in Hebrew, in our hand,* in thy (in.) hand, ~89, in thy (f.) hand, in your (in. and f.) hand, (~ 91, Expi. 2, Rem.). 3. and in thy (in.) hand:.1, conj.. and, ~ 102, Rem. 4. 7111n, from thy (in.) hand: jt' from, ~ 97, 1, 2d ~1.~ 19, 2, a. ~ 20, 1, b. ~ 1 00, 1. Write in Heb. from his, her, thy (f) hand, your (pl. f)hand. 5 Jhands; Dual number, ~ 86 b, Parad. 11. 'V hands of Esau: V'.V '"!'Z, as Esau'-s hands; Z, ~ 100, - "'D!, Sect. V. II, 1, "'Tn (k~y-dhE), ~ 28, 1, "VpI, ~ 24, 1, a: =D1'm!., and in (with) your (pl. in.) hands; D',(Dual with suff.) Z-, ),~102, Rem. 6. 'Tn. glory; 11.1'D (~ 35) the glory; 71:1. = (with prep. D, 100, and art. ~ 35, Rem. 2. ~ 19, 3, b), according to the glory. 7. '1tfrom thy pitcher: 1P ID (Parad. VIII.), J. 8. -Jj~P from thy land: ~,~22, 1. ~ 27, 2, b. Kmonosyl. root rae Sect. VIII. 3. V. I, 3. Parad. VI. a. * The exercises on the suffix pronouns may be written with the table of suffixes refore the eye of the student, or from memory, as the teacher shall direct. - The lexicon should be consulted on each of the elements given in the analysis. 5

Page  34 34 34 ~~EXERCISES IN HEBREW GRAMMAR. 9. 117,in its season::3, INV~ (Parad. VIII.), 1. 10. ilnZ in his right hand: Z, 1'7V (Parad. III.), 1. Ii1. J~PP fr-om thy midst: tP n'l (lit, inward part, Parad. VI. suffix form nl etpII.3 em) i Write in Heb. in our midst, and in thy (f) midst, from their midst; -my inward parts (light suiff. ~ 91, b), and in his inward part, and in their inward part, in my inward part (within me), in your inward parts. 12. Or4 people; O.VT the people, MT art., ~ 35; '~jt OV M elders of the people, 'P plur. constr. Parad. V.; D~T I~j?71and of (the) elders of the people,.1 no. 3. 13. 11.~ on my affliction, Z, '4. (orig. monosyl. root 'ISect. VIII. 3, b, Parad. VI. ~91, expi. 6, Rem. 6; like 'Jwith suiff. "$M), suqJ... 14. O= MI and the stones: D' plur. ending; j'~X stone, Parad. VI.;T article, ~35, 1;! 15. TN~Tp~zI, and I have taken thee: Ti.j Mr Ka Pret. I ing.IP1T+ I have taken, with suiff. t~h'I~P~ (~57, table. and 3, a; tone, ~ 58, 2.~27, 3, a);.1. Give the formis with szaff. for I have taken them, thee (),him, her, you (in. andf) 16. 1I~Jnrtirt, thou hast taken uts: Prcet. 2 mn. sing 17. 'Irrp', he took me: M and '~, ~ 97 3, b; for vowel changes see ~ 27, 3, a, and 2, a. Give the form with the suffixes her, him, us, themn, and you (in. and f). 18. 1 ~ t!,nZ according to his ruling: n he ruled; Inf. constr:. (a kind of verbal noun, ~45, 1. ~ 129, 1 and 2), to rule, the ruling; with suff. 1~cli( O= ~60, 1.,~ 91, expl. 6, Rem. 4, his ruling; Ih ~00. 19. 1 (lnn fnf. constr. ),whcn he reigned (began to reign), lit, in (or at) his reigning. 20. he ate, Jnf. constr. t2')N; 1- N' when we ate (or eat), lit, in (at the time of) our eating. - The

Page  35 EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 35 principles of punctuation admit of another form (~ 60, Rem. 2); M.D7. (~ 27, 1, a. Sect. V. 1, 2, (2), c), with prefix ', DI (~ 28, 2), in your eating = when ye eat. 21. 'I 1:5, and when, I speak, - lit, and in my speaking; ' 'T (like 17tV ), lnf. consir. Piel of 3 Give the forms with other suffixes. 22. '~~f17, that I may dwell (there), lit. for (in order to) my dwelling; ', -DV (Inf. constr. of J~) 1 (I 100. ~ 129, 2).

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