Constitution of Athens. A revised text, with an introduction, critical and explanatory notes, testimonia, and indices by J. E. Sandys.
Aristotle., Sandys, John Edwin, Sir, ed. 1844-1922,

Page  I ARISTOTLE'S CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS t

Page  II AA.4

Page  III I I

Page  IV _ NA (1) TTINA\KION ~NIKeCTIKON (c. 63 ~ 4) (3) (2) (2) and (3) KAHPOI OECMO66TCON (e. 63 ~ 5) (4) I4 (5) (4) and (5) cymBoAA AIKA\CTIKe\ (col. 32, 14) I ' l-' (6) 'f'HcfOC TETPYTTHMCNH (7) 9'H4oc TTAHpHC (col. 35, 27-29) 2:KEYH AIKAX7TIKA (See descriptionz on p. lxxvi) tZO;

Page  V APITOTEAOY5 AOHNAIQN HOAITEIA ARISTOTLE'S CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS A REVISED TEXT WITH AN INTRODUCTION CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY NOTES TESTIMONIA AND INDICES BY JOHN EDWIN SANDYS, LITT.D., FELLOW AND TUTOR OF ST JOHN'S COLLEGE, AND PUBLIC ORATOR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE; HON. LITT.D. DUBLIN. TetradracAhm of Athens, c. 590-525 B.C. (See note on page 39.) 1lonbon: MACMILLAN AND CO. AND NEW YORK. I893 [All Rights reserved.]

Page  VI 14 CTambribge: - PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. AND SONS AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 4 4

Page  VII PREFACE. THE preparation of the present volume was planned not long after the memorable publication of Mr Kenyon's editio princeps on Friday, the thirtieth of January, I89I. In that important work much was happily done by its able editor to facilitate the study of the newly discovered treatise by a skilful decipherment of the papyrus, by a careful comparison of the text with that of the existing fragments, by a judicious restoration of a large number of passages imperfectly preserved in the manuscript, and by an eminently readable commentary on many interesting points of constitutional history. The editio princeps was also the editoris primitiae; and, considering the brief limits of time within which it was prepared, and notwithstanding certain superficial blemishes which have since been removed, it was undoubtedly a remarkable achievement. In the opinion, however, of competent critics there appeared to be room, by the side of Mr Kenyon's work, for an edition in which closer attention might fitly be paid to matters of scholarship and verbal criticism, together with a more minute comparison of the fresh evidence with that already familiar to us in two closely allied departments of Classical learning, (i) the Constitutional History, and (2) the Legal Antiquities of Athens. There was also at that time an acknowledged need of an Index Graecitatis; and lastly there was a call for a fuller and clearer statement of the evidence on the text so far as it could be derived from quotations in later Greek literature. It has been the aim of the present writer to endeavour to supply such an edition. 3

Page  VIII viii PREFA CE The Introduction begins with a slight sketch of the political literature of Greece before the time of Aristotle, so far as it was directly concerned with theories of government. This is followed by a brief notice of the Politics of Aristotle and of the lost political works ascribed to the same author. The external evidence as to the authorship of the HloXLrEZat is next reviewed in chronological order, showing that, according to testimony extending over fifteen centuries from the age immediately succeeding that of Aristotle, the work, as a whole, was ascribed to Aristotle and to none beside. A brief account of the later literature of the subject is succeeded by a description of the Berlin Fragments, and the British Museum papyrus, of the 'AOoqvaowv 7roXLieta. The date of the treatise is placed between 328 and 325 B.c., which corresponds to the latter part of Aristotle's life; and, after a discussion of its relation to the Politics, and an examination of its style and language, it is accepted as being substantially the work of Aristotle himself; due regard is, however, paid to the considerations that have been urged on the other side by several eminent scholars. The discussion of the authorship is followed by an indication of the authorities either certainly or probably used by the writer. This is succeeded by an abstract of the contents, which (excepting a few dates added for the sake of clearness, with one or two items supplementary to the lost beginning of the treatise), is strictly confined to the author's own statements, any extraneous matter being carefully distinguished as such. The rest of the Introduction is mainly devoted to a conspectus of the Bibliography of the treatise, showing that, apart from editions and translations and separate works, the number of writers of signed contributions to the literature of the subject, in the department of periodical publications alone, already exceeds one hundred and thirty. Many of these papers were not published until after the present edition was already in type, the Commentary on the first forty-one chapters and the first draft of the Critical Notes and Testimonia having been written during the Long Vacation of I891, while the greater part of the Introduction was prepared for delivery in the form of College Lectures in the autumn of the same year. An abstract of the contents of some of the more recent literature is included in the conspectus, wherever it seemed to be desirable. Professor Bruno Keil's important volume of nearly 250 pages on the Solonian Constitution as described in the 'AO-rvatov 7roXerda, with many interesting criticisms on the treatise in general, did not appear until the present edition was nearly ready for publica*

Page  VIII1 PREFA CE viii1 tion; but it has been found possible to include a few references to it in the Addenda and in the English Index. In settling the Text I have constantly used the facsimile published by the Trustees of the British Museum; and, on nearly all points of special difficulty, I have also endeavoured to form an opinion of my own by consulting the papyrus itself. In the case of passages imperfectly preserved in the MS, I have considered it safer to accept Mr Kenyon's testimony as to the exact number of letters still visible, than that of other editors who, without having had the advantage of inspecting the MS, much less of having constant access to it, have not unfrequently indicated letters as actually visible which (at the best) are represented only by the faintest traces in the facsimile on which their texts are confessedly founded. Where the reading is uncertain, or the IS defective, I have freely admitted conjectures that commended themselves to my judgment as sound restorations of the text. My own conjectures, so far as they are here put forward for the first time, are always distinguished by an asterisk whenever they are included in the text; but even of these, several must be regarded as merely provisional and tentative restorations. Others are only suggested in the notes. References to all of them may be readily found in the English Index, under the heading 'Conjectures.' In the Critical Notes the readings of the MS are for convenience recorded in a distinctive type. No one, however, who is familiar with the facsimile as a whole, or with the specimen published in Mr Kenyon's Translation, will regard these 'small uncials' as intended to represent the actual characters used by any one of the four copyists employed on the work. I have also indicated the readings or conjectures adopted in the principal critical editions that have already appeared; the Dutch edition, by van Herwerden and van Leeuwen; the two German editions, by Kaibel and von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, and by Blass respectively; and the third (and carefully revised) edition by Mr Kenyon. Where Mr Kenyon has himself withdrawn the reading proposed in his first edition, I have not thought it desirable to record the reading so withdrawn, unless it helped to explain some of the earlier conjectures which in themselves appeared deserving of mention. I have therefore said nothing about such purely provisional readings as Kap8&a Kat KOLV-J in c. 40 1. 7. It was clear that Kap&'a could not be right, and more than one scholar (for example, Professor Blass, Professor Mayor, and Mr Bywater) saw at once that Ka i8L'a Kal KOLV7 was a necessary correction; S. A. bneesar S. A. b

Page  VIII2 viii2 *. * PREFA CE but, now that it is admitted that this is virtually the reading of the papyrus, in which KAIAIA is corrected into KAIIAIA, it is no longer necessary to record the text of the first edition. At the time, however, when the above suggestion was made, it had every right to be described as an 'emendation'; and it may be interesting to add that, as such, it attracted the notice of the late Mr Freeman, who observes in the preface to the third volume of his History of Sicily:-' such an emendation as this is not conjecture at all; it is the keen instinct of the true expert seeing his way straight to the right thing.' Again, it has not been deemed desirable to record all the conjectures that have been proposed since the publication of the editio princeps, many of them, however attractive at first sight, being excluded by our present knowledge of the actual readings of the papyrus, or by other considerations. The Testimonia, printed immediately below the critical notes, contain further evidence on the text, in the form of quotations in Greek Lexicographers, Scholiasts, and others. Many, but by no means all, of these, had already been recorded in the various editions of the Fragments. In the present volume, a good deal of pains has been spent on the endeavour to trace in the Scholiasts, and in authors such as Aristides, tacit quotations or paraphrases of our text, which had hitherto escaped detection owing to their source having been unacknowledged. In the case of these quotations, it has been thought best not to remain content with giving references alone, but (as a general rule) to print the passages in full. It is only thus that their exact value in relation to the text can be readily seen. In the Explanatory Notes considerable space has naturally been assigned to the quotation of parallel passages, especially from the Politics; and on every point an endeavour has been made to compare the new evidence with the old. In the historical notes to the first part x (c. I —41) much had already been accomplished by Mr Kenyon; but the second part (c. 42 to the end) was comparatively new ground. Throughout the work special attention has been given to the evidence.. of Greek Inscriptions. The Greek Index gives a complete list of the vocabulary, with full citations of the phraseology of the treatise, including that of the passages quoted from the poems of Solon and the decrees of Athens, which are 4 duly distinguished from citations from the body of the work. Words not recorded in the Index Aristotelicus, and words hitherto unknown, are indicated by distinctive marks. In checking the items in this Index, 4

Page  VIII3 PREFA CE viii3 Vlll much help has been derived from the two Greek Indices, the Index Dictionis and the Index NXnzinum et Rerum, of the Dutch edition; but in the present work it has been thought best to have only one Greek Index, and to adopt a more convenient mode of reference. The preparation of this Index has been a laborious task and has considerably delayed the publication of the volume. The Archaeological Illustrations in the frontispiece are borrowed from Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des Antiquits (Hachette, Paris): the Aeginetan and Attic coins on p. 39, from Baumeister's Denkmdler des Klassischen Alterthums (Oldenbourg, Munich). To the publishers of both of these important works, the best thanks are due for the readiness with which they have accorded the use of these illustrations. Among those who in other ways have aided me in preparing the present work, I gladly mention in the first place Mr Kenyon, who, with his able colleagues in the department of Mss at the British Museum, has afforded me every facility for studying the papyrus; and, at times when my daily duties in Cambridge made it impossible for me to visit the Museum, has readily given me the fullest information on any point on which I had occasion to consult him. It is a pleasure to add that for a large number of valuable notes and references I am indebted to the kindness of two whose names have long been eminent in the world of scholars:-Mr W. L. Newman, Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, and editor of Aristotle's Politics, and the Rev. John Eyton Bickersteth Mayor, Senior Fellow of St John's, and Professor of Latin in the University of Cambridge. I am similarly indebted in no less degree to a scholar of more recent reputation, Mr W. Wyse, late Fellow of Trinity, and now Professor of Greek in University College, London, whose felicitous emendations of the text, founded mainly on a minute acquaintance with the Attic Orators, and proposed at a time when he was resident in his College rooms in Cambridge, are one more proof that the spirit of Dobree still happily dwells in its ancient home. Lastly, in response to a request conveyed by Mr George Macmillan, Secretary of the Hellenic Society and a member of the firm by which this volume is published, his Excellency the Minister for Greece, whose recent departure from England is regretted by all lovers of Hellenic learning, was good enough to lend me his own copy of the admirable emendations proposed by his brother, Anastasios Gennadios, in the columns of an Athenian newspaper taking its name from the Acropolis. b2

Page  VIII4 viii4 PREPFAF CE He also kindly allowed me the use of a number of a Greek philological magazine, 'AOrlva, containing valuable articles on the textual criticism of the treatise by G. A. Papabasileios, and K. S. Kontos. This magazine was not to be found in the Library of the British Museum, and is practically inaccessible in England except to its annual subscribers. While engaged in exploring the scattered literature of such a subject as the present, one feels in such a case, no less than in that of the Sitzungsberichte of the Berlin Academy, the full force of the complaint made not long ago by the late Mr Freeman. 'No man can undertake to find out every pamphlet and every article. And, when one has found what is wanted, it is sometimes forbidden to buy the number that one wants, unless one chooses to buy a whole volume that one does not want.' I can only add that I shall be grateful to writers of similar articles for any separate copies of their papers that happen to be available; and, if in this way I become possessed of any duplicates, I propose to present the duplicate to a Library where it will be readily accessible to many who are interested in the subject. I owe much besides to the principal editions of the treatise, especially to Mr Kenyon's third edition, more particularly for details connected with the readings in the papyrus. The study of the MS and of the facsimile alike has been considerably facilitated by the convenient plan adopted in the Dutch edition of Professors Van Herwerden and Van Leeuwen, in which the contents of the MS are indicated, not merely column by column, but also line by line. The edition of the text by Professors Kaibel and von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff has been of much use in revising the text and the testimonia, and in dealing with the fragments. In this last particular, as in some others, a still further advance has been made in the very useful Teubner text recently edited by Professor Blass, the results of whose subsequent examination of the papyrus have, by his own kindness, reached me in time to be included in the Addenda. My obligations to other published works are acknowledged as they arise, and are also expressed in general terms at the close of the bibliographical part of the Introduction. It may here be noticed that several of the most important of the books of reference to which I am thus indebted, are already attesting in their new editions the value of the evidence on the Constitutional History and the Public Antiquities of Athens which is contained in the treatise that, little more than two ----II le

Page  VIII5 PREFA CE viii5 Vlll years ago, was so unexpectedly restored to us from the tombs of Egypt. Up to the time of that fortunate event, the student was compelled to satisfy his curiosity with the scattered fragments that, in successive generations, first in Italy and France, and afterwards in Holland and Germany, had been diligently sought by the industry of scholars, and collected into one by those 'friends of Truth,' who (in Milton's phrase) 'imitating the carefull search that Isis made for the mangl'd body of Osiris, went up and down gathering limb by limb still as they could find them.' Even now, when in place of these disiecta membra, the actual body of the work has been happily recovered in an approximately complete condition, the ' friends of Truth' have made much ado over many minor details of the great discovery. After all that has been found, the quest continues still; but it is no longer limited, as it was two years ago, to the enterprise of a single scholar, enjoying all the privileges, and, at the same time, encountering not a few of the perils of a solitary pioneer. On the contrary, it is shared by a goodly number of eager investigators in many lands; and the very number of those who are joining in the quest is almost a source of embarrassment to any one of them who attempts to gather up the main results of their research and to combine them with his own. The last two years have led to many points connected with the new treatise being viewed in a more sober light and with a more fitting sense of proportion: the exaggerated expectations that were at first aroused have been followed by a natural reaction, which is now succeeded in its turn by the prevalence of an intermediate state of settled contentment. Meanwhile, the excitement of that earlier time is over; and those who are still engaged on the quest must be content to continue their patient toil unstimulated and unrewarded by any such general and public interest as that which justly awaited the first announcement of an event which has enabled men of letters to realise in the present day some of the joyous surprises of the age of the Renaissance. In the feeling language lately used in Cambridge by a learned prelate belonging to both of the two oldest Universities of the United Kingdom, 'the dignity and nobility of a scholar's life lie in this, that it claims no recognition, and asks for no reward. It seldom admits of excitement; it has no prospect of great encouragement; it looks forward to no definite achievement.' There are times, however, when a student, while attempting to restore and explain some imperfectly recorded remnant of

Page  VIII6 viii6 PR EFA CE the past, may take a quiet pleasure in obeying the precept of George Herbert:'If studious, copie fair what Time hath blurr'd'. And at last there is a moment when, in the spirit of thankfulness that comes with the completion of an arduous undertaking, he may, as at present, offer to the kindly criticism and to the use of others a work which, however long delayed by lack of leisure, and however inadequate in itself, has at least been the result of the most unsparing labour and the most strenuous endeavour. December 27, I892. A 4 4

Page  VIII7 CONTENTS. PAGES INTRODUCTION ~ i. 7he political literature of Greece before the time of Aristotle ix-xii ~ 2. Political works ascribed to Aristotle.... xii-xix ~ 3. Evidence of ancient authorities on the authorship of the HIIoX\ria........ xix-xxix ~ 4. The later literature of the HIoXtre.... xxix-xxxi ~ 5. The Berlin Fragments of the 'AOrvalwv 7roXtrea.. xxxi-xxxiii ~ 6. The British Museum Papyrus..... xxxiv-xxxix ~ 7. Date and Authorship of the treatise.... xxxix-liv ~ 8. Authorities followed in it....... liv-lviii ~ 9. Abstract of its contents...... lix-lxvii ~ io. Conspectus of the Literature of the subject... lxvii-lxxv ~ ii. List of Abbreviations used in the critical notes... xxvi ~ 2. List of Illustrations.... lxxvi CORRIGENDA....... xxvi ADDENDA...... lxxvii-lxxx TEXT AND NOTES, including 'Fragmenta ex papyri paginis ultimis' (237-249)........ I-249 HERACLIDIS EPITOMA........ 50 FRAGMENTA ex prima libri parte 25I-3; dubia 253-4; aliena 254-5 25I-5 FRAGMENTORUM IN PAPYRO LONDINENSI INVENTORUM INDEX. 256 GREEK INDEX...... 57-296 ENGLISH INDEX......... 297-302

Page  VIII8 r AT I'l

Page  IX INTRODUCTION. i. The political literature of Greece before the time of Aristotle. IN a brief preliminary survey of the political literature of Greece, it is unnecessary to dwell on the names of representatives of the pre-Socratic schools of philosophy, such as Pythagoras of Samos and Protagoras of Abdera, although the former is said to have written a 7rOXLTLKOV -vyypa/xya (Diog. Laert. viii 6), and the latter a treatise wrep' 7roXiTrela (ib. ix 55). The work ascribed to Pythagoras was undoubtedly spurious; like that of Protagoras, it has been lost to posterity. The earliest extant specimen of this branch of literature is the treatise preserved among the works of Xenophon under the title of 'AO-rvatwv 7roXLTrta. Among modern scholars Cobet stands almost alone in being content to accept it as Xenophon's (Nov. Lect. p. 706). Its authorship is in fact uncertain: it has been attributed to Alcibiades2, and also to Critias3, who is known to have written on the 7roXLTrEaL of Sparta, Thessaly and Athens. It may fairly be regarded as emanating from the oligarchical party at Athens, and as primarily intended for the perusal of readers at Sparta who sympathised with their aims. It was probably written between B.C. 426 and 4I3. It is in any case the earliest Greek political treatise that has come down to us. More than this, it is the 'oldest extant specimen of literary Attic prose 4'; it is also 'the oldest extant specimen of a political pasquinade'. The real or imputed abuses of the Athenian Democracy are attacked in a tone of bitter sarcasm or insidious irony, relieved by acute remarks on interesting points of national economy, such as the relations of Athens to her subjects and rivals, and the comparative strength and weakness of her naval and military establishments5. The AaKeSa/A1ovWv roXtTreta, though regarded as spurious by Deme1 Cf. Henkel, Studien zzr Geschichte Athens, III v, vol. i p. 39o Frankel. tier Griechischen I.ehre vom Staat, esp. 4 Jebb, Primer of Gk. Lit., p. II4. pp. I-17, die politischen Schriften (der 5 Col. Mure's Literature of Greece, v Philosophen. 422-5. See also A. Kirchhoff, in the 2 W. Helbig, Rhein. Mus., xvi 51 ff. Abhandlungen of the Berlin Academy 3 e.g. by Boeckh, Public Economy of for 1874.

Page  X x THE POLITICAL LITERA TURE OF GREECE trius of Magnesia (Diog. Laert. ii 57), is accepted as the work of Xenophon by Plutarch (Lyc. i) and others in ancient times, and among the moderns by Cobet (Nov. Lect. p. 705-724) and many others. Its date is possibly later than the battle of Leuctra (371); but is more probably between 403 and 40I. It is a work inspired throughout by admiration of Spartan institutions. The Kv'pov Wrat6&ia is later than the death of Socrates (Cyrop. III i 38-40), and was probably written after Xenophon's return from exile, or about 369. While professing to describe the education of the founder of the Persian empire, it is really a historical and political romance, an idealised biography with a didactic purpose, being practically an encomium on Socratic principles and Spartan practice. It is prompted by the author's experience of Hellenic political and social life, especially the instability and vicissitudes of various forms of government'. The pamphlet entitled 7ropot [I3 7rept rpoo-wSov] was probably not the work of Xenophon, but was written about 346 B.C. as a manifesto of, the party who held that the commercial prosperity of Athens depended on peace with Philip. It suggests several expedients for enlarging the revenue, especially by means of taxes levied on resident aliens, as well as profits derived from the labour of Io,ooo public slaves who were to be employed in the mines of Laurium. Passing from 'Xenophon' to Plato, we have in the Republic the most memorable of all delineations of an Ideal State. In the first four books the description of the State is in harmony with Hellenic notions of religion and morality; in the remainder, the Hellenic State is transformed into an ideal kingdom of philosophy, of which all other governments are perversions2. In the eighth book' all conceivable forms of constitutions are reduced to five classes, represented by aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy and despotism or tyranny, corresponding to five leading types of individual character. In the portraits of the typical 'timocrat', tyrant, and democrat, and in the account of the successive changes which they represent, we have a sequence of transformations that is not entirely in accordance with historical facts, but nevertheless supplies us with something of the nature of a philosophy of history. The author is clearly no lover of democracy, or indeed of any of the existing varieties of government. His gaze is fixed on something above and beyond the horizon of his time. In his view, as expressed in the closing words of the ninth book, the man of understanding is little likely to be a politician in the land of his birth, though he will certainly be a politician in an ideal city which is all his own; 1 Introduction to Holden's ed. 2 Jowett, Introd. to the Republic, p. 3. P p 544, compared with 1v ul't.

Page  XI BEFORE THE TIME OF ARISTOTLE xi a city whose pattern is laid up in heaven, and he who desires may look on that pattern and in the vision find indeed his home. But whether there really is, or ever will be, such a city, is of no concern to him; for he will do all things in obedience to the laws of that city and of no other. The Republic is almost always called the IIoXireta, but sometimes bears the plural name, IIoXtTrZat. Thus Themistius (ii 32 c) associates with the name of Plato, IIoXitTrEa TE at KXELvaL KaO o[ OECT7reTLOL No/zot. The dialogue on the Laws was composed after the Republic (Ar. Pol. ii 3, i), and was published after the author's death (Diog. Laert. iii 37). It sets forth in minutest fulness the details of an Ideal Code; and, in the absence of any actual code of the institutions of Athens, the indications of the existing laws therein contained are often of special value. The lofty conception of the 'rule of Philosophers' is here abandoned, and the state described is the best which is practically possible under the existing limitations of Greek life. In the third book the author reviews the constitutions of Sparta, Persia and Athens, noting the causes of the success and failure of each; and then proceeds to develop his own constitution. In the Platonic dialogue, entitled the IIoXtrLKo', or an inquiry into the definition of a Ruler, there is much affinity with the Laws of Plato and the Politics of Aristotle. In contrast to the doubtless earlier scheme in the Republic, with its five types of constitution, we here find a series of seven, in which, apart from the ideal and only perfect type, we have six existing forms of government. These six are obtained by dividing the rule of the One (,FovapX^a), of the Few ( vtrTO rev oXItyowv vvwao-EEa), and of the Many (8&luoKparla) into two varieties each, (i) into kingship and tyranny, and (2) into aristocracy and oligarchy, while the two varieties of democracy ('constitutional government' and 'simple democracy') are undistinguished by any differences of name. The distinction in each of these three pairs turns upon the question whether Law is observed or not2. In its political views, and probably in its date, this dialogue occupies an intermediate position between the Repzublic and the Laws; and its classification of typical forms of government reappears, with slight differences of terminology, in the Ethics and Politics of Aristotle3. Of the other political dialogues bearing Plato's name, the Epinomis is an appendix to the Laws, and is mainly concerned with Education; the Minos dis1 See esp. K. F. Hermann, De vestigiis 3 Eth. viii ro; Pol. iii 7 and vi (iv) 2. institutorum veterium, imprimis Atti- Cf. Newman's Politics, i 430-433, and corum, per Platonis de Legibus libros Prof. Sidgwick in Class. Rev. vi I41 indagandis, 1836. -4. 2 Politicus, pp. 291, 302.

Page  XII Xll POLITICAL WORKS ASCRIBED cusses the definition of Law; but neither of these can be reckoned among the genuine works of Plato. The above summary has been purposely confined to writings strictly concerned with politics, to the exclusion of historical works in which political discussion only plays a subordinate part. Otherwise, we might have recalled the debate on the relative merits of monarchy, oligarchy and democracy, which is ascribed to the Persian grandees in the pages of Herodotus (iii 80-82); and the reflexions on the effects of party spirit in Grecian politics, to which Thucydides is prompted by the narrative of the vengeance of the victorious demos on the oligarchs of Corcyra (iii 82 f). As it is, in the limited field of purely political literature, we have noted the rise of the polemical pamphlet, and the historical romance, while in Plato's delineation of an Ideal State and an Ideal Code, we have seen the prototype of writings such as Sir Thomas More's Utopia and Bacon's New Atlantis. The setting forth of such ideals became a favourite medium for the expression of political criticism; but it is characteristic of Aristotle that, while following this fashion, he succeeded in bringing the political speculations of philosophy into closer relation with the facts of history. In the language of one of the foremost authorities on the political writings of Aristotle, "political science 'begins' for Aristotle 'in History', no less than in Ethics"'. 'The vision of an ideal State did not make Aristotle indifferent to the problems and difficulties of the actual State. The age which dreams of ideal States is often on the point of losing its interest in politics; but this was far from being the case with Aristotle2'. ~ 2. Political works ascribed to Aristotle. Among the political writings ascribed to Aristotle by far the most * important is, of course, the Politics. The imperfect form in which it has come down to us has been variously explained The earlier view, supported by Spengel3, was that the work of Aristotle was originally completed by himself, and that important portions of it were afterwards lost. The later view, which is more probable in itself, and is accepted by almost all Aristotelian scholars in modern times, regards the Politics as a work that was left unfinished. This view is corroborated by the fact that in later writers we have no reference to the Politics which cannot be traced to the existing work. The latest event mentioned in it is the death of Philip, B.C. 336 (viii (v) 8, Io, p. I3II b 2). As to 1 Mr W. L. Newman's Politics, vol. i 2 ib. p. 89. p. I5. 3 Ueber die Pol. des Ar., pp. 44 if.

Page  XIII TO ARISTOTLE xiii the order of the books, it can hardly be doubted that, owing to the nature of their contents, books vii and viii should come immediately after iii, while it is not quite certain that books v and vi should be transposed. The order adopted by Susemihl is as follows: i, ii, iii, vii, viii, iv, vi, v. Thus books iv-viii of the new order correspond to vii, viii, iv, vi, v, of the old'. In the Politics Aristotle discusses the origin of the household, the village and the state, and examines the nature of property, and in particular of property in slaves (Bk. i). The citizen is defined as one who shares in the judicial or deliberative administration of a state. In the next book, Aristotle criticises the Republic and the Laws of Plato, the constitutions framed by Phaleas and Hippodamus, and the actual forms of government prevailing in Sparta, Crete and Carthage, closing with some (possibly interpolated) criticisms on Solon and Pericles (II). The various types of government are thereupon described in turn, Monarchy, Aristocracy and a mixed constitutional system called oroXrtTea, together with the three forms into which they respectively degenerate, Tyranny, Oligarchy and Democracy (iII). The author next delineates his Ideal State, and deals with the subject of Marriage and of Education, Bk iv (vii). The latter should be national and also liberal; its two main branches are 'music' and 'gymnastic', Bk v (viii). The types of government are then discussed in detail. Of the three perversions, Tyranny, the perversion of Monarchy, which is itself the best and most divine, is necessarily the worst. Oligarchy, the perversion of Aristocracy, is not so bad as Tyranny; the last, and the least bad, is Democracy. The different kinds of government are then further discriminated, with the forms assumed by the deliberative and the executive power in each, Bk vi (iv). The basis of democracy is defined to be liberty, which includes the principle that 'all should rule and be ruled in turn'. The characteristics of democracy are then described:-all officers of state are appointed 'by all, and out of all'; all rule over each, and each in turn rules over all; the appointment is by lot, except in cases where special knowledge is required; there is little or no qualification; office is held for a short time only, and rarely (if ever) twice, except in the case of military offices; all men, or at least persons selected out of all, sit in judgment in all causes, or at any rate on the most important; the public Assembly is supreme, not the officers of state; when the citizens are paid, even the Council loses its 1 In the present work, whenever the lines of the Berlin ed.-Among the most books of the Politics are specified, the recent discussions of the order of the number in the new order is given first, books may be mentioned Shute's History followed (in parenthesis) by that of the of the Aristotelian Writings, pp. 164 -old order. As a general rule, however, 176; and Newman's Politics, vol. i 292, the references are solely to the pages and vol. ii pp. xxi-xxiv.

Page  XIV xiv POLITICAL WORKS ASCRIBED power, as the Assembly and the Lawcourts take all the business to themselves. Then follow the various kinds of oligarchies; and the consideration of the due coordination of offices in the state, Bk vII (vi). The author's design is now nearly completed. He has still to speak of the motives, objects and occasions of revolutions in states. Revolutions begin in trifling matters but involve important issues. They are brought about either by force or by fraud. The author next considers how revolutions may be avoided, and tyrannies and monarchies preserved; he describes a despot of a virtuous and beneficent type; and adds some reflexions on the short duration of tyrannies and oligarchies. Lastly, he attacks the views put forward in the Republic as to the cycle through which states are described as passing in the course of their decline. Thus the work ends (as it began) with a criticism on Plato. Among the lost writings of Aristotle was one entitled IIoXLLKos, a dialogue in two books, expressly mentioned by Diogenes Laertius (v 22), and vaguely noticed by Cicero'. The anonymous list of his works, now ascribed to Hesychius, includes the rrep I rjopop 0 TTOXLTLKOV. That of Diogenes Laertius, a work entitled 7rEpl /facLrolag, said to have been addressed to Alexander2; and a dialogue on colonisation under the name of 'AXEavSpos 1 v'7rp a'IrOLKLtV a 3. In closer connexion with contemporary history, the L8KaLtcJ/'ara 7rodXEcov ascribed to Aristotle are said to have contained the formal pleas on the points of difference submitted by the Greek states to the arbitration of Philip4. A work of far wider scope was that known as the v4d/t/a, or vdo/LuLa /fapf/apLKa, of Aristotle. This was a comprehensive account of the institutions of various non-hellenic peoples, including the Etruscans, under the head of vo/Lt/aa Tvpprqvwv. An abstract of this existed at one time under the name of voltdpov ftapp/aptLK(v vvaywyr 5. Lastly, there was the work entitled the IIoXLTrEat, or sketches of the constitutional history of a large number of Hellenic states. Constitutional history, however, was far from forming the sole subject of this extensive work. The numerous fragments that have survived give abundant proof that local legends, national proverbs, and even anecdotes of social life found a place in its pages6. It is generally supposed 1 De Fin. v 4, ii, 'cumque uterque 3 Bernays, i. c., pp. 56, I56. eorum (Aristoteles et Theophrastus) do- 4 Rose, Aristotelis qui ferebantur li- t cuisset, qualem in republica principem brorumrfiag3menta, (Teubner) I886, frag. esse conveniret'-; ad Quintum fratrem, 612-614. iii 5, i, 'Aristotelem, quae de republica 5 ib. frag. 604-6I0. Diels (Berlin et praestante viro scribat, ipsum loqui.' Academy, 30 July, I891) suggests that Cf. Bernays, die Dialoge des Ar. pp. 53, pap. ix p. 29 of the Flinders Petrie 153. papyri is an excerpt from the v6,/utua 2 Cf. Bernays, 1. c., pp. 53, 154; pub- fapgcaptLK. lished by Lippert (1891) from an Arabic 6 Rose, Aristoteles Pseudepigraphzus, p. translation. 395; Fragmenta, 381-603, ed. I886.

Page  XV TO ARISTOTLE XV that the great collection of facts comprised in the IIoXLrEtaL formed the materials for the composition of the Politics. It will be shewn at a later point that the 'AOrlvaowv 7roXLreLa in particular was not completed until about nine years after the latest date recorded in the Politics; but this fact is not inconsistent with the materials collected for the HIoXLareaL being used in the Politics even before they had themselves been reduced into their present form. As regards the comparative value of the two works, the general character of the fragments of the IIoXLtrEa shews that it would be going too far to say that we could wish that the IloXLTrEaL were 'preserved, even at the expense of the extant book on the theory of politics', especially when we reflect that, in the words of the writer just quoted, 'the Politics are confessed on all hands to be the ripest and fullest outcome of Greek political experience'1. The treatise known as the 'AO-rvalv 7rotXLTEa formed part of the vast collection of IIOXLEtLa which the unanimous voice of antiquity ascribed to the pen of Aristotle. In tracing the literary history of the IIoXLtreTa we must necessarily begin with the well-known story of the fate of Aristotle's library, which is told in full by Strabo (p. 608-9), and more briefly touched upon by Plutarch (Sulla, 26). On the death of Aristotle, in 322 B.C., his library passed into the possession of his pupil, Theophrastus, who presided over the Peripatetic school at Athens until his death in 287. The library of Theophrastus, including that of Aristotle, was bequeathed to a pupil of both, named Neleus, who removed it to Scepsis, an inland town of Asia Minor, in the S.E. of the Troad. From Neleus it passed to his descendants, who were men of neither literary accomplishments nor philosophic tastes. They are described by Strabo as 8CromL. They were, however, sufficiently conscious of the value of the manuscripts to prevent their being appropriated by the kings of Pergamos, who began to form their famous library about thirty or forty years after the death of Theophrastus. The manuscripts were accordingly concealed in a cellar, where they were exposed to injury from the effects of damp and the depredations of worms. It was probably after the death of the last of the Pergamene Kings in B.C. 133, that they were sold to Apellicon of Teos, a wealthy adherent of the Peripatetic school at Athens. On examination they were found to contain many compositions which were unknown to the successors of Theophrastus at the head of the Lyceum. Their owner caused them to be copied; but, as he was 'more of a bibliophile than a philosopher', the transcripts published under his care proved to be far from accurate. In 86 B.c. Athens was captured by Sulla, and the library of Apellicon was taken to Rome. It was there placed under the charge of a librarian, by whose i i Mahaffy's Hist. of Classical Gk. Literature, ii 414.

Page  XVI Xvi POLITICAL WORKS ASCRIBED permission it was properly arranged by a learned Greek, a friend of Cicero and a preceptor of Strabo (p. 548), named Tyrannion. Copies were obtained from Tyrannion by Andronicus of Rhodes, who classified the works according to subjects', published them, and drew up the lists which were current in the time of Plutarch2. On the strength of this last statement it has been supposed that all the extant lists of Aristotelian writings are to be ultimately traced to Andronicus3. But, even before his time, the successors of Theophrastus possessed copies of a few at least of the works of Aristotle, chiefly of the exoteric or popular class4. As examples of these, the list suggested by Grote5 includes the dialogues; the legendary and historical collections; and the constitutional histories of various Hellenic cities. Thus, the IIoXLtTEta may have been known to the successors of Theophrastus even before the library of Aristotle was for a time restored to Athens more than two centuries after the owner's death. But, to show that the fate of Aristotle's writings did not entirely depend on the fortunes of the library buried in the vault at Scepsis, we have abundant proof of some of them being familiar to the philosophic world during the interval in which his library itself was lost to view6; and it is probable that many of them, including those of more general interest, were at an early date transcribed at Athens and thence transmitted to the great library at Alexandria. In the case of Theophrastus, we know for certain that lists of his works were drawn up, not only by Andronicus of Rhodes, but also by Hermippus of Smyrna, who lived till about the end of the third century B.C. and was a pupil of Callimachus, the chief librarian of the Alexandrian Museum7. Such a list is preserved by Diogenes Laertius8, with the titles arranged in alphabetical order. The corresponding list of the writings of Aristotle is not in the order of the alphabet, but is arranged with a certain degree of method under 146 titles as follows. "First we have the dialogues and other exoteric works, then two or three early abstracts of Platonic lectures or writings, then we come to a part of the list in which logical works seem to predominate; ethical, political and 1 Porphyry, life of Plotinus, c. 24, p. 6 Zeller, Phil. d. Griechen, II ii p. II7 Didot. 145-i533. 2 Plut. Sulla, 26; cf. Grote's Aristotle, 7 Schol. in Theophr. Met. roUTo rT i pp. 50-54, and Shute's History of the f3tp3ov 'Avop6vLKols IvP Kai "Ep/JLrwros Aristotelian Writings, p. 29-39. ayvoovwav. ovoe y&p tsveiav avro o\ Xws 3 Rose, Ar. Pseud., p. 8; Frag. (I886) 7reroqlvrTai ev r7 dvaypaqp2/ rWyv Oeop. I. fpd&rov. Heitz, die Verlorenen Schriften 4 Strabo, p. 609, ovve, 6 ro0? s 'K T-Wv des Ar., p. 47. Susemihl, Ar. iiber die TeptrdTrwv Trols tiv rdaXac Trols pera 0e6o- Dichtkunst, I865, p. I7; and Gr. Litt. fpacarov OVK XOVUOV oXrw Tr& 9t9iXa 7rXiv in der Alexandrinerzeit, i 492, 494 note oXiywv, Kail PAXtora T( v e/iTeptKWv. I I. 5 Aristotle, p. 55. 8 v 21-27. ~ —

Page  XVII TO ARISTOTLE Xvii rhetorical works predominate towards the middle; then come physical and zoological works; last in order we have works designed in all probability for Aristotle's own use ('hypomnematic works'), letters and poems ". The arrangement seems hardly sufficiently precise to be that of Andronicus, who is said to have introduced the plan of grouping the writings according to their subject-matter2; and this is not the only reason for regarding it as independent of Andronicus3. It has in fact been conjecturally ascribed to Hermippus, and has been generally supposed to be founded on the catalogue of Aristotle's works in some great library like that of Alexandria. In a subsequent passage (v 34) Diogenes observes that the books enumerated were nearly 400 in number. He even adds that their genuineness was not contested by any one4. There is a second list, ascribed to Hesychius and containing only 127 titles, 27 of those in Diogenes being here omitted and 8 added in their place5. A third list, ascribed to 'Ptolemy the philosopher,' is found in an Arabic translation only. This includes 92 titles. It is certainly later than the time of Andronicus, as one of the titles relates to certain treatises found in the library of Almikun (Ablikun or Atlikun), the Arabic form of Apellicon. In all three lists the IIoXtTELat are included. In I.they appear as the I43rd item:-'roXLrtTat 7rodXEov voLv 8EovoTatv pt (sc. 158), <KOLVaC> KOaLL Iat, 87lt0oKpaTtKal, oXLyapXLKat, dptrTOKpaTtKat, TvpaVVtKaL. In II 135 the title is 7roXLTEla 7rdXEo1Ev 18t(oLKtV KalL 8J/OKpaTtLK(V Kalt o'dXapXtLKv <Kal> dptoTroKparTLKW Kat TvpavVLKWv pVj (I58). In III 8i the Arabic description is translated as follows: 'liber quem inscripsit de regimine civitatum et nominatur bulitija, et est liber in quo commemoravit regimen populorum et civitatum plurium e civitatibus Graecorum et aliorum earumque relationem (originem? cognationem?); numerus vero populorum et civitatum quarum meminit [in eo] CLXXI [civitates magnae]6'. In iii the number of the 'roXLTeZta is given as I7I; whereas I and ii agree in making it 158. The ancient Latin Version of the life of Aristotle states the number as 250; while, among the early expositors of Aristotle, Elias twice gives the same number, and Ammonius has 1 Mr W. L. Newman's ed. of Ar. Pol. Rose in two MSS in the Ambrosian vol. i p. vi. library at Milan (A. P. p. 709). All 2 Porphyry, ref. on p. xvi, note 1. the lists are given by Rose in the Berlin 3 Zeller, II ii, 5i f. Ar., vol. v 1463- 1473, and in the 4 Grote's Ar. i 40. Teubner text of the Fragmenta, pp. 3 -5 First published by Menage on Diog. 22. vol. ii 201. The same list was found by 6 Rose, Fr'ag. pp. 8, i6, 213. S. A. c

Page  XVIII xviii POLITICAL WORKS ASCRIBED 250. The higher estimate is either a mere mistake, or has arisen from including among the 7roXtreZat certain of the vodLLa flappaptKa. The latter view is confirmed by the fact that one of our authorities for the larger number' mentions it in immediate connexion with the statement that Aristotle accompanied Alexander on his expedition to the East, even as far as 'the land of the Brahmins,' where (according to this imaginative commentator) he actually compiled 'the 255 7roXLreat'; while the estimates of Elias are in both cases given in a similar connexion. We may therefore discard the larger number, and accept 158 as resting on better authority2. The total number of 7roXLtTEZa included in modern collections of their fragments is 99. In 5I of these the name of Aristotle and the title of the 7roXLrdaE are expressly mentioned, generally thus: 'ApLrTroTEAT7 ev Trj -wv TOXLreIoa. In i6 others, Aristotle is cited, but the name of the state is not given, though it can be inferred from the contents of the passage. Lastly, out of the total number of 80 states mentioned in the Politics, there are 32 that are not named in the fragments already enumerated, but which may fairly be assumed to have been included in the original work. Thus we have a list of 51 + i6 + 32, or 99 states, more than half of which (51) are represented by fragments in which the title of the work, as well as the name of Aristotle, is mentioned, while in more than two-thirds (67 out of 99) the name of Aristotle occurs. The three classes are as follows: I (5I) 'AOrYvatwv 'Izepalwv Mr\lXwv AiYtvT(rwv Keiwv Nalowv AlTwX\v KepKVpalwv NeowoXr6Wv 'AKapvdv'wv KCavwv 'Owrovvriwv 'AKpayavrivwv KoXocwviwv 'OpXotevioW 'AfpaKcLiLwTrv KoptvOiwv ILapltv 'Ap-yeiwv KvOviwyv IneXXv\rvwv 'ApKacSv KvuLaiwv Zapliwv 'Axat1v Kvrrpiwv;ZatoOpqKcwv BorTTaiwv KvpTqvaiwv ZtLKvwvlWV re\Xqwv AaKe6aLUovIwv 2tvWrrwv AeX\0pW AevKasowv ZVpaKoaclw A qXtwv AoKpciv TapavrlvWv 'HXEiwv AVKiWV Te'yeaTrWv 'H7lreLpwrv MaaCaXtwiTwv TeveSiWv OerTa\CW Meyapecwv TpoIviCwv 'IOaKrl-iwv MeOwvalwv 4oJKatLev. II (i6) 'AvravSpiwv 'ATpatJvTrvPv 'E rtLavphwv 'Iaacwv KpqjrCiv KpoTrwvaTrc3j Kv0rpiwv MrlXiwv MiXrlaoiov 'Prjyivwv 'Pootwv ZvaaptLrWv T\Xiwv XaXKK77o0lwv. III (32) 'AuLtroXtriTv Kapx'qoviwv 'Avrtoaacalv Ka-ravaiwv 'A'roXXUvtwarv K Xac'o/uevlwv 'A7roXXwvtar&v Kvt8iwv iv HI6VTr7 K'Wv 'Apvurivwv Aapwoaaiwv 'Apvraiwv Aeo-Vrivw Bvuav-riov Ma-yv?'rwv 'EzrtLauvLwov Mavrtvelwv 'EpeTrpcwv MoXoco'o'v 'Epvpaiwv MvrT7qvaiCwv 'EcrtaLwv 'PoPilv Za'yK\Xaicv capaaXowv 'Hpaiwv XaXKaidwv 'HpaKXewTirv Xlwv Orpatwv 'fpetrcTv. 'ITrpLdwv 4 1 Vita Ar. vulg., Rose, Frag. p. 2583. plied by Simplicius, in Ar. Categ. p. 27 2 A division of the roXLTerat into a 43 Brandis, ev ras yvvflats arTov 7-roXLgenuine and spurious seems to be im- Trlac. But it has been proposed either

Page  XIX TO ARISTOTLE xix The 7roXL'IEat are said to have been arranged in the order of the alphabet'. Some have seen indications of this in the reading preserved in a single MS of Harpocration, s.v. OECa-oo6TaL: —'Apto-roreTAX e'v Tr a 'AOrfvalov 7roXtreta, and also in the phrase in Photius, s.v. oKvTadXr:dos 'Apo-T0TeAr~7 ev n 'IOaKr'crlwv 7ro0XLE1a fLP3. Here the 7roXLTeLa of Ithaca appears to be described as 42nd in the series. If we test this by taking the 99 extant titles of 7roXLteat as the basis of our calculation, Ithaca, which is 37th in the list of 99, would have been 58th in the complete list of 158; if, again, we take the 67 titles in which Aristotle is named, Ithaca, which is 2ist of the 67, would have been 5oth in the complete list; if the 51 in which the name of the particular WroXLre'a is specified, Ithaca, which is I7th of the 51, would have been 52nd, not 42nd. This calculation, of course, assumes that in the longer list, the names in alphabetical order are distributed in the same proportion as in the shorter lists. But it is highly probable that pt3 is a corruption of either uEvvInTrat or (as proposed by Bergk) tLkaprvpEZ. If so, we cannot rely on this phrase as proof of an alphabetical order. Besides, if the order was alphabetical, it was unnecessary to specify the number of any particular treatise. Such an arrangement, however, although not attested with any certainty, is natural in itself, and the constitution of Athens would in any case have occupied the first place. ~ 3. On the evidence of ancient authorities as to the authorship of the IIoXLreTat. We may now proceed to review in chronological order the successive quotations from the IIoXtretZa which are preserved in ancient authorities. Firstly, there is reason to believe that the historian PHILOCHORUS, writing before 306 B.c., or less than 20 years after the composition of the 'AOrvat'v TroXITEcta, quoted that work as Aristotle's. The grounds which have been suggested for this belief are as follows:(I) The Scholium on Arist. Vesp. 1223 includes a quotation from'A0. wroX. 13, 11. I6-20; the latter part of that Scholium coincides with one on Lys. 58 which is proved by Strabo, p. 392 c, to come from Philochorus. Hence it is possible that the whole of the Schol. on Vesp. I223 really comes from Philochorus, and that Philochorus is our real authority for the citation from the 'A0. 7roX. (2) In the term dcrot/ — LcrOlvat rb d6 0oos (frag. 57), Philochorus appears to be correcting or explaining the phrase 7b aX0Oos acroodeaa-c0a,-probably a reminiscence of dTroo-etaodlevoL rb Pdpos in'A0. 7roX. 6 ~ I. (3) In Plutarch's Life of Themistocles, xo, Aristotle is cited as to alter lroXLrelats into e7rta-roXacs (Ideler, Ar. p. 223 a. in Ar. Meteor. I xii n. 40), or (with greater 1 Kart& a-roetXa, Elias, ap. Rose, Frag. probability) to regard yvPlrfats as a corrup- p. 2583, 1. 29. tion of the number pv-i (i 58); Heitz, Frag. c2

Page  XX xx EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT A UTHORITIES authority for a statement respecting the action of the Areopagus immediately before the battle of Salamis ('AO. troX. 23 ~ i). Cleidemus, the author of an 'ArOis, is next quoted as asserting that this action was due to the wiles of Themistocles. Then follows the story of the dog of Xanthippus which, in Aelian, de Natzra Animalium, xii 35, is attributed to 'Aristotle and Philochorus.' It has been plausibly suggested that Aelian had read an extract, ultimately derived from Philochorus, on the events immediately preceding the battle of Salamis, in which the name of Aristotle may have occurred in connexion with the account of the action of the Areopagus, and in which the story of the dog of Xanthippus was also related. This may have lead Aelian to make the mistake of quoting Aristotle, as well as Philochorus, as authorities for the story about the dog. If, as is not improbable, the whole of the narrative in Plutarch comes from Philochorus, then Philochorus, and not Plutarch, is our authority for attributing to Aristotle the quotations from the 'AO. iroX. respecting the action of the Areopagus. This implies that 'a careful historical student and critic, who lived and wrote at Athens in the generation immediately following Aristotle's,' accepted the 'AOrnvaiwv 7roXLreta as the work of Aristotle himself1. An early notice of the IIOXLtTEat may also be traced in the attack made by TIMAEUS on Aristotle's account of the origin of the Greek colony of Locri Epizephyrii. Timaeus was born about 352 B.C. (or 30 years before the death of Aristotle), was banished from Tauromenium in 3o1, and from about that time resided in Athens for more than 50 years, dying about 256 B.C. The evidence for this attack on the part of Timaeus is to be found in Polybius, who rejects the view of Timaeus, and emphatically supports the account given by Aristotle2. From a subsequent passage it appears that the attack of Timaeus was directed against Theophrastus as well. We are not told in which of Aristotle's works the description of the origin of Locri was to be found, but it is reasonable to suppose that it was the IIoXAtcat. The only other possible work would have been the 'AXE'avopo 7rEpl adTroLtKt^, which is now represented by its title only. Now Timaeus was in Athens for 23 out of the 35 years during which Theophrastus presided over the Lyceum as the successor of Aristotle. He had thus exceptional opportunities for becoming acquainted with Aristotle's writings, and with the traditional knowledge of them preserved by the Peripatetic School; and he may fairly be quoted to prove that within 66 years of the death of Aristotle, one of the IIoXLreta was attributed to that author. The IIoXLTTLa appear to have been also quoted by PHILOSTEPHANUS of Cyrene, the author of works entitled 7repi evprqldTowv and rE-pi vjo-ov, who lived under Ptolemy Philopator (B.c. 222-206). 'Aristotle' and Philostephanus are quoted by Varro (apud Servium ad Verg. Georg. i I9) and by Pliny (V. H. vii 57); and it has been conjectured 1 Abridged from Prof. J. H. Wright's 2 Polyb. Excerpla libri xii 5-8, and article in the American yourn. of Philo- II; Rose, Frag. 5473; cf. Heitz, Verl. logy, xii 3, 3Io-3I8. Schr. p. 243, and Shute, 1. c., p. 39.

Page  XXI ON AUTHORSHIP OF THE HOAITEIAI xxi that Varro and Pliny took their quotations of Aristotle at second-hand from Philostephanus1. It was probably in the middle of the second century B.C. that excerpts from the oIoAXLEtat were made by HERACLEIDES LEMBOS, who appears to have followed his original with an almost slavish fidelity. We have only fragments of these excerpts under the title (K Tv 'HpaKXE[tov 7repl 7roXLTELWv2. CICERO refers as follows to the IInoXLTEat and vo'utca apapLaptKa of Aristotle, as well as to the work of Theophrastus 7rept vdo'uv:-omnium fere civitatum non Graeciae solum sed etiam barbariae ab Arislotele mores instituta disciplinas; a Theophrasto leges etiam cognovimus (de Fin. v 4 ~ I ); but there is no proof of any direct acquaintance with the text of the IloXATEtatu. In the de Oficiis, ii I8, he quotes, as from Theophrastus, the account of the liberality of Cimon which we find in c. 27 of the 'AOrva[ov 7TOXLCTEa. In the de Senectute ~ 72 he tells an anecdote about Solon and Peisistratus without showing any knowledge of c. 14 of that treatise. Similarly, in de Officiis, i 75, he writes of Solon and Themistocles with reference to the Areopagus without betraying any close acquaintance with chapters 23 and 25. Whatever knowledge he possessed as to the contents of those chapters was probably obtained secondhand from his authority, Panaetius, who, as we know from Cicero himself (de Fin. iv 28 ~ 79), constantly quoted from Plato, Aristotle, Xenocrates, Theophrastus and Dicaearchus. About Dicaearchus in particular Cicero writes to Atticus in glowing terms:-in his Tusculan villa he has been reading with admiration that author's account of the constitution of Pellene, while he fancies that his library at Rome contains a copy of the Constitutions of Corinth and of Athens4. These I 1 Rose, A. P., pp. 410, 534; Susemihl, Gr. Litt. in der Alexandrinerzeit, i 476. Heracleides Lembos, probably born at Kallatis in Pontus, was the author of an extensive compilation called 'Ioropiau. He flourished under Ptolemy vi, Philometor (I81-I46). Cf. Susemihl, u. s., i 503-5. (Rihl even supposes that he was the editor of the 'AO. 7roX. in its present form.) The author of the excerpts is, however, regarded by Rose (in his A. P., p. 532) as far later in date, and as having borrowed his excerpts from Didymus (who was born B.C. 63). But the part played by Didymus in transmitting the knowledge of the nIoAXreaL to a later time has been much exaggerated, and the form in which the excerpts from IIeracleides have reached us is hardly worthy of the industrious and intelligent critic from whom they are supposed to have been derived. -See also Prof. Wright in Harvard Studies, iii 5, and Holzinger in Philologius, vol. 50, p. 436. Infra, p. 250. 3 See also Shute, /. c., p. 72. 4 Ad Att. ii 2, 'IIeXX7vWawv in manibus tenebam et hercule magnum acervum Dicaearchi mihi ante pedes exstruxeram. O magnum hominem! et unde multo plura didiceris quam de Procilio. KoplvOiov et 'AO7vatowv puto me Romae habere. Mihi crede, leges;...mirabilis vir est.' Heitz, Verl. Schr., p. 244, considers that these may have formed part of the pios 'EXXcdos of Dicaearchus. Bergk, Rhein. Mus. I88t, p. II3 n. 2, suggests that the reference is to the IIoXreZat of Aristotle. He would alter Dicaearchi into Dicaearchiae (i.e. 'at Puteoli'); but his suggestion (with the textual alteration which it involves) seems very improbable.

Page  XXII xxii EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT AUTHORITIES Constitutions may well have been written in imitation of the earlier work ascribed to Aristotle; and the imitation may have been sufficiently close to lead to the contents of the IIoXLrTta of Aristotle becoming known to later writers through the medium of Dicaearchus'. It has been conjectured that many of the quotations from the IIoXLtTEta in later authors were taken second-hand from the works of Alexandrian scholars such as Didymus Chalcenterus, and his successor, Pamphilus2. Didymus was born in 63 B.C. and compiled a Lexicon of Tragic and Comic Diction, while among the lexicographical works of Pamphilus, who flourished in 20 B.C., was one entitled 'ATrrKa'L XE'L9. The scholiast on Aristophanes, Aves 47i, quotes Aristotle ev 'r Sa/ltov 7roXTEt'a, as well as the comic poet, Plato; and such a scholium may readily have been derived from Didymus3; but the indebtedness of later writers to this able and industrious compiler has been greatly overrated; and, now that we know of the actual existence of copies of the 'A6OrvaLov rroXLrLa at a time when it was supposed to have been i hopelessly lost, there is less reason for attributing to the interposition of Didymus a knowledge of the IIOXMreZaL which may easily have been derived from the work itself. It has further been supposed that some of the accounts of remarkable phenomena found in later collections, such as the Oavlao-ta 'AKOV'-rLaTa of various writers, may have been originally borrowed from the IIOLOXEat. Thus, Antigonus of Carystus, 0 who probably lived in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, in his 'Io-ropLtv Ilapa&oootv Svvaywy4 (I44), quotes from Callimachus a description by Aristotle of the two fountains of the Sun in the temple of Zeus Ammon. This description may have been derived from the IloXLTrea of Cyrene4. In the age of Augustus, the IIoXMEtat are not quoted by DIONYSIUS of Halicarnassus, who, however, refers to the Tvpprqvtv Nolaqta, which formed part of the No/xLua Bapf3aptKa ascribed to Aristotle5. L STRABO (who belongs to the same age) refers in general terms to Aristotle in connexion with Elis (Rose, Frag. 4933), Argos (482), Epidaurus (491), Tenedos (594), and Chalcis (6o0, 603). In a single passage (on p. 321-2), after stating that the migrations of the Leleges are attested by a[ 'Apta-orXovs 7roXLr7TaL, he appeals to no less than four of them as his authorities, viz. those of the Acarnanians, Opuntians, Megarians and Leucadians. When we remember that the story of the recovery of the lost library of Aristotle is told by Strabo (doubtless on 1 Heitz, Verl. Schr., p. 244. 4 Rose, Frag. 53X3; A. P. p. 487; 2 Rose, A. P., p. 400; Heitz, Verl. Heitz, Verl. Schr. p. 245. Schr. p. 244, and Ar. Frag. p. 219. 5 Rose, Frag. 6o93. 3 Rose, A. P., p. 52I.

Page  XXIII ON AUTHORSHIP OF THE 1HOAITEIAI xxiii the authority of his preceptor Tyrannion), we are not surprised at finding in his pages not a few traces of a first-hand acquaintance with the IIoToXLtaL. Nevertheless, the fact that only a comparatively small number of the 7roX-tTcat are noticed in Strabo has led to the supposition that he had no direct knowledge of that work1. PLINY the elder (23-79 A.D.) names Aristotle as his authority mainly on the geography of several of the Greek islands (Tenos, Delos, Melos and Samos), and also in connexion with Argos, Thebes and Chalcis. One of his references may be traced to the No'tzt4a Bapf/apLKa. He also states that, according to Aristotle, the art of painting was introduced into Greece by Ezuchir, Daedali cognatus (Rose, Frag. 3823); but there is no sufficient warrant for referring this to a lost passage of the 'AOr-valwv r-oXTEL'a. Pliny's references to Aristotle may safely be regarded as taken at second hand2. This has also been assumed, but with perhaps less justice, in the case of Plutarch (c. 46-120 A.D.). PLUTARCH repeatedly mentions Aristotle as his authority:-five times in the life of Lycurgus3; once in that of Cleomenes4; and twice in that of Pericles5, in passages that may perhaps be traced to the YaJlowv ToXLTEla. In five instances Aristotle is named in connexion with Naxos, Tegea (twice), Troezen and Ithaca6; and in two others we may trace the reference to the Nd/L/Lua Bap/apLKa7. The 'AOrvaowv roXtrECa may fairly be regarded as the source of Plutarch's references to Aristotle in the lives of Theseus Solon9, Themislocles'~, Cimon1, Pericles '2 and Nicias'3; as also of certain passages in which Aristotle is not actually named'". At this point it may be interesting to notice two good examples of tacit quotation from the 'AOvrvat'wv 7-roXuEla in the pages of Plutarch. In c. 14 ~ 4 of the 7rOXMLELa we read that, with the aid of 4rv', Megacles restored the exiled Peisistratus dpXatiK-3 (or apXato'w) Kal Xlav arrXwc3: in Plutarch's Solon (3 ~ 5) we find the phrase cd-nXoUi...Xiav Kal apXaZos. Again, in c. 5 ~ 2 of the TroXLTe'a, we are told of Solon, E7XovroT KOLVj &SaXXaKTrjv KaU a'pxovra XtoXwva: in the Amalorius of Plutarch (i8 ~ 14), a passage that has not hitherto been noticed in this connexion, we find five consecutive words applied to Solon, which are identical with those 1 Heitz, Verl. Schr. p. 244. 8 c. 25 (Frag. 384). 2 e.g. through Philostephanus of Cy- 9 c. 25 (Frag. 39o='AO. 7roX. c. 7 ~ i, rene. Kupf ELS). a cc. i, 5, 6, 28, 3i; Rose, Frag3. 10 c. 10 (Frag. 398). 533-538- n c. Io (Frag. 402). 4 c. 9; Frag3. 539. 12 c. 9, o10 (Frag. 403, 405). cc. 26, 28; Frag3. 577-8. 13 c. 2 (Frag. 407). 6 Frag3. 559, 592, 507, 597. 14 Solon, c. 20 (Frag. 391), c. 25 (Frag. 7 Camill. 22, and De Cohibenda Ira 416). II; Frag3. 6io, 6o8.

Page  XXIV xxiv EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT A UTHORITIES just quoted, —roVov eCXovro KOLv/ 8taXXa Krjv Kal apXovTa Kal VOJtoOE'TrV. In view of such instances it seems difficult to maintain the theory that Plutarch had only a second-hand knowledge of the 'AO-rvaltv T7oXrEtal. He has even been charged with the incredible carelessness of keeping words such as vvv unchanged in copying from the intermediate authorities which he is supposed to have followed. Thus, in Solon, c. 25, his statement that fragments of the wooden tablets on which the laws of Solon were inscribed were still to be seen in his own day (rLT KaO' uias) in the Athenian 7rpvTaveov, was regarded by Rose as a careless transcript from some such phrase in Polemon as tao-oriovTat 8' Ev mT IIpvTavEtW2. Similarly, in Lycurgus, c. 28, (rt Kat vvv was held to refer to the age of Plutarch's authority Ephorus3. In the former case, at any rate, the statement of Plutarch is corroborated by the evidence of Pausanias (i I8 ~ 3) who, even at a later date, observes that in the rrpVTraveov the laws of Solon Elo-l yEypab/%j.evot. Other quotations in Plutarch are ascribed by Rose to the Eclogae and Collectanea of previous writers, such as Didymus; but this ascription is not supported by the context of the quotations themselves. Plutarch places the nIloXLtTEa of Aristotle in the same category as the works of Herodotus, Xenophon, Eudoxus and Aristoxenus, implying that all these writers dealt with important and interesting events in a style that was at once vigorous and graceful4. Such is not the language of one whose knowledge of 1 Prof. J. H. Wright, The Date of Cylon, p. 25, observes: 'Most of Plutarch's statements on the affair of Cylon are traceable to Aristotle's Respub. Ath. A comparison of Plutarch's account of pre-Solonian affairs with that of Aristotle shows, however, first, that this dependance is not immediate, and, secondly, that there is much admixture of foreign matter'...In the note he refers to 38 passages in Plutarch's Solon which bear resemblance to passages in Aristot. Respgub. Ath., and are evidently traceable to the latter work. Only once, however, is Aristotle here named (Sol. 25 ad init.) 'A minute comparison of the wording of these parallel passages, and a consideration of the order in which they occur in the two writers, as also of extraneous matter inserted and of important and illuminating facts omitted, show that Plutarch was certainly not intimately acquainted with the Respub. Ath. The resemblances, the dissimilarities, and the discrepancies alike are intelligible only on the supposition that Plutarch was transcribing from some work in which an abridgment of these parts of the Respub. Ath. was embodied. In transcribing from this abridgment he interpolates foreign matter, which is inconsistent with the unabridged Aristotle. The abridgment omitted the main part of cc. 2-4, also c. I3 [~~ 2, 3], as well as many minor statements. The poetical quotations of Plutarch are from a different collection; such as coincide are in a different order...Plutarch's otherwise unaccountable omission in his Them. of the characteristic anecdote of Themistocles, Ephialtes, and the Areopagus (Resspub. Ath. c. 25) may be explained on the hypothesis that the copy of Aristotle's work used by Plutarch did not contain this story. In Pericles, Aristotle is cited, but immediately there follow statements as to Pericles which directly contradict Aristotle (cf. Ad. Bauer, Forschungen, p. 77, who believes, however, in a firsthand use of Respub. Ath. by Plutarch).' 2 Preller on Polemon, p. 87. 3 Rose, A. P., pp. 413, 491. 4 Non posse suaviter vivi sec. Epicurum, c. io, 6Trayv 8U x7yv lXovuaa XvTr-qpdv ' sr

Page  XXV ON AUTHORSHIP OF THE IIOAITEIAI XXV the IIoXtreZat was mainly or solely derived from second-hand sources of information. ZENOBIUS, who flourished in the time of Hadrian (117-I38 A.D.), refers to c. 28 of the 'AOrlvatwv 7ToXITrda, and mentions the 7roXLtTEZa of Corcyra, Samos, Delphi and Methone (Frag.3 513, 576, 487, 552). He also names Aristotle as his authority for facts relating to Cythnus and Thebes (Frag.3 523, 502). AULUS GELLIUS (II5-I80 A.D.) names Aristotle in connexion with Solon's law against neutrality. The law is found in 'AO. 7-oX. c. 8 ~ 5. ARISTIDES, one of the most celebrated rhetoricians of the 2nd century (1I7 or 129-I 80 A.D.) never mentions the 'AOrqvawv 7roXLtrELU, but the only poems of Solon which he quotes are extracted from those preserved in that treatise; he also paraphrases other passages from those poems and from the text of Aristotlel. DIOGENES LAERTIUS (towards the close of the 2nd century A.D.) twice appeals to Aristotle for facts connected with Corinth (Frag.3 516, 5I7). In the first of these passages he couples him with Ephorus. In a third passage he refers to Aristotle ev -j- ArXowv 7roXtLta (Frag.3 489); but, as the vague plural qao-iv occurs in the previous context, there is no certain proof of first-hand acquaintance with the work in question. In this author, however, we have several parallels to the account of Solon given in the 'AOqvaiov 7roXLie'a2. POLLUX of Naucratis (fl. I80-238 A.D.), who dedicated his 'OvoiLaorTtKov to Commodus (Emp. I80-192), quotes largely from the IIOXAtreat, especially from that of Athens. The latter is his main authority on all points of Athenian law and antiquities3. Many consecutive lines are either transcribed or paraphrased froml its pages, e.g. the epigram about Diphilus and a large part of its context in c. 7 ~ 4. But his debt to the 'AOrlvat'v TroXtEda, though vast, is invariably unacknowledged, while the only passage in which he mentions the name of Aristotle in connexion with a term of Attic law, is not 3Xaf3ep6v ilatopia Kal &7rj'yr7ats, erni 7rpaCeorL rjOa~L 7rp6b r7s oiKias, (3ore0E'v [Lv OVK oXvovra, KaXais KaL /e'ydaXats 7rpooaXc3fi7 Xoyov JXovTa oi/at, veCELKv/JeVov oV 5J S Xe'e yvw/prSl, 6Sva/iLv Kal Xadptv, Ws r76 'Hpo86rou ra with 'A. nroX. c. 14 ~ 2. 'EXX7VLKac, Kai HIepoLtKra 7TO eoVOOWVTOS, 2 Diog. Laert. i ~~ 45, 50, 58. oa'a Se "0xolpos e6o-f7rLae 0EaKEXa eiwsOS, q 3 Even before the discovery of the Tras reptL6ovs Eu;5o&os, 77 KTriare Kai TroXL- 'AO. 7roX. this fact had been partially 7ias 'AptLo-oriXis, D tiovs dvSpwv 'Ap(T-6- ascertained by comparing the language 4evos fypapev, ov Lb6vov itL^ya Kal 7roXd r6 of Pollux with that quoted from the'A0. e~Vfpaivov, XX\a Kal KaOapbv Kai d/Aera- 7roX. in the lexicographers. Cf. StoAEX\7T6v ea-rtv. jentin, De Iulii Pollucis in publicis 1 Cf. Aristides ii 360, 361 Dind., with Atheniensium antiquitatibus enarrandis 'AG. troX. 5 ~ 2, II ~ 2, 12 ~ 5; also p. auctoritate, (Breslau) 1875; and Stoewer, 535-538 with'A0. 7roX. c. i2; and lastly in quilbs nitantur auctoribus Zidii Poli p. 765, (;6Xwva) oactL Trs TroXrTeias hicis rerum iudicialiuri enarrationes, KaTraXvOeiaLrs XaPtvra ao7ria sal 66pv KaO- (Miinster) I888.

Page  XXVI xxvi E VIDENCE OF ANCIENT A UTHORITIES found in that treatise, so far as it has been preserved'. Several of the other roXLreZUa are, however, expressly mentioned, viz. that of Acragas (twice in Frag. 476), Himera (twice in 5io), Tarentum (590), Orchomenus (566), and Sicyon (580). In other passages, where Aristotle is named, the information may have been ultimately derived from the Constitutions of Cyprus (527), Rhegium (568), Syracuse (585, 589), Cyrene (529) and Argos (481), or from the Tvpprjvwv vYd/lkta (608). ATHENAEUS, who, like Pollux, was a native of Naucratis (fl. c. 200 A.D.) expressly mentions the rroXTEtat of Aegina (Frae.3 472), Delos (490), Naxos (558), Troezen (596), Thessaly (499), Methone (55I), Colophon (5'5), Massalia (549), Croton (583), Sybaris (584) and Syracuse (588). The name of Aristotle is also mentioned in connexion with Miletus (557); and that of Timaeus with reference to Aristotle's account of Locri (547), which has already been noticed2. Aristotle ev Tvpprjvwv votdlkoLt is also quoted (607). It has been conjectured that these quotations may have been taken second-hand from lexicographical works, such as the lexicon to the Comic poets compiled by Pamphilus from that of his predecessor Didymus. This is supported by the fact that on p. 499 Athenaeus twice quotes the comic poet Diphilus; and, between the two quotations, inserts a reference to Aristotle ev rrj ~ETTaXWCV 7roXLAtTE to prove that the Thessalians used a feminine form v XAayvvos3. But a native of a country, in which, as we now know, copies of the 'AOrvatlov 7roXLTE'a were actually in existence at the time, may well have derived much of his information from the original work. Apart from the British Museum papyrus and the fragments of the Berlin papyrus, both of which came from Egypt, we know of a third copy, which is mentioned in the catalogue of an Egyptian library of the third century A.D.4. HARPOCRATION of Alexandria, the lexicographer of the Attic Orators, who is doubtfully ascribed either to the second, or (less probably) to the fourth century of our era, expressly quotes 'AptrTroT-EAr ev 'AOryvaiwv -roXLreTI in no less than 50 places. A lost passage in the same treatise is less precisely cited with the phrase Wos 'AptL-0orTE'Xr rar-t (38I). There are nine other I7oArLeta which he mentions by name, those of Arcadia, Elis, Thessaly, Cythnus, Cyprus, Sparta, Massalia, Opus and Pellene. The quotations from the 'AOrlvatv 7roXLArTa are so numerous and so precise, that it may fairly be assumed that they were taken at first-hand from the treatise itself. CLEMENT of Alexandria (ob. 220 A.D.) quotes the 7roAXLMat of 1 Pollux viii 62, rapdpcoXov (Frag.3 3 Rose, A. P., p. 471, Frag. 4993. 456); cf. iii I7, TL7ordrawp (Frag.a 415). 4 Zundel in Rhein. Mus. i866, p. 432. 2 p. xx.

Page  XXVII ON AUTHIORSHIP OF THE IOAITEIAI xxvii Phocaea and Locri, and refers in more general terms to that of Sparta (Frag. 599, 548, 535); while AELIAN (fl. 250 A.D.) tells the story of the usurpation of Peisistratus in language almost identical with that of c. 14 of the 'AO-rvat'v 7roAtXreLa. HESYCHIUS of Alexandria, who belongs to the end of the fourth century, or (more probably) to the fifth, is a compiler from earlier authorities, the best of whom is Diogenianus of Heraclea (of the time of Hadrian). The lexicon of Hesychius expressly quotes the Constitution of the Opuntians (Frag.3 563), and names Aristotle as the authority for statements respecting Cyrene (528), Corcyra (513) and Sparta (541). The second of these items may, however, be traced back to Zenobius. Not a few articles are ultimately founded on the 'AOrvaLwv T-oXLrEa, though neither the work is named, nor its author. Such are the articles on aaUvaroL ('A0. 'roX. 49 ~ 4), dro or-vp/3ofwv [LKacEav (59 ~ 6), BovtSyry5 (Frag. 386), /ovXEV'cr(ETo yKXrELa ('AO. roX. 57 ~ 3), q/r'apXo~ (2I ~ 5), 8ta/lLETprVtl~Evrv r7ptpav (col. 35, 3), irra- (7 ~ 4), and trrov TpoXo' (49 ~ I). To the same source may be traced the articles on Alov;rrov ydtov and 'ErLnXKAeov (3 ~ 5), and also on E8pat flovXAr (30 ~ 4), and XaXaKoV rLvaLKLov (63 ~ 4). PHOTIUS, the patriarch of Constantinople (815-891 A.D.), states that excerpts from the 7roXLEreat of Aristotle, viz. from those of Thessaly, Achaia, Paros, Lycia and Ceos, were included in the twelfth book of the historical selections of Sopater (sixth cent.)'. In his Lexicon, the 'AO-qvat[v 7roXtreta is mentioned in the articles on vavKpapta ('AO. 7roX. 8 ~ 3), and v7rep ra KaXAtKparovs (28 ~ 3): the latter may, however, be traced back to Zenobius. The 7roXLt(rat of Sparta, Samos and Ithaca are expressly cited (Frag.3 586, 575, 509); and Aristotle is named in several articles', including one on 7reXaara ('AO. 7roX. 2 ~ 2). During the embassy 'to the Assyrians' the patriarch perused and epitomised no less than 280 volumes, many of which are now lost; but there is nothing to prove that the 'AOrqvat'v 7roXAreta was included among them. TZETZES of Constantinople (born c. II20 A.D.) refers to the roXtTrEaL of Orchomenus (Frag.3 505) and Ithaca (504 and 508). Of the last two references the former is also found in the E/ymologicum Iafagnum; so that possibly all three may have been borrowed from earlier sources. The lexicon last named, s.v. epo7roLot, expressly quotes Aristotle v rj 'AOrvvacwv 7roXLreta (c. 54 ~ 6), and has a short article as SaTTr?7 (Frag. 422) which may be traced to Harpocration (c. 56 ~ 6). It also names Aristotle in connexion with Cumae (Frag. 525), and we know that this article comes ultimately from the IIoXAtreat. 1 Phot. Bibl. Cod. I6i, p. 104 b 38, quoted by Rose, A. P. p. 4or, Frag.3 p. 258. Frag.3 496, 541, 593, 554.

Page  XXVIII xxviii EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT AUTHORITIES EUSTATHIUS of Constantinople, archbishop of Thessalonica (who died c. 1I98) refers to the 7roXtrETua of Sparta (545) and Ithaca (506), and names Aristotle in a passage which comes from the -roXLtra of Thessaly (437). But there is no proof of direct acquaintance with any of the 7roXtTEtaL. His only notice of the 'AOrJvaWv 7roXtrEa (c. 44 ~ I) is borrowed from Telephus of Pergamos who lived under Hadrian and (among other works) wrote on the Laws and Customs, and on the Lawcourts of Athens. Thus far we have surveyed in chronological order the writers who, either at first or second hand, quote from the IIoXLTeZat of Aristotle. We have still to notice a few anonymous citations. (I) The unknown author of the 7rrdOo-0Ls to the Areopagiticus of Isocrates, a Christian writer of perhaps the sixth century, is the only person who quotes the anecdote in c. 25 respecting the part ascribed to Themistocles in the overthrow of the Areopagus'. (2) The Scholia to Aristophanes refer to the 'AO. 7-oX. in no less than thirteen places'. They also expressly quote the 7roXLreZat of Sparta and Samos, and name Aristotle in connexion with Orchomenos, Corcyra and Cyrene. Many of the Scholia on Aristophanes are derived from Aristophanes of Byzantium and his pupils Callistratus, Aristarchus and Didymus; as well as from the Pergamene scholars, Herodicus and Asclepiades. The earlier Scholia were drawn up in the 3rd century A.D.; while the later Scholia go down as far as the age of Thomas Magister and Triclinius (end of i3th cent.). The Scholia on Sophocles cite Aristotle for a fact mentioned in 'A0. 7roX. 60 ~ 2; those on Euripides quote from the WroXtrE7at of Sparta (Frag. 544) and Thessaly (498), and name Aristotle in connexion with terms relating to the 7roXvrea of Cumae (524-5). Those on Homer give us evidence as to the roXLrEZca of Iasos and Samos (503 and 57I); those on Pindar cite the 7roXLrEta of Sparta, Syracuse and Gela (Frag. 532, 587, 486), and name Aristotle in connexion with Aegina, Rhodes, Crete, Acarnania, Opus and Locri. Those on Plato quote Aristotle for facts which may be traced to the 7roXLretat of Athens (385) and Thessaly (498). Those on Apollonius Rhodius refer to the 7roXiTL at of Samos and Samothrace, Sinope and Tegea, Corcyra and Kios in Mysia; those of Theocritus refer to Croton, Ceos and Crete3. The Scholia on 1 Rose, A. P., p. 423, no. 359; Frag. II5o). In four of these places (marked 4043. with an asterisk) the title is given in full: 2 'AO. iroX. 7 ~ I (*Av. 1354); i5 ~ 3 'Ap. ev 'AO. TroX.; in two (Vesp. 157, 684) (*Ach. 234); 19 ~ 3 (*Lys. 665), ~ 4 the form is'Ap. ev 7roXriatis. (Lys. 1153), ~ 6 (Vesp. 502); 2I ~ 5 3 In the Schol. on Theocr. iv 7 we are (Nub. 37); c. 28 ~ 3? (Vesp. 684); 34~ I told that the Olympic crown eK r77S (Ran. 1532), ~ 3 (Vesp. 157); 34 ult. KaXXtoTou^ 71' KaXXtoTreapdvov eXaias yevo6 -(Vesp. 157); 54 ~ 2 (Vesp. 69I); col. 32, os o7a, eos ioraT, rS,7rXet cTaiwv rOKTW 8-i5 (*Plut. 278); col. 36, 3-9 (Eg. ws paarv (sic) 'Aptor6reXs. This is less

Page  XXIX ONV AUTHORSHIP OF THE IIOAITEIAI xxix Aeschines contain no express mention of Aristotle, but they include several items of information ultimately derived from the 'AOrnvawov 7roXtLEa 1. It will be observed that the references to the IIoXttreat, which have now been enumerated, extend over a period of no less than fifteen centuries, and attest different degrees of acquaintance with the work in many parts of the ancient world, chiefly in great centres of learning, such as Alexandria and Constantinople. In the case of the 'AOrvawov 7roXLTEla, the exact degree to which the text of the treatise was known to those who refer to it, may in general be traced in the Testimonia which are printed below the critical notes in the present edition. All the external evidence is in favour of ascribing the lloAXLTeZa to Aristotle. ~ 4. The later literature of the IIoXLrEat. After the revival of learning in Italy it was Francesco Patrizzi who, in the course of a calumnious attack on the personal character and philosophical authority of Aristotle, unconsciously did some little service to the cause which he impugned by investigating the earlier sources of information as to the lost works of Aristotle. In his Discussiones Peripateticae, published in 1571 at Venice, and reprinted ten years later at Basel, he made the first attempt to collect their fragmentary remains2. Patrizzi's collection was included in Casaubon's Aristotle (159o), and in 1593 a more comprehensive edition was promised by Casaubon himself3. The lost 7roXtrEtat are also mentioned by the learned Selden4, but meanwhile Casaubon's promise remained unfulfilled. The importance of the fragments was noticed by Niebuhr5 and others. It was not until 1827 that C. F. Neumann, then living at Munich, published his Aristotelis Rerumpublicarum Reliquiae, including fragments fiom 50 of the 7roXtEaLt, the number traced to the 'AOrvaowv 7roXrEEa being 59 in all. In I843 a similar collection was published by H. A. Van Dyck at Utrecht. These were superseded by Carl Muller's edition in the Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, Paris (Didot), I848, in which the editor says of Neumann's work: qui quidern libellus nullius nobis usus esse potuit: tam supina est auctoris neglgzentia. The total number of 7roXtrEtat in this new collection is 95, and the fragments of the 'AOcadWv 7rOXtTra have now risen in number to 74. This collection served as the foundation for a still more extensive likely to have been derived from the Oav- I854; Heitz, Verl. Schr., p. i. paclra iaKoa6oaara than from the 7roXirela Note on Diog. Laert. p. 76, ed. j615. of Elis. 4 Dejure naturali &c., Opera I i 74-.5 1 'AO. 7roX. 28 ~ 3, 57 ~ 3, 59 ~~ r 2 5 Hist. Rom. i 20, p. 2 of 3rd Eng. 2 Hallam, Lit. of Europe, ii 6, ed. ed.

Page  XXX XXX LATER LITERATURE work by Valentine Rose. In his Aris/oteles Pseudepzigraphus (1863), we have 213 fragments, 89 of which are assigned to the 'AO. wroX. Rose's second edition of these fragments was included in Vol. v of the Berlin edition of Aristotle (1870), with three new fragments (445, 470, 511) from the 7roXLTEZLa of Delphi, Corcyra and Methone published by a French scholar from a MS of Zenobius discovered on Mount Athos1. Lastly, in I886 Rose's third edition was published by Teubner; the number of fragments is now 223, and of these 91 are traced to the 'A0. 7roX., the two new fragments being no. 413 and 429 (corresponding to c. 3 ~ 5 and 52 ~ i). Meanwhile, in 1869, the fragments had been edited by Emil Heitz, the able author of Die Verlorenen Schriften des Aristoteles (i865). This edition was practically simultaneous with the second edition by Rose which, although printed in 1867, was not published until 1870. In the case of the more important roXtrEZat and especially in that of Athens, the substance of these fragments has been not unfrequently set forth by modern scholars in various degrees of fulness. Thus Carl Muller (FHG ii 104) supplies an epitome of the Fragments on Athens; and Rose, a brief digest in the form of a table of contents'. But the most successful endeavour to give life to these fragmentary remains is to be found in the Appendix to the important work of Oncken on the political teaching of Aristotle3. The fragments are there discussed in their historical bearing, and the scattered facts contained in them presented in a consecutive order and in an interesting form. The introduction to the analysis of the fragments closes with some valuable criticisms to the following effect:The method of dealing with the history of Athens which was pursued by Aristotle and his pupils must be regarded as marking the beginning of a new epoch. Without in any way undervaluing the influence of the contemporary school of Isocrates, as represented by Ephorus, Theopompus and Androtion, we may say without exaggeration that the picture, not only of the political life of Athens down to the overthrow of her freedom, but also of most of her statesmen, which became permanent in the literary tradition of later ages, was in its leading traits first delineated by the school of Aristotle and his followers. The analysis concludes with the following remarks on the second part of the 'AOrivaiouv IroXLTa: — Even a hasty glance at all these details gives one an impression of the extraordinarily valuable store of authentic facts here gathered by the industry of Aristotle. He has presented us with a description of the very subjects which the Athenians themselves did not deem worth the trouble of describing, since the knowledge of these de1 E. Miller, Melanges de litle'rature 3 Die Staatslehre des Aristoteles in grecque, Paris, i868; p. 369. Historisch-Politischen Umrissen, vol. ii 2 A. P., p. 402. (1875), pp. 4Io-528.

Page  XXXI OF THE IIOAITEIAI xxxi tails of every-day life was for themselves the merest matter of course. In Aristotle the scientific instinct of the genuine investigator was blended with the natural curiosity of the foreigner; and this double interest served to add a fresh keenness to his perception of what posterity would deem to be best worth knowing. For later generations his 7ro\XLria became a veritable treasure-house of accumulated learning. Things that are only incidentally noticed by the orators and poets of the time, as being perfectly familiar to every one, are here narrated, described and elucidated by Aristotle for the benefit of all of those to whom this information was unknown. It was an important and an imperishable service. It was also one which was the natural result of his peculiar method as an investigator. To display the various members of the living body of definite fact, to separate all the complex framework into its component parts, to trace the sequence of a series of results as they came into being, to describe for after ages what was regarded by contemporaries as no less obvious than their daily meat and drink,-to do all this was thoroughly characteristic of Aristotle. It is more than enough to prove the truth of the opinion that Aristotle is above all others the scientific investigator of the Hellenic idea of political life. Thus far we have dealt with laborious collections of the merest fragments of the IIoXi-rtat, and with one vivid commentary upon the most important of the series. Meanwhile, the original work was deemed to have vanished as completely as the lost decads of Livy. Neumann, in the Prolegomena to his edition of the fragments, laments the loss in the following terms: eheu amissum est in sempiternum praeclarum op us, nisi e palimpsestis quibusdam fortasse eruatur. In the Bibliothe'que Orientale of Herbelot (p. 971), mention is made of an Arabic translation of the work, but the hope inspired by this statement remained unfulfilled1. To cherish such a hope, even for a moment, was in I865 denounced as folly2. ~ 5. The Berlin Fragments of the 'AO-qvatwv 7roXtrEta. In the year I880 the interest of scholars was aroused by the announcement that, among the fragments of papyrus found in the Fayoom near the ancient Arsinoe, and acquired for the Egyptian Museum at Berlin, there were two small pages with writing on both sides. They were skilfully deciphered by Blass, and a comparison with other papyri led 1 The title of the alleged translation is in Ibn Abi Useibia, which includes 'a Ketab Siassat Almoden (the book of the book about the Government of States government of States). Herbelot's au- and the number of the nations, in which thority is Haji Khalfa, who died in 1658. he mentions 15I great States' (ed. Muller, In Fluegel's ed., vol. v p. 97, no. io, 1884, p. 68). As this list is confessedly 203, Haji Khalfa says that, in the book taken from a Greek catalogue by Ptolemy on 'the Government of States,' Aristotle (see supra p. xvii), we have no right to mentions 171 great States. He dis- assume that the Arabs possessed the tinguishes this book from the Politics, book. It is not at all the kind of book and says that the latter was translated that was likely to interest them. For into Arabic, which perhaps implies that the substance of this note I am indebted the 'Government of States' was not. to Prof. W. Robertson Smith. Part of this statement is doubtless de- 2 Heitz, Verl. Schr., p. 23o. rived from the list of Aristotle's writings

Page  XXXII Xxxii THE BERLIN FRA GMENTS to their being provisionally assigned to the second century A.D. The first fragment contained on one side (I a) the long passage in Iambic verse quoted by Aristides from the poems of Solon; on the other (I b), a passage in prose on the archonship of Damasias. The second fragment had on one side (II a) an account of the reforms of Cleisthenes; and on the other (II b), a passage on the ostracism of Megacles and Xanthippus, with some mention of the mines at Maroneia. So imperfect were the indications given by the context that Blass identified Damasias as the archon of 639-8, instead of the archon of 582 — and 581-o. The institution of the nine archons seemed to be mentioned after the extract from Solon. It thus appeared impossible to attribute the fragments to a historical work written in chronological order, such as that of Ephorus or one of the writers of 'ArOi.'E. But Theopompus was known to have closed the tenth book of his Philippica with an excursus on the demagogues of Athens. This (as Blass thought) might well have begun with some account of Dracon and Solon, followed by a digression on the early history of the archonship and by notices of various statesmen such as Megacles, together with some observations on the institution of Ostracism and the reforms of Cleisthenes. It was accordingly conjectured that the newly discovered fragments belonged to Theopompus. Here the matter rested for a very short time. The article by Blass was published in Hermes in October, i880. The very next number of the Rheinisches Museum contained a brilliant contribution by the veteran scholar Bergk, who was then in his 69th year and had just completed the fourth edition of his Poetae Lyrici Graeci, and whose attention was perhaps mainly drawn to the fragments because they included fresh evidence on the poems of Solon. Bergk pointed out that the passage on Cleisthenes corresponded with a scholium on Aristophanes, Nubes, 37. The papyrus as deciphered by Blass had the following letters: - - - eHN&IOIC - - X * * * K ~ AHMOI -- e- EnTOMeNNT * c [N& -TO * C AHMOYC&AN * * ON With the help of the Scholium Bergk restored the second and following lines thus: KaT]E[crqr]E 86E K[at] t1PapXOV 1rjV avTjEV xovTa1] ErI(t/EXELaV T7[ot]S 7p[oT7pov vaVKpapoLs KaIL Tov] aJS 8 V Cg VT]t TrWV vavKpaptLv E'roro'E]

Page  XXXIII THE BERLIN FRA GMENTS xxxiii This Sc/holium, although introduced by the words 'Apt-rroTEXrl 8e ri'ptp KXEtaeOvov5 4ror, had not found its way into either of Rose's previous editions of the fragments, its place having been taken by a less accurate transcript in the lexicon of Harpocration (Rose, 3592); but it is duly cited in the edition by Heitz (no. 19 = 388). In addition to the proof supplied by this citation, the internal evidence of the style of these scanty fragments was enough to convince Bergk that the prose portions could not have come from any other work than the lost 7roXLrEcZa of Aristotle'. But Bergk could not believe that so long a passage of poetry as the fragment of Solon could have been cited in the 'AOrvatowv 7roXtTeta. He accordingly suggested two alternative solutions: either the poem was an interpolation inserted in a complete copy of the 'AOrqvacwv 7roXtTrda by a copyist who desired to illustrate the reforms of Solon by transcribing the poem, or the work consisted of selections from various writers on the constitution of Athens. The Berlin fragments were further discussed by Landwehr, who published a transcript and a restoration of the text in I883; which he afterwards revised and corrected in the Philologus (Suppl. Bd. v I95). They were also the subject of an able paper by Diels in i8852. According to his view the fragments are simply two loose pages of papyrus filled with transcripts from the 'AO0rvaWov 7roX-LrEa by some schoolboy of Arsinoe. Damasias is rightly identified as Damasias II, and many other points are discussed in a masterly manner. It is also maintained for the first time that all the four pages belong to the same work, and that the 'AO. 7roX. of Aristotle. The paper includes a convenient reprint of the various restorations of the fragments, and also a lithographed facsimile. 1 p. go, 'Wohl aber erinnert die Be- rischer Sinn vor jeder Befangenheit des handlungsweise an Aristoteles: selbst ein Urtheils bewahrte. Nicht minder erinnert blodes Auge wird erkennen, dass der die schlichte und schmucklose, nur auf Verfasser vollkommen mit seinem Gegen- die Sache gerichtete Darstellung an die stande vertraut ist, dass er zwischen We- Weise des Begriinders der Staatswissensentlichem und Unwichtigemsehr wohlzu schaft. Auf mich wenigstens machten scheiden weiss, dass hier nicht ein buch- diese Bruchstiicke sofort den Eindruck, gelehrter Grammatiker zu uns spricht, als hatte ich Reste der Aristotelischen sondern ein erfahrener Mann, der mit Politie der Athener vor mir.' scharfen Blicke das politische Leben zu 2 Philos. u. Hist. Abhandhzgczn, betrachten gewohnt war, der sein histo- Berlin Acad., I886, ii pp. 1-57. S. A. d

Page  XXXIV xxxiv THE BRITISH MUSEUM PAPYRUS ~ 6. The British Museum jpapyrus. Thus far the student of Aristotle's IIoXLrTeGa had to found his conclusions as to the character of the work solely on meagre fragments laboriously collected from many sources, and on two barely legible and most imperfect scraps of papyrus in the Museum at Berlin, when suddenly, on the morning of Monday, Jan. 19, I891, the readers of The Times were startled by the announcement that a MS containing the greater portion of Aristotle's Constitution of Athens had been acquired by the British Museum as part of a collection of papyrus rolls from a place in Egypt which, for adequate reasons, it was not expedient to specify more particularly. It was not until the rolls had been examined at the British Museum that it was found that three of them contained what was identified as the text of the 'A0,rvalow 7roXiTLeLa. The secret of the discovery had been well kept: and by its first public announcement the interest of scholars at home and abroad was roused to a high pitch of expectation. Only eleven days later, on Friday, Jan. 3oth, the printed text appeared under the editorship of Mr F. G. Kenyon, Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, Assistant in the Department of MSS, British Museum. It was soon discovered that, although the text was described in the preface to the editio princeps as 'in good condition' and requiring ' little emendation', there was a still deeper truth in the editor's fuller statement on a later page:-' There remain not a few passages which still require emendation by conjecture, in some of which the reading of the MS is completely lost, while in others a few faint traces of letters remain, which will serve as tests of the accuracy of any proposed emendation'. A vast number of conjectures of very various degrees of merit were accordingly proposed by English scholars in the pages of the Athenaeum, and the Academy, and the substance of these, together with the criticisms of continental scholars, were reprinted, with many other suggestions, in successive numbers of the Classical Review (March to July, I89I). Many further contributions to the criticism and elucidation of the treatise have since appeared. A conspectus of the literature of the subject is reserved for a later section (~ o). Early in March the Trustees of the British Museum published a Facsimile of the papyrus. The immediate, and indeed the permanent, result of this publication was a widely expressed recognition of the remarkable skill with which Mr Kenyon had accomplished the task of deciphering the MS. In those portions of the MS which are most easily read in the original, the facsimile is an adequate substitute for the

Page  XXXV THE BRITISH MUSEUM PAPYRUS XXXV papyrus. It is mainly, though by no means exclusively, in the places where the papyrus is rubbed, and the remains of the letters only faintly visible, that it is absolutely necessary to resort to the original. The MS consists of four separate rolls with the letters A, B, r, written at the beginning of the first three: I 7 feet, 2~ inches, in length, by about I I inches in height, including Columns I —r II 5,, 5.... ". I2-24 III 3,,,,,,,,,, 25 —30 IV about 3 feet (originally) in length, by about io inches in height, including remains of Columns 31-37 Total length about 8 feet, 8 inches'. The MS is written in four hands: (i) extends over Columns I-I2, and is described as 'a small semi-cursive hand, employing a large number of abbreviations of common syllables.' (2) begins with Col. 13 and ends in the middle of Col. 20. This is described as an 'uncial of fair size,' plain but not ornamental, employing no contractions, and making a large number of blunders in matters of spelling. (3) is a 'straggling' and often ill-formed semi-cursive hand, of larger size than the first. This extends from the middle of Col. 20 to the end of Col. 24; and also includes the mutilated remains of Cols. 31-37. (4) closely resembles (i), and 'employs many of the same abbreviations,' but is generally finer and more upright, and possesses some distinctive forms of letters. This extends over Cols. 25-302. Abbreviations are not used uniformly by all the four hands. They are chiefly confined to hands (i) and (4), while they are very sparingly used by (3), and not at all by (2). Hence it is obvious that, in restoring the text, it is solely in Cols. I-12, and 25-30, that we can assume the existence of abbreviations. They can only be admitted within very narrow limits in Cols. 20-24, and 31-37; while they cannot be admitted at all in Cols. 13-20. (i) and (4) have many abbreviations in common; but at the same time each of the two has some that are characteristic of itself alone. This will be made clear by the following classified list3. 1 According to Pliny (A. H. xiii ~ 78) their preface, is refuted by Mr Kenyon the two best kinds of papyrus were (ed. 3 p. xii) whose opinion is justly conthirteen digits in height (I3 x '7282I= firmed by Blass (Praef. iv-vii). 10o4653 inches), rather less tall than 3 Mr Kenyon has already given a generolls i-III, but rather taller than iv. ral list on the last page of his Introd. I 2 Mr Kenyon's Introduction, p. xi. have endeavoured to classify this list, and 4 The proposal to identify hands (I) and to represent approximately the shapes of (4), and hands (2) and (3), made by the letters used in the papyrus. Kaibel and Wilamowitz on pp. v-vi of d2

Page  XXXVI xxxvi THE BRITISH MUSEUM PAPYRUS hands (I) and (4) f = yap A, = rapa and rapa&' = 5d and -6e-, = repl i = &ci and 6La- C = O6v and ouv\= elvat Tt = -Tai /= cari T = -pY and -T-v K = Kat and -Kac- T) = r? and -Tr77 /'= tedv and -/Lev- T = -rsv and -rwv u\= /ATra and (in I) /eraa- = -wv ~= -0 o = ouv and -ovv hand (i) only = -, -O, -Or,, 01S, -ovs An = 7rep C0 = -aOatL; = Xpovos, -or, -ov, -wv, -oLs w = -ew hand (4) only a' = ava-; = el7t cO = -o-Oat y' = Vo6 and v7ro hand (3) only Y' = viTrp hands (3) and (4) only K =-Kal- and in (3) Kat Hands (i) and (4) have not only certain distinctive abbreviations, but they also use with different degrees of frequency the abbreviations that are common to both. Thus the symbol for Etvat is found fourteen times in (i), and only five times in (4); that for Eo-rt four times in (i), and twenty-eight times in (4); that for o-vv- seventy times in (i), and six times in (4); that for -ovv- three times in (I), and sixteen times in (4); that for -rat twenty-four times in (i), and fifty-seven times in (4); and that for -og is far more frequent in (i) than in (4)1. These considerations prevent us from identifying the two hands. There are also certain distinctive differences in the shapes of the letters used by each; and the same remark applies to hands (2) and (3) 2 Final syllables are often omitted in (i) and (4). Thus cvx is found in both hands for SvXA^s and svX'jv, and flovX is used for all the cases of pfovXJ in the singular. Hand (3) has Xow for X;pav (col. 22, 2); rpo for rpo7rov (ib. i r) and arroypa for a7roypa4abd (ib. 35). An abbreviation for av is exceptionally used for avrnjv (in col. 9, 8); and a symbol for 8paX/A, found in cols. 21, 35 and 26, 54, is common to hands (2) and (4). Numerals are denoted by the ordinary symbols in all hands alike3. 1 For the details of these statistics, see van Leeuwen's Obser-vationes Palaeographicae in the Dutch edition, pp. 170-7. 2 See the alphabets reproduced in Class. Rev. v 183. 3 The use of the above abbreviations, and their distribution over the several hands, may be illustrated by the following examples. For convenience, ordinary type is here used, and the words are separated from one another. Abbreviations in (i), also found in (4): — deP37 (col. I, 3); 7rXwprloavr (, 20); ra u o' ir rao apXao (i, 35); r' r Xpewv aTroaKoryr/ (2, 31); 7tlov \ K r' roXeo (3, 32); o'KIa E-0 o0) ' oEO-OLlt StKOV \ (4, 6); /EAVITi 7r' aur (4, 15); Ti' T ''veLEO- Tr' yrv (4, 21) iAL T i' VO[Iwl' OEfrtv (5, 23); o7 'Y eVoEX6ei(7, 2); /La'7re7ro /oo' (7, 14); apuo6Lt~ (7, 25); travTaL Ca' ot0 (8, 21); o'Ka 4 1r' T -T a urv (9, 4); K T O' yaX(O (10, 12); \ K &KOC' (II, I), \ Tw 7r'KXEL (I I 27); E7re 8' f I' eCv ciLKeX 'yeevot-qV f0/opav (II, 46); a'ypaetpvciav^tywvTp, i.e. a-vyypa/eiv a a 7ywvirai (i2, 3). In (4), also found in (): — c'3a\XX\e (25, 25); 6paXAu0 (27, I); aPXovr- (27, 23); 7r'apetiat (29, i8)2; 3'rtOOt (29, 23); / Tr' 3ovh (29, 50); Tr TtOevTat (30, 41). In (I) alone:-o= ov in 5 places, e.g.

Page  XXXVII THE BRITISH MUSEUM PAPYRUS Xxxvii Iota adscriptum is hardly ever omitted in (I); hardly ever inserted in (2); (3) and (4) do not follow any fixed rule'. EL and t are frequently interchanged, especially in (2); some of these mistakes are however corrected by hand (i). But even in (i) we sometimes have L for Et, e.g. rto-LCTpaTos in three places (Col. 5, 28, 33, 37), besides four other instances. In (2) there are as many as 4I, e.g. atLXov for d.cEXov (Col. I6, 4); in (3) and (4) there are only four and five respectively. Conversely we have EL for t in all the four hands, the number of instances being I4, II, 15 and 2 respectively. Both of these mistakes are combined in 'roXELTtav (Col. 13, 3) and 7roXECtras (14, I; I6, 26)2. There is nothing resembling a mark of punctuation, except the short horizontal line in the margin (Cols. I, 40; 2, 4; 7, I5, 30; II, 5, 31; I3, I5). In some cases this may be a true rrapaypaor, as in Col. I, 40 and 8, 21 f, where it coincides with the natural end of a chapter; in others (as suggested by Blass3) it may denote a corruption; at any rate this appears more probable than van Leeuwen's4 opinion that it draws attention to an important or striking statement. There are no breathings or accents, except in EKLapTvpU v (Col. 3, 9), vo~ucOvXaKEtv (3, 26), 84tJov? (4, 29), a (2, 3) 'y7vTat (I3, II) and av'ov (29, 46). In some of these cases they are apparently added to prevent ambiguity of meaning5. Blunders made by hand (2) are occasionally corrected, apparently by hand (I), or possibly (4). It has been suggested that the transcript was begun by some one who desired a copy for his own use, and, after writing out the first twelve columns, entrusted to others the task of copying the remainder, being content to revise their work and to correct their misspellings and their other mistakes6. The editors of the first German edition, Kaibel and von Wilamowitz7, hold that all the corrections are due to hand (I) which they identify with (4). To account for the fact that many blunders are left uncorrected, they assume that the apietO -rayo, (2, 9); =ov in 44 places, e.g. 23, 22;) =-Kat- in avayK~ov (23, 14). Xwp' OLrKK~O, (3, 3); =ot in 8 places, e.g. ta-Xt- =Xcpav (22, 2); rpoI=Tp6rov (22, ii); Xt' (IO, 17); =ots once, aXX~ (2, 33); aroypa=adroypafacs 22, 35. Final v a=-ovu in i6 places, e.g. KXetLO0EV~, (12, bove last letter of word, seven times, cf. 8); K Tr (8, 9). p. Ip., n.c. K5 also= —Kac- in (4), 27, 17. In (4) alone: —//=elot (in 20 places, 1 Van Leeuwen, 1. c. p. I65. e.g. twice in 27, ii and 28, 41); 6=virr 2 Van Leeuwen, 1. c. p. i66. (26, 19, 30; 27, 20; 28, 24); c0'=-o-Oat 3 Praef. p. xi. in i6 places, e.g. vvaoa' (26, 9); 6=v7r6 4.c. p. I66. in 26, 19 and 30; 27, 20; 28, 24; also 5 Mr Kenyon's Introd. last page; and =0Iro- in vuvytwv (26, 52); id=ctca- in I3 van Leeuwen, i. c. p. 167. places, e.g. dcflvaL 30, 3. 6 Mr Kenyon's Introduction, p. xi. In (3) alone: 0=urpp twice 2, 24 and 7 Praef. p. vii. 23, 22 (cf. 22, 44). (3) Ki=Kat (22, 13 bis;

Page  XXXVIII xxxviii THE BRITISH MUSEUM PAPYRUS text depends on two earlier MSS, one of them much more accurate than the other'. Blass however, holds, with apparently greater probability, that there are several correctors: all the four hands correct some of their own mistakes; and one or more of them correct the work of the rest, not to mention the possibility of a revision independent of all the four. The same critic divides the 'corrections' into five groups, the most important of which he prefers to regard as variae lectiones which were recorded as such in the MS from which our papyrus was copied2. The process by which the papyrus plant was made into material for writing was as follows: the tall stem had its rind stripped off and the pith cut with a sharp instrument into broad slices of extreme thinness and considerable length. These were laid in long strips on a flat board; across these were placed in the opposite direction and touching one another, a number of short strips corresponding in length to the proposed height of the roll. The upper and lower surfaces were made to adhere to one another by means of the slightly glutinous sap of the pith or (failing that) by means of paste. The long scroll thus formed was thereupon smoothed down with an ivory instrument or a shell3. The proper side for writing is that on which the horizontal strips allow of the pen running freely without traversing the frequent joinings of the successive parallel strips of papyrus. Thus, the British Museum papyrus of the first three speeches of Hyperides is written entirely on what may be called the 'horizontal' side, i.e. that on which the strips of papyrus run in a horizontal direction. If any writing is added on the back, it may be described as written on the 'vertical' side, that on which the strips run vertically and overlap one another at their edges. After the front of a scroll has been filled, the back is not unfrequently used for some other writing on a totally different subject. For example, the British Museum papyrus of the Funeral Oration of Hyperides has a Greek horoscope on one side, and that the 'horizontal,' or right side; while the speech of Hyperides is written on the 'vertical,' or wrong side. Similarly the 'AO-vaiwv roXLCrEta is written on the vertical, or wrong side, technically called verso (or 'reverse') as opposed to recto. It may be inferred that the text of any author so inscribed on the back of the scroll is not only later in date than that on the other side; but also that it has been copied solely for the private use of the owner, and not for publication or for preservation in a public library 4. On the horizontal side of the papyrus of the 'AOqrvatwv 7roXtLrEa are 1 Praef. p. ix. currit harundo via.' Cf. Bliimner's Tech2 Blass, Praef pp. viii-xi. nologie, i 308-325. 3 Martial xv 209, 'Levis ab aequorea 4 U. Wilcken, Hermes T887, p. 487 -cortex Mareotica concha Fiat: inoffensa 492, Recto oder Verso.

Page  XXXIX A UTHORSHIP OF THE A~HNAIQN IIOAITEIA xxxix the accounts of receipt and expenditure drawn up by a bailiff on a private estate in the eleventh year of Vespasian (from Aug. 78 to June 79 A.D.)1. After (but probably not very long after) the time when the accounts had ceased to be valuable, the other side was used to the extent of a column and a half for the transcription of an argument to the Midias of Demosthenes2; the latter was then struck out, the roll turned upside down and the 'AOrvatwv 1roXL-rta written on it, beginning at the other end of the roll. The MS has been assigned to 'the end of the first century of our era or, at latest, the beginning of the second,' and this opinion is confirmed by several dated documents of the first and second centuries which have come to light since the first publication of the papyrus3. ~ 7. Date and Authorship of the 'AOlvalov 7roXLrEta. The date of the original composition of the treatise is determined by internal evidence. The system of electing Strategi for special departments of military duty, which is recognised in c. 61 ~ I, was introduced after B.c. 334. Hence the work was written later than that date. The latest date expressly quoted in it is the archonship of Cephisophon, B.c. 329-8 (c. 54 ~ 7). Again, since in c. 46 ~ I mention is made of triremes and quadriremes, and not of quinqueremes, it has been inferred that it was written before B.C. 325-4, the earliest date at which quinqueremes are named in connexion with the navy of Athens4. Further, it is clear that the treatise could not have been composed after 322 B.C.; because, in that case, we should certainly have had some account of the change in the constitution of Athens which was brought about by Antipater in that year5. Lastly, the treatise describes the Athenians as still sending officials to Samos (c. 62, I6); in the autumn of B.C. 322 that island ceased to be under the control of Athens. B.C. 322 is also the year of the death of Aristotle: hence, the evidence derived from the treatise itself shews that it was written while Aristotle was still alive; and the reasons above assigned enable us to place its date between B.C. 328 and 325. We have already traced in chronological order the evidence of all 3 grovs e&eKdcTOv avroTKpdopos Katoapos 3 Mr Kenyon's Introd. to ed. 3, p. Oveanraaorivov Zepacarou apyvppLK6s \6yos xvi. 'ETrLcIdXov IloXve6Kovs X\i/jLjarWv KaCi 4 Mr Cecil Torr in Athenaeum, Feb. 7, dvaXc\woJircwv rcv &t' iUoO Ai5Aou 'Ao-tra- i89r; Bruno Keil, Berl. Phil. Woch. alov xeIpt'oudvwv (in the original there I891, p. 614; J. H. Lipsius, Vethandare no accents). lungen der Sachs. Gesellschaft der Wissen' Printed in the Dutch ed. of the'AO. schaften, 28 Feb. I891, p. 45. See note roX., pp. I80 — 85; and in Mr Kenyon's on 46 ~ I. 3rd ed., pp. 215 —29. 5 Bruno Keil, u. s. p. 613.

Page  XL xl A UTHORSHIP OF THE AOHNAIMN IOAITEIA the ancient authorities who quote the IIOXLTEta. We have seen that the work as a whole is assigned to Aristotle by the unanimous voice of antiquity; and it has just been shewn that the 'AOrvaCwv T7oXLtTea was certainly completed while Aristotle was still alive. In such a case we must necessarily accept the work as Aristotle's, unless internal evidence is conclusive on the other side. The consideration of that evidence turns partly on questions of style, partly on the relations subsisting between the 'AOrvaCwv 7roXLTEta and the Politics. Let us consider the latter point first. The latest event mentioned in the Politics is the death of Philip in B.C. 336. Had the Politics been finished even as early as seven years after that date, it would have been completed before the 'A0vvawov 7roXLTrEa. But, according to the opinion now prevalent among Aristotelian scholars, it was left incomplete by its author and was not given to the world in his lifetime. Books vii (iv) and viii (v) are more carefully composed than the rest, being specially marked by the avoidance of hiatus. It is possible that these two books represent the author's finished style; it is also possible that they owe their polish to the skill of a pupil of the Peripatetic school'. But in either case they are not of the nature of a popular work, and there is nothing to prove that they were in general circulation during the author's lifetime. Probably the greater part of the Politics had already been written by the year 336. It has sometimes been supposed that the vast collection of facts relating to the 7roXTLrEaL of various Greek states was formed to serve as materials for the theoretical treatment of the subject in the Politics. The Politics, however, were never completed, whereas the 'AOrlvatov 7roXtrEta assumed a finished form more than three years before the death of Aristotle. But it is quite possible that the materials for the 'AO-rvatwv 7roXLtEta, and for the rest of the series, were collected before the larger part of the Politics was reduced to writing. The same materials would serve for both; but, in the case of the IIOXLTeZaL, they were embodied in a finished work for popular perusal; in the case of the Politics, they formed part of the preliminary studies for courses of lectures probably confined to the philosopher's immediate circle. Now, as the Politics may have continued to supply the theme for such lectures in and after 334, while the 'AOrqvaw'v TOXLTr'a was not ready for public perusal until 6 or 8 years later, we need not be surprised to find in the Politics no reference whatsoever to the IIoXtT1ZaL. At aX\me when only fragments of the latter were known to scholars, this fact used to be quoted in proof of the spuriousness of the work. But now that 1 Shute's History of the Aristotelian Writings, pp. I64-170.

Page  XLI AUTHORSHIP OF THE A~HNAIQN HOAITEIA xli nearly the whole of one of the IIoXLtreZa has been recovered, and its date determined to be later than the latest event noticed in the Politics, no argument against its genuineness can be founded on the fact that the author of the unfinished work says nothing of a popular treatise that had not yet been published while the theoretical work was still in course of preparation. The question arises whether the IoXIretZa are ever mentioned in the undisputed works of Aristotle. At the close of the Ethics, when about to state the theme of the ensuing discussion in the Politics, Aristotle speaks of Trv 7roXLTELtvc at ovuvaywyai and also of T3ev r-vvr-qyLJE v 7roXtrTXWv (x 9 ~~ 21, 23). The sense of the context of the latter phrase may be expressed as follows: 'First then let us endeavour to review whatever is to some extent valuable in the statements of our predecessors, and then to learn from the constitutions which have been collected (or put into juxtaposition with one another), the causes which are apt to preserve or to destroy states, and the causes which have this effect on the several constitutions.' This promise is sufficiently fulfilled by the review of the various constitutions in Book in, their classification in Books III-vr1, and the discussion of the ways in which revolutions may be caused or prevented in Book vIII (v). Rose, however, in his Aristoteles Pseudep5igraphus, while regarding the 7roXtrELtv c-vvaywyal as existing collections of facts forming materials for the Politics, insists at the same time that Aristotle had not himself written any such work or expressed any intention of writing it2. The Politics of Aristotle, he adds, were supplemented in due time by the works on voo0o-eta written by his pupil Theophrastus; but neither Aristotle nor Theophrastus, he contends, ever wrote any work on 7roXtrtat. The IoXtrETat, attributed to Aristotle, are ascribed by Rose to some anonymous Peripatetic who was less of a philosopher than a historian and philologist. Such was Demetrius Phalereus who wrote works arEp r67 s'AOvlra-Ct vo0toOe-rt'as and 7repi -v 'AOv1jot 7TroXireLv. Such, again, 1 Cf. Newman, Ar. Pol. vol. i pp. 2, 13I9 b 23, he infers that they are die 2I14-220. znter eine gewisse Anzahl Von Rubriken 2 Rose, A. P. p. 396. vertheilten, verschiedenen VeifassungsCamerarius and Victorius understood formen. But the meaning of rvvayw-yal:roXTrecat v alv-ycLvat as a reference to in the former of these two passages is Aristotle's historical work, a view sup- determined by Aristotle himself by the ported by Grant and Stahr, Ar. Pol. use of the word -vvsva6oleva in the very (i86o) p. 66. Heitz, Verl. Schr. p. 232, next line, and -vvvvaSaooi in the subsequotes the paraphrase of Andronicus: quent context. It refers to constitutions etira avvacyaybv6res r&a 7roXLreias OewpwcLev which exceptionally combine oligarchic,v avTraLs a Te 6Oelpet Kact dc o'Se Tas 7 r6\Xes. and democratic elements; and this sense From the use of cvwaywyal in Pol. vii (vi) has nothing to do with the interpretation init., p. i316 b 40, rt &Se TrS crvvacywyas of the passage in the Ethics proposed by,OrVTV Trwv ecp'W vwv errTKeTTdrov TrdvrTwv Heitz. Susemihl (followed by Mr J. A. rv Trp67rwv, and oTvaKTrov els 6Mlya in Stewart) brackets Eth. x 9 ~~ 22, 23.

Page  XLII xlii AUTHORSHIP OF THE AOHNAI2N HOAITEIA was Dicaearchus, whose 7roXLretat were known to Cicero. The author of the IIoXLtTEaL was (according to Rose) inspired, like Dicaearchus, by the example of Aristotle who, in his Politics, touches on the constitutions of a large number of states. Now that we know that the 'AOrqvalwv rroXLTEla was completed several years before the death of Aristotle, while the Politics was still unfinished, the suggestion that the unknown author of the IIoXtreZa was inspired by the Politics falls to the ground, unless indeed we are to assume that the author was one of the pupils of Aristotle who attended his course on the Politics at some date after his return to Athens (334). If so, it is singular that the name of this remarkably prolific writer should not have been preserved. On the contrary, the name has completely vanished, and in its place we find everywhere the name of Aristotle and of none beside. The only two that have been seriously suggested as authors of the 'AOrlvatov 7roXLTeta are Demetrius Phalereus and Dicaearchus. The former is suggested by Rose in his Aristoteles Pseudepigraphus, p. 398. Two of the fragments seemed to imply a more aristocratic type of constitution than any that prevailed at Athens before about 317 B.c.; and, on the other hand, the work must have been composed before the number of the Attic tribes was increased from ten to twelve (B.C. 307). The fragments in question are those on OEOfLzoOET^v aVaVKpLo-Ls (4143) and o-TparEta Ev ToLS E7roWVJzOiS (4693). The inference drawn by Rose is not supported by the context in which we find those fragments in the present work (c. 55 ~ i and c. 53 ~ 7); and we now know that the treatise was written not between 317 and 307, but between 328 and 325. Rose's suggestion has been recently revived by Schvarczl. If any detailed refutation of this view is necessary, it may be noticed that, of all the passages attributed to the work of Demetrius 7repL rTr 'AOvylo-rt votLoOeo-ta (either by Harpocration, s.v. oKarqoo'pol, Zevs EpKElOS and 7rapao-racris, or by Plutarch, Sol. 23, or by the Scholiast on Arist. Nzubes 37, or by other authorities mentioned in Miiller's FHG), not one is to be found in the 7roXLreta. Indeed, in the very first fragment of the work of Demetrius, the account of Kvpla K/cKXr7'a is described by Harpocration as less satisfactory than that of 'Aristotle' which is found in c. 43 ~ 4. Similarly Harpocration, s.v. 7rapao-racrot, prefixes to a quotation from Demetrius rrepi vo/JoOcr-as, a quotation from 'Aristotle' Ev r- 'AOTqvawov 7roXLTEra which is found in c. 59 ~ 3; and the Scholiast on Arist. Nzubes 37 quotes from both treatises, his quotation from 'Aristotle' being found in c. 21 ~ 5. (From the other work, 7reppi TW 'AO 'vroLt 7roLtTeW'v or 7roXtTWV, named in Diog. Laert. v 80, not a single fragment has 1 Ar. und die'AO. troX., pp. c, d.

Page  XLIII A UTHORSHIP OF THE A~HNAIHN IOAITEIA xliii survived.) To meet these difficulties Schvarcz suggests that, at the time of writing the rEcpt -RvV 'AOi?/cr- 7roXrTELov, which he practically identifies with the 'AOrfval'v 7roXLtrea, Demetrius was unacquainted with the facts which he afterwards ascertained by further study in the archives of Athens and embodied in his later work 7rEpt -qn^ 'A6vro-L votoOEaLas. And yet, strange to say, the account of KvpLa EKKXrcrqa in this 'later work' is in the judgment of Harpocration inferior to that in the treatise which Schvarcz identifies with the 'earlier work' of Demetrius. It is equally impossible to assign it to Aristotle's pupil, Dicaearchus, for not a single fragment attributed to him by ancient authorities is to be found in the 'AOrjvaowv 7roXIrTa. Nothing is quoted from his 7roXXtEuaL of Pellene and Corinth, or Sparta and Athens; and the few remains of his antiquarian works 7rCpt 1 OVcLtKOV ayOVWV, 7repl ALoLvo-taKWJv daywvwv and IIavaOlva]Kodg, have nothing in common with the treatment of those topics in the treatise ascribed to Aristotle. While in the Politics there is no allusion to the IIoXtETLa, there are many passages in the 'AO. 7roX. which, either in thought or expression, are so closely parallel to the Politics, as to suggest a common authorship. Such coincidences might of course be due to the retentive memory of a pupil attending the master's lectures on his unfinished and unpublished work; but it seems more natural to ascribe them to a common author. Let us first consider the more general coincidences of thought. (I) The 'AOrjvaLwv OrroXLreta is the work of one who displays a certain predilection for an aristocratic form of government. In the Politics there is no question as to the author's general sympathies being on the side of an aristocratic government. Aristocracy is to Aristotle an apiorqn 7roXLTrEa. It is marked by election for merit; it is distinguished from the perfect state as being a government of men who are only good relatively to the constitution; it is so called because the best rule, or because the best interests of the state are consulted; it is analogous to royalty as a government of the best: it is even preferable to royalty, because under it the good are more than one. Oligarchy, the perverted form of Aristocracy, is inferior to constitutional government (7roXLrEta), and to its perverted form, Democracy. Democracy is described in the Politics as the government of the many in their own interests; it is the perversion of constitutional government; it is akin to tyranny; in its extreme form it is peculiarly apt to pass into tyranny; it is, however, the only possible form of government in large states; and it is more stable than oligarchy. ' Liberty and equality', as well as the 'use of the lot', are dispassionately

Page  XLIV xliv AUTHORSHIP OF THE AOHNAI2N HOAITEIA described as characteristic of democracy; and suggestions are propounded for the improvement of this form of government'. The author of the 'AO-vaLwv TroXtre'a dwells on the importance of the services rendered by the Areopagus in the times of Dracon (c. 4) and Solon (c. 9), and in the sixteen years immediately succeeding the formation of the confederacy of Delos (c. 23). Cleon is regarded as a demagogue who corrupted the people (c. 28). Nicias, Thucydides (son of Melesias), and Theramenes, are counted among the best statesmen of Athens (c. 28). The writer shows the greatest interest in the constitutional measures proposed by the Four Hundred (c. 29-32); at the same time he does not disguise the atrocities committed by the Thirty (c. 35 end). The restoration 'of the democracy is described in dispassionate and unenthusiastic terms (c. 38). The defeat of a proposal to reward all who had aided in its restoration is mentioned in language implying that the author did not disapprove of the result. On the other hand, the transfer of judicial functions from the 3ovXr/ to the iKKXrtoia is commended on the ground that 'small bodies are more open to corruption than large ones' (c. 41, 1. 28); but this approval is expressed in the mildest terms and does not imply sympathy with democracy as such. It has been quoted2 as inconsistent with the Politics; but the reason given for the writer's approval of the transfer is in perfect accord with a passage in the Politics (I286 a 30, quoted in note on c. 41 1. 28). There are two periods in which Athens enjoyed a good government:- (I) the i6 years during which the Areopagus was supreme; and (2) the time immediately after the Four Hundred. The only phrase that does not remind one of the writer of the Politics is the reference to the 'forgiving spirit' of democracy in c. 22 ~ 4:-XPW/LEVOL rTj EiwOOvta ov5 8o/jov 7rpaOTrTL. I am not aware of anything like it in the Politics, but I may observe that it recalls a notable passage in the Republic, and may possibly be a reminiscence of it3. The attitude of the author of the 7roXLtT'a towards Peisistratus and Theramenes is in harmony with what we should expect from the author of the Politics. Both agree that Peisistratus rose to power by attacking the men of the Plain4; unless a certain passage in the Politics is interpolated, both observe that he was summoned before the Areopagus, 1 For the reff. as to all these points, rrpo6rqs happens to be used just before, see Index to Jowett's Politics s. v. Aris- but it is there applied to the 'calmness' tocracy and Democracy. with which condemned criminals go 2 Cauer, Hat Ar. die Schrift vo01 about the world like heroes under a Staate der Athener geschrieben? p. 49. democratical government:-X- TrpO6TrS 3 p. 558 B (of the 'forgiving spirit' of viw7v rwv P&Kac0vrTWv oV KOREL; democracy), X3 auyvvjou Kal ovOl' OTitr- 4 Pol. i305 a 23. rtoUv o/EttKpOXo'yla avCrs. The term

Page  XLV A UTHORSHIP OF THE A~HNAIfN IOAITEIA xlv and that he was twice exiled from Athens. When recommending 'the constitution that gives predominance to the moderately wealthy class' (I296 a 38), Aristotle adds that 'only one of those who had played a leading part in the affairs of Greece had encouraged the introduction of this form'. As to the person meant there is much diversity of opinion; but whether (with Mr Newman) we identify him with Theramenes, or (as Dr Jowett prefers) with Solon, we have in either case a complete agreement with the 'AO-vatWv iroXtTrEa, though this does not exhaust the question. Again, the description of Ostracism and its object is 'to a considerable extent in harmony with that given in the Politics'". The account of the policy of Aristides is less favourable than we should expect (see c. 24), 'inasmuch as he is said to have converted a citizenbody largely consisting of peasants into an urban citizen-body subsisting on pay and exercising a despotic authority over the subject states, and thus to have contributed to the establishment of an extreme democracy'. We are taught, however, in the Politics (1292 b 4I-1I293 a 6) to 'connect the establishment of a rEXEvTrala 8-foKparta with a great increase in the size of the city and with the provision of pay'; and we also know that the opinion of Aristotle's pupil, Theophrastus, on the policy of Aristides, 'was not an altogether favourable one' (Plut. Aristid. c. 25)3. While the two works are in general agreement on the points above mentioned, there are certain apparent discrepancies that must now be noticed. (i) The 'Draconian Constitution' of the 7roXLTEL'a is in conflict with the passage in the Politics (I274 b I5) which states that Dracon 'adapted his laws to a constitution that already existed'; but the ' Draconian Constitution' has been vigorously attacked on its own merits, while the passage in the Politics is of doubtful genuineness. Again, the rroXLT~Ea states that Peisistratus reigned for 19 years; the Politics (1315 b 31) makes his reign last for 17, but the whole of the context of the latter passage is bracketed by Susemihl in his 2nd and 3rd editions. In a disputed passage of the 7roXLtrEa, Themistocles co-operates with Ephialtes for the curtailment of the power of the Areopagus: in a possibly interpolated chapter of the Politics (ii I2), the place of Themistocles is taken by Pericles, but not without protest on the part of critics, even before the discovery of the roXrTEla. In the 7-oXLTrcta (c. 21 ~ 6) we are told that Cleisthenes 'allowed every one to retain his -yevog and pparpla and his (hereditary) priesthood according to his ancestral rights'; in a perfectly genuine passage of the Politics (13I9 b 23) it is implied that Cleisthenes 'increased the number of the phratries' and 'converted a number of private worships into a few 1 Pol. 135 b 2I, 31. 2 Mr Newman in Class. Rev. v I62 b. 3 Ibid.

Page  XLVI xlvi AUTHORSHIP OF THE A0HNAIfN IIOAITEIA public ones'. But these passages may be readily reconciled with one another if we consider that the passage in the TroXLTEr refers to those who were already citizens; that in the Politics to the veo7roXrrat. It has been pointed out by Mr Macan that ' the ideas underlying the second part of the work are conspicuously Aristotelian. The distinction beween apXELv and apXEO-ea and its relation to the franchise; the definition and essence of citizenship (I275 a 22, and b 22)...; the theory of citizenship in the Politics, especially in Bk in ad init. might seem to be presupposed in the treatment of the opXat in the work under consideration". The comparison we have endeavoured to draw between the 'AOrvaowv 7roXircE'a and the Politics cannot perhaps be better concluded than by a striking example of identity of thought and language in the two works. In 'AO. 7roX. c. I6 we read of Peisistratus: roL da7ropol 7TrpoESavELCE Xpjl/amra 7rpog Tr Epyaolta, t (o1re 8taTpe(fEorrOatL y Epyo VTa. TO70VTO e7roI~et 8vov Xaptv, 'va UP-T EV ETO aTyEL 8 aTpt)crtv aLXXa LtecrT7rapLevoL 'OE, se. re [tpto LvcL,LecT uLLrplH Kara r7v Xupdv, Kal Otws EVT7opoVVTE TWV /LETpLWV KaL 7rpOS Tons t6[OLt OVTreS urt 7rtOvLWa'L L fLj7Te crXoXda/wo-Lv E7rtjLEXEtiOaL rTv KOtLVWV. In the Politics we are told that (even under a democracy) it is advisable to provide the poor (roVS d7rdpovs) with capital, and encourage them to work (LpE'reLv er' ipyao-tal 1320 b 8); and that it is characteristic of an oligarchy and a tyranny to drive the people out of the city and disperse them (13II a 14). We learn elsewhere that the best material for a democracy is an agricultural population; for being poor they have no leisure (o-XoXoo), and therefore seldom attend the assembly; and, not having the necessaries of life, they are always at their work (7rpos rots Epy/OLt StLaTrplovrT Kal TWV adXoTpuwv OVK ErrOv/to-, 1318 b 14); lastly, that while mechanics or traders or labourers are apt to frequent the city and find it easy to attend the assembly, the agricultural class (o[ yewpyowvres) do not attend meetings, or equally feel the need of assembling together, because they are scattered over the country (8ta To &errorapOai KaTa rrjv X\opav, I319 a 30). It would be difficult to imagine a more complete series of parallelisms in expression as well as thought. Next, as to the language and style of the treatise. The vocabulary includes nine words that are not found elsewhere: these fall into two groups, (I) technical expressions, viz. EtTLl-/LCDWO-tL (45, 9, quoted from a law), TrreTTplS (54, 29), wrrTaxovs (col. 34, 32), Trp8po/AEVP ) (49, 6), and trpoESptKO (59, 6); (2) words compounded with two prepositions, viz. sre'ELoKaSXo and iErTEtrKX1os (30,22-23); 7rpocravasrq7T (29, 6); wrpo~La7-rWtpo (14,23). The technical terms need no defence; lbrrerTpts is exactly analogous to 1 H. S. 1891, p. 2I. V

Page  XLVII A UTHORSHIP OF THE A~HNAIfN lnOAITEIA xlvii TptETvrptS and rTEVTrTrp)t, and rardxovs to UXovs and 'a'xovs which occur elsewhere. Of the compound words the first three occur in quotations from public documents, and the last is supported by the analogy of 7rpo8LalacXXELtv, 7rpoLao-vpEtv and 7rpotaX(o)pELv in the undisputed works. Double compounds are in fact characteristic of Aristotle; in the Index Aristolelicus, out of nine words compounded with r7retr- one is found in Aristotle alone, and two others are first found in his pages; while, among the compounds with 7rpo-ava- and 7rpocra7ro-, two are found in Aristotle alone, and five are used by no earlier writer'. Among words that are not found in the Index Aristotelicus may be mentioned: KvapvEtv'E, avaKpaderv /a, dvT3a aTataoraYtU, o'0.ocpovrycavTe' (14, 8), adyr-XaTELv (20, 8). Of these dyrqXarcLv is obviously quoted from Herodotus; and odxokpovrjo'avrTs, which occurs four times in Herodotus (though not in the same historical connexion), comes immediately after a word borrowed from that historian. The rest are part of the necessary vocabulary of the subject, and their non-appearance in the undisputed works is merely accidental. Exception has been taken to covlovVXEvE (c. 30, 14) as non-Aristotelian, and Tro'vTv Xaptv (29, 25) and ~vros rpLwv AUvav (49, 26) have been described as apparently un-Aristotelian2; but the last of these is cited from a law, and the other two are also in quotations; so that here at any rate we have no right to demand adherence to Aristotelian usage. Among the compound verbs that are not found in any contemporary writer are KaTaClaTtlVEL, E7rtL8avE'/Etv, ka7rropeLv, cvvapeorKecOuat and 7rapa(rTpaT7ryrqOrvac; and, among technical terms, cEvytoLtov, dcTpaKobopta, adLocAos (jfLepa), vc;r'/ltla, T, 7&Aavoto, ESvrKTro, r-v, KO4/Lara (?), and evaytr-LarTa. The word 7rpo8avet'tvw, which has been quoted as only used by later writers, is actually found in contemporary decrees3; and TptaKOVTopLov, which has been described as an 'entirely new word', is to be seen in contemporary inscriptions4. FAepxiUotpta is not found in Aristotle, but he uses aezqdUtotpos. Lists of 'un-Aristotelian words and phrases' have been collected by various scholars in the Classical Review 5; and many of the items in such a list will call for notice in the course of the commentary. Attention has also been drawn to the absence of certain turns of expression characteristic of the undisputed writings of Aristotle: thus in the 7roXTrda 1 Gomperz, Anzeiger der phil.-hist. 4 Besides the inscr. of B.C. 325/4 quoted Classe, Wien, I891, no. xi. on 56, 20, we have one of 330/29 in which 2 Class. Rev, v 273. the word occurs twice:-cf. Boeckh's See3 The decree of Stratocles preserved in urkunden, p. 393. ^,; [Plut.] 852 B; and another inscr. relating 5 v 123 (J. B. Mayor), I84 and 272 (H. to Lycurgus in CIA ii I62 c 7 and 9 (cf. Richards); 'rare words', ib., 229 (E. J. Class. Rev. vi 255 a). Chinnock). See also Greek Index.

Page  XLVIII xlviii A UTHORSHIP OF THE A~HNAIfN IOAITEIA 'there is a good deal about democracy, but we miss the technical terms (rXaTr7, vOrTaT?7, rEXevrala, aaKparos, 87/luoKcpaT'a. Nothing is arorov, and no person or thing is either o7rovSaZos or bav3Xos'1. But, however acute such criticism may be, and undoubtedly is, much of its point is removed, and its edge appreciably blunted, by a frank recognition of the necessary distinction that separates the style of a popular manual like the 7roXrdta from that of a philosophical investigation like the Politics. To a similar cause we may ascribe the differences which may be noticed in the degree to which certain particles and conjunctions are used in the 7roXLTda as compared with the undisputed works already known to us. Of the particles, ye is not used at all, and consequently yowv does not occur, Tot occurs only once in /UeVroL (28, 35) where its existence is solely due to a probable, but not perfectly certain, emendation. rrep is found only in KaOa'rep, KaLTrep, o'TCrE, ocrocTrrep and Wcrroep. Jur7v is only used in ov lrv followed by adXX. rj is rather rare, but is sometimes found after a demonstrative pronoun, once after a superlative (KaXXoara 8y 40, I7); and in several instances where TE is followed by Kai 8r Kcat; 7reL8} is rare, while i7recav is common. Of the cojunlctions, ovv is never used except in tev orv (hence it cannot be accepted in c. 43, I5, where KaO' Rv ov' KaO[4EL has been conjecturally proposed). apa, Trovvv, Totyap, and Tr yap, are not found. daXXa occurs some thirty times, but always after a negative. Kal always follows 8to, and nearly always follows o0Ev, when used in the sense of 8to; iva is found about ten times; 0o)rW seventeen times; and 0rcws av twice2. In the undisputed works, ye and otv and TE yap are common; apa is rare in the Politics; roCvvv, tCevTro and Kalrot frequent in the Metaphysics, Physics and Politics; yet, in the Rhetoric, fvTrot is found only four times; Katrot only five. LYrv is used not only after ov (as in the WToXLTEla), but also after aXXa; o urjv dXXa, though only found once (except in quotations) in the Rhetoric (1361 a 29), is not infrequent in the Politics (e.g. I284 b 4, 1262 a, I264 a, I290 b) as in the TroXTrdea. The argumentative sense of 8rj is common, but 8r is never found after a superlative (as once in the 7roXLtT'a); as a variation on Kal 8\ Kai (which also occurs in the 7roXLtrEa) we have cKaL followed (but never immediately followed) by 84r; o"0Ev is followed by Kal in Pol. 1384 a i, i JOev 8&Xov otL Kat; and 8to by KaL in I30I b 39. After final conjunctions, such as Iva and ortos, whether the tense of the principal verb be present or not, the optative is hardly ever used, but almost invariably the subjunctive3. Now that rva t truV aGvpyee1v TL has been withdrawn from I Class. Rev. v 273 b (H. Richards). 3 The exceptions are Pol. I320 a 35, 2 Cf. van Herwerden's Index Dic- and Eth. 1117 b9-12. SeeEucken, De tionis, s.v. 'Particulae.' Particularurn usu, p. 53. This work

Page  XLIX AUTHORSHIP OF THE A~HNAI2N IIOAITEIA xlix the text of c. 42, 35, the only exception to this rule in the 7roXtreta is in c. 18, 30, [va dlo-e/lroaLtv 8aa KaI yevotvTo daOevYEs, which may possibly be a quotation, as suggested by the introductory phrase, us ot 8ylLOTtKOL (cratv. In the undisputed works o'7rws av generally has a relative sense, which it does not entirely lose even when the sense appears to be final'; in the 7roXArTeta, the only instances of 07rtow av are in quotations from decrees of the fifth century, in which o'rrtw with the subjunctive is never found without av2; all the other instances of o'7rog in the 7roX1 -Te(a are in strict accordance with Aristotle's usage. In the above statement such divergences as have been noticed may be fairly attributed to the different character of the works compared. There is clearly less scope for a multiplicity of particles, or of illative conjunctions (such as orv and rotvvv and apa), in a consecutive exposition of constitutional history and antiquities, than in the course of a philosophic discussion. In a review of the 7roXLtrea it has been well observed by the latest editor of the Politics, that' the style differs much from the style of the recognised works of Aristotle. It is a clear and precise, though a rather bald style, a style which has not the pregnancy which we associate with the style of Aristotle, and is also comparatively free from the ambiguities and irregularities which beset it'. But 'the work before us is a narrative and descriptive work addressed apparently...to the world at large, not to the pupils for whom the recognised works of Aristotle were probably designed, and it is not likely that it would be written in the same style'. The treatise is in fact the sole representative of the more popular class of writings attributed to Aristotle, and it enables us for the first time to appreciate the justice of some of the ancient encomiums on Aristotle's style, which have hitherto been hard to reconcile with that of his abstruser works. Thus Cicero speaks of his flumen orationis aureum4, and his dicendi incredibilis copia and suavitas5; and similar phrases are found in Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Quintilian6. The encomium in Cicero's Academica in particular may indeed owe its exaggerated form to a desire to point the contrast between the style of Aristotle and the style of the Stoics; but the general purport of these eulogies is enough to prove that, at a time when the abstruser writings of Aristotle were imperfectly known, his style enjoyed the reputation of being marked by a singular charm and has also been used for other details in 4 Acad. Prior. ii II9. this paragraph. 5 Topica i 3. 1 Eucken, p. 55. 6 Grote's Ar. i 43-47; the passages 2 Meisterhans, Gr. d. Att. Inschriften, are quoted at length in my note on the p. 21 2. Orator of Cic., ~ 62. 3 Mr Newman in Class. Rev. v I59. S. A. e

Page  L 1 AUTHORSHIP OF THE A~HNAIQfN 1OAITEIA richness and variety. This language has been generally explained as applicable to the lost dialogues of Aristotle; but there seems no sufficient reason for refusing to recognise it as holding good in the case of other popular works, ascribed to the same author. Such a work was the 'AOrqvatwv 7roXtreta, and the style of that work may be fairly described as on the whole smooth and flowing, and severely graceful. It is perhaps even more than this. It is observed by Blass that its composition is marked by a high degree of attention to laws of rhythm similar to those adopted by Isocrates, and generally approved in the third book of the Rhetoric. Within the compass of a single sentence we repeatedly find a series of five to twelve or more syllables immediately followed by another of identical, or nearly identical, rhythm. Many examples of this have been noticed1 but a single instance of an exceptionally striking character may perhaps suffice for the present purpose (c. 55 ~ 4):(c7reLav) 8E 7rapacrxlTaL TroV /apTrvpag E7r-EpWTa, '0roVTOV POVAXETC TLS KaT7r-opELV; KLZt/ CEV? TGs KaTjyopoS KTA. Here the first word is followed by a double series of nine syllables, passing off into a double series of eight; and, within each pair of sequences, the quantities of all the syllables correspond. The general avoidance of hiatus in this treatise implies that it is a finished work prepared for popular perusal and not a mere series of memoranda (or vTroptv j4ara) for personal use. This point was observed by Blass even in the scanty remains preserved in the Berlin fragments, and also by Mr Newman in the case of the work as a whole. It has since been investigated more minutely by Mr J. W. Headlam in the Classical Review. He shows (i) that a definite principle is observed throughout the greater part of the work. (a) as a general rule hiatus occurs only after the article, after numerals, after Ka/, &da and 7repi2, and after words in which the last vowel is readily elided e.g. 36, re, -rea, 7retLra, r7a, cXXa',,t07 e, t7reTT, 7rdV rf, o068pa, aiXLoTra. Hiatus is avoided at a pause, as well as in the middle of a sentence. (3) In quoted documents the rule does not hold (contrast c. 28 with latter part of c. 29). Nor (y) in certain technical expressions, such as indications of dates, e.g. eOivs 8 r7 vaorepqp reL erl TeXer-iov apxovro7 (22, 21); constitutional terms, e.g. /ovXo iX E' 'Apelov r'dyov (4, 20); and legal phrases, e.g. repi TOoV Sovat r cuavTro acv e 0dXp (35, I4) and /'i eivat eXes0epov (42, 8). To these may be added j (or A) iouCa (14, 27; 17, I3). (2) The exceptions are very unevenly distributed. A list of all that occur in the first part (cc. I-41) shows that, at the beginning, clear and undoubted exceptions are very rare: in cc. I-14 ~ 3 (omitting c. 7, 21 -30), there are only five. In the second part, the first few pages are as free as any in the first part; then cases become more 1 Blass, Praef. xvi —xxv. Also after ij, el and A-/I

Page  LI AUTHORSHIP OF THE A~HNAION IIOAITEIA iH frequent, and at the end the rule is almost completely neglected. The author had to insert so many technical expressions that he gave up troubling about the matter. In the first part the more striking exceptions often occur directly after a quotation (c. 32 ~ i). In the first part at least, no conjectural emendation should be accepted which violates hiatus. The rule is much laxer than that of the school of Isocrates. Hence the work was not written by any member of that school. On the other hand there is considerable evidence that it is from the hand of Aristotle himself, for the usage in this matter is very nearly the same as that of some of his best authenticated worksl. While it cannot have been written by any of the Isocratean school it exhibits the same familiarity with the works of Isocrates as that displayed by Aristotle himself2. A passage that reminds us of the Gorgias is introduced by the characteristic rtvEs, which is Aristotle's favourite way of referring to Plato in the Politics3. Thus far I have endeavoured to state the internal evidence in favour of accepting the treatise as being substantially the work of Aristotle. It is impossible, however, to ignore the fact that not a few highly competent scholars at home and abroad hesitate to accept it as such4. Doubtless, in its manner of dealing with matters of history and particularly of chronology, side by side with much minuteness of detail on the subject of dates, there is evidence of occasional carelessness. There is sometimes a certain lack of intellectual force and vigour. And, further, there is an absence of those long and tangled sentences in which Aristotle, as we have hitherto known him, reviews and discusses a rapid succession of difficulties, doubts, and contradictions amid frequent irregularities of construction and amid repeated violations of his own rule against the use of parenthesis (Rhet. iii 5 ~ 7). Much, perhaps too much, has been made of such points, and in consequence some have been disposed to regard the treatise as simply a product of the Peripatetic School, the work of some pupil writing with or without the general guidance and direction of Aristotle. It must, however, be remembered that, even in the case of works which are without question accepted as Aristotle's, it is extremely difficult to determine how far they were actually composed by him in the form in which they have reached us; how far they are merely notes of his oral teaching, not given to the world in his lifetime, but revised and edited after his death by the industry and devotion of his pupils and successors. Of the usually accepted works of Aristotle it is doubtful whether any one, as a whole, passed beyond the limits of the lecture-room during 1 Class. Rev. v 270-2. 4 e. g. the Dutch editors; also F. 2 See notes on 26 ~ 2 ult., and 35 ~ 4 Cauer and F. Riihl; and in England ult., and Newman in Class. Rev. v Mr H. Richards and several other conI60 ---. tributors to the Classical Review. 3 See note on 26, 23 XEipovs yevdaOOa.. e 2

Page  LII lii AUTHORSHIP OF THE AOHNAI2N IOAITEIA the life of its author. 'Portions of the Metaphysics and de Caelo, some at least of the Parva Naturalis, the two books 7rept tx cXl, now included in the Nicomachean Ethics, and the two books on the ideal state, Politics vii (iv) and viii (v), may have first seen the light in some other form during the lifetime of Aristotle." On the other hand, the IloXtreZaL (like the Dialogues) 'would have been very likely to see the light early, for they were on a subject of far greater general interest than most of Aristotle's works...It could only be through his Dialogues and TIOXLtTEat that he could hope to be immediately known to a wide circle of non-philosophic readers. If he were during his lifetime something more than the revered teacher of a limited circle of pupils, we may safely assume that the publication took place.2' The above remarks are quoted from the work of an Aristotelian scholar of the highest promise, whose History of the Aristotelian Writings was published in I888, after his own death, and several years before the discovery of the 'AO6jvat'v 7roXtTrela. The inference there drawn on grounds of a priori probability, as regards the IoXtreZat in general, is conclusively confirmed by the internal evidence of the date of the 'AOqvatov TroXLTEla in particular. It was certainly written, and probably published, before the death of Aristotle. I may also appeal to the same unimpeachable testimony as to the exact degree of value to be attached to the evidence afforded by the avoidance of hiatus:. ' Wherever it occurs, we have a work, or a portion of a work, in exactly the state which was given to it by the author who threw it into its present form. As to whether this author was or was not Aristotle himself, a good deal may be said on either side.' On the one hand, 'the Aristotle whom we know shows the most absolute contempt for all matters of style,' and seems little likely to have adopted the Isocratean rule of avoiding hiatus. On the other, there is 'nothing wonderful or difficult in keeping one style for oral lectures and another for published books. Still less wonderful would it be if there was a wide difference to be found between mere notes for such lectures and deliberately finished publications3.' Assuming, as we fairly may, that the 'AOrqvatov TroXtTeta was a work of Aristotelian origin, it may still remain uncertain whether it was prepared for publication by the great teacher himself, or by some unknown and unnamed pupil who was skilled in certain graces of style that were apt to win the popular ear. The latter hypothesis might help to account for certain divergencies from the diction of the generally accepted works of Aristotle. To the interposition of such an editor we might perhaps attribute the general smoothness of style that marks its composition. 1 Shute, History of the Aristotelian 2 Shute, p. 23. Writings, p. 23. 3 Shute, p. I65 f.

Page  LIII A UTHORSHIP OF THE A~HNAIfN HOAITEIA liii To the same source we might possibly trace certain inaccuracies of historical statement that tend to impair the authority of the work. But even Aristotle himself may have been quite capable of making a mistake in matters of history. The 'master of those who know' was not necessarily omniscient. It must also be admitted that works like the IIoXrEZat, owing to the miscellaneous character of their contents, were, in their transmission from age to age, peculiarly liable to interpolation. It has even been suggested that, like the History of Animals and the -Troplat generally, 'they represent not any fixed work of Aristotle or of anyone else, but merely a continuously open note-book ". The 'A6rOvat'v 7roXtrla may have suffered to some extent from this cause of corruption. The difficulties as to the authorship of the treatise appear to be fairly met by an eminent Transatlantic scholar who expresses his opinion as follows: 'We are compelled to believe, from many indications, that it was written mainly by Aristotle, with perhaps the help of a pupil who prepared certain of the less important passages, the padding as it were; the work was then revised, but not rewritten, by him. If we are ready to maintain-a proposition by no means self-evident-that the main body of the writings current as Aristotle's are the genuine works of the master in their original form, and that, accordingly, they are the only norm by which everything else is to be tested, we may still account for the "non-Aristotelian" peculiarities of the language of the 'AOrvaiwov 7roXLreia as due, in part, to the fact that the historical sources (epigraphic and literary) are often given in verbal quotations, or at least in paraphrases that retain original forms of expression; due in part, perhaps, to the stylistic idiosyncrasies of an assistant whose work was incorporated with the master's, and finally to the most significant fact that the work was intended not for the scientific inner circle, but for the general reader'... 'The evidence, internal and external, of essentially Aristotelian authorship, as well as authority, seems so overwhelming, that, as between the two alternatives, one should prefer to modify his conceptions of Aristotle than reject this treatise. As Diels2 has pointedly phrased it:-Diese 'A0lv1alwv rroXTreia [ist] nicht nur echt aristotelisch sondern aristotelischer als die umeisten der uns erhaltenen Lehrbzicher an welcher sich jene Skeptiker halten '3. If we now revert to the evidence of ancient writers who, either directly or indirectly, quote the 'AOrvat'uv 7roXtreta as the work of Aristotle, we find that, out of 56 fragments in which the 'AOjvanwv 7rotTXLta is expressly mentioned, 53 are found in our Ms.; of the remaining three, one (Frag'. 385) belongs to the lost beginning, one (463) to the mutilated end; the third (447) is an inaccurate transcript of c. 54 ~ 2. Of the 35 fragments in which Aristotle is named without any express mention of the work, 25 are found in the MS; of the remainder, three belong to the lost beginning (381, 384, and the new fragment on p. 253, 1 Shute, p. 72. 2 Archivf. Gesch. d. Philos., iv, p. 479. 3 Prof. J. H. Wright, The Date of Cylon, p. 22 f.

Page  LIV liv A UTHORITIES FOLLO WED 1. 50); seven probably do not come from this work at all (382, 386, 392, 399, 40I1 4I5, and part of 394); one (456) may possibly have come from the mutilated end of the work; and one (396) is a misquotation of the text, which can readily be brought into harmony with it. Thus, of the total number of 93 fragments (of which 86 are probably genuine references to this work), 78 are found in the MS, and all the rest are satisfactorily accounted for'. More than 50 of the fragments of the 7roXLTT'a are preserved by Harpocration alone, and all of these are found in the MS. Lastly, the Berlin fragments are all here. These fragments correspond to the following passages in the text: I a begins before 3ovXEvdvrojv and ends with dv8piZv, c. I2, 26-52. I b begins before apXovra and ends with Xpea, c. 13, 4-22. II a begins before 'A0/vaZoL and ends after 4vXg E&Ka/ao-Tr7, c. 21, I8-c. 22, IO. II b begins before "I7r7rapXos and ends after rptrYpELt, c. 22, 19-37. In I a the long Iambic passage is written as consecutive prose, and I b is less complete than II a and b. Hence it is difficult to found any calculation on leaf I. But the contents of leaf II are equivalent to 44 lines of print in the present edition. Hence one page is equivalent to about 22 (say 24) lines of print. The number of lines of print now lost between the bottom of leaf I and the top of leaf II is 240 (4+30+26+44+18+38+39+23+I8). Thus it is not improbable that the lost portion is equivalent to Io pages, and that the rMs was made up of gatherings of 12 pages each. The number of lines in our printed text preceding I a is 245, which would take up only io pages. Hence the first two pages of the lost MiS to which the Berlin fragments belong, were either left blank, or they actually contained the beginning of the treatise. If the latter, then the amount of the 'A0. 7roX. which is now lost is equivalent to about 44 to 48 lines of the present edition. ~ 8. Authoritiesfollowed in the 'AOrqvaCv 7roXurEta. The only authors actually named by the writer are Solon and Herodotus. From SOLON he quotes a large number of verses, most of them already familiar to us through Aristides, who shows no proof of any acquaintance with the poems of Solon, beyond that which he derived from the present work. The writer's debt to HERODOTUS is far larger than appears at first sight. He only mentions the historian once (c. I4), but he closely follows him in the account of Peisistratus and Cleisthenes (cc. 14, 15, 20), though not without interesting variations. He also borrows from THUCYDIDES, while deliberately differing from him on several important points in the story of Harmodius and Aristogeiton (c. I8). He coincides with the historian in many parts of his narrative of the revolution of the Four Hundred (cc. 29, 33); but the 1 The same facts have been duly stated by Mr Kenyon in his Introduction, p. xv; revised in ed. 3, p. xvi.

Page  LV IN THE A~HNAIQN IIOAITEIA Iv coincidence is not complete, and the writer quotes original documents which are not quoted by the historian. As regards XENOPHON, we find a close resemblance in the account of the speech of Theramenes (c. 36) and elsewhere; at the same time, the divergences are sufficiently numerous to suggest that the authority followed here was the same as that followed at a later date by Diodorus Siculus. This authority has sometimes been supposed to have been the Hellenica of Theopompus1; it has also been suggested that the writer owes to another work of Theopompus, the tenth book of his Philippica, his list of the Athenian demagogues, and his portrait of Cleon. It is just possible that the exaggerated account of the generosity of Cimon, which appeared in that work, is tacitly corrected in c. 27 ~ 3. But there is reason to believe that Theopompus did not publish his work until 324, after Alexander's departure from India; if so, it was later than the 7roXLTL'a. The common source, followed by Diodorus as well as the writer, was more probably EPHORUS, who is expressly mentioned by Diodorus2. As regards the writer's relation to the various writers of 'ATOL(SE, there is no trace of any indebtedness to Hellanicus, whose carelessness on points of chronology3 would have been enough to prevent his being trusted by a writer who usually aims at being precise in matters of chronological detail. To CLEIDEMUS, the next in order of time, we may probably attribute the Ionism in c. I4 ~ 4, where the form,rapat/aTrovrvrs appears to be an echo of 7rapat/farycraocav in Cleidemus' description of the stately woman who assumed the garb of Athene and rode in the chariot of Peisistratus on the occasion of his first restoration to Athens. The account of the disciplinary powers entrusted to the Areopagus (c. ~ 6), bears some resemblance to a passage attributed to PHANODEMUS; but a statement to the same effect is attributed to a writer of the next generation to that of Aristotle, namely Philochorus, who may, however, have borrowed his phraseology from Phanodemus. In any case, the resemblance between the passage in the -roXALela and that attributed to 'Phanodemus and Philochorus' is not sufficiently close to make it quite certain that the writer was following Phanodemus4. ANDROTION may be identified with the person attacked in the 22nd speech of Demosthenes; he may therefore be placed earlier than the age of Aristotle. If so, he is closely followed in the account of the ostracism of Hipparchus son of Charmus (22 ~ 3); and the statement as to the number of the o-vyypa0Es in c. 29 ~ 2 is in accordance 1 Th. Reinach's Transl. of 'AO. r-oX., 3 Thuc. i 97, ppaX9ws Te Kal rotS XpoVOt p xxiv. OVK dcKpti(3S. 2 xiv II and 22; Bauer, Forschungen, 4 See note on p. 12 a. p. I55. Theopompus, in Pollux, v 43.

Page  LVI lvi A UTHORITIES FOLL 0 WED with that of Androtion. But the writer differs from Androtion as to the nature of Solon's -reta'XOELa, without going out of his way to controvert it. Here, as sometimes elsewhere, he is only tacitly polemical. The most famous of the writers of 'AT0r'3E, Philochorus, belongs to the age after that of Aristotle, and has several points in common with the writer of the 2roXtrEia. As has been shown by Professor Wright, it is not improbable that he actually quoted the latter and accepted it as the work of Aristotle'. On the relations subsisting between the 'AOrvawv 7rOXLrEla and the Atthidographi, I may be allowed to quote some criticisms for which I am indebted to the kindness of Mr W. L. Newman. It is remarkable that while, in the Politics, there is little to remind us of the writings of the Atthidographi, in the 7roXIreia there is much. This indeed holds good of the IIoXiTreat generally. No doubt it is not unnatural that the ' Constitutions' ascribed to Aristotle, containing as they do sketches of local history, should follow the model furnished by local histories like the Atthides; still it is strange that, if Aristotle was the author of these 'Constitutions,' he should be so little influenced by the Atthides in the Politics, if indeed he is so at all. Readers of the 7roXtreia, on the contrary, find it hard to avoid the suspicion that some Althis has been largely used by the writer, very possibly the Atthis of Androtion. We may note the following resemblances between the 'A0. troX. and the other IIoXtreca ascribed to Aristotle on the one hand, and the writings of the Atthidographi on the other:(i) The'A0. 7roX. is up to the mark of the last new historical fashion in respect of chronological exactitude. No doubt the effort to be chronologically exact is traceable early in the development of Greek historical literature. Thucydides knows the date of the fall of Troy (i 12), and the approximate date of the founding of Melos (v 12). Still the passion for chronological exactitude increased during the fourth century B.c. and later; for instance, Ephorus (Frag. 9 a) and Callisthenes knew that Troy was taken on the 23rd of Thargelion. As to Timaeus see Diod. v i and Polyb. xii 10. Nothing of this care for exactness in dates appears in the Politics or in other recognised writings of Aristotle. The writer of the 'AG. -roX., again, often dates by archons, but Aristotle never does so in the Politics. This dating by archons was perhaps no new thing in historical writing; some think that Hellanicus reckoned by archons, but here again we have an Atthidographic feature. Androtion and Philochorus reckoned by archons (Busolt, Gr. Gesch. i 363, note 4); see also Philoch. Frag. 52 (where Philochorus knows in whose archonship at Athens Homer flourished) and Androt. Frag. 46. (2) The 'A0. 7roX. and other Constitutions ascribed to Aristotle resemble the Atthides in the interest they show in the origin of words and familiar phrases. See 'A0. 7roX. c. 2, 5; 6, i2; i3, 25; 2I, 6 and 21; 45, 7 &c.; and Aristotle's Constitutions (Frag3. 477, 484, 488, 491, 495, 512, 514, 5I9, 536, 562, 580, 582, 595, 596); and compare Androtion, Frag. 28-29, 33: Phanodem. Frag. I, 13, 14: Ister, Frag. 28, 32, 35, 39, 43, 52, 57: Philoch. Frag. 4, 5, 6, 7, o0, I2, I6, 42, 48 and many others. The interest which the 'A0. 7roX. and the other Constitutions show in these matters is a good deal more marked than that which we trace in Aristotle's recognised works, and the same may be said of 1 American 7ournal of Philology, xii 3 I f.; supra, p. xix f.

Page  LVII IN THE A~HNAIHN ITOAITEIA Ivii (3) the interest which the 'AO. wroX. and other Constitutions share with the Altthies in (A) the origin of institutions and the like, and (B) the explanation of proverbs. As to (A), compare 'AO. 7roX. c. 8, 3 and passim, and Aristotle's Constitutions, Froag. 475, 479, 5oI, 5rr, 519, with Philoch. Frag. 5I, 56, 66, I89. As to (B), see'A0. troX. c. 16, I8; 21, 6 &c., and Aristotle's Constitutions, Frag.3 487, 505, 513, 523, 528, 545, 558, 559, 57I, 584, 591, 592. Demon, one of the Atthidographi, wrote a book about Proverbs (Miiller, FHG i 379). In choosing his authorities and in deciding between them when they differ, the author is guided by the consideration of the comparative probability of the accounts before him. He repels the calumnies against Solon (6) and Theramenes (28); and, in the story of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, gives an adequate reason for not accepting an opinion sanctioned by Thucydides (I8 ~ 4). On the other hand, he is himself far from infallible as a historian. There is much confusion in the chronology of the years between the archonship of Solon and that of Damasias II (p. 50); and in that of the times of Peisistratus (p. 56). The presence of Themistocles in Athens in 462 seems impossible to reconcile with the chronology of his later years suggested by the data in Thucydides (p. 01I); and there are several grave inaccuracies in the brief allusion to the trial of the generals after the battle of Arginusae (p. I29). Besides relying on the testimony of Solon's poems, the writer draws inferences from popular poetry such as the scolium in honour of Cedon and that on the baffled heroes of Leipsydrium (cc. I9, 20). He quotes archaeological evidence derived from the KvpP/EtS of Solon (7 ~ I), from the prae-Solonian coinage (c. io), and from a relief and inscription on the Acropolis (7 ~ 4). He alludes to proverbial phrases, X)wplov arEXEs (I6 ~ 6) and,tr vXoKpLveLv (2I ~ 2). He also takes special pains in quoting official documents'. The decrees proposed by Aristion (14 ~ i) and Themistocles (22 ~ 7) are noticed in general terms; that proposed by Pericles in 451-o (26 ult.), is expressly quoted. The official documents cited in extenso are those connected with the revolution of the Four Hundred in 413; viz. the motion of Pythodorus for the appointment of 30 o-vyypa0tg, with the amendment by Cleitophon; the formal record of the preliminary 1 In these quotations we find a minute &v, and none of oTrws with the subjuncbut not uninteresting proof of his fidelity: tive. In view of this fact it is clear that in the whole work, out of I7 instances in 29, i8 0'rs cdKo6raavres is only a of Oirwc with subjunctive or with future copyist's mistake for o{7rws av. This is indicative, we have only two of 6'ort noticed by Prof. Wright in The Nation, iv with the subjunctive (29, 24, and 30, I May, I891, p. 383. It must not, how20); both of these occur in decrees of ever, be inferred that 0'7rwc c. fut. is not the fifth century, and the inscriptions of found in inscriptions: on the contrary it that century give us I6 instances of OTrwos is very common (Meisterhans, note i7052).

Page  LVIII lviii AUTHORITIES IN THE A~HNAIfN IIOAITEIA proposals and of the constitution drawn up by the o-vyypa4etS (c. 29); with the ultimate and the provisional constitutions drawn up by the hundred Commissioners (cc. 30, 31). We have also the terms of the reconciliation effected between the oligarchical and democratic parties in 403 (c. 39). These documents were presumably preserved among the archives of the State in the Metroon; but they probably owed their publication not only to their historical importance, but also to their including typical forms of oligarchical constitutions which afforded suitable themes for discussion among students of the theory of politics. The writer's evident interest in the detailed history of the period between B.C. 413 and 403 is one of the considerations in favour of identifying him with the author of the Politics. In the latter Aristotle selects the Revolution of the Four Hundred as a typical instance of a revolution effected by fraud on the part of those who, when the deception is over, still endeavour to retain the government by force (1304 b 12, quoted on c. 29, 8). Elsewhere, while discussing revolutions in oligarchies arising within the governing class, he mentions, as first of the two types of the oligarchical demagogue, 'one who practises on the oligarchs themselves; for, although the oligarchy are quite a small number, there may be a demagogue among them, as at Athens the party of Charicles predominated among the Thirty, that of Phrynichus in the Four Hundred' (I305 b 24-27). It is, however, only fair to add that neither Phrynichus nor Charicles is mentioned in the 7-roXtdEa. In the absence of direct historical evidence, the writer's favourite form of argument is that indicated by Mr Macan in an interesting contribution to the Journal of Hellenic Studies. ' The author has a source of knowledge, or rather a method of reconstruction, to take the place of direct testimony, tradition or evidence. This method consists in a process of inference from the present to the past, from existing circumstances to their presumable antecedents, from a given state of institutions to a former condition of the same'.' As instances in which the author mentions the employment of this method by others, we have (I) the oaths of the nine Archons (3 ~ 3); and (2) the property qualification of the trTreZs (7 ~ 4). He uses it himself in cases such as the following: (i) the sacral marriage of the f3ao-Lvva (3 ~ 5); (2) the Solonian method of appointing officials (8 ~ I); (3) the institution of the oi Kara 8-uovu &Kao-rap by Peisistratus (i6 ~ 5); and (4) the motive for the institution of ostracism by Cleisthenes (22 ~ 3)2. 1 y. H. S. I89i, p. 37. 2 ib. p. 38. For some of the 'signals of this method,' cf. note on 8 ~ i, p. 30, 08ev rt &aStvet.

Page  LIX ABSTRACT OF THE A~HNAIMN IIOAITEIA lix ~ 9. Abstract of the 'AOqrvawv 7roXtrEa. The work is divided into two parts, (I) a Sketch of the Constitutional History of Athens down to the Restoration of the Democracy in 403 B.C. (cc. I-4I); and (ii) a detailed analysis of the machinery of the Constitution between 328 and 325 B.C. (c. 42 to the end). The first has been well described as a 'Primer of Constitutional History'; the second, as a 'Citizen's Handbook.'' Part I, in its complete form, comprised an account of the 'original constitution' of Athens, and of the eleven changes through which it successively passed (c. 4I). Accordingly, in the following abstract, we have to deal with a series of twelve constitutions. (1) The constitution in the time of Ion. The original constitution of Athens was an absolute monarchy. In process of time, owing to some of the hereditary line of kings being feeble in war, ION, the son of Apollo by the daughter of an Attic king, was summoned to their aid, and invested with military command. Such was the origin of the office of Polemarch, which was second to that of Basileus in order of date (3 ~ 2). In the days of Ion, the people were divided into four tribes, with four pvXopao-tXes or 'tribal kings' (4I, 6-9). To Apollo's son, the first Polemarch, the Athenians owed the name of Ionians and the worship of Apollo rrarpyos (frag. 38I3). (2) The constitution in the time of Theseus. Under THESEUS, we are simply told that the constitution exhibited a slight divergence from absolute monarchy (4., IO; and frag. 3843). [About I088 B.c., on the death of Codrus, and the accession of his son Medon, the kingly power ceased to be hereditary. Henceforth the kings were elected for life from members of the royal house.] 2 By the side of the King, the Polemarch was already in existence as commander in the time of war; and in the reign either of Medon, or his son Acastus, a third office, that of Archon, came into being, and was endowed with some of the royal prerogatives by the descendants of Codrus (3 ~ 3). In process of time the name of Archon was transferred from the third officer of State to the first [c. 753/2 B.C.]. The chief Archon was elected [from the royal house], but his term of office was limited to ten years (3 ~ I end), while the title of King, with the privilege of attending to certain religious duties, was assigned to another archon, called the Basileus. It was not until the three primary offices of State, those of Archon, Polemarch and Basileus, had become annual [c. 683/2 B.C.], that their number was increased by the institution of the six Thesmothetae, whose duty it was to record and preserve all legal decisions with a view to their being enforced against transgressors of the law (3 ~ 4). In the course of time the Archons were elected by the Council of the Areopagus (8 ~ 2) under qualifications of birth and wealth (3 ~ I), while the Areopagus itself was composed of those who had filled the office of Archon. 1 Cambridge Review, o2 Feb. 189I, Such items generally represent the tradip. 212 a. tional accounts of Attic history accepted 2 Throughout this abstract, dates and (whether rightly or wrongly) by the other items derived from sources extra- Athenians themselves.-The dates in this neous to the treatise itself are distin- paragraph depend mainly on the Marmor guished by being placed within brackets. Parium (Busolt, Gr. Gesch., i 4041).

Page  LX lx ABSTRACT OF THE A~HNAIN HIOAITEIA It was the duty of the Areopagus to maintain the supremacy of law, to inflict personal punishments and fines, and to administer the State in general (3 ~ 6). [In an Olympic year between 636 and 624 B.C.] an attempt to seize despotic power was made by a young nobleman named Cylon [who had been a victor in the Olympic games of 640]. The attempt was unsuccessful: the adherents of Cylon were put to death under the authority of the Archon Megacles, of the house of the Alcmaeonidae, who violated their right of sanctuary and thus brought a curse on Athens and his descendants (Heracl. Epit. ~ 4). The constitution at this time was thoroughly oligarchical. There was a conflict between the various orders in the State: the land was in the hands of a few; discontent prevailed among the poor, who, if they failed to pay their rent, became the slaves of the rich (c. 2). (3) The Constitution of Dracon. It was with a view to providing a remedy for these evils that (in 621 B.C.) the first code of law was drawn up by DRACON (4I, ii). The franchise was at this time possessed by all who could provide their own equipment for war. It was these who elected the Archons and other principal officers of State; and out of their own body a Council of 401 members was appointed by lot from among those who had attained the age of 30. Members of the Council were liable to fines varying with their social status. The Council of the Areopagus continued to maintain the supremacy of law and the efficient discharge of the duties assigned to the officers of State; it also received formal complaints from persons aggrieved by the infringement of any statute (c. 4). In due time the friends of the exiled members of Cylon's party acquired d sufficient power to compel the Alcmaeonidae to submit to a trial before a special court of 300 citizens selected from the noblest families of Athens. They were found guilty; the dead bodies of the offenders were cast out, and their surviving relatives condemned to perpetual exile. Athens was further purified from the curse of sacrilege by Epimenides (c. i).1 (4) The Constitution of Solon. Dracon's legislation having failed to remedy the wrongs of the poor, the conflict of the orders broke out afresh and was not allayed until [c. 594 B.C.] both parties agreed on choosing SOLON as mediator and as Archon (5 ~ 2). Solon cancelled all existing debts, whether public or private; and for the future he made it illegal to lend money on the security of the person of the debtor (6 ~ I). With the exception of the laws on homicide, the code of Dracon was repealed, and a new code published. The people were divided into four classes, Pentacosiomedimni, Hippeis, Zeugitae, and Thetes; the various offices of State being now assigned to the first three classes in proportion to the amount at which they were severally rated, while the fourth class had only the right of taking part in the public Assembly and in the Law-courts (c. 7). The nine Archons were now appointed by lot, out of forty selected candidates, nominated to the number of ten by each of the four tribes. A Council of 400 was also constituted, Ioo from each tribe. The Areopagus, which still retained the duty of supervising the laws and maintaining the constitution in general, was now empowered to try cases of treason (c. 8). In Solon's constitution the specially democratical elements were:-(i) the prohibition of loans on the security of the person; (2) the privilege of every citizen to claim legal satisfaction on behalf of any one who was wronged; and (3) the right of appeal to the law-courts. The power of voting in the law-courts made the com1 On the date of Epimenides, see p. 3, menides, as well as the trial of the Alcand cf. Prof. Wright's Date of Cylon, maeonidae, is conjecturally assigned to pp. 70 and 74, where the visit of Epi- 615 B.C.

Page  LXI ABSTRACT OF THE A~HNAIQN IIOAITEIA lxi mons master of the constitution (c. 9). Solon also introduced a new standard of coinage, and of weights and measures (c. to). His legislation, however, did not prove acceptable to either of the two great parties in the State. Finding himself beset and harassed by both, and declining to make himself despot at the expense of either, he withdrew for ten years to Egypt (c. 1). When he had gone abroad, although the State was still disturbed by divisions, they lived in peace for four years; but, in the next year, and again four years later, their divisions prevented the election of an Archon. After another term of four years(?), the choice fell on Damasias [582], who succeeded in remaining in office for two years and two months. The interval of civil strife was closed by an agreement to elect ten Archons from the several orders in the State, five from the Euzpatridae, three from the Agroeci, and two from the Demiurgi. But the general discontent was not allayed. Some of the rich had lost their wealth; others had lost their political power; a few besides were inspired by personal ambition. At this time the three parties of the Shore, the Plain and the Highlands, representing the moderate, the oligarchical and the democratic spirit respectively, were under the leadership of Megacles, Lycurgus, and Peisistratus. The party of Peisistratus was reinforced by those whom Solon's legislation had deprived of the debts due to them, and also by persons whose dubious birth gave them an uncertain claim to the rights of citizenship (c. 13). These struggles found their issue in the tyranny of Peisistratus and his sons. (5) The tyranny of Peisistratus and his sons. PEISISTRATUS, who had won distinction in the war against Megara, persuaded the people to grant him the protection of a body-guard, and with the aid of the latter seized the Acropolis (560 B.C.). He ruled in a constitutional spirit; but, five years later, he was expelled by a coalition between the parties of Megacles and Lycurgus. Eleven(?) years afterwards he was restored by the aid of Megacles on condition of marrying his daughter (I4). This condition was only nominally fulfilled; and, about six years later, he was once more expelled. He withdrew to Macedonia, where he acquired money and mercenary troops. Ten years subsequently, with the help of Thebes, of Lygdamis of Naxos, and the Knights of Eretria, he recovered his power and disarmed his subjects (i5). His rule, however, was mild and humane. To encourage agriculture he advanced money to the poorer classes, with a view to their staying in the country and looking after their own affairs instead of coming into the town and taking part in public business. With the same object he instituted 'local justices,' and himself visited various parts of the country, thus making it unnecessary for the tenants to neglect their farms by bringing their grievances to Athens. Besides this, the cultivation of the soil promoted an increase in his revenues (I6). Peisistratus died in 527/6 B.C., having held actual possession of his power for nineteen out of the thirty-three years that had elapsed since he had originally established himself as 'tyrant' (c. I7). He was succeeded by his sons Hippias and Hlipparchus, who at first ruled in their father's spirit; but, when Hipparchus had been slain in the conspiracy of Harmodius and Aristogeiton (c. I8), the rule of Hippias became more severe. Three years afterwards (c. 19 ~ 2) he was expelled by Cleomenes, king of Sparta (in the spring of 5IO B.C.). (6) The Reforms of Cleisthenes. After the overthrow of the tyranny the rival leaders in the State were Isagoras, an adherent of the tyrants, and CLEISTHENES, of the house of the Alcmaeonidae. Isagoras invited the aid of Cleomenes. Thereupon Cleisthenes withdrew, while Cleomenes vainly endeavoured to supersede the Council and to set up a body of 300 partisans of Isagoras in its place. Cleisthenes soon returned, and became leader of the people (c. o2). In 508 B.C. he distributed the population

Page  LXII lxii ABSTRACT OF THE A~HNAIQN HOAITEIA into ten tribes instead of the existing four; and instituted a Council of 500 (fifty out of each of the ten new tribes), in place of that of 400 (Ioo out of each of the four tribes). He also made the deme the unit of his social organisation, combined the demes into groups (rpTrrVes), and assigned these groups to the several tribes in such a manner that each tribe had three groups allotted to it, one from the urban or suburban district, one from the coast, and one from the interior (c. 21). The reforms of Cleisthenes made the constitution more democratic than that of Solon. Among the laws now passed was that concerning Ostracism, which was at first intended to serve as a safeguard against the reestablishment of a tyranny. In 504 B.C. [or, more probably, in 501], the oath, which was still in use in the writer's time, was first imposed on the Council. The Generals were elected according to tribes, one from each tribe (22 ~ 2). The law of Ostracism was enforced for the first time in 488/7, two years after Marathon, the person ostracised being Hipparchus son of Charmus (~ 4); he was followed in 487/6 by Megacles [a nephew of Cleisthenes], by Xanthippus [the father of Pericles] in 485/4, and about 484/3 by Aristides. Meanwhile, in 487/6, for the first time since the establishment of the tyranny, the nine Archons were appointed by lot out of 500 [or more probably, Ioo] candidates selected by the demes. In 483/2, on the discovery of certain silver mines in Attica, Themistocles persuaded the people to lend the proceeds to the hundred wealthiest men in Attica, and thus brought about the building of the hundred triremes, with which the battle of Salamis was won [480]. (7) The supremacy of the Areopagus. Thus far the growth of the democracy had been advancing with the gradual growth of Athens; but, after the Persian wars, the Council of the Areopagus once more assumed the control of the State. It owed this high position, however, not to any formal decree, but to the spirited action it had taken in connexion with the battle of Salamis. When the Generals were unable to cope with the crisis, it was the Areopagus that provided pay for the crews, and thus ensured the manning of the fleet and the gaining of the victory (23 ~ i). The leaders of the people at this time were ARISTIDES and THEMISTOCLES. On the establishment of the Confederacy of Delos, Aristides assessed the amount to be paid to the common fund by the allies of Athens, beginning with the year 478/7 (~ 5). By his advice the inhabitants of Attica left the rural districts and settled in the city, on the assurance that all of them would be able to maintain themselves by the discharge of military duties or by taking part in public affairs, and would thus secure the control of the league. Thus it was that Athens came to adopt the policy of oppressing her allies, from which Chios, Lesbos and Samos alone were exempt. (8) The restored and developed democracy. The supremacy of the Areopagus lasted for about seventeen years (478 to 462 inclusive). The power of the people was meanwhile increasing, and EPHIALTES, on becoming their leader, attacked the Areopagus, by depriving it of all the more recent privileges by which it had attained the control of the constitution, transferring some of them to the Council of Five Hundred, and others to the Assembly and the Law-courts (462 B.C.). In this revolution he was aided by Themistocles (25). Thereupon the administration of the State became more and more lax owing to the rivalries that arose between successive aspirants for popular favour. At this time the aristocratical party had no real chief, although their leader was Cimon, who was comparatively young for that position, and had been rather late in entering on public life. In 457/6 the office of Archon was thrown open to the Zeugitae. In 453/2 the thirty 'local justices' were restored; and in 45 I/, on the proposal of PERICLES, it was enacted that the franchise should be limited to those who were of citizen blood by both

Page  LXIII ABSTRACT OF THE A~HNAItN HOAITEIA lxiii parents (26). Under Pericles, the constitution became still more democratic. He deprived the Areopagus of some of its ancient privileges, and also prompted Athens to aim at the empire of the sea (27 ~ i). The Peloponnesian war (B.c. 43I-) inured the people to military service, and led to their assuming the administration of the State (~ 2). Pericles was also the first to provide pay for serving in the Law-courts (~ 3). So long as he was leader of the people, public affairs were managed comparatively well; at his death there was a great change for the worse (28 ~ I). It was then that, for the first time, in the person of Cleon, the people had for their leader one who was of no reputation among the upper classes (~ 2); on the other side, the leader of the aristocracy was Nicias. These two were succeeded by Cleophon and Theramenes respectively. It was Cleophon who was the first to provide each citizen with the grant of two obols for a seat in the theatre (~ 3); and the series of demagogues, who succeeded him, owed their position to their recklessness of language, and to their readiness to gratify the immediate desires of the populace (~ 4). Of the leaders of the aristocratical party, Nicias and Thucydides (son of Melesias) are justly esteemed as statesmen. Concerning Theramenes there is a conflict of opinion; but, on calm reflexion, it is clear that, so far from subverting every kind of constitution, he really supported each in turn, so long as it was faithful to the laws; thus proving that, like a good citizen, he was capable of living in contentment under any form of government, while he could never be a party to unconstitutional conduct, but on the contrary was always its resolute foe (~ 5)1. (9) The revolution of the Four Hundred. After the failure of the Sicilian expedition [Sept. 413], when the power of Sparta had been increased by her alliance with Persia, Athens was compelled to abolish her democracy and to accept the oligarchical revolution of the Four Hundred. At this crisis it was proposed by Pythodorus that the popular Assembly should elect a Committee of thirty in all, to draw up proposals for the public safety; and that any other person might make such proposals as he pleased, so that the people might decide on whatever course it thought fit (29 ~~ I, 2). An amendment moved [and probably carried] by Cleitophon made it an instruction to the Committee to take into consideration the constitution of Cleisthenes in drawing up their report (~ 3). The Committee reported in favour of the Prytanes being compelled to put to the vote any motion for the public safety (instead of exercising their own discretion in the matter). They also proposed the abolition of all indictments for illegal motions, all impeachments before the Council or the Assembly, and all citations before the Law-courts, so that nothing should hinder any citizen from offering such counsel as he thought fit. If any person attempted, either by fine or citation or prosecution, to prevent such counsel being given, he was to be summarily brought before the Generals and delivered up to execution (~ 4). They further drew up the following form of constitution:-The revenues were to be spent solely on the conduct of the war. So long as the war lasted, no officers of State were to receive any pay except the nine Archons and the Prytanes. The franchise (including the right of making treaties) was to be entrusted to not less than Five Thousand of the citizens who were best able to serve the State. The list of the Five Thousand was to be drawn up by a Commission of one hundred formed by electing ten out of each of the tribes (~ 5). When these proposals had been ratified, the [provisionally acting body of] ' Five Thousand' elected from among their own members the hundred Commissioners for 1 There is a monograph on Thera- to which Theramenes belonged, see Dr menes by Dr Carl Pohlig (Teubner, 1877). Jackson's article on Socrates in Encycl. On the party of 'moderate oligarchs' Brit. ed. 9.

Page  LXIV lxiv ABSTRACT OF THE A~HNAIMN HOAITEIA drawing up the constitution. The Commissioners proposed for the future a Council, which was to be in power for a year at a time, and to include certain officers of State (about ioo in all) as members ex officio. The Council was to appoint these out of a larger number of selected candidates chosen out of the members of the Council for the time being. All other offices were to be filled by lot (30 ~ 2). There were to be four Councils of four hundred each, such four Councils serving in turn, for a year each, in an order to be determined by lot (~ 3). Members of the Council absent without leave were to be fined (~ 6). For the immediate present, there was to be a Council of Four Hundred (as in the constitution of Solon), forty from each tribe, appointed out of a larger number selected by the members of the several tribes. This Council was to appoint the officers of State, and to have complete discretion in questions of legislation, official audits, &c.; but was to have no power to alter the new constitution (31 ~ I). Military officers were to be elected provisionally by the 'Five Thousand,' but ultimately by the Council (~ 2). No office, except that of a General or a member of the Council, was to be held more than once (~ 3). About the end of May, 41I, the existing Council was dissolved; and on June 7 the Four Hundred entered on office. An oligarchical constitution was thus established nearly a century after the expulsion of the tyrants (51o). The leaders of the Revolution were Peisander, Antiphon and Theramenes. The Four Hundred sent envoys to Sparta, proposing the termination of the war on the basis of uti possidetis; but, as the envoys declined to surrender the maritime supremacy of Athens, Sparta refused to come to terms (c. 32). (10) The restored Democracy. The defeat of Athens in the naval battle of Eretria, and the consequent loss of Euboea, led the people to depose the Four Hundred, after they had been in power for four months (May to August, 41 ); and to entrust the management of affairs to the Five Thousand, a body consisting of all citizens capable of providing a military equipment. No pay was to be given for any public office. This revolution was led by Aristocrates and Theramenes, both of whom disapproved of the Four Hundred for keeping all the power in their own hands, and not referring anything to the Five Thousand. The constitution at this time appears to have worked excellently, inasmuch as it was a time of war and the franchise was entrusted to those who provided a military equipment (c. 33). [After the victories in the Hellespont in 410] the people soon deprived the Five Thousand of their exclusive right to the franchise. In 406 the victory of Arginusae was won, but that victory was attended with the following results: (I) Under the misleading influence of passionate appeals to the feelings of the people, all the Generals who had won that victory had their fate sealed by a single verdict (see note on pp. I29-I30); and (2), when Sparta proposed to evacuate Decelea, Cleophon protested that she should be required to surrender all the cities that owed allegiance to her (34 ~ I). Athens soon had good reason to regret her mistake. In 405 she was vanquished at Aegospotami; and Lysander became master of Athens and established the rule of the Thirty (~ 2). (11) The despotic government of the Thirty and of the Ten. The THIRTY, instead of framing a constitution, appointed a Council of five hundred, out of a large number of selected candidates; associated with themselves ten officials in the Peiraeus, eleven superintendents of the prison, and three hundred attendants; and, with the help of these, kept the city completely under their own control. At first they acted with moderation: they professed to restore the ancient constitution; repealed the laws of Ephialtes curtailing the privileges of the Areopagus; and abolished the limitations -- -- C

Page  LXV ABSTRACT OF THE AOHNAI2N HOAITElA lxv to the right of bequest granted by Solon. But, as soon as they had established themselves in power, they proceeded to put to death those who were eminent for wealth or birth or reputation; and, within a short time, the number of their victims rose to I,500 (c. 35). Alarmed, however, by the indignant protests and the ever increasing popularity of Theramenes, they offered to draw up a list of 3,000 who were to receive the franchise. Theramenes was still dissatisfied; the list was withheld, and, when published, was constantly liable to arbitrary alterations (c. 36). Meanwhile, winter set in, and the Thirty were repulsed in their attack on Thrasybulus, who, with the exiles of the democratic party, had taken possession of the fort of Phyle. The Thirty now resolved on disarming the people and getting rid of Theramenes. For the latter purpose they compelled the Council to pass two proposals, (I) giving the Thirty power to put to death any person not included in the list of the 3,000; (2) preventing any one from enjoying the franchise if he had taken part in demolishing the fort of Eetioneia or had in any way opposed the Four Hundred. Theramenes had done both. After putting him to death, they disarmed all the people except the 3,000; and proceeded to further extremities of cruelty and crime (37). After this, Thrasybulus and his soldiers occupied Munichia and defeated the partisans of the Thirty. The party of the city retreated to Athens; and, on the next day, held a meeting in the market-place, deposed the Thirty and elected Ten of the citizens as commissioners with full powers to bring the war to a conclusion. The TEN did nothing of the kind; they sent to Sparta to ask for aid and to borrow funds. Finding that this was resented by those who possessed the franchise, and fearing they might be deposed in consequence, they arrested a citizen of the highest repute and put him to death. They thus strengthened their position, and they were further supported by the Spartan harmost Callibius and his Peloponnesians, and by certain of the Knights. The party of the Peiraeus, however, were soon joined by all the people, and began to get the upper hand in the struggle. Thereupon, the party of the city deposed the Ten, and elected in their place another body of the same number, consisting of men of the highest character, among whom was Rhinon (who was afterwards elected one of the Generals). Under the management of this new body of Ten, and with the aid of Pausanias and ten Commissioners from Sparta, terms of reconciliation were drawn up and the democratic party returned to Athens (c. 38). The terms were as follows: All who had remained in Athens might reside at Eleusis, while retaining their property and their full rights as citizens (35 ~ i). The temple at Eleusis was to be common ground for both parties; but, except at the season of the Mysteries, the settlers at Eleusis were not to enter Athens, or the residents in Athens to visit Eleusis. The settlers at Eleusis were to contribute their share to the federal fund (~ 2). If any one killed or wounded another, trials for homicide were to be held, as of old (~ 5). Lastly, there was to be a general amnesty towards all persons, except the Thirty, the Ten (who immediately succeeded them), the Eleven, and the Ten who had ruled in the Peiraeus; and even these were not to be excluded, if they rendered an account of their office (~ 6). A prominent part was played at this time by Archinus:- (i) He accelerated the date for the closing of the list of settlers at Eleusis (40 ~ i); (2) he successfully resisted the proposal of Thrasybulus to confer the franchise on all who had aided in the restoration of the democracy; and (3) he insisted on the penalty of death being inflicted on one who attempted to violate the amnesty (~ 2). The funds which the Thirty had borrowed from Sparta for their own purposes, were repaid out of the S. A. f

Page  LXVI lxvi ABSTRACT OF THE A~HNAIfN HOAITEIA public treasury (~ 3). A further reconciliation was effected with the settlers at Eleusis in B.c. 401/0 (~ 4). (12) The restored and extreme Democracy. The constitution established in B.C. 403 remained in force until the time when the work was written (B.c. 328-325) with ever-increasing accessions to the power of the people. The people had made itself master of everything, and administered all the affairs of State by means of the decrees of the Assembly and the decisions of the Law-courts. In the latter, no less than in the former, the people ruled supreme. Even the judicial decisions formerly in the hands of the Council were transferred to the people, a course which the writer approves on the ground that small bodies are more liable to corruption than large ones (41 ~ 2). At first it was decided not to provide pay for attendance at the Assembly; but, as its members were habitually absent, an allowance of one obol a day was introduced by Agyrrhius, to be increased to two obols by Heracleides, and to three by Agyrrhius himself (~ 3). Part 11, which describes the machinery of the 'existing Constitution,' under the general heads of (i) the Franchise (c. 42), (ii) Legislature (43-45), (iii) Administration (46-62), and (iv) Judicature (63 to end), may from one point of view be regarded as entirely concerned with a single subject, being an account of at apXat, the 'posts of power or service, honour or emolument, for which the Athenian citizen becomes eligible or qualified sooner or later,' when once the franchise is * conferred on him. It may be divided into four sections (i) the conditions of the franchise (c. 42); (ii) the exercise of the full franchise in the EyKvKXtOt dpXa[ (cc. 43-62), first the KrlpwTral, the Council with sundry other authorities (43-54), and the Archons (55-59). From these may be detached (iii) the XEtpoTrovriTal apXaL, or dpXal 7rpos 7rrdoXEVov (61), and (iv) the Dikasteria (63 to end), placed here because they are permanent and not concerned with administration (r Lto(Krv(To), although recruited by the Lot (Mr Macan, jf H. S., xii 2I). Or, again, we may for * convenience use apXal in the narrower sense, and divide the second part into three main portions under the head of (i) TroXLTLa (c. 42); (ii) apXal (cc. 42 —62); (iii) 8tKaCrripta (cc. 62 to end). In (i) we have first an account of the method of enrolling citizens, with interesting details as to the military training of youthful citizens between the ages of i8 and o2 (c. 42). In (ii) the foremost place is occupied by the administrative functions of the Council and of the officials who act in concert with it (43 —49); while the fKKrcXjia- is only briefly dealt with in connexion with the wrpvravets and rrp6e3pot in c. 43 and c. 44. Then follow certain other officials appointed by lot, with some account of the public Arbitrators (50-54), and the nine Archons (55-59), with a detailed statement of the duties of the Archon (56), the Basileus (57), the Polemarch (58) and the Thesmothetae (59) respectively. Next come the dOXoOdrcu, with some notice of the Sacred Olives (60). Thus far for officials appointed by lot. Next in order we have the military officers (6 i), who have already been briefly mentioned with other officials elected by show of hands (43 ~ i). This portion of the work closes with a chapter on Salaries (62). The remainder is entirely concerned with the Law-courts, and, in particular, with the way by which the dicasts were allotted to the several courts, the method of voting, the

Page  LXVII ABSTRACT OF THE A~HNAIWN QOAITEIA lxvii measurement of time during the proceedings, and lastly the arrangements for paying the dicasts when their duties were over. A large amount of the contents of the Second Part was already known to us in a fragmentary way, through the quotations preserved by gram. marians and lexicographers; but it is a signal advantage to have before us the source of all these quotations with the opportunity of testing every statement by the light of its immediate context. We are thus at last able to deal with a first-hand authority for the Constitutional Antiquities of Athens. Whatever hesitation there may necessarily be as to the historic value of certain details in the First Part of the treatise, especially in cases where the writer is describing the institutions of a distant past, which had left behind it no contemporary records except a single chapter from the code of Dracon, with the laws and poems of Solon; or where his account refuses to be reconciled with that of writers such as Thucydides and Xenophon; there can be no question as to the great importance and the completely trustworthy character of the Second Part, with its terse and clear description of the machinery of the State towards the close of the third quarter of the fourth century B.C. And the value of all this is unimpaired by any doubts that have been entertained as to the authorship of the work. ~ o0. Consypectus of the Literature of the 'AO-rvawov 7roXvreta. (The order in each division is mainly chronological except in B Ill and IV, where it is alphabetical.) (A) Published before the discovery of the Papyrus in the British Museum. (r) Aristotelis rerum publicarum reliquias collegit C. F. Neumann. Heidelberg, I827. (2) Heraclidis politiarum quae extant recensuit F. G. Schneidewin. Gottingen, 1847. (3) Fragmenta historicorum Graecorum collegit C. Miiller; vol. Il pp. 102-107; Heraclides, ib. 208-224; Paris (Didot), I848. (4) Valentini Rose Aristoteles Pseudepigraphus, Leipzig, I863, [quoted in this book as Rose, A. P.]. (5) Die verlorenen Schriften des Aristoteles, von Emil Heitz, Leipzig (Teubner), I865. (6) Fragmenta Aristotelis collegit disposuit illustravit Aemilius Heitz, Paris (Didot), Nov. I868. (7) Aristotelis Opera; edidit Academia Regia Borussica. vol. v Aristotelis qui ferebantur librorum Fragmenta collegit Valentinus Rose, pp. 1535-157I [quoted as Rose, 3432 to 5682],-Index Aristotelicus, Bonitz. Berlin (Reimer), 1870. (8) W. Oncken, Die Staatslehre der Ar. in historisch-politischen Umrissen, vol. 2, esp. pp. 40o-528 (Engelmann) Leipzig, I875. (9) Aristotelis qui ferebantur librorum Fragmenta collegit Valentinus Rose, pp. 258-386 [quoted as Rose, 38I3 to 6i I3], Leipzig (Teubner), I886. f2

Page  LXVIII lxviii CONSPECTUS OF THE LITERATURE On the Berlin Fragments. (Io) F. Blass, Hermes, i880, xv 366. (iI) Th. Bergk, Rheinisches Museum, I88i, xxxviip. 87. (I2)H. Landwehr,(a) depapyro Berolinensi, no. 163, Berlin, I883; (b) papyrum Berol. commentario adiecto edidit, Gotha, 1883; and (c) in Philologus Suppl. v oo00-96. (13) H. Diels, Abhandlungen der Berliner Akadenie, mit 2 Tafeln, Mai 1885, ii pp. 1-57. (B) Published after the discovery of the Papyrus. (I) EDITIONS. (I) Aristotle On the Constitution of Athens, edited by F. G. Kenyon, M.A., Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford; Assistant in the Department of Mss, British Museum. Printed by Order of the Trustees of the Museum (Preface dated 31 Dec. I890), ist ed. Jan. 30, 891; 2nd ed. Feb.; 3rd and revised ed. 25 Jan. I892. Preliminary notice of discovery in the Times, I9 ian. (reprinted in Classical Review, v 70); Reviews of ist or 2nd ed.:-in Times, 30 Jan. '9I; Athenaeum, 4 April, p. 434-6; Saturday Review, 21 March, p. 358; Edinburgh Rev., April, p. 470-494; Revue de l'Instruction Publique en Belgique, pp. 133-9; and elsewhere: also in signed (or acknowledged) articles by Mr Macan, Mr F. T. Richards, Prof. Tyrrell, Prof. Gildersleeve and Prof. J. H. Wright; M. Dareste, M. Haussoullier and M. Weil; Prof. Blass, Prof. Diels, Prof. Bruno Keil, P. Meyer, and G. J. Schneider (see under their respective names in B III). Review of 3rd ed. in Academy, 8 June '92. Descriptive article (signed K) in Review of Reviews, 14 Feb. '9I, with reduced facsimile of col. 29 and 30. (2) Aristotle on the Constitution of Athens. Autotype Facsimile ed. 22 Plates, 20 x I5 inches. Folio; ed. i, March, '91; ed. 2 in the same year. Reviews in Times, 4 March, '91; Athenaeum, 4 April, p. 434-436, and elsewhere. (3) 'AOrvalov 7roXTrela eK&Oto.vLY ) E7rl r7 jSd3ie T77S &EUvrpaS dyyXLKS/S To0 K. KvOov eKSoaeWs. A. 'AYyac06vKos. (Barth and Christ) Athens; I891. (4) Aristotele, la Costituzione degli Ateniesi, testo greco, versione italiana, introduzione e note di C. Ferrini. (Hoepli) Milan [rev. in Athenaeum, 5 Sept. '9, p. 317]. (5) Aristotelis IIoXTela 'AO-7vaiwv, ediderunt G. Kaibel et U. de WilamowitzMoellendorff, '91. ed. i, July; ed. 2, September (Weidmann) Berlin [reviewed in Berl. Philol. Wochenschr., I892, p. 453 (F. Cauer); Neue Philol. Rundschau, '92, ^ p. 210 (P. Meyer); Lit. Centralblatt, '92, n. 2, p. 56; Revue des etudes grecques iv 405 (Weil); Deutsche Lilteraturzeitung, '91, p. I639 (Gomperz); and elsewhere]. (6) Aristotelis quae fertur 'AOrvaiwv roXtreia. Post Kenyonem recensuerunt H. van Herwerden et J. van Leeuwen; accedunt MSTI Apographum, Observationes Palaeographicae cum Tabulis iv, Indices Locupletissimi; (Sijthoff) Leyden, '91 [reviewed in Ber. Philol. Wochenschr., I892, pp. 613, 649; Class. Rev. vi 20-24; Neue Philol. Rundschau, '92, p. 2I0 (P. Meyer); and elsewhere]. (7) Aristotelis IIoXreia 'A0'qvaiov, edidit F. Blass (Teubner) Leipzig, Jan. [892 [reviewed in Wochenschr. f. klass. Philol. no. 38; and elsewhere]. (8) a school-edition of c. I-41, by Karl Hude of Copenhagen (Teubner, Leipzig, Dec. 1892). Editions have also been promised by (9) H. Diels (Berlin); (Io) B. Haussoullier (Paris). (11) TRANSLATIONS. English. (i) with Introduction and Notes (and Facsimile of first eleven lines of,col. io) by F. G. Kenyon, M.A. (Bell) London, July, I891. (2) E. Poste, M.A., Fellow of Oriel Coll., Oxford; (Macmillan) London, July, '9I; ed. 2, Dec. '92. (3) T. J. Dymes, B.A., late Scholar of Lincoln Coll., Oxford; (Seeley) London, 1891.

Page  LXIX OF THE AOHNAIhN 1OAITEIA Ixix German. (4) G. Kaibel u. A. Kiessling, two editions in I89; (Triibner) Strassburg. (5) F. Poland (Langenscheidt) Berlin, '91. (6) M. Erdmann (Neumann) Leipzig, 1892. (7) H. Hagen see in 111 (3I). French. (8) Th. Reinach (Hachette) Paris; (9) B. Haussoullier (Bouillon) Paris, Nov. 1891. Italian. (io) C. Ferrini (Hoepli) Milan; (II) C. O. Zuretti (Loescher) Turin. Russian. (12) Belajew, Kasan; (I3) anonymous translation in Journ. d. kais. russ. Ministeriums d. Volksaufklarung, Jul.-Aug. '9r. Polish. (14) L. Cwiklinski, Krakau, Nov. '92. (Several of the above Translations are reviewed in the Athenaeum, 5 Sept. '9I, p. 316, and by Mr F. T. Richards in the Academy, 15 Aug., '9I, p. 137.) (Ill) SIGNED (OR ACKNOWLEDGED) CONTRIBUTIONS TO PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS &c. (ems. = emendations) (i) Adam, J., On Solon in c. 12 ~ 5 wrpiv avrapaas 7rap ieZ^\ev yaXa. Academy, 14 March, '9I, p. 259. (2) Alien, F. D., Prof. Wright's paper in I888, on the date of Cylon; The Nation, 5 March, '9I, p. I97. (3) Bauer, A., (a) Vortrag in Graz, i8 Feb.; Wissenschaftliche Rundschau der Mzinchner Neuesten Nachrichten, no. 97, o03, I09. (b) Preussische Jahrbiicher, vol. 68, part I. See also IV (r). (4) Bernardakis, G., 'E7rocTroX- 7repi rjs TroX. 'AO. Tro 'Ap., dvar7vwTrt r^s 'Eq0yeupiors, Athens, '91. (5) Benn, A. W., On c. 25, Academzy, 14 March, '91, p. 259. (6) Blass, F., Review in Litterarische Centralblatt, 28 Feb. 301-4 (with numerous emendations, reprinted in Class. Rev. v I 75). See also ed. in I (7). (7) Brieger, A., die Verfassungsgeschichte von Athen, nach Aristoteles' neu angefundener Schrift, Unsere Zeit, ii I8-36, '9I. (8) Brooks, E. H., ems. in Class. Rev. v 182. (9) Burnet, J., ems. in Class. Rev. v 107, 117. (io) Bury, J. B., ems. in Academy, 7 March, '9r, p. 234; Athenaeum, P- 344; (=Class. Rev. v 175). (II) Busolt, G., 'zur Gesetzgebung Drakons,' Philologus, vol. 50o, pp. 393-400. (I2) Butcher, S. H., c. I3, 21, Class. Rev. v 178. (i3) Bywater, I., ems. in Academy, 14 Feb. '91, p. i63-4 (=Class. Rez,. V 105-). (14) Campbell, Lewis, ems. in Class. Rev. v 105-, 119. (I5) Chinnock, E. J., ' Rare Words,' Class. Rev. v 229. (I6) Cholodniak, J., General article in 'yournal d. k. Russ. Min. der Volksaufkldrung, May '91r, p. 58-70 (in Russian). (17) Comparetti, D., Nuova Antologia, xxvi 3, vol. 34, fasc. I3. (i8) Cox, Rev. Sir G. W., 'Aristotle as an Historian,' Academy, July-Aug. '92, pp. 52, III, 152, 171. (19) Crusius, 0., 'die Schrift vom Staate der Athener, und Aristoteles iiber die Demokratie,' Philologus, vol. 50o, pp. 173 —8. (20) Curtius, E., Berl. Arch. Gesellschajt (Berl. Philol. Wochenschrift, '91, p. 27). (21) Dareste, R., (a) Seances et travaux de i'Acad. des Sciences.Morales et Politiques, '91, p. 34 -364 (abstract of Part ii); (b) Journal des Savants, May, '9I, p. 257-273. (22) De-Sanctis, G., 'Studi sull' 'AO. 7roX.,' Rivista difilologia, vol. xx p. 147-163. (23) Diels, H., (a) Deutsche Litteraturzeitung, '91, no. 7, p. 239-242; no. 24, p. 878; (b) Archivf. Geschichie der Philosophie, iv 478; (c) On Epimenides, Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie, '9I, p. 387. (24) Ellis, Robinson, ems. in Class. Rev. v 181-2. (25) Fraenkel, M., (a) Zeitschrift f. Geschichtswissenschaft, '9I, p. I64-7; (b) Rh. Mus. xlvii 473. (26) Gennadios, A., 'AKpdOroXis, Athens, i8 March-2 April (Class. Rev. v 274). (27) Gertz, M. C., (a) Filologiske Tidskrift, '91, p. 252-5; (b) 7ahrb. f. Philologie, '91, P. 192. (28) Gildersleeve, B., Rev. in American Journal of Philology, xii 97, cf. ib. i 458, iv 92, on Solon in c. 12 ~ 5, 7rpiv avaTapdaas. (29) Giles, P., English Historical Review, April, '92. (30) Gomperz, Th., (a) ' Aristoteles u. seine neuentdeckte Schrift,'

Page  LXX Ixx CONSPECTUS OF THE LITERATURE Deutsche Rundschau, xvii 219, May, '9; (b) 'Ueber das neuentdeckte Werk des Ar., U. die Verdachtiger seiner Echtheit,' Anzeziger der Wiener Akademie, no. xi (3) [both printed separately]; (c) Deutsche Litteraturzeitung, '91, no. 24, p. 877; no. 45, p. I639. See also IV (5). (31) Hagen, H., trans. in Schweizerische Rundschau, '9, no. 4-6. (32) Harberton, Lord, On c. 35 ~ I, Class. Rev. vi I23. (33) Hardie, W. R., 'The &airlrTal' (c. 53), Class. Rev. v 164. (34) Hartman, J. J., general descriptive article in De Nederlandsche Spectator, 14 March, '9I. (35) Haskins, C. E., em. (20, 5) Class. Rev. v I r b. (36) Haussoullier, B., (a) Revue des Ptudes Grecques, no. 12 J (belated no. for Dec. I890), p. 475; (b) Revue Critique, '91, no. 10, p. I8I-6; '92, no. TO, p. 179-183; (c) Acad. des Inscr. et Belles Lettres, '91, Feb. 13 and 20; (d) Revue de Philologie, xv 2, p. 98 f. (37) Havell, H. L., 'The Great Discovery,' Macmillan's Mag., March, '9I, p. 392-400. (38) Headlam, J. W., (a) 'The Constitution of Draco' (c. 4), Class. Rev. v I66-9; (b) 'On the use of the hiatus in the IIoXTeia,' ib. 270-2; (c) 'Notes on Early Athenian History (i) The Council: eeTrcTa and va;Kpapol,' ib. vi 249-253, and (ii)'The Council,' ib. 293-8. See also IV (8). (39) Herwerden, H. van, (a) Berl. Philol. Wochenschrzft, '91, pp. 322, 418, 6io; (b) Mnemosyne, '91, p. i68. See also ed. in 1 (6). (40) Hicks, R. D., emrs. Camb. Philol. Soc. Proc., 12 Feb. '9I, p. 10; Class. Rev. v iii a, ii6 b. (41) Hill, G. F., c. 25, Class. Rev. v I69; I76. (42) Holzinger, 'Aristoteles' athenische Politie und die Heraklidischen Excerpte,' Philologus, vol. 50, p. 436-446. (43) Houseman, A. E., em. in Class. Rev. v I 10 a. (44) Houtsma, E. O., Berl. Philol. [Wochenschr., 27 Jun. '91, p. 8o0. (45) Hude, C., ' Coniecturae Aristotelicae,' Filologiske Tidskrift, '9I, p. 248-251. (46) Hultsch, F., 'Das Pheidonische Masssystem,' yahrb. fur Philol., '91, p. 262-4. (47) Immisch, O., On c. 4I, Berl. Philol. tVochenschr., '91, p. 707. (48) Jackson, H., ems. in Camb. Philol. Soc. Proc., I2 Feb. '91; Class. Rev. v 105-, I22. (49) Kaibel, G., article in Nord und Siid, Apr. '91, p. 80-92; cf. I (5). (5o) Keil, Bruno, (a) rev. of Mr Kenyon's ed. in Berl. Philol. Wochenschr., '9i, 25 April-s6 May; also separately printed, pp. 56; (b) rev. of van Herwerden and van Leeuwen's ed., ib. '92, pp. 613, 649. Cf. IV (1o). (s5) Kenyon, F. G., (a) 'New Readings,' Class. Rev. v 269-; (b) 'Recent Literature,' ib. 332. See also edd. in I (i). (52) Kontos, K. S., (a) Le Spectateur (Athens), I3 Apr. '91; (b) 'AOqva&, iii 289-400; (c) Zroa, i 44. (53) Lacon, B., 'H/xpa A (Athens). (54) Lean, W. S., Academy, 7 March, '91, p. 234. (55) Leeuwen, J. van, (a) Mnemosyne, xix 2, April, '91, reprinted in Class. Rev. v 224; (b) Verslagen en Medeelingen der Kon. Acad. v. Wett. afd. Letterkunde, i891 (May), p. 154 -176. See also ed. in I (6). (56) Lipsius, J. H., Verhandlungen d. k. Sachs. Gesellschaft d. Wissenschaften, '91, p. 41-69 (also printed separately). (57) Macan, R. W., (a) Review of Mr Kenyon's first ed. in Oxford Magazine, 4 Feb. '9; (b) 7ournal of Hellenic Studies, April, xii 17-40 (on the historical aspect of the 'A0. roX\., I I March, '91). (58) Maehly, G., Review in Rivista di Filologia, '91, p. 551-7. (59) Marchant, E. C., (a) ' The Deposition of Pericles' (c. 44), Class. Rev. v i65-6; (b) Emendations, ib. v 105-. (60) Marindin, G. E., Class. Rev. v 176, 177, i8i. (6i) Mayor, John E. B., (a) ems. &c. in Camb. Univ. Reporter, 3 March, '91, p. 607; Class. Rev. v p. 105-; (b) references on subject-matter, ib. 120-2; also in Proceedints of the Camb. Philological Society, 17 and 26 Feb. '91, pp. Io0-5. (62) Mayor, Joseph B., (a) on c. 7 ~ 4, and c. I7 ~ 4, Academy, 28 March, '91, p. 304; (b) 'Unaristotelian words and phrases,' Class. Rev. v 122-185; (3) em. ib. I75. (63) Murray, A. S., on c. 7 ~ 4, Class. Rev. v io8. (64) Newman, W. L., (a) Review of Mr Kenyon's ed. in Class. Rev. v 155-164; (b) em. ib. 105-. (65) Nicklin, T., ems. in Class. Rev. v 227, 228. (66) Niemeyer, K., Jahrb. fur Philol. '91, p. 405 -

Page  LXXI OF THE A~HNAIQN HOAITEIA lxxi 41 5 (67) Oman, C. W., paper read at meeting of Historical Society, 19 Nov. '91 (Acacdemy, 28 Nov., p. 483). (68) Pais, E., Rivista di Filologia, xix 557-569. (69) Pantazidis, f\XoX\oytKbv rrapdprT?/a TrS 'EgTria, 1891. (70) Papabasileios, 'AOlqva, ii 278-288. (71) Paton, W. R., (a) Athenaeum, 21 Feb. '91, p. 251, and Class. Rev. v o05-, 175-, 225; (b) 'The Attic Phratries,' ib. 221. (72) Platt, A., ems. in Class. Rev. v 109, 175-, i85. (73) Poland, F., ahrb. fuir Philol. '91, p. 259-262. (74) Radinger, C., Philologus, vol. 50, pp. 229, 400, 468. (7;) Reinach, Th., (a) 'Trois Passages du livre d'A. &c.' (on cc. 4, 8, 25) Acadinzie des Inscr. &'c., 5 June, '91; Revue Critique, n. 24; (b) 'La Constitution de Dracon et la Constitution de l'an 411,' Revue des lEtudzes Grecques, '9I, p. 82; (c) 'Aristote ou Critias?,' ib. 143-158. (76) Richards, F. T., (a) Rev. of Mr Kenyon's ed. in Academy, 14 Feb. '9I, p. 165-7; (b) Rev. of Bauer's Forschungen and of Mr Kenyon's and Mr Poste's Translations, ib. I5 Aug. '91, p. i37-8; (c) Letter, ib. 13 Aug. '92, p. I33, mainly on discrepancies between Politics and 'AO. 7roX. (77) Richards, Herbert [quoted in critical notes by surname only], (a) ems. in Academy, 14 Feb. '91, p. 163-4; and i8 Apr. p. 371; (b) ems. in Class. Rev. v 105-, I1:2, 175, 224, 334; (c) 'Unaristotelian words and phrases,' ib. I84, 272. (78) Ridgeway, W., Academy, 21 Feb. '91, p. 186-7 (Class. Rev. v 109). See also Or-ign of IM.etallic Currency and Weight Standards, pp. 306, 324. (79) Ruehl, F., (a) Rhein. 'lats., '91, p. 426-464; (b) Wochenschr. fiir klass. Philol., '92, no. i; cf. (128). (80) Rutherford, G., (a) 'The New Aristotle Papyrus in its bearings on Textual Criticism,' Class. Rev. v 89-91; (b) ems. ib. 105-, 175. (8I) Saint-Hilaire, B., Revue I'leue, 21 March, '91. (82) Sandys, J. E., (a) ems. in Academy, 7 Feb. '91, p. 137 (Class. Rev. v io5-); (b) ems. &c. Caamb. Phil. Soc. Proc., 26 Feb. 'g9, p. 14 (with additions in Class. Rev. v 11 9-120). (83) Schneider, G. J., Review of Mr Kenyon's ed. in IVochenschr. fir klass. Philol., 29 Apr.-20 May, '9I, pp. 371, 498, 528, 544. (84) Schoell, R., iilnchener- Allgemeine Zeitung, Beilage, no. 106-109; Sonderabdruck der 41 Philol.-Versammlung in Miinchen, Mai '91 (J. G. Cotta) Munich. (85) Schvarcz, J., Ungarische Revue, Apr. '91. See also IV (12). (86) Sidgwick, A., elis. in Class. Rev. v 105-. (87) Stewart, J. A., em. in Academy, 7 March, '91, p. 234 (Class. Rev. v 179). (88) Smith, Cecil, Ostracism of Xanthippus, Class. Rev. v 277. (89) Smith, J. A., em. in Aca(demy, 14 Feb. (Class. Rev. v 118). (90) Szanto, E., Wochenschr. fir klass. Philol., '91, p. 761. (91) Thompson, E. S., (r:) em. in Class. Rev. v 223, 224-; 277; (b) The Draconian Constitution, ib. 336; (c) Date of the Expulsion of the Pisistratids, iS. vi 181; (d) Age of the &act-r7rai, ib. 182. (92) Torr, Cecil, (a) on the date, Athenaeum, 7 Feb. (Class. Rev. v 19 note); (b) on 51 ~ 4, Class. Rev. v 117; (c) on the rpamrq'yol in c. 61, ib. p. I 19; (d) on c. 54, the Delian festival, ib. 277. (93) Tyrrell, R. Y., (a) ems. in Academy, 28 Feb. '91, p. 210; 7 March, p. 234 (Class. Rev. v I75-); (b) 'The New Papyri,' Quarterly Reviezw, April, '91, p. 320-350. (94) Vanderkindere, Revue Belgique, March, '91. (95) Wachsmuth, C., 'zur Topographie von Athen,' Rheinisches Museum, '91, Heft 2. (96) Walker, E. M., Chronology of 462-445 B.c., Class. Rev. vi 95. (97) Wardale, J. R., Class. Rev. v 273. (98) Weil, H., Journal des Savants, April, '91, p. 197. (99) Whibley, L., (a) on cc. 22, 23, 28, Class. 'ev. v 168-9; (b) em. lb. 180; (c) on the Authorship, ib. 223. (Ioo) Wright, J. H., (a) Review of Mr Kenyon's ed. in The Ntation, 7 May, '91; (b) ' Did Philochorus quote the 'AG. froX. as Aristotle's?', American yournal of Philology, xii 3, 310-3I8. (c) ' The Date of Cylon,' a Study in early Athenian history, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, iii 1892. Also reprinted, pp. 80 (Ginn and Co.) Boston. (Ior) Wyse, W., (a) ems. in Camb. Phil. Soc. Proc. for Feb. 12, '91; also in Athenaeum, Feb. 14

Page  LXXII lxxii CONSPECTUS OF THE LITERATURE and 21, and Academy, 21 Feb. p. 186 (Class. Rev. v 105-); (b) ems. in Class. Rev. -A v 225-; (c) notes, ib. 122, 224, 274-6, 335-6; (d) on rpoSavei^ew, I6 ~ 2, ib. vi 254-7~ Many of the following articles appeared at a later date than the above:(102) B6rard, J., Aristote, La Constitution d'Athenes, (Extrait) Paris. (103) Betge, popular article in Gegenwart, '9I, no. 29. (104) Buseskul, (a) on cc. 4 and 25, Joarn. d. Min. der Volksaufkl.; noticed in Berl. Phil. Woch., 8 Oct. '92, p. 1289; (b) in Russ. his!. Rundschau, ii 221-239 (both in Russian). (o05) Cauer, Paul, Aristoteles Urteil iiber die Dtmokratie, Fleckeisen'sJahrb. '92, p. 581-593. (io6) Cavazza, P., Discorso in Annuario dell' Istituto di studi superiori in Firenze, pp. 20, '92. (I07) Derewizki, A., (in Russian) Charkow, '91. (io8) Dimitsas, M. G., 'EXXas,iii 4 p. 357-379. (o09) Duemml6r, F., Die'AO. irAX. des Kritias, in Hermes, '92, p. 260-280. (i Io) Ferrini, C., Rendiconto dell' Ist. lombardo, ser. ii, vol. xxiv, fasc. 8-9. (i i) Fontana, G., On Aristides in 'AO. woX., pp. 26, (Tedeschi) Verona. (I12) Fraccaroli, G., due versi di Solone (c. 12, 28), in Rivista di Filologia, xxi, p. 4 49-50. (113) Goodell, T. W., 'Ar. on the Athenian Arbitrators' in Amer.Journ. of Philology, xii 319-326. (114) Grunzel, J., (Friedrich) Leipzig. (1i5) Hertz, M. C., On c. 38, Jahrb. f. Philol., '91, p. 192. (si6) Hude, K., On the murder of Hipparchus (where Ar. differs from Thuc. he is probably following Androtion), Jahrb.. Philol., '92, p. I7I-6. (II7) Knoke, F., popular article in Grenzboten, '9I, no. 43-44. (II8) Kihler, U., (A) On H-eracleides of Clazomenae, Hermes, '92, p. 68 f. (B) Die Zeiten der Herrschaft des Peisistratos; Sitzzngsberichte of the Berlin Academy, 7 April, '92, pp. 339-343; a not entirely accurate abstract in Berl. Phil. Woch., 13 Aug. p. 1053-6. [(a) The account of Peisistratus in cc. 14, I5 is primarily derived from Hdt. i 59-64, combined (but not harmonised) with other sources of information. The second exile lasted Io years; the first rvpavvis 5; and the first exile and the second and third rvpavvis, 6 years each. This result was probably obtained by deducting the o1 years of the second exile from the 33 years of c. 17, and dividing the remainder (23) into four approximately equal parts, thus making the rvpavvts last for 17 years in all, and the exile for I6 years. The 19 years of rvpavvis in c. 17 ~ I, which are inconsistent with this, are obtained (as already suggested on p. 76 a) by deducting the 17 years of the rule of the Peisistratidae (c. 19 ult.) from the 36 years assigned by Hdt. to the rule of Peisistratus and his sons. (The connexion of Peisistratus with Rhaecelus explains the offer of Amyntas I to allow Hippias to settle at the neighbouring town of Anthemus, Hdt. v 94.) (5) The author's method of combining different sources of information is further illustrated by comparing his account of Cleisthenes (c. 20-21) with that of Hdt. (The beginning of the o-rcao-s is placed by Kohler before 508/7, and the reforms of Cleisthenes in 507/6.) (c) In the figures given in c. 24 the main stress is laid on the total, 20,000 (cf. Arist. Vesp. 706-8), not on the details; it is an exaggeration to put the number of the dapcXau vryUot and virep6ptot at 700 each; and the estimate of 2500 hoplites and 20 guardships properly belongs to the time of the battle of Tanagra. A body as numerous as the 2,000 fpovpol must have held office for more than a year. (d) c. 25 describes the censorial powers of the Areopagus as eIrizOEa, whereas, in cc. 3, 4, 8, these powers are described as having belonged to it from the earliest times. Hence we may infer that c. 25 is founded on a different account of the historical development of the powers of the Areopagus to that followed in the previous chapters. Further, it is more probable that Ephialtes, in his attack on the Areopagus, cooperated with Pericles than with Themistocles. The story about the latter in c. 25 is a Idppische, chronologische unzmogliche Erzihlung, probably borrowed from some such writer as Stesimbrotus.]

Page  LXXIII OF THE AOHNAIUN HOAITEIA Ixxiii (119) Kurze, F., Westermann's Afonatshefte, Nov. '9I, p. 281-4. (120) Mahaffy, J. P., obiter dicta in Problems in Greek History, pp. 84, 87, 89, 96, I22, 128. (121) Melber, J., Aristoteles 'AO^7vaiwv 7roX1Trela u. die bisher dariiber erschienene Lit/era tur in Bladter fir das bayerische Gymnasialwesen xxviii I, p. 29-44 (Class. Rev. vi 375). (122) Meyer, P., (a) der neue Ar. u. die Schule, in Gymnasium, '92, no. 2-3; (b) Reviews in Zeitschr. f. d. Gymnasialwesen, XLVI 144 —I5. (123) Muller, H. C., in'EXXas iv, pp. 76 ff, and Kenyon, ibid. 137, Leyden, '92. (124) Munro, J. A. R., 'The Chronology of Themistocles' career,' Class. Rev. vi 333 f. (125) Nissen, H., die Staatschriften des Ar. in Rhein. Muts. '92, vol. 47, pp. 161-206 (holds that the IloXtretat were intended to lead up to the publication of a code for the dominions of Alexander, and also to serve as a series of hand-books for the use of Macedonian diplomatists. The article is ably criticised by Bruno Keil, die Solonische Verfassung, p. 127 —150). (I26) Piccolomini, Aeneas, In Aristot. et Herodam animadv. criticae, in Rivista difilologia, xx p. 456-264, Turin, 1892. (127) Postgate, J. P., em. 7)XcLaare for dciaare, in c. 5, I6 (Class. Rev. v o09). (128) Ruehl, F., Der Staat der Athener undZ kein Ende, in Jahrb. f. class. Philol. Suppl. Bd., I8, pp. 675-706; also reprinted (Teubner) Leipzig. [Rev. in Neue Philol. Ruldschau, '92, no. 15, p. 229 (P. Meyer); Woch. f. kl. Philol. '92, no. 35, p. 949 (G. J. Schneider); Berl. Phil. Woch. 15 Oct. p. 1317 (Schoffer). 'Fassen wir des Ergebniss meines ersten Aufsatzes (79) und das der vorstehenden weiteren Ausfiihrungen zusammen, so ergibt sich die neue Schrift als ein Werk, das sich sehr nahe an die aristotelische 'Ad. lroX. anschloss, stellenweise fast oder ganz w6rtlich, das ihr manche feine, echt aristotelische Wendung verdankte, das sie aber einerseits an vielen Stellen zusammenzog, anderseits dagegen auch erweiterte und miglicherweise auch einzelne Partien durch andere ersetzte' (p. 700). He holds that the editor of the work was 'Herakleides Lembos' (p. 701 f.).] (I^9) Schoffer, Val. von, (a) On the date of the 'Ad. 7roX. in Introd. to Biirgerschaft u. Volksversammlunz g z Athen, I, Moscow, '91 (in Russian), Berl. Phil. Woch. 8 Oct. '92, p. 129o; (b) Reviews in Berl. Phil. Woch. 8 and 5 Oct. '92. (130) Schultz, H., Russ. Phil. Rundschau, ii p. 33-44 (in Russian). ( r3) Stern, E. v., die neuentdeckte 'A0. roX. des Ar. pp. 42 (Abdruck aus B. II der Annal. der hist.-phil. Ges.), in Russian, Odessa, '92; [attacks the views of Schvarcz, Riihl and Cauer, Berl. Phil. Woch. 6 Oct. '92, p. 1291]. (132) Szanto, E., zur hdakonischen Gesetzgebung, in Arch.-epigr. M/ittheilzugen auts Oesterreich, xv 2, p. I80-2. (I33) Tacchi-Venturi, Civilta Cattolica, xii no. 995-6. (I34) Zielinski, Th., on c. 4, in Russ. Phil. Rundschau, i 2, p. 125 f. (in Russian). (I35) Zingerle, A., Zeitschriftf. d. Oesterr. Gyzn. xliii 207 f. (IV) SEPARATE WORKS. (I) Bauer, A., Litterarische u. historische Forschungen zu Aristoteles' 'Ad. iroX. (C. H. Beck) Munich, pp. I90, May '91. (Rev. in Athenaeum, 5 Sept. '9I, p. 317; Academly, T5 Aug. '91, p. 137; Berl. Phil. Woch. 15 Oct. '92, p. I321, Schoffer; and elsewhere.) [In three parts: (I) On the relations of Ar. to the historical literature of Greece; (2) historical results derived from the 'Ad. 7ro\.; (3) Chronological tables, drawn up in accordance with the dates given in the 'Ad. 7roX.] (2) Cassel, Paulus, Vom neuen Aristoteles u. seiner Tendenz (Bibliograph. Bureau) Berlin, '91. (Rev. in Berl. Phil. Woch. 15 Oct. '92, p. 1320, Schiffer; and elsewhere.) [An unscholarly pamphlet, describing the ideal of the author of the 'Ad. wroX. as 'die alte, erbliche, patriarchalische, gewissenhafte, kinigliche Verfassung.'] (3) Cauer, Fr., 'Hat Aristoteles die Schrift vom Staate der Athener geschrieben?

Page  LXXIV lxxiv CONSPECTUS OF THE LITERATURE ihr Urssprzung und ihr Wert fiir die altere athenische Geschichte,' (G6schen) Stuttgart, pp. 78, 'i9. (Rev. in Academy, 6 June '9I, p. 540; Athenaeum, 5 Sept. '9I, p. 317; Deutsche Litteratur-Zeitun;, p. 878, Diels; Litt. Centralblatt, p. I120; Wochenschr. f. kl. Phil. no. 28, Szanto; Gymn. p. 567, P. Meyer; Berl. Phil. fkoch. '92, p. 1288, Schbffer; and elsewhere.) [Argues against the treatise being the work of Aristotle.] (4) Droysen, H., Vorldufige Bemnerkungen zu Aristoteles' 'AO. roX., Oster Programm des konigstddt. Gymn. (Gartner) Berlin, '91. [Mainly chronological.] (5) Gomperz, Th., Die Schrift volm Staatswesen der Athener und ihr neuesfer beurtheiler, (Holder) Vienna, '91. [A polemical pamphlet directed mainly against Dr Franz Riihl's article in Rheinisches Museum, xlvi 426.] (6) Hagfors, E., de ptraepositionum in Ar. Politicis et in 'AO. roX. usu, HIelsingfors Dissertation, pp. 130 (Mayer u. Muller, Berlin, '92). [Rev. in Woch. f kl. Philol. '92, p. 997. The net result of this elaborate statistical investigation is that, in the prepositions, the writer finds nothing in the 'A0. 7roX. divergent from the usage in the Politics. On the other hand, there is little in the use of prepositions in the former that is distinctively characteristic of Aristotle. This is limited to the use of et apXOjs (for ev CapX^), e' vtrapxis, and oi irepi Twa. The conclusion is:-' quantum ex praepositionum usu concludere licet, ille liber ab Aristotele potest esse conscriptus.'] (7) Hammond, B. E., Greek Constitutions, (a sketch including fresh details from the 'A0. 7roX.) pp. 68 (E. Johnson) Cambridge, '9I. (8) Headlam, J. W., Appendix to Historical Essay, Election by Lot at Athens, pp. I83-i90, (University Press) Cambridge, '91. See also III (38). (9) Herzog, E., Zur Litteratur ziber den Staat der Athener, pp. 83 (Fues) ' Tilbingen, Nov. '92. (i) On [Xen.] 'AO. wro\.; (2) on Ar. 'AO. 7roX. c. 4. (io) Keil, Bruno, Die Solonische Veifassung nach Aristoteles, pp. 248 (Gartner) Berlin, Nov. '92. [Ar. was engaged in the preparation of the Politics from about 350 to 335 B.C. It was apparently after this that he put into shape the materials collected for his IIoXrrecat, the redaction of the'Ad. 7roX. falling between 329 and 325. In its polemical passages and elsewhere, it shows the influence of the 'ArOis of Androtion, besides other traces of further research subsequent to the preparation of the Politics. It was intended for publication, as is proved by the elaborate style of certain portions, by the attention paid to rhythm at the ends of the sentences, by the avoidance of 4 hiatus, and by other indications of deliberate purpose and methodical plan. The work did not, however, receive the author's finishing touches, and was probably not given to the world until after his death.-The text of chaps. 5- 13 is printed with critical notes, followed by a commentary on each chapter, together with many valuable remarks on the work as a whole. Among the restorations of the text here proposed are c. 9, i i O6rws r(epl) rT77 Kptoe[W o 6 a]S[/os ' K]6pLOS, c. 10, 5 7rap' 6[Xi]yov, c. I 1, 10 yevrdOcaL T7`V [vlav] TcLPV, c. I, 12 -q o[Xe~obv ad]rapaXXa[Krop].] (iI) Meyer, Peter, Des Aristoteles' Politik u. die 'AO. wroX., nebst einer LitteraturUebersicht, pp. 72 (Cohen) Bonn, '91. (Rev. in Berl. Phil. Woch. 8 Oct. '92, p. 1291, Schoffer; and elsewhere.) [Gives some useful parallel passages from the Politics; but goes too far in contending that Politics ii I2 and c. 4 of'AO. ro\. are both equally authoritative.] (12) Schvarcz, Julius, 'Aristoteles u. die 'AO. 7roX.,' I Abtheilung des Werkes Die Demokratie, pp. 25 (Friedrich) Leipzig, '91. [Ascribes the treatise to Demetrius Phalereus.] (13) Schjott, P. Aristoteles omz Athens Statsforfatning. Christiania, '91, Dybwad. (Rev. by B in Lit. Centralblatt, no. 29, p. 1025.) (14) Wright, J. H. The Date of Cylon, (Reprint of III (too c), 1891); noticed

Page  LXXV OF THE A~HNAIMN HOAITEIA Ixxv in Academy, ii June, '92, p. 570; Class. Rev. vi 457; Berl. Phil. Woch. '92, p. 1555; and elsewhere. [Places the attempt of Cylon between 636 and 624 B.C., and the trial and banishment of the Alcmaeonidae, and the visit of Epimenides, in 6i5.] The principal books of reference used in preparing the commentary are: (a) the Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum, quoted as CIA; with E. L. Hicks, Gk. Historical Inscriptions, and Dittenberger's Sylloge; also von Hartel's Studien ziber Attisches Staatsrecht u. Urkundenwesen (1878), and Meisterhans, Grammatik der Attischen Inschriften, ed. 2 (i888). (b) the Index Aristotelicus of Bonitz; and the editions (or translations) of the Politics by Susemihl, Jowett, Newman and others; also the various editions of the Fragments. (c) the Greek lexicographers, esp. Bekker's Anecdota, vol. i; Etymologicum Magnum (Gaisford); Harpocration (Dindorf); Hesychius (Schmidt); Photius (ed. Porson, revised by Dobree, 1822, who printed as Appendix the Lexicon Rhetoricum Cantabrigiense; Dobree's transcript of the latter was also published posthumously in 1834); also id. (ed. Naber, I864-5); Pollux (Bekker); and Suidas (Bernhardy). (d) in Gk. History:-Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, also C. Miiller's Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, quoted as FHG:-among modern writers, Thirlwall, Grote (ed. 1862 in 8 vols), Curtius (ed. Ward), Duncker, Busolt, Holm, Abbott; also Gilbert's Beitrdge. In Chronology, Eusebius (ed. Schoene, I866-75); and the Marmor Pariumn in Miiller's FHG; also Clinton's Fasti, and Peter's Zeittafeln. (e) in Antiquities and Law: (i) Boeckh, Die Staatshaushaltung der Athener, ed. 2, I85I, ed. 3 (by Frankel) i886; also the translations of ed. I by Sir Geo. Cornewall Lewis 1828, 1842; of ed. 2 by Lamb, Boston, U.S., I857. (2) the new edition of K. F. Hermann's Lehrbuch der Griechischen Antiquitdten. (3) Meier u. Schoemann, der Attische Process, 1824, ed. Lipsius I88I-6; also Lipsius, in Verhandlungen d. k. Sachs. Gesellschaft d. Wissenschaften, '91, p. 4 1-69. (4) G. F. Schoemann, Antiquities of Greece, vol. i translated by Hardy and Mann, I88o. (5) Gilbert, Griechische Staatsalterthiimer, I88I-5 (new ed., and English trans. of vol. i in preparation). (6) Busolt, Die Griechischen Alterthinzer, 1887 (ed. 2, '92), and Stengel, Sakralalterthiimer, I890, both in Iwan Miller's Handbuch. (7) A. Mommsen, Heortologie, 1864. (8) Smith, Dict. of Gk. and Roman Antiquities, ed. Wayte and Marindin (with Appendix on 'AO. 7roX.). (9) Daremberg et Saglio, Diet. des Antiquites. (Io) Haussoullier, la Vie Municipale en Attique, 1884; Hauvette-Besnault, les Stratges Atheziens, I885; A. Martin, les Cavaliers Ath., I887; Diirrbach, L'Orateur Lycurgue, 1890, and other monographs in the same series. (I ) Philippi, Beitrdge zu einer Geschichte des Attischen Biirgerrechtes (i870), and Der Areopag und die Epheten, 1874. (12) Fraenkel, die attischen Gesch/worenengerichte, I877. (i3) Schulthess, Vormundschaft, i886. (14) U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Aus Kydathen, in 'Philol. Untersuchungen,' I880. (I5) Dissertations by Thumser, de Civium Atheniensium m uneribus, i880; Kornitzer, De Scribis Publicis, 1883; Haederli, Astnomen u. Agoranomen, 1886; Panske, de Mlagistratibus Atticis, qui saeculo A. C. quarto pecunias publicas curabant, i, i89o; and others. (I6) Articles in Philological Journals, &c. 1 Vol. I, Part ii, Der Athenische Staat und seine Geschichte, edited by Thumser, was published in Nov. i892, too late to be of use in the present work.

Page  LXXVI lxxvi ABBREVIATIONS USED IN CRITICAL NOTES ~ ii. Abbreviations used in the critical notes, &c. SIGLARI U M. Papyri Londinensis lectiones litterae 'unciales' indicant; [ ] quae in papyro prius, ut videtur, fuerunt, nunc autem evanuerunt; < > quae in papyro per errorem omissa, propter sensum addenda sunt; [ ] quae in papyro scripta, ut aliena omittenda sunt: + obelus lectionem corruptam designat; * asteriscus coniecturas non antea ab editore prolatas. Editiones. K = Kenyonis ed. prima; K2 secunda; K3 tertia; K-W1 = Kaibel et von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, ed. prima; K-W2, ed. altera; A H-L =van Herwerden et van Leeuwen; B= Blass. ~ 12. List of Illustrations. In Frontispiece. Fig. I; Heliastic rrtvaKiov, from Daremberg and Saglio's Dict. des Antiquites, iii I90, fig. 24I0; first published by M. Rayet, Annuaire de l'Association des Etudes Grecques, 1878, p. 206. See note on p. 235. Fig. 2 and 3; two bronze counters, probably used in the allotment of citizens to the several heliastic divisions. On the obverse, four owls and two sprays of olive, encircled with the word 0ECMo0eTLAN. On the reverse, fig. 2 (from the Berlin Museum) bears the letter E; fig. 3 (published in Parnassos, Athens, 1883), the letter A. From Daremberg and Saglio, l.c., fig. 2411, 2412. See note on p. 236 b. Fig. 4 and 5; heliastic or-v'3oXa. On the obverse, a copy of the design on a rptLcoXov, —an owl surrounded with two sprays of olive, and A8H in fig. 4, e only in fig. 5. On the other side, a letter, probably denoting one of the heliastic sections. See note on p. 240 b. From Daremberg and Saglio, I.c., fig. 2413, 2414, Fig. 6 and 7; bronze *+(ioL used for voting, found at Athens (Bull. de Corr. Hellen. 1887, xi 2IO). From Daremberg and Saglio, I.c., fig. 2415-6. See note on p. 246. On p. 39; Aeginetan Didrachmon; Berlin Cabinet, Friedlander u. Sallet, Beschreibung, no. 2. From Baumeister's Denkmaler, fig. IOIO. Ibid. and Title-pfage. Early Attic Tetradrachmon; Berlin Cabinet, u.s., no. 54. From Baumeister's Denkmanler, fig. I013. CORRIGENDA. p. 2 b, 1. 17 from end: read ' either as early as 636 or as late as 624.' p. 7, 1. 3: dele asterisk. p. 133, in critical note on 35, 5: read HIepacztw K, K-W.

Page  LXXVII ADDENDA TO INTROD. AND COMMENTARY lxxvii ADDENDA. Introduction, p. xii. The sketch on pp. ix-xii is perhaps needlessly limited to the literature of the theory of government. A survey of 'political literature', if interpreted in its wider sense, might have included some account of the de Pace and the Areopagiticus of Isocrates. Of these two political pamphlets the first advises Athens to abandon the Empire of the Sea; the second commends the earlier mode of appointing the officers of State by election (aipeoas) rather than by lot (KXjpw^os), and pleads for the restoration of the censorial power once wielded by the Council of the Areopagus. Both of these works may be ascribed to the year 355 B.C., and both have important points of contact with the 'AOSvaiwv ~roXTreia, which was written nearly 30 years later. Some of these points are noticed in Bruno Keil's Solon. Verf., pp. 78 ff, 215 &c. p. 1. The observations of Blass on the rhythm of the 'A8Ova1wv 7roXLrefa are perhaps unduly fanciful. In the extreme case quoted in the text the metrical correspondence is possibly due to accident alone. The central clause of the sentence is a quotation, ro0TroV Po6Xerat 71r KarT-yope5v; and it is difficult to believe that, in the language used immediately before and after this clause, the writer was consciously guided by the metrical value of the successive syllables of the quotation itself. One may also fairly mistrust a theory which leads its exponent to print the trisyllabic Hetpacis in c. 35 ~ I, while everywhere else he prefers the quadrisyllabic Ietlpacus. A more cautious and sober view is that of Bruno Keil, I.c., p. 36, who observes:'die Unfertigkeit des Aristotelischen Buches lisst eine Rhythmik in dem Umfange, wie Blass sie annimmt, m. E. iuberhaupt gar nicht suchen'. Elsewhere, p. 33, he makes the interesting remark: 'das Tempo der Sprache unseres Buches ist im ganzen ein schnelles'. Commentary, p. 9 (c. 3, 25): POVKOX~tOV K-rX] Cf. Bruno Keil, in Berl. Phil. Woch. 21 May, i892, p. 652 f. p. 14 (c. 4, 6): racLWas] The earliest inscription in which the TatLat are mentioned belongs to the first half of the sixth century, CIA iv 373238, p. I99, oi Lratata rde Xa\Ki KTrX. Cf.J. H. S. ix 125. p. 28 (c. 7, 23): ALu4Xov 'Av06ECLov] Bruno Keil, Solon. Veaf., p. 67, identifies with this monument a work of art mentioned in CIA, ii 742 A i2 (Catalogi signorum ex aerefactorum), early in the second half of the 4th century: —a dXmr/a 'AvOekiuwv[os....] cKVUVV X~EL Kaln Xo6[yXrv] vel X6[(fov]. He accordingly infers that the monument may be described as d6dOalxa'AvOeluiwvos, eKUWv At0uAXov. Kohler describes the age of these Catalogi as ultimis decenniis saeculi quarti non multo antiqulior. But the work of art itself may easily have been very much older, some of the rest in the list having certain portions missing. Cf. Boeckh, ii 311i, 2793. p. 79 f (c. 21, I2): SLvIE'ELiJ]. Add, Milchhoefer's Untersuchungen fiber die Demenordnung des Kleisthenes, with Map, Reimer, Berlin, Oct. '92; and Szanto, Hermes, '92, p. 312. p. 134 a (c. 35, 9): 'E+4iarTOu KCal. 'ApxE"rTpdrov] Bruno Keil, Solon. Velf., p. 54, proposes to identify Archestratus with the mover of the last amendment in the decree concerning Chalcis, CIA iv i, p. 12 n. 27 a, 70, 'Apxa~rpaTo[s] elre -r&!xv &XX\a KaOd7rep ['A]vTrLKX' ras [8]e e5vOvvas XaXKte&F[0o]t KaraL& eOvSxv avrYv elvat ev XaX\Kiot Ka0Fodrep 'A0rvza'itv 'AO-lvalotg, 7rX'\v 9qvyS Kal Oavd'roV Kal cdbT/qas. 7repL oe rovTUv &bervw etvat 'AOrva'e es T1'V rXtiaacv Trv Oeato0oerTv Kar oa rTO hlaocxa rtop br/ov. The spirit of this proposal harmonises with the policy of Ephialtes.

Page  LXXVIII lxxviii A DDENDA TO Addenda N~o/u/is (CritiCiS. BM =Blass, Mitteitung-en aus Pajru-anit rftn in Fleckeisen's Jahrbucher, Oct. 1892, PP..57i-5. Lectionum harum. ipsa papyro inspecta prolatarumn exemplar Blassii ipsius benevolentiae acceptum, refero; ex eisdem nonnullas ab eodem. impertitas in editione capitum, I-4I in textum. nuperrime recepit Hude. Recensentur infra etiam coniecturae quaedam, quas nuper proposuit Bruno Heil. 2, 2 7'v ya'p [7-6TE]: ~v' -yap avi4(0sv) BM (Hlude). 3, 6 /4 [dipXi~[g?iv] a J XV Headlam. prolatum accepi et defendi: Kali -7r[ir]ptoT [iV] Bm (Rude). 10 [nr'v adpX?'7v o-?mlctov] 6': [,rar,(?v)]- -EKIjU7)pL(OXv) 6' BM (Rude). 11 6O'jk6OV0c [Kat~drep]: dp'ja6ouort[v Wdo-irep Wessely et Bm (Hude). 14 0'r07/pws iror' 9XeL JL1Kp6v, f/y/vero -yap i'P To67-TOL ToZ5 xp'vots: 6o7I-O9pws 7ror' e~t /LZLKp6V v apcrpaXXci'rroL roic Xp6votS BM (Hude). 17 [Au'vov Ta& eirlOlera: r4ep].iw[I]crca (7rEp[aivetv] 'rt'Ocra?) Bin. 22 7rXeicu' [V`] e'ea6olcos. [oi'rot] As/v ovv Xp(6vov): WXeivEWW avo-cas. [7-]wp J/v ov'v Xp(6vp,) Bin, coil. P1. Leg. 779 D O1k /XaiTTwv eJ'1avolas (Hude). 4,10 &ee[-yyv]d[o-0at]: 6te[-yyv]6,v, cautionenm (velsonier)xgre m(u ) idein coniecerat Frdnkel, Rihein. Mus. xlvii 473, sed aim sensu, s Pondere. 12 r(apa)o-Xoyevovs* cum Blassio coniecerarni: &EXO,.dOUT K, K-XV, (participio curn epvou constructo) Bm (Rude). 13 ou"7rEp -<eiole> i-ude. 5, 8 io-op6jvT' Naber (Hude). 9 Kai' ya'p tf'reXadvCL Kati rpos: 'KacuevovP' (de Attica, pereunlem), EiV 7" (HI) 7rpOS Bm (Rude). 17 f'P /wErpiotoL T[p&eoifoOe]: E'V /Le-rptOotL....... Oe Bin; recte igitur TlQeoQOE proposuerat Platt. 21 T~V 71- qbc[XOXp-ql/garTa'V (quod coniecerat Kontos) Bin, qui usitatam lectionem, /uXap-yvpica cum litterarum vestigiis non congruere arbitratur, sed spatium litteris tribus PHM paullo angustius esse confitetur. '6, 15 calreXO&LOcL -<iX&ata>- Rude. hiatu sine causa admisso. 18 Kca-appv7raLPC]tV: KcLTappJv~rzVat Gertz (Rude), hiatu admisso. 7, 7 Ka.TEKV'pW0-oEE (6/ TO/' v6liovs): KaTeKX7 1-61 (ICEN iam antea Wessely) BMn 'machte fest', 'gab Geltung', Hude; sed explicandum potius leges suas intra cennturn annorum spatiumn inclusit. 9 7-tA'ua[,ra 6&]eiAev: Tqt'jua~t [&t]eFXe Wessely, Bin (Rude). 11 Ti'S I4/'V Ov']X adp~&S: K(al) Ta's A6v aip~a' (spatio inter me et N vacuo relicto) Bm (Rude). 8,21 [KUcd] Td. -e /LXXa: [z)] rrd TE a'XXa B3m (Rude). 24: [TOOl *wpdTT]EoaLa: [rOil f']Kc[1v]eo60(at) Bin (Rude);idem coniecerat Tyrrell. 911 `~rws e7(Epl) T~S Kptioe[wT 6 ][u' j K]dptos Keil. 10,52 76otaaz K; rzoi~O-U[z] Bm. 5 Irap' 6[Xg]yov Keil. 6 "v 6' 6 dp~atog XapaKrTp 36z 6pX O~. I-rolfl 6 Ka' -<Tb&> aTa6I& lrp/'s 46] v6putopa, T[p]6FT Kal -<TE7TapcdKovTa igrav~l'o-ayeldr 's>- e 7'~KOVTe UV~E ro' rdaXavrov adyodo-as Keil, Solon. Ve-f. p. i 66. 8 45~Kov-rc: 6-y50'rKOV-ra Gertz (Rude). 9 [al] tkaZ: [al y'] yzvaZ Bm, supra versumn hastam numeri signum. prodentemn cerni posse testatus: al -rpEir3 Kati E'KOOTL (Kcy' Gertz) li'a? Hude. 11, 10o An -yevlo-Oat T'v [viav] rc~tv? Keil. 12 o-[~e~v &]irapdfXXaKcoov Keil;?74Uct]p[6]v lrapaXXai4[etv Bin, et deinceps 650e]v [di]/u)o-rlpovs. 13 o-vo-TajvTL]: ouvo-dav-r]a Bin (H-ude).

Page  LXXIX CRITICAL1 NOTES lXXix 12, 14 b"'aors: 6'Tor Hude. 51 Opaodca-r' ely Hude. 54 iroX~ado-tv 7roXX-~wojr]V BM (wAjo-Lv Rude). 16, 17 -r' i6ro H-L (BM). 18 ira[rraci}Vp: 6wqrue\NCo Rude, quod obiter conieceram. 27 MO[pijXX[Z]-ro: eP06ttt(ov) z'P am (Hude), qui lectionemn novam idem ac evEOvLLo0v-Yo valere dicit, sed exspectrsptUS c'YEKC4ULdieTro. 31 [7rpo-p~o [C]/3[oiAE[,ro] Bin (Hude). 35 g/.4ewev.&v'>- [Tjq d'pX7) K(alL)] 67' CK7F'o~oL: 9/r.ELZ'El, [K(al) 37iflK(ati) O"T' JK~TrO-OL aM (Hude). 42 'Afrn'cew~v] K (BM). 17, 4 90h[cuvyev -ya'p: 99[eu]-ye y(&,p) Bam. 18, 19 r(Cov) [XoirC~vj: 7r(Cv) [&XX]cvu' K (Bin). 19, 20 66ev ew'r6p-q0aV KrX: o'rT. db7ropor. 7'o-av Xp-qraelrwv, <daro~Xbrovres>- hiatu, bis admisso Rude. 21, 3 -<7W' 7roXvrtaE&W ie KcLTeOTO727EVY>-. 7rpW~Toi'g or.C'vG <OUI' >E'PcL/Ae Rude. 22, 42 cLTt.OVS: airi'Aors Rude. 24,1 11 TWY -reXwv EKaL', -rCov cabro'> -rdi' o-vuArM' Xwv Rude. 19 xc 6'Ma &<6dcca>- i'sjEs al roks (Popovs altyovuac, <gxovcrcu> Rude. 28, 16 Tar.g elpp~a.s -<Xapr.~6ievos;> J 13 Mayor (Rude). 29, 7 -ro[O'Eri]~{i)ov]: r-o[6'AvaOX]u[o-]TLiov Bm (H-ude), demni potius quam patris, nomnine etiam alias usurpato, C. 28, 22, C. 34, '27, C. 38, '22; Pythodorum igitur non Epizeli filium tribus Aegeidis sed Anaphlystiuni quendam tribus Antiochidis fuisse censet B. 8 -r(z'v) /3caor.Xa am. 31, 19 E7-dsl cJTo~s: TotS eloT7oLs K3 a) 32, 16 C'raKov[o-ajv7-wv: bo KOU6CTwv (H-L) Bin. 36, 13 woXn'P )uEv Xp6vov hre6pe/3cXXOVTO <eCK(/e'pEL Gertz> -, CiTe 66 Kat 430io,Ev aUOL [E( vejr~ pC E'~ C'Xeti'cav T-(&' -<6y~>yEypatik.idvwi, -ro~s 6'' rti'rev-YUaPTCi' C9cOEv Rude. 38, 7 *ere[o-reXXo']- earE[pwro'p]evot: Br[fw~]icawwri~v m (Rude). 39,9 24: TOU'S 6' Cv T(~ dOTCL i'v ToLs < wCv Tdj-rcLTE rots > rel <crav'rc >- 7L/u-qpcara r1apeXoiydots Gertz (Rude). 41, 3 30K~ OeOija 66 &LKaIWO [TOO 6#tov]I Xcijdev 7-~'v woXrrelarv (w[o]\u-rt]av BM), Rude. 27 <alv>eX-qX60acru' Rude. 4:2, 11 C&V: HA~N (deleto H) amn. 43, 15 Ka~i~eti': K6OIZEI am. 4:7, 12 ral cit <-y'> 4[-r?] rerpaglva: -r&et'si [r.' 9'rJ7 w7. Bam. 1-4 [60iEtxE]-rdv Cv[cu'TriOV]: A4A[/]N[....], a&XX(wP') Cvavrifol am. 17 [6',ovu] &ip lrpi77Ta~t: C L 71ppL' a. 3 -r prpr[eda. i-e] r'rS Kuc~af~oX~s eva-ye-ypa/5/CPC: Ta., -ypoct/35 —u.K (i.e. K-=Karbr.) i-Ci KUa~arjoXae 6.a-yeypca~pueva am, Coil. V. 20. 48, 5 &7r\[OOU ' ]a'ciYKcq: 6rtirXaiicrcop a'],Va'yK-q am. 8 -rel Xp[')uara]: i-ait r[t/ia]s am. 16 ai[-yop]ads:..N. wc (ante 6ic vinculi vestigium litteraM K vel A vel X indicantis) a~m, qui elv[a6LKI]ats, appellationum causa, dubitauter conicit. 21 7r6 -<T-e> [ab-roO]: -r6 [6' abTOO], av'iroO per se spatium non implet, am. 25 fC7rt]-ypoai(pt: djva-ypd~eL am. 27 [,rip'] E60vva;v: [-rau'r(,qv) r(ijv)] c6Ovva~v amn, spatio sex litteris apto. 49, 1 f KSLX6Pi illirrOv 9X](,: KaLX[W.]V [7-poOe]S w'v BM, numero plurali cum Contextu congruente. Cf. P1. Leg. 735 B rpo1-/evt i'4irwca. 54, 32 [xvU' 6(C') irp6OK~ErraL (TT superscr. poc, deinde KEIT&I) [K(al) RH]OaIfo-rt]a, Iri K-qbto-o~pL'vros aPxov-ros Bm, confessus RiHcratoriwi, in irevre-rqpl~ca mutationenm nusquam alias commemorari. 36 KaL -rofl[s]op~a. 55, 2 [wpaypka'r]cav, spatio non sufficiente: [6.wciv-r]wv amn. 3 [efp77]Tat: [irpo6]ipqTa[L mavult am. 56, 21 [,ri i-re]: [-r~]s (littera producta) am. 30 cIt 46 &L]Kao-7-'pcov: eir 6[L]KcaarTptov am. 57, 2 [-r~v ehr/treXiq-rC.v o~is] 6 6ipros XeLpoToi'eZ: i-wvp hr ~]i 6.x m. 2 LK4lO[VO~tV] c' tifp[c~.t] Kal brhal[6]ptor., coil. v. 29 e~t'-s r6lcp6v, Bm, notas quasdam fallaces, non litterarum vestigia vera, superesse arbitratus. 28 6[i'Katov i])uiaXcdi: 4v61.cos i]I.L~aXe~v am. 61, 27 KaLi dfXXov -rip [-roiO 'Airjurwvos: Kali iPiOi] i-r/t (superscr.) [,roil 'A],Upvor. mavult am.

Page  LXXX lxxx ADDENDA TO CRITICAL NVOTES 62, 5 6[,qm'-LT]as: 65i14[ov]s Bin. 63, 18 7rwa'KEw: [Kat'] -7rtu'aKtO, suadente spatio, Bin. Bag. 31, 18 Ka[XeF eir -r6 K]Xflpwrr'pLOV: KX-qp[OZ KaETa K]X-OpwrflptoP Bin. 24 [cpXwov]: literae prirnae hasta superest, legenduin igitur [K'~pv~], Bin. T~rc'.pXE-25 ec [iv[cT]v cpe-dT r~t' (WeSSely) K[X~po]P, SOr/liioni iamz antea paratus esi, aut sortem ianz antea dieXit, Bin, el's 2-r6 [dpLOus6]s sensui magis congruere confessus. 26 -iXB]X[c'3 fX[K]et [a'd\aso]v IK~ 7rT b6plas: ElAKYC. El KTX, supra quattuor litteras primas LAK (ut videtur) scriptumn, Bin, cui nihil sensui aptum obtigit: scribenduin fortasse EXK6~as atip]cZ. 27 Kali 6p[i]~as auh-r{s'7, 06k 16]c6n rb -ypai'~a, 6&[f1]KVvou' 7rp[C~rov caTO'] r~ iXos-rt Bm. 30 S~rov: ioy Bin cil v. 32. 36 "o-' at' a'e6 [9]lXVp: qCNE dlt )K\ rcrp[s~slX BnM, quod. exspectabant K-W. Fag. 32,1 E'KcuriToul CIX: E'KaiafTOv E1'~x-[6]s gin. 4 post -ypci)u~a ci, coniciendunm igitur ffc-ri-t], Bin. 17-27 -roZs a' dwolXa~jy[X]ca'ovojt]s abroWt[ciaaotv] oti 1?gurt?]Krfat (eWrrTT. KT.. fortasse per errorem scripto) 1 7-t IrvK o t, v~1~-~~t]a AsOOccta[o1 (?) I 7iflS q5uXfjt ciKio`Tq rij apat6t]506aou' iT/t K[tI/3wTcLa &s bri- To' Lar']o &Cuariov, 4v[] ot~s] I gveotvp i-rd o~'Soccar[ca r~s] 4b~)Ar 7-a' 6'zr[ca J v KCLOTW r[6~.v &6t]cao-,r-piJwv. 7rapa~caaoc a 6/ ro~s e/X-Xij[6crw dtiro3]]t6at 7-OTt &tKto-1t7ta/5 E'vcKcLOi-? [6]LKa[oYi-qijp]o aipt6,ttc i-a I m-aVca~, [11"? (post 7rtv'Kua T, ut videtur, superscriptuin) c']K TroE{C? OK]rUTt tr[t6wti/'[euj.Bn In v. 22 7CE [6v'Apa[ra quondam conieceram, sed postea 7-S. [iru~'][Kta] praetuli. 28-35 Ka-ra 6tKac~-7-7ptop (PIN iteaosprIscripta). r/[OErcau 6'] 'v i-43 rp[t rq.w T-]wv I &tKao-ri-qp[u'u' K(aU)] KX[-qpWToiiJpttt Kati K[Vf3]Ot [&X~KO& I IEP C's E~tycP'i- 7- [i Xp~4]Aara 7-WVD 36K~aorrqpsWV] I Kal eTIEPOL K6[/3ot], /v oT[S 6oi-7u'] 'rZ adp[Xc5] r[&' 6']v6'[Aajra 6r[ye-y~p[atIu ~vca. ol XaX]6'prev [61] rc~z' [OcaAojOrei-tv Xwp'p 'Ka[cctipo]vs i-obt Kti[fgoU /'43V1Xovov, 6 jtl i-[Cov 3tK'ao —r]-p[i'wv eiT tz' KX?1pWO1i-L]pLOzi, 6' 6 rC~z' ApX[C~V 5/5 ET7-,]OP --- Fag. 33; 33a et 33b, coinposita a K-W (B), vix revera coniuncta fuisse putat Bin; 33a et 34C potius componenda: cuinque primum 34c et 35a, deinde 35a et 35b, denique 35 et 36 coniuncta sint, fraginenta in hunc ordinem redigenda -32, 33b, 34a (CUin 33 b coniunctuin), 33a + 34c, 35, 36, 37. Fa.3,1 o-~ ]-ywv B: N]OO K;NOMON (itaque in v. 2 7') Aatp[i-upicu]) Bin. 7-8 Hocre6[tlje~vos Bin. 12-13 KaTi-Yy]OPOt. to4res6o[tv Bin. Pag. 36, 5 [A] ) [i-uEE]s 6iro[(3]ai~cwi-rt non recte: [14i' [7wp]o97ro[ci\Xtwv-rats (K-W) substitui potest, Bin. 17 irte[~,t]: 7rt/[fjwp satis clare apparet, Bin. 23 Xac/3/wrsis [v'ir-qper[a3 (non iam inserto 66') Bin. 24 [e/,~t]pc~crt E4Irl] Oa3clrc. Bin. Cf. Arist. V~esj5. 993',.pp' 6'~epaicw (,r6's #n)ovs). 27 [Kat] ra/ ir'X/pj 5~X(a), X supra 2AH scriptuin, Bin.

Page  1 AP15TOTEAOY2 AOHNAIQN flO0AITEIA. 1. - M~apwz'os~ KaO' Lepewv o6u-a6'(7avE9 apta-T1V'qV&7 Kara'Yvw-OE'VTo9~ &6 ToD a`yo[v]9 [aV'T]o\t ~U4 6K rTOhJ T'OecWV 'Ex eXiOq7oav, I1K&T~FNWAC06NTOC. Sensui repugnat KaOapOevTos, etenim tune temnporis erat i-b U4YOS Kcsa-cyv'wcr6v tantum, nondum autem KaOapOgv. 2 cui-rol scripsi; quod cum verbis in altero membro (T6 -y4'oS auii-dv) satis apte quadrat; cf. Paus. 1 25, 3 av7-t0L 76eo a701dOKT-EIZ'vav ES 'PoAsi6,o7oaV Kati ot' EKEVWV i'Pa-yFec TS 0E0U. Idem scripserunt K-w et K 3 Kirchhoffium et Kontum secuti. vcEKpoL quondam K, ol VEKPOL' H-L, sed articulo quemn desideramus spatium non sufficit, et in ipsa papyro litterae T potius quamn p apparet vestigium. TESTIMONIA. 1 Capitis primi partem deperditam in compendium redactam conservat Heraclidis epitoma (Rose, Frag. 6ii, 23): 7ros /IeTG. K6Xcvos'o (Kl5KXWroS codices meliores) && ri —qv T-upavvicla E'rtl 7rbv /3wuopv 7rs Oeou wo/sev-y6,ras ot' rep ME-YaKXlca d7rEKTetvav, Kat rolls (Ipa'o-aVTas (Os E'Va-yELs 'Xasov'. I. C'ylon's attempt to establish a tyr-anny, and its consequences. Mi'powos] Myron of Phlya is men-, tioned by Plutarch alone, Sol. vz2, as the accuser of the Alcmaeonidae who were involved in the curse of Cylon. At a later time one of the Alcmaeonidae, named AewW'dT71S, had his revenge for this act of a memher of the deme of Phlya by bringing a charge of high treason against a distinguished member of that deme, Themistocles (Plut. Them. 23; cf. ib. i ~ 3). Busolt, Gr-iechische Geschichte, i 885, i 5o8. KCLO' 'LEPCI)V 0'jL0crCLVTES] Cf. decree quoted in c. 29 (at end), o/so'Ca'TES KaG'5 cLpLo-rTLVS'qV] cannot be taken with MOG icpwv 0ojs0oav-res, but must go with some such verb as i5L&Ka~oz' in the earlier part of the sentence. We may perhaps infer from Plutarch Sol. i 2 that the sentence ran as follows: [i6isa~op Sb TptaK~ooL0L Ka-rq-yopoOPTOS] M6pwOVOS KaG' tipwv 6/.s6a-arcves apur7iv17. According to Plutarch the Alcmaeonidae were tried by a court consisting of 300 persons selected from the S. A. noblest families (&al~a6Twxv dipt-riv57qv). The number is confirmed by its being identical with that of the Routle of the partisans of Isagoras which Cleomenes king of Sparta endeavoured to establish at Athens in a subsequent attack on the Alcmaeonidae (Hdt. v 7,2). For cipto-riv677v cf. C. 3, 1. 2. KcLTQYVCWcTE'VTros-TroV cyous] 'The charge of sacrilege having been made good ' by the sentence of condemnation passed by the court. E K.r6V.rc4wv igEI3XAiO11ocLv] The same incident is mentioned in Plutarch 1. c., and Thuc. 1. c. In the latter it seems to be more closely connected with the second expulsion of the f'va-yeis (in 5o8 B.C.), than with the first. The principal ancient authorities on the affair of Cylon are as follows. Hdt. v 7, 675 K6Xwv TWJ'x 'A6-ovalwy arbdjp '0Xvu5-?rLovtK-qS. olJTos Ein 7-vpawvL& iK6Jsi77re, 7Ppod. in,7ro7oWS5eVos Sb f'Trap?7&7qv -V 'qXLKL&JTbWY Karcars/eiv 776v aiKp67roXtP E'retp'6707, ob' 3uVAVSb i71-L'Kpa7-?7crra LK6177S 1'e-ro 7-po5 -rb alya\Xsa. -ro6rovs divwr-ao- lsbz oi 7rpvTaCLlIEs TOv VcUVKpcipwv (al. VcuVKpapLwv), oi'rep 6ye/sop rb're -r 's 'AO 'Pas, VrE-y-yVbus

Page  2 2 A0HNAIQ2N COL. I,1. 2-4. To 870 7yE'v aV'T(cv &fJOvyev LLet/Vyiav. E[T].Et373 0 Kp77 C 70O)T0t9 EK~aO?7'qE T177 7rO'XtV. 7rXi71 Oava'Tov' (p0o)eU0aL 63 aV17-03 aLT'? eXet 'AXKALECOP1i6aL. TaLUTa 7rpO' T-771 HLOl-t a'pi-O 7)XtLiCL7 E731)EO. The above account is unduly favourable to the Alcmaeonidae. It is materially corrected by Thucydides, i i126 ~ 2, Ko~wv 6v 'OXLAurtoVLKiqS, dv7jp 'AOrn'aZoS TLVV 7rcd~at ev'ye?'713 TKail 0 0u73ar's... 663... Ka7-3Xa~e 7-17v aKp6 7roXi11 Los eiw TVpacv1)L'6L... ~ 6 ot' 6 /167a' TOO K6 -XUoVOS 7OXtopKO6pU6vot cI~a6pws el(op o-1rOU 7-I KaiL `36a1-0o dropij. 6' IEV o~P KV6XWu Kail 6 aM6EXp16s aLUTOU eK3L&pciOKO1)ITL1) 01 6' hiXot, Ws 67rL3~ovTO Kail 7-u/E Kal 1L71iO1)770KOP) V7r6 7oi0l X1,sOii, Ka6LpovaT~v eIIl Tz'V /3ca.161 IK3-at T v EV T-7 aLp7IXL d1COIOWTI6 7-0's 01' TW1) 'AO7JVIaLWV 6r1LTE7PCLL/l.k9VOL TipV 0vXaLK?7V1, W'S E'W'PLw UL7r0g17jT01K7-IL1 e7' T tepp eW' y qUP63 KLKZ'P wrot?'o-ovou'Y~ d~raya-yo'Tes aLreKTetpvcu. ~ 7 KaLOE~0ouI1ovs 6 7-t1)a1 KaU E7r11(.~ o-WY E/.LP'W 01(61p [h' Tol /3w. cOFS] E'V T 7raT1p6OL1 3L1Xp750L1)-aPO. Kail abr& To6TGUv fvayEL KIal dLXt7rjPLOL T771 610!) eKELVOL' T 1 EKILX0U17-0 KaI To6 yz'Pos r6 a~r' JKI'PW1). 74Xao-av,u~v Oi5 Kai otl 'AOrn'ai~ot Tou' Eva-yets T-06T0VS, '/Xao-E 63 KaL1 KXeojuevijs 6 AaKe6aq46vtos V`TE601) (LtETa& 'AOrn'a1wP o-TraoLa~6P)TWP (B.C. 508S), 7-061 TE ~W1)TaL E'Xa61)01TfT Kai 7-WV' TI61)IL6Tw1 Ta' 0'o-7- alleX61'Tre f'3f~a~ov'. Plutarch, Solon i12, supplies us with the following narrative, which has several points of contact with the account in the text. 1-6 63 KvXC,1'eLOP iyl 67751) 3KP & ToXXOV 567Idpa-TTE 7r-qv Ir6'XLv, i4 ob T-ov' touvw/16Tas TOU K6Xwvos LKTEoVTaL Tip71 Oe6v Me-yaKcX17 6' 6'pxco 3i~t &K-qr KaLTCXGIL1 97rILO-E1V 34cba1'aPras 63 TOU 96OVS Kp6'K771 KXLOOT771 KaIL 7Ta11T771 6'X/Lfi0US, (W1 3731)1T0 7r-1pl Ta's (TI/Jva'1 06a'S KcaTa/Il1 -1)0v)7-1, a6TO/Jua-ws 7771 Kp6'K-qS A'ayelr77l, Wp/5770EC LTVXXa/7u311dve 6 MeyaLKX1~ KILL 01 O-VUvpXOVTcS, Ws T-77 610o) 7-7'71 bcKEcrap 17r0 -X6-YOfz3177T' KaiL To06 /.L31 e4w KCaT3XIVUa1, 01 363 roZ1 /wjyoZs IrpooT~u-y61Tes ai7reo4)Cdy777o-a1,aovot 6' dI(/)l6770aV 01 TI'l yv1)a1KaL1 CauTWY~ LK6ITIU(aTfS )7E. C/I 70T70V 63 KX?770E1)T1 evIL-YE?3 f'/LO_01flT0 KaIl TWi KUXw1)elo LOi l 7rEp&-ye1)6(LI1L 7rdiXt7l' Tap 1FXVPOt' KIal 077t-I (rat01Teg de11 3teTXovV -7rp's 7-o'1 'w6 TO!) Me-yaKVXoul. f'P 63 TL/ To'T XPO'P 7771~ 0-TaOE101 aK/371) Xca/300077s udcXLO-Ta KaIL TOO1 617uov StaTTai1)-ros, 17677 5664a 9kwP 6' 26XWPu 'A6771)a1WP, KIt' &616/IIJ' KaIl 3L~aci0KWVl 37r6L('s06 E1ayeL1 Xe-yo/L3~vOS &K77V 117O11XEL1) Ka'l KpLG771)CL 7-p7LaKOOIWP) aIt0LT1P i 67V &Ka~61)7-WV. M6pw1)01 3 T-OO 4)X1)3' KaT77qYO/701))7-0 ecO!I00-aL1 ot' aV36p9, Kai' [1eT6T797cqaaV 01 W1)es- TWEo 6' chro~av6VTrwP T031S 'IEKp031 apo)p64cLa)-re 343ppL~l/a1 3713p Troli Op0ovlj Tau-IL TILI 63 TF 7-alTLpaLXaL( Kail Me-yapew avP 1)e71rLOc/sevwV aur3$3aX61v Te Nio-cucap ol 'AO77pa~ot KaiL 2aXcl1LZ1)0 E'43wecov aL66L1. KaIl 463ot T11)31 3K 56EL016ILL1o1iaS I/LIL KaIl If)a'o-LiaTa KCaTIX6 7-77P 70XLP, 0ol' 7-1 /LCTELs aLy?7 KaiL /JaI-oTL6s 610o131)01) KaLOapf.Lp WV7rpox)Ia'1PeaIat 6ta' T6Iv tepwv' -?yopevo1. OV`Tw 617 /ITa'7regLr7-0 IL3ToL1 77'K11 EK Kp17T-qs 'E~rL/UE1ev167... E'XO&vP63 KIL' Tq:6XcwPL Xp77Oaa/1iV0o 0;bwc 7roXX& lrpoo)wretp-yao-aTo KaiL rpoco6o7-01, t -cuo~L0L TLO-L KaIl KaLOap/.L0L KI'13p6po-rItL Ka~op-y/~1taCaS KaIl KaIO-L'oLa6 171 7-71 r6XLP 3'7175 -KOO1) TOO 6LKat'OV Kal /LcLXXO1) E371LO7 717761 O[161)oLaP) KaLTEGT770-6. The date of the Olynmpic victory of Cylon is 640 B.C. Sex. Julius Africanus (early in 3rd century A.D.), as quoted in the Chronicon of Eusebius, i p. 145= 1 98, has, under 0-3. 35, I =B.C. 640, lRectirstim Cylon Atheniensis, is qil tyrannitlem aftectavit. Plutarch 3.c. implies that Epimenides visited Athens, in connexion with the expiation of the curse of Cylon, shortly before the legislation of Solon (archon 594 B.C.). Hence the attempt of Cylon has generally been placed after the date of Dracon (62i B.c.). Thucydides, i i26, 3, places Cylon's attempt to seize the tyranny in an Olympic year. It has therefore been assigned to the Olym.pic years 620 (Clinton and Peter), 6i6 (Duncker), 6i2 (Corsini). But Herodotus 3. c. describes the partisans of Cylon as an CratLp77-qt -10 77P XLKLwT3rOw), which points to a company of young men- Hence it has been suggested that the attempt was made at an earlier date, before the time of Dracon. It has accordingly been assigned to various Olympic years between 640 and 620 Bs.C., either as early asj616or as late as 6,20 (Busolt, GriechiseJTT"-tGeschzic/hte, i885, i 498 note 8, and 505). The same opinion was maintained by Prof. John H. Wright as reported in the Proceedings of the American Philological Association, i888, p. xxvi. His arguments were drawn from the language of Herodotus, Thucydides and the other authorities on this incident; from considerations of the probable age of Megacles and the date of Cylon's father-in-law, Theagenes of Megara. He also urged that 'the adoption of the earlier date lent unexpected coherence and significance to certain phenomena in early Attic history, the episode thus being one of the important steps in the social 4k

Page  3 CH. I, 1. 3-CH. 2, 1. I. nOAITEIA 3 2. Ue er' T raa ve rav va v/3 o-taracr rov'O e 7T yvwplkovS Kaal To II 1 CTACI\Cal fortasse in AhICTHCAl mutandum, idem suspicantur H-L coll. Arist. Vesp. 41 rTOV itjxOv MLSpv P3oXerTaL &tlSrat; alioqui rbv 6ituov secludendum. and political development of Athens, and not an unrelated event.' This opinion is confirmed by the text which clearly implies that the affair of Cylon preceded the date of Dracon. i4vyev i L4+vy1av] Plat. Leg. 871 D, 877 C, 881 BD, fevUygTw aEdUyliav, 877 E, (orav) ev daetv'yiqL TL (pe6y?7. Plut. Sol. 24, TO7LS 0E6YvoviEV ae0Qvyi1a rT'V eavTrcv. Photius, s. v.,LuaoT7rpes: TWr a&tcvytav f vu-yaSevOvTWov. 'ErqLEvC8tIs] The purification of Athens by Epimenides is generally assigned to B.C. 596-5, shortly before the archonship of Solon in 594-3 (Clinton, Fasti, and Busolt, i 509). These dates are consistent with the account in Plutarch and were possibly suggested by it, or derived from some common source, such as Hermippus of Alexandria, quoted in Plut. Sol. Ii. The chronology of the life of Epimenides is however extremely uncertain. Diogenes Laertius, i III, quotes Phlegon as stating that Epimenides returned to Crete and died not long after at the age of 157. He adds that Xenophanes made him die at the age of 154, and the Cretans at 299. (But the Cretans, as we know on the authority of Epimenides himself, 'are always liars.') Suidas puts his birth in 01. 30 (about 659 B.C.), and describes him as an old man at the time of the purification, which he places in 01. 44 (B.C. 604-), corrected by Bernhardy into 01. 46 (B.C. 596-). At the latter date he would have been 63. On the other hand, Plato, Leg. 642 D, 698 c, describes him as coming to Athens and offering expiatory sacrifices in 500 B.C. This account is rejected by Bentley and Grote. The former says of Plato: ' that great Man did not tie himself in his Discourses to Exactness of Time' (Phalaris, p. 58); the latter regards the statement in the Laws as 'a remarkable example of carelessness in chronology' (H. G., c. Io, ii 294). The sacrifices ascribed to Epimenides by Plato may, indeed, be connected with the outbreak of a plague attested by an inscription of about 500 B.C. (CIA i 475, Busolt i 509), but this is not enough to warrant our placing the prophet a century later than the age of Solon. Thus we have two accounts of the date of Epimenides, (I) that represented by Plato, placing him about 500 B.C.; (2) that represented hitherto by no earlier authority than Hermippus, placing him about 600 B.C. (2) is supported by the text, which mentions his visit immediately after an account of a trial assigned by Plutarch to the time of Solon. The discrepancy between the two accounts is explained by Diels as arising from the fact that Plato is referring to the Epimenides of literature and not to the Epimenides of history. The Theogony ascribed to Epimenides was written under Orphic influence shortly before the Persian wars; and the story of the protracted sleep of Epimenides, which lasted for a whole century, was a fiction designed at the same time to give currency to the poetical fabrications ascribed to him. The curse of Cylon was originally expiated through the banishment of the Alcmaeonidae and the purification of Athens by Epimenides about 600 B.c. In the following century the Alcmaeonidae returned and about 5o8 B.C., after the expulsion of the Peisistratidae, when Cleisthenes, the Alcmaeonid, was the foremost man in the state, the influence of the exiles led to a revival of the memory of the ancient crime. At such a time as this the story of Epimenides was naturally revived by the opponents of Cleisthenes, and his oracles invented as part of their machinations against the guilty race of the Alcmaeonidae (Diels, Sitzungsberichte of the Berlin Academy, April 16, I891, part xxi; abstract in Berliner Phi/lologische [Wochenschrift, p. 766). e rrT 'OVToLS] either 'thereupon,' or 'besides.' 'E7rl roVrOL in the former sense =,uera rarTa has hitherto been found only in the spurious works (Eucken, Sprachzgebrauch des Ar., p. 51). The latter sense (praeterea) is on the whole preferable, and is found in Rhet. ii 6, I384 a 9. Cf. Pol. ii 9, 1271 a 39, C7rl TOS i3actlAeXe v 7 vavapXia 0r7pa paat3Xeia KaOearT7KEv. EKCn.ipE] For the details of this purification, see Plut. Sol. 12 ad fin. (KaOap- Y /uozs), and Diogenes Laertius i i o. II. The conflict of the classes before the times of Dracon and Solon. pETh& TCTCa] i.e. after the affair of Cylon, which must have been the main I-2

Page  4 4 AOHNAIQN COL. I) 1. 4- I 2. 7rX?7909 7roXvl) Xpo'vov DTr'v 8-)uovJ~. 7i7v 7a'p [,r'rTr] ' woXtreia -r[ot-v 2 re] aLXXot9~ O'XtyapXtKI7 7TaCUYL, Kalt 8717 Kal, E8oV'Xevov 1)O W7l)?T[S~ r]o-tq 7wXov1o-toIc alt av`'rol [tcal, r] 7-E'l-'a Kat, at' yvvaF1KeS, Kal, E"KaXoDvZJo 57reXa'rat Ka't eK'7Jopot KaTa TavTnv y7tp ~-Tn pto-oaw-w [efjpya6 -2 T6'v 6i~ov secluserunt K, K-W, H-b, 13: defendit J E B Mayor. 5 K'?T&Y+ rTM ICO"0 dJ'T1 Ta6T7 —q -YCp T-27 [CLO06L0CYEWS H-b. elp-yai~ovro H-b. TESTIMONIA. 5 7reXai1raL Kali CKT77LL~pot. *Photius s. v. reXdrtIL '2 Aristotelemn nominat. Cf. schol. in Plat. Eittliyplsr. p. 327; Pollux iv i65 e'K1-qI76ptoL (E'Krq1t06pLov codices, ernendavit Jungermann; CEKT-J/JApoL Cobet Pollucis sui in margine) 66 7rapat -ro:-s 'A1-TtKOZ9, id. iii 8,2; Plut. Sol. i3 (Rose, Ar. Frag. 3512, 389 3). subject of the previous chapter; although, in the part that has been preserved, the narrative of its consequences is brought down to the time of Epimenides (and Solon). For the general sense, cf. Plut. So?. 13 ini., ol P 'AO27vaiot -ris KvXwvelov 7Ie~raU/16307s -rapLX~jS Kal 1se0,Eo-rrdrwv...1-rC eVIa-y(~~, rijv 7raL\aLIL a0611 0'TaILOP Oirfp -ri7s 7roXL1-ecla eaT-raaiaL~0v, hioas ii1 Xwpa &acu/opa1 In the edjijopincs i-'60~o a e garded as 'superfluous,' and as 'probably a gloss upon 7ro0 irXv~og.' The text was thereupon defended by Professor Mayor as follows: ' when Cobet removes glosses from late texts, he can appeal to scizolia, in which even common words are explained. Readers and scribes in Egypt, say 100 A.D., needed no such helps: again 7rX~Oos is not coextensive with 6i~,uos, and is elsewhere found in close connexion with it (20 ~I; 21 ~ 1). Here ol yv'vcpL[WLt and T6o 7rX~Oos are the factions whose struggles convulse i-fro &ijuop. For o-raa'tdico is here transitive. Otherwise roXVp Xpvovo must have been placed just before or just after o —rao-tdo-at. In the manuscript reading it separates the complex subject of the verb from the object and keeps the reader in suspense.' Mr Kenyon, in his third ed., replies that '3~gos does not seem to be used in this treatise as denoting the whole state except with the collateral sense that the state was a democracy.' Even in c. 24 ~ 1, 6Olrapao-rafr Ty-.i H ~", and 15 ~ 3, ilapeX6/Leos 1-roO 327/Lov i&a 6irXa, ' there is the sense of an attack on the democracy by a despot.' He also modifies his view respecting -i-fP 6iuop, suggesting that the words were 'written as a correction of 7r6 i7rX2)og, not as an explanation.' The transitive use of o-raoari~vu', above suggested, is very rare. In [Dem.] i i ~ 18, P. 157, 10, TWVU 6KCIPVO 7rpa-y/IaTWP oOSUi crrao-ti~etp 7rcpaUKIEVci~O/Iev (quoted in L and 5) really means 'we do not cause faction in any of his affairs' (see WNeil ad loc.). The intrans. sense is also clearly marked in Lysias i8 ~ i8, -rod OCOLI -q6Xe0-0e et's o6povotaV Kai-ao-rl7vat 7iji' w6Xvp juXXov ~ [6'ri i-L/.wplcup i-dy 7rapE\?-q Xu66rwvi 7-pa~r6/uevoL] i-i/v pmv 7r-6Xv 0To —raLci a-Lt 1-0o6 36 Xyovrcal TraXe'1 i7-Xouiq-iarc. The trans. use is found in 'Anon. apud Stobaeum 5i0, i oi'iovs'; but the Indices to Plato and Aristotle supply no example of this use. To express the trans. Isocrates uses 7roLeLP 0i-raL0a'LELP, p. 68 B, and 279 D. o-Trao-LcL~ewl is intrans. twice in 8 ~ 5, twice in 13 ~ 2, also in 20 ~ i, and elsewhere. Hence we must either take it as intrans. here, and strike out To'v 32)gov (which I prefer), or regard CT&CIAc&I as having taken the place of a trans. verb,Ie&CTHC&I. Cf. Hdt. ix I ~ 2, irE/lirE Xp7#L7-CL eig -robs 6vva-rTe~ol'Ta3?LvpCpa El go-7/ W6'XLwi, r~urwv, 36 r2)v 'EXXci6a 3111 -01-r o0e EL v6UE' e36-e 7-o01 /AJ 1-ra o-CL (Opov oVTCsp-L 73ws AteraC Twv 01-CaL(0L1-eWP KCL1-IL 0Tpiket. Xen. Hecll. ii 4 ~ 35, &3"07-i- 36 KaLL To0) cv 7-y- 1o-i-EL. Plut. So?. 13 (of the same period) i-i/s w6roXews 6taw-Ti'-q317. Ar. Pal. 13,21 a i5, 3'i-av 3taoi-wr(~, and iO. i9 1-ra6T-i7 & e'MKpcLTouoW eV TILLs 5LaL~ra1Le0IL 01 327/101 TCOv d~ropwv. As a possible alternative one might suggest StLIL0a-TL0LIL GILL, 'to form into separate factio'ns,' Pol. 1 303 b 2 6, 360ev 7wpoarXap,6a1vovTf3 1-r61 IEV rW 7roXL1-eljua1- 6co1-raoliao-av 7rd'vias, and 1 306 a 3, &teo-7aoiao-ev 1161-061 wpo's 7-061 Evir6 -p0o)5. ~2. TrotS 'TIE 4'XAXOLS... KOX Si K.MI] i 6 2, io. In i8 ~ 2 and 19 ~ 3 we have Kai' alone in the second clause. It is exceptional for Tre to be omitted, as in Lycurg. Leocr. 95, e7rtl ri/v aiXX-qv x~~pavl Kat'l6 Ka~l (where Baiter prefers el- -re)..Ire.X6.T~aL] used by Plutarch in eight passages as an equivalent for the Roman cli Je~s (Romuluis 13, Poplicola 5, Coi-iolanuts 1 3 and2 21 ~ 4' 1lfaiuhs 5 ~ 5' Crassus

Page  5 4 CH. 2, 1. 2-13. 1lOAITEIA 5 5 -oz 7ro rv 7Xovo-kOv 7i-oik aypoi'q (7 &e 7raica 77`7 & OXi"yCOv 'O, Kat et IL77 TaS- /tOo-ETV9 [ab7r]o0tS8o6ev, JybrLoot Kat av'rot Ka& o 7rat&'; EylyvoVTrO, Kat aoi &1veLQ& 7T]a~t1 cr& T0tS oc.Laoat1 lot' 8vetujot 7r 'crt,Icav I~e'pt YO6XaoV ' Oi"Tos0 & w6p\7Wo9 e'v[ETO TOV3] er34kov] 7pQ3 0__a17(. XaXErrCO'TaTo V ILWV OVv Kaat 7r7tKpoTa7Tol) 77) TOt 7wOXXoq 'cV l KaTa Tipv 77OXtei'aV T [3ovXer']etv. Ov /1477) atAa\ KaLb e~t TOZ`S aXXot9 ~vo pax voow oV'8evpo ydp, (1 EWeLv, c rVyxavov ILE7TEXOVTET. 8 ErINONTO (K-W): e-yiyvopro (H-L, K3); in titulis Atticis annorum 445-292 A.C. quadraginta tribus locis inventum est y1-ylo/.a1, nusquam yivoyat (Meisterhans, Grainmatik der Attischen Znschriften, p. 1412); itaque ubique praetuli yiyvogeaL. Kal ot &aYEL~o/i1 7rao-tv Blass (K3 p. LXIV): Kai [&]8[eqdvot ro7s 3ac1e0-]ao-zV K, Kali ydp KTX. K-W; r6nXpeqy -yap H-L repugnante papyro. 11 6OVX66etw K-W (K3, B): [76 7rjT Y-jP kj' KpalT]ECW H-L Blassii coniecturam secuti. 2 i ~ 5, Cato Minor 34 ~ 3, Tib. Gracchus 13 ~ 2); also in A6is 6 ~ 5, and Qnaest. Conviv. ii io, (6 KLTT6s) BotwrioU 6101 7rEXaT77s Kat 7rapaoiTO WV. EKJMIL6pOL] (i) Pint., Sol. 13, states that these tenants paid their landlords a sixth part of the produce (9Kra 7TOI ytvoAdvwV TEXOUZ'TEs). Similarly, Hesychius, s. v. IrlIsopros. (2) Photius, s. v. rEMcLact, says that they cultivated the soil in return for a sixth part of the produce (fKTr yL gEL Ton' KapnrWv eipY-ydioVT0 7z' yjv). Similarly, Hesychius, s. V. eKTr-qs6pot, and the Scholiast on Plato, Euthyplron 4 C. Thus Plutarch makes them pay i/6 and retain 5/6 for their own maintenance; while Photius makes them pay 5/6 and retain i/6. The former view is preferable and it is supported by Oncken (Staatslehre, ii 437 n) who observes that a tax of i/6 was sufficiently severe to imply a considerable amount of (listress, and by Gomperz (in Appendix iii to his polemical pamphlet, Die Schrifi vain Staatswvesen der Athener, pp. 45-48). iLLG-OwOLv] 'rent' (not 'wages'). Inf. /Lo-Odlo-ets d7o-0&c0Ev. Dem. 28 ~ 12, dcroIII&O5KE T'i7V plicOwcw, and 43 ~ 58 (lex) -ro0s /u-q drrO~ilOTas - 76S Es utoL oets 7071 TE/L'eEPV. SL' 6XCywov qv] c. 4 adfin. The sense is not materially different in Pol. viii (v) 6, 3306 a i6, 7771 7roXtTEras St' 6Xlywv oi-77s, ' and infra c. 29 1. 9, &t' 6Xiywv 7roog'o7-wVlra,rj' 7roXLreiav, also Pol. 1318 b 3 4, a?' are ydp dpXati a17 St& 7wV [EXXT1`O-TWV gaOV7at, 1301 3 12, T7'V /L& KraTcarrlo-L arpoattpovP7vra T7l' aT75v, ' vLUTWZ~ 6' e~tit 3odXovTat, 1293 a 28, 6L' a'-rcL' 9XELv (Eucken, Sprachge'ranch des Ar., p. 38). wyQwyLpoL] Plut. Sol. 13, XPea Xau/3rdPOP7TEri TO7 l o LjUCuo-tP a-Yd'yL/1 TOLt 7 6o r avELjUOVOIP 770oav, 15 ~ 8, rWcP Ca'Wy-i/uwP 7rpoIl clp-yUpLOv yeyovoTrwv roXcrCciv. Diod. Sic. i 79, i6 (of an Egyptian lawgiver) -ron' dOtX6v-rwv r'j' gKKrpa~tv i-w 6we'iwv 'K 7771 o601o(1 au6voV e'r017ot'CTo,, 6 &. cr/4a KaT' ovl'va prp6rop E'ao-ev U'rdpXCLV &y 'rylQov. SCLVELrcrLOI KTX.] c. 4 adfin., c. 9 ~ I 6a1vE3LPLv er 7ro Ts o-6a1aw. Dion. Halic. Ant. Rom. iv 9, p. 658, 6 Reiske (of Servius Tullius), vp01uov 101 -5oo[La, AIB'a 6aveie1v li-i Oc'/1Laav E'XeuOepotl, and v 53, p. 970, 4 (O 6ruaeirovres) et' 31o-071061 r 7-w' Ur OXPeWV ar7-yOy o-cbyara. The word 8acwLO-AO'S occurs in Eth. 1131 a 3, Plat. Rep. 473 E, Leg. 842 D, 921 C. 'o-D 8rjqov wpoocrrci'rs] In Plut. Sol. 13 adfin., the oppressed citizens resolve on choosing 'E'va Irp0oa7-17Tv tvpa, and the choice falls on Solon. The same term is applied infra c. 28 to Solon, Peisistratus, Cleisthenes, Xanthippus, Themistocles and Aristides, Ephialtes and Pericles, Cleon and Cleophon. According to Grote's definition, which is mainly applicable to a time later than that of Solon, the term 'denotes the leader of a popular party, as opposed to an oligarchical party (see Thuc. iii 70, 82, iv 66, vi 35) in a form of government either entirely democratical, or at least in which the public assembly is frequently convoked and decides on many matters of importance' (Hist. of Cr. vii p.- 304 n). See Dr Hager's article in Smith's Diet. of Ant. ii 504. ~ 3~. oZ8Fv6... W's eliretv] An example of the normal use of W's eibeYv, to modify a numerical exaggeration. To the passages quoted in my note on Dem. Le5t. ~ 140, the following may be added, from Aristotle's Polities. cWs ebire& is used with 7r&,s in 1263 b 4, 1273 b 17, 1282 a 5,

Page  6 6 AOHNAIQ N COL. I, 1. 12-21. 3. 'v 8'? raCte Ts aJpXaias 7roXLtreia? Tir 7rpo ApaKcovTros [roacSe]. T ra4 ke apXas [Ka0L]o-rraoav ap -r7lvSrqv fial 7rXovtrivrv 17pXov 8e [ro] Ke3 v 7rp'T[ov SLa 3itov], eL Era &e ravra III 3 &La Biov K-W, H-L (K3, B): del quondam K. 1314 a I4, 1319 a 30, I323 a 20, I328 b I6; also with numbers in 1285 b 34 OaXEbi i50o erlyV Ws eilreiv, 1302 a 19 0XESOv W's eitreTv rpes. S erl TO r 7rXeitr0ov Edtrelv occurs in 1297 b 33, i335 a 8. us, a&7Xcs el7reit, in I293 b 34, I299 a 25, I3I0 a 37. Ws eIreiv is less frequently used to modify a strong metaphor or other emphatic phrase unconnected with number: I263 a 36 Tros o6Xoos XpsvrTat TrOLs aXX\\\Xv, cs erreZv iIotLs, 1268 a 23 Tra KvpUwriTOas ap&as Us ei7reiv, 1324 b 6 rav 7rXEdaTwv vo0t/iYov X'6pv W'S Ei7rEiVY Ke6tLleWV, 1301 b 5 apXail pAv oiv Wjs eIre&v [bracketed by Susemihl, transferred after -r^yal by others] a-raL Kal r-7qyal Trciv oTaC'ew elOiv, 1304 b 5, o0 KaT' apeTrlv 56aq:povres ov 7ronovo01 oTrdav s eifreiv, I3I2 b 23 evBsg WS eitrel. Ws tros ei7relv is combined with TraS, 1252 b 29; also infra c. 57 ~ i, and with 7rXEio-ra in 49 ~ 5. It is quite unnecessary to substitute it for Ws e7irev, here. III. The Athenian Constitution before the time of Dracon. According to the current account the title of king was abolished on the death of Codrus. His son Medon, and twelve successors, beginning with Acastus and ending with Alcmaeon, were archons for life. In the second year of Alcmaeon (X52 B.C.) the life archonships of the -Medontidae were reduced to the duration of ten years. The names of seven decennialrarchons have been preserved. In z I12 B.C., with this limitation in the tenure othe office, the archonship was thrown open to all the Eupatridae. Lastly, in the archonship of Creon (683 B.C.), or on the expiration of that of Eryxias (682, Duncker, Hist. of Greece, ii 135 E. T.), the single decennial archon was abolished, and his duties were distributed over nine officials who held office for a year only, and were elected by the Eupatridae out of their own body (Grote, H.G., ii chap. io init.). The legend that it was out of gratitude for the heroism of Codrus that the title of king was abolished has no earlier authority than that of Justin (ii 7). It is not recognised by Plato or Aristotle, or by any early writer. Plato describes Codrus as meeting his doom in quest of glory and in the interests of the royal status of his descendants, Symp. 208 D, virPp Tr7 3aCIA\eas rCv rai6wv. Aristotle, Pol. viii (v) 10, p. I310 b 37, implies that he was one of those who earned their royal power by their services to their country (Kara 6rbXelUov KOX6vC-avres ovX\etve). The life-archons were elected from the royal house, and bore the title of [3aotXe6 (Pausanias i 3 ~ 3). This title was never formally abolished, but survived even in later times in the name of the apxcwv 3acroXe6s. The institution of the office of life-archon is described by Pausanias, iv 5 ~ io, as a change avri iaotX\elas es dpX/v v7revmvvov. In explanation of this phrase it has been suggested that the life-archon was 'responsible to the general body of the Eupatridae' (See ARCHON, p. 166 a, in Smith's Dict. Ant.); but it seems more probable that Pausanias used a phrase which was an obvious antithesis to an irresponsible monarchy without having any real knowledge of the nature of the responsibility attaching to the holder of a life-archonship (Busolt, i pp. 400 f).Cf. Lugebil, Jahrlb. f. class. Philol., suppl. Bd v 539-564. dpLTcrrvSIv KCaL nrXovUTvSqv] inf ~ 6. Pol. 1273 a 23, oV y,&p,U6vov aO p pT7-L'iv dXXa Kal 7rXovTiv&lEv o'VovraT i SeW aipef/Oat TObS dpXOvras, 1293 b IO, O7Tro 'ye rjl 6ovov 7rXovTriv'7v d\XX Kal adpoaTriv7v alpov^vraT rdT aPXds, 127a2 b 36, Ta67Tfv 6' alpoOvrTat rv pY PXn'v apIorSLV&v. =Kar' dpe-riv 1273 a 26. Isocr. Paneg. 146, o0K dp. ierre1Xe'Yylvous. Plat. Leg. 855 c, dp. acrouGeptcev &SKaaT77jptov. In Andoc. (de Pace 30, 7roXXovs 'AOdrawvav caroXecravTre aptdpTiL'vv Kai TwV 'rvuLfLaxwuv, I should prefer to read dp6rqv, which is combined with d7roXXWva in Plato Rep. 421 A. The adverb is defined by Timaeus as meaning KaT' advpaIyaOiav aipeTov. Prof. Mayor adds to lexicons the following examples of pLa-Triv'6v: 'Dem. p. io69, 7, Plut. Sol. 12 ~ 2, Lysand. 13 ~ 7 (where also 7rXovrTiV67v, as in Septemn Sap. Conv. I pr. p. 154). Euseb. Ecl. P~roph. iv 4 p. 177, I8. CIA i 61, App. Bell. Civ. i 35. Aelian in Suid., Atovvuolcv oKWO/tLaTWc, has 7rXovrTiSv' ( Class. Rev. v 120). Stid pov] Pol. I270 b 39, 1272 a 37, 1285 a 15; inf. at end of ~ 6.

Page  7 CH. 3, 1. I-13. VUOAITEIA 7 2[8CECiaEt'da7. PE.ytoTat 8,'Kat Irp r0at TcoV a'p~civ?'o-av i8ao-AftEv Kcat wrox]epap~o(~ Kat ap xw1 a)t~rv Ev 7 Vo /cuL XE'(w9, ai5 y"T p I 4e [a'pX~f~ 'V]. 8&VTE'pa 8' E'7tKaT6'a-Trq [ 17rOXE]/Jkap t' \~ -\ rye[v]Ea-Oat TtV \ S 'raV Iaao-AX&Aw Ta \ OXEAktK~ \ taX~a KOlI~, OOE1' Kafl]To rV lIova JkT~E'[17rE'1,]}JaVT XPEt(C49 KjaTaXa38o1'O-17r~. 3TEXEVrat'a 8' 5 'ro apov r9 a t] Ev a~ tl~ ov [Er Mt or 'vtot 8' E'7~ 'Aican-TOV faoi eyevE'e'Oat [Tr2)v JP Xn'V O?7/~LEEOV] 3' E~rtc/E'poVa-tV [O'Tt] Ot' eZ)vv a'pXOVTCE9 O/JVVOVOCt [Ka~ac-rrcp] ES7id A~' u'rOV Tac 5pKta 'nro t[JClaELy, W4 e'v TOVi[TO]V riq 8laOtXEit'ac 'ra aXo)piqcra'vTmw Tcov Ko8[p&Zwv], *a'VTawro~oOEtoU('v Tco" J~~ &Opec~ov. 6 e' dpX~s 'v J W Headlam, quod accepi coil. i6 ~ i, 28 ~ i, 55 ~ 1, Pc'l. 3,297 b 17 -q Irp( TV) 6U 7roXLTtc-la E'V Tots`"EXXV7Gcrw 4e'yvcro /)IeT&.-i oao-Ad3CasXL EKT6i3v 1oXquo6vrwP, i7 i'Ev d'P aX- E'K rCOV iirir4wv, et Ar. frag. 6ii (i) R3 'AOqP'a~ot r6 Ae'v E'~ dipX~s 6'Xp6ov7I facAeLAqij. e 's pXqi 'v hiatu sine causa admisso K3; &s -6x~Klir2]KW 7nTpLO C-yeverIo H-L, sed lectioni neutri spatium sufficit. inseruitJ B Mayor (H -L, K3). 7 y~vera~a K-W, B. TlOXEMI& K (K-W, H-L): 7roXE/J1KaL Blass; cf. 23, 14. 8 6V a (H-L), litteras 08 aliquatenus cerni posse arbitratus: [7rpc~rov] 6U K-W, B. 10 97r' H-L. -rjv apX7A'7 K (H-L): Taal%-7Jp K-W: [j~aa-Aflws B. [o-flqr~ov] K, K-W, H-L: Tr[o6T7] B. 12 -r& 65psta 7r01io-EIcv (litteris primis quinque incertis) K' 3;-r&' lprTa 7rotjo-EW e papyro eruerat Wessely. [Tr~s r6Xews?LpX]etp K1, [-r~s] 7r6X[ews al]p~esv KW, [f~ao-LVws?Lp~]etv Platt (H-L). Tro6Tov~?V) H-L (K 3):rTV) 4[K1EiJOV K1 (K-w). 13 dv-rl r-(r' &6oeco(Zv, litteris evanidis scripta, K3, B: r]wv [V6wE~-p-qclvwv] K-W: pro diV-i TI'S &OEtc~v (&NTIT' - ~oOeCLC N), quod litteris valde obscuris scriptumn esse dicitur, scripserim aut diw-nirapaao~oewCs' (ANTIT'1r,061~CW~N) aut (quod usitatius est) ds'Prauro&oGe~r6Z; litteris fere tredecim spatium sufficit. ~ 2. rroXEIJRcLpX~cL] This account of the original relation of the 7r-oVlap~os to the /3cw-sAs is illustrated by the Schol. on Plat. P/caed~r. 2.35 D, where the former is described as c'o-7rep Xoxcr-y6s roil fPacr-Xws (Wyse in Class. Rev. v 224). Similarly in certain semi-savage tribes the institution of a ' war-king' has grown up beside that of the regular hereditary monarch. Cf. Post, Bazisteine, ii p. 84. tLcLXCLKcO1's] Heraclidis epitoma, Rose, Frag. 6iss, si, air6 U Ko~ptS&$v Or'KeTL j puL~ poUvT-o && 76 80KIEv T-PV9/XL Kal /LcXaKo~S -yC-yOVIVU. 'IWCov] Ion, the son of Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus, was summoned to the aid of Athens against Eleusis and was entrusted with the 'conduct of the war. Hdt. viii 44, Paus. vii 5, i, and esp. i31i ~ 3, 'AO6qa~vacn E'rl TroO 7roV/Lov roO 71pIE 'EXevar-Lvovs I71roXeuJ P7JE.Cf. Schol. on Arist. Ayes 1527, ~rarpp0v 61 7-rsFAlOOv 'Air6XXwvas 'AOV7vaimo, 6'rEL' Iwp 6 7roX1 -A~apXos 'AOV-va~cov h4 'Air6XXWPos Kat Kpeoshrns T-oi Z:orou (-yuvaLK6S) 6'-ylve-ro (Rose, Frag. 343 2 =381 3). This scholium may have been derived either from the present passage, or from another in which Ion was mentioned near the beginning of the treatise. '-rEXETCL(CcL-`ipXovs'ros] It is uncertain whether the president of the board of nine magistrates bore the title of Archon before the time of Solon. Probably up to that time the members of the board were called 7rpUTEVELs and their president retained the ancient title of Iaa-rme~s, It was the g3aoAse6s that presided over the archons when assembled as a judicial body (Busolt,i 408). On the other side, see Gilbert's Cr. St., i I I7-1i 8. ~ 3. M48oVTrOS] son of Codrus. 'AKc'Ll — TOV, successor of Medon (Busolt, i 403). 'p~v1'ovorL] The oath of the archons is also mentioned in 7 ~ i and in 55 adfin., but this particular clause is not cited elsewhere. irc~pcLXcopiio-4r1&vT] For the constr. cf. Dem. p. 38, '24, d~Lcj 46/ls /7rApaXc'Jt T77s Trd~ews, p. 656, 17,7r-. -s-us aipXis. For the sense, Pol?. 1,285 b 14, TE ra' AE6T1W'V 7rapths'rcov TWYo fPao-L~hWV, 7-& 61 TW(v 6XXWV r1apapogvt4WV, ev J.u1V TraLs 6XXCLs 7r6Xf0atv, al 7rarp[OL Ovalat KaLTeXet/36-qo-av 7-oZs fPaolXcvo-L /565'05. dV'rcLwro8oGELa~v BcopEWv] 'corre

Page  8 8 AOHNAIQN COL. I, 1. 21-29. TOVTO LEEV OVV OrOTEprP O TTOT eXeL L KpOV, eyevETO yap ev rovroaL 15 7rotS povotS ont &e TE 6evTaa rTOVTwV eyevero Twv dpXvv, [o'fLetov Kcal [ro] q e [rWv 7r]aTpi wv o apovTa o ev o7rep o /3ao-Xevi /Kcal o 7roXeuapXoS, aXXa [iovov Ta e7r]era. St0 Ical vecowm ryeyovev } ap7 /e~yd7jrl, ro's E7r[t]860TOL atrqO[iaa. 0Ecr]/Lo0ETlrat 86 roXXo[]? VOTrepov e7recLv ypE0lcav, 83 Kcart' 4 2o evravTov alp[ovpUevcov] Tra apX~a, W 7rco( davacypa'ravrTes Tra Ooeaa fvXadrrWco 7rpbos rYv T-vV [7rapavoproOv]vrov Kcptit' &O /cal Ka ovr7 Tr)v apXov) OVK eHevET0 7rXTiwv [r] Evtava'to, [obrot] pOev o'v 5 xp6Oov T70070TOv 7rpoeXOVC'V *aXX\rj\X (o. ccrKla av* 8' ov'X afJa 7ravTre 14 utLKpOV [5Ctaoppet, aTe 8't ep dCTaK]Trot rois Xp6vots Paton, ftKpov SP&a/peL ev Tro60ro < roS > Xp6VOLS H-L; JtKpo6V, \XX' [oPv yeveT]rO ev Tro0roS < rTt > Xpo'voS K-W; /.tKpoV d[v &aXXc\\r]ro roi Xppvot, vel /LKKp6V ye r[apa]XXcldret roZi XpoVns, B. iyevero yap ev ro6rots roiS, litteris evanidis scripta, K3. 16 rrarpiwv Wyse, Blass, K-W, H-L (K3), coll. 57 ~ I r&s Trarptovus Ovaias &OoLKe ofFroS (O p3aotXes) 7rdcaas. 17 dXX\ [x6vov Ta e7rtO]eTa K3, B; an aXX\ov? d\Xd KaVc rTLva erTi'eTa H-L; aXX' [\Xws AjLePiv L]ef'ya K-W. 20 aipovALesvv Wyse, Blass, K-W, H-L, K3. 21 7rapavouovovTrwv K (K-W, B): diKoo'/.o0vTU H-L spatio vix expleto. 22 TrrTAcN K: 7rXeZov K-W, B; 7r\Xfv H-L. Tr\Xv ', vel 7rX\7v el, H Richards. 23,\AAHH NHC&N: a\XX\v. pKnocrav K: adXXXawv. oaav Jackson, Blass (K-w, H-L); malui aXX\Xwcv. qJK7oav: adXXXwv. eSiKa'ov Herwerden coll. Suid. s. v. dpX: KaOl^ov Gennadios, ovvp' av Kontos. sponding privileges being (at the same time) assigned to the archon.' dvrt rw v SoOetCwv, suggested by Mr Kenyon, is confessedly a somewhat remarkable expression, and is interpreted to mean 'in consideration of the privileges which were surrendered to the archon'; but this is hardly satisfactory in point of sense. What we expect is dvr'n7rXwv 6SoOetrwv ry apXovrt 8opewv. 6rorTpoS lroT' gXEL] De Physica AusculAt. 252 b 35, o7rorppwcs TrOT' Xet. De Sensu, 446 a 21, 6rorTpwco rorT yl[eTat. 7repi rwrjs 467 b 17, 67rOT7-epWs orTe e? KLX\ev (Index Ar.). ~ 4. 0eor-o0E'rL, literally 'legislators,' from 0eo-Luot, the old term for v6Jot. The name was 'probably applied to them as the judges who determined the great variety of causes which did not fall under the cognizance of their colleagues; because, in the absence of a written code, those who declare and interpret the laws may be properly said to make them' (Thirlwall, ii 7). According to the text, the object of their appointment was to secure that the enactments of the law should be publicly recorded and duly preserved, with a view to their being enforced against transgressors. In the absence of a code of law, such as Dracon afterwards gave to Athens, the OeamuLa of the text were presumably 'judicial deci sions' recorded as precedents for similar cases in the future. See also Holm, Gr. Gesch. i 5 6. KaT evLaVcrv-T&ds dpXdis] B.c. 683. dvaypaCLavTEs] not exactly to 'commit to writing' (Poste), but to engrave on a tablet and set up in a public place (this is the force of ava-); in brief, 'to record publicly.' 8L6] does not appear to refer to the immediately preceding clause, but to the beginning of the previous sentence. It was because the thesmot/etae were not instituted until the time when magistrates were appointed annually that, unlike the three senior archons in former days, they never held office for more than a year. ~ 5. oVroI-dXXiAXwv] ' Such then is the order of precedence which these magistrates have over one another in point of date,' i.e. (i) 3aotXe6s, (2) 7roXeA/apXo, (3) apXwv, (4) Oeof-Lo0gOat. dXXjXcov is somewhat loosely used. K'rio'Lav 8' oVX dpia rCdvVT KTr.] With reference to the lexicographical articles quoted above, in the Testimonia, it was remarked by Schomann (Ant. Gr. p. 412 E. T.) that 'before the time of Solon, as we are assured by evidence which, it must be admitted, is exceedingly apocryphal in character, the nine Archons were not permitted to sit in judgment all to

Page  9 CH. 3,1. 14-25 nTOAITEIA 9 ot eivva apXovre,, aXX '6 iLev /3aa-tXev E[Z]Xe Tr vvUv KcaXovuevov,3ovKoXE\ov, rXqerlO ov 70ro 7rpVTaveLov (o'rqTeov 8e' erL Kca vvv YCap 25 25 BoyKOAlON (K, H-L, B): povKoXeZov K-W. TESTIM. 23-33. Bekk. Anecd. 449, I9 et Suidas s. v. apwv:... rpo Rev rWv S6Xwvos v61xwv OVK 4tJV aV-roZs aia &Kateov, "a XX' o6 iv f paatevs" Ka07r7To Trapa ry KaXovL/.dvy PoKOXEL'iT, 7r6 & 7jv "7rXo7'-iov 7o T7rpvTavelov," "7 6 8 roXlaXapxos" iv AVKeiLJ Kal 6 apxwv 7rapa robs rwWv6L'ovs, ol 8U (om. Suidas) Oe~oLoOTraL Trapa Tr OtrtoOtrt'ov. KUp LOl 7re r-oav wa re "rcis &ias aororeXes" 7roteioLOa, vT6orpov 6U Z06Xwvos oV&8v irepov a6-rots TreXeTrat j /6vov aVaKpivovU- (viroKp. Suid., 'vaKp. Pearson et Matthiae) ro6S advri8iKOVS. gether. They were, however, equally precluded from doing this in the times better known to us, and the statement must therefore be based on some kind of misapprehension.' It was also noticed that, before the time of Solon, the archon could not have had his official residence 7rapa rovS 6rwv6LovS, as the statues of the e7rwvvuLOL, or national heroes that gave their names to the ten Attic tribes, could not have existed before the institution of those tribes by Cleisthenes (508 B.c.). Hence it was inferred by K. F. Hermann (Gr. Slaatsalt., p. 407, note 14) that the information referred to the postSolonian time. But at that time the official residence of the Archon-Basileus was the Stoa Basileios, not the Basileion. Accordingly it was suggested by Wecklein(Monatsber. derMiinchen.A kad., i873, 5. 38) that the Basileion, which he supposed was the residence of the pvXopactnXeis, had been confounded with that of the Archon-Basileus. We now see that the main source of the information, so far as it is correct, was the present passage. The information really refers to the time before Solon; but the lexicographers commit an anachronism, for which they are themselves responsible, in placing the office of the archon near the Eponyni, instead of in the Prytaneum, in the neighbourhood of which the statues of the Eponymi were afterwards set up. povKoXctov] We are here told that the official residence of the Archon-Basileus was the building which, in the time of the writer, was called the govKoXeiov. This explains the otherwise obscure passage quoted in Athenaeus, p. 235, from the law relating to the Archon-Basileus: TO'S U6 7rapaaTrovs eK 7rS POUKOXL\aS eKXyeLt EK TO) IepovTS TO eavrUTv eKTra KpLOCW KTX. In Telfy's Corpus Zuris Attici ~ 358 the words eK rjS (or eKTro) 3ouKOCas are strangely rendered absque dolo. It is now, however, clear that they must refer to the residence of the Archon-Basileus and are used in the same sense as eK tou povKoXeiov, which was perhaps the original reading. The pouKoXeov is possibly connected with the Oovu6vyLov, or field of sacred oxploughing, described by Plutarch (Coniugalia Praecepta, xlii) as below the Acropolis: 'AOr1vaioL rpeZs dp6bovs iepovs dyovutL... rpl-pTO ViTO Tr6Xtv 7rb KaXoLVUevov SovuL-ytov (Miss Harrison, Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens, p. i66). It has been suggested that a black-figured vase-painting on a hydria in the Berlin Museum, where an ox is standing within a small Doric shrine, not bound as for sacrifice, but free and stately, is a representation of the sacred ox in his pOVKOXelov, whether it be the building below the Acropolis or some other shrine of Zeis IIoXte6s (ib. p. 428). It is more probable, however, that the povKoXeZov was connected with the worship of Dionysus, who was often represented in the form of an ox (cf. Eur. Bacchae, IOO, 920-922, 1017, 1159). There was a play of Cratinus called the BouVKXoL, which began with a dithyramb, and it has been inferred from Aristoph. Vesp. IO, TOr avrTv dp' 6itol (POUKOXeS Ca/3d~zovz that the votaries of the Thracian Dionysus, 6 raup61xop5os, were called 3ovK6Xot (O. Crusius, in Philologus, xlvii 34). It will be observed that in the text the tovKoX\eov is mentioned in connexion with Dionysus. Curtius is content to regard it as having been in primitive times a royal farmhouse, including a slaughter-house for the royal sacrifices (Stadtgeschichte von Athen, 189I, p. 5I). 7rpVTraveCov] The position of the Prytaneion is disputed, and it is sometimes supposed that there was more than one building of the name. Pausanias tells us (i I8 ~ 3) that near the Agrauleion is 'the Prytaneion, in which are inscribed the laws of Solon.' By this is probably meant the original Prytaneion, the centre of the ancient city and the site of the hearth of the state. This Prytaneion was probably

Page  10 IO AOHNAIQN COL. I, 1. 29-30. 7? TOV /3actXC yvvatco, ) o'v/t/j ELi evravra eyveral,7 Ayovayv Kcag 6 ra4o0), d 8e apXwov To 7rpvravedov, o e roXe4ap~oq TO 'E7rTXvcetovz o rrporepov /ev ecKaXe'Io 7roXeIapXEov, Itret 8e 'ETrlXv/coS adVUcoo'/L?7E Ical Ka'reo-cevaaev avGo?roXeua[pX]jo-a9, 3 —eXov,3 & rEo~relor. eor \ 30 'E'rvX1~KeLov eKXu4O] Oeo'joO3erat 8' eos TTO 06cfo0~ETrEov. '7rl e& 26 CYMMlIlC 0tc6/.etLts K-W, H-L, K3, coll. Meisterhans, p. 1442. FrNeTa l (K-W). 27 Kal 6 ycd/uos delet Rutherford (H-L). 28 ETTIAyKION: -eiov K etc. 29 7roXE\ap[xcv] H-L, invita papyro. TESTIM. 26 Hesych. Atov6tov yaci[os: Trs TOV r3aotXwcos 'yvvacLKo KaLi eou 'yiverat yai/uos. 28 Hesych. 'E7rTXK(e)Lov (cod. 7r\tX6KLOV): dapXeov t roXeC7idpXov 'AO'jvPtrv. a little to the east of the ground beneath the northern, or north-eastern, cliff of the Acropolis, somewhat high up the slope (Miss Harrison, 1. c., p. I65). Before reaching it Pausanias had seen (i 5 ~ x) the statues of the efrwvvuot 'above the Bouleuterion' or Council Chamber of the Five Hundred. Near the latter he sees 'what is called the e6Xos, where the Prytanes offer sacrifice.' It was apparently for this reason that the 66Xos was sometimes called the rpv-raveZov, e.g. in Schol. on Aristoph. Pax 1183, T6ros 'A0rjvr7loTv rapa& rpvTraveLov iv -r eT7 -KaaL' davpptlvrEs ov's 7rwvVLoyvs KaXov'tv (ib. p. I7I note io6). Curtius places the original Prytaneion in the Old Agora which, according to his view, was S. of the Acropolis; he recognises a second Prytaneion in the Tholos situated in the Agora of the Cerameicus; while he regards the Prytaneion of Pausanias, on the northern slope of the Acropolis, as a building belonging to Roman times (Stadtgeschichte, p. 302). Wachsmuth (Stadt Athen, i 465) accepts the Prytaneion of Pausanias as the original building and regards the Tholos in the Cerameicus as a 'dependance' in which the Prytanes had their public meals in the democratic days of Athens. Round the original Prytaneion rose the official residences of an earlier age. First among these was the cao'iXeLov, or official residence of the kings, which may be identified with the building in which the four fvXofpatLXels performed their religious rites (Pollux viii III, iv ry c/3f taXeiyp r -rapa Tor poKoXeiov) and with the residence of the Archon-Basileus (Wachsmuth, p. 468). See also Busolt, i 407 note 4. 'TL Ktal —ydos] Either on the second day of the Anthesteria at the beginning of March, or at the Greater Dionysia at the end of that month, there was a procession representing the entry of Dionysus 'EXevuepevs 'from without the city into the little temple of the Cerameicus,' 'and his incorporation into the city by union with the noblest woman of the land, the wife of the king.' On this occasion the Basilinna was accompanied by fourteen venerable priestesses, and was solemnly and secretly betrothed to the god. In the temple in Limnae she administered a vow to the priestesses, offered a mystic sacrifice, wherein she prayed for all blessings for the state, and then remained for the night in the interior of the temple. Cf. [Dem.] c.Aeaeram, ~~ 74-78,and Mommsen's Heortologie, pp. 358-360, quoted by Mr Purser on Dionysia in Smith, Diet. Ant. i 639 a. The passage in the c. Neaeram ~ 76 speaks of the law relating to the Sa-lX\vva as inscribed on a tablet in the temple of Dionysus ev Ailivats opened only once a year on the second day of the Anthesteria. It also describes her as Trv Oeo yvvaiKa 3o07aoCfoiYV7v, but says nothing of her spending the night in the temple. 'EIrXiKELOV] Suidas, s. v. apXcw, describes the official residence of the Polemarch as dv AvKEiy, and accordingly it is generally held that' the Polemarch had his office outside the walls, but quite close to the city, beside the Lyceum, a shrine consecrated to Apollo and frequently mentioned on account of a gymnasium existing there' (Schbmann, Antiquities, p. 412 E. T.; see also Curtius, Stadtgeschichte, p. 58). The office was doubtless eri AvUKei (not ev AuvKEiY), and this is what is meant by the name 'ErtXUSKELOV. This is far more probable than the story about the 'polemarch Epilycus,' which is justly rejected by Mr Kenyon. OEo-rJoe0TEtov] Suidas, s. v. apXwv, on the authority doubtless of the present passage, says that the 6eofJoOcaraL held their court *rap& TO -OeSr oOlo0-ov (Bekker,Anecd. 449, 23, irapd 7- OeasLod^otov). Cf. Hyperides, Eux. xxii, Oeo-AoOerwv o-vv83pLov. It was there also that they dined at the public expense: Schol. Plato, Phaedr. 235 D, *A n

Page  11 CH. 3, 1. 26-34. 'OAITEIA II 2,6'Xcovs -]awaE9 EL' To' OEIO7WOEELFOV O-VViXOOV. KVPtot i Kat Tas6 &Kca9 avT7OTEXEZL [KPLV]Ewt, Katt o;X 63oawE vvv rrpoavaKptz-'w. Ta.Lev ovV [epgt] T a T EtX TOV 'Tp07OV. 6n "E \ rTW' 'ApeowtytTC0 V30VXh 7\ T \ LkE\ V a'v EIXE TOVy 8LaTL'pEi6V 34 32 a6roreX[Os] J B Mayor (H-L). 34, 38 apeorrTTalT ol 8 0e OEavo8raL / eaive rbv adpOlb6v, ad' wv KCa 6 T7rros, 0'7ro avV1eCVaP Kal eTatTO7VTO, OeIU1TIrov (leg. OeC/Lo00atov vel Oea0uoOereLov) eKaXe7-o. Its position is unknown, but it was not improbably near the 7rpvuraieov, though there is nothing to prevent its being placed in the ayopi, as (from the very first) the Oeor-Jo0TraL had judicial duties to discharge. Kohler conjectures that it was near the 8ovXevrT)p LOv, but the evidence for this is inconclusive (Wachsmuth, I. c. i p. 482 -3, ii 353-4). Frl 8i XooXwvos-crvviXOov] Diog. Laert. i 58 (of Solon), Kal 7rpWros ripv avva'ywoyiJv rCv ievva ctdpXovrwv eroi'77er, eis TO 7(0 'et7rLT, 3s 'AroXX6\\wps )7ovtip eV &E Svurep 7repi vojlOerTw. The text confirms the conjecture of Schomann (Ant., p. 412 E. T.) that the 'Thesmothesium' was used by the whole board of the nine archons. It also favours the view that as early as the time of Solon all the nine archons were called Thesmothetae (K. F. Hermann, Staatsalt. ~ 138, n. 3, and Bergk in Rheinisches Museum xiii 449, quoted by Wachsmuth, I. c., ii 354). aVTOT\iSXE KpiVELV] C. 53 ~ 2. KpCvEiL...irpoavaKppVELv] Pol. 298 a 31, TerapTos Se rpo7ros TO 7rcvTLras 7repi 7rdavrv povXe\eaOatc avvi6vPTa, TLs 5' apXaS Trepi oJ6SEVoS KpltELv daXX& fl6voV 7rpoavaKPlvELP, 6ov7rep 7] reXeuTcaa 717 -iOKparTa vPV SLOIKEiTtra rpOTrov. This is in favour of KpEivet, as against 7roter (suggested by Suidas). —'In the later and better-known times of Athenian law, we find these archons deprived in great measure of their powers of judging and deciding, and restricted to the task of first hearing the parties and collecting the evidence; next, of introducing the matter for trial into the appropriate dikastery, over which they presided' (Grote, H. G. chap. Io, ii 283 ed. 1862). ~ 6. j 'rCv 'ApEowryLraYTO v [ovXI] The first establishment of the senate of Areopagus is sometimes ascribed to Solon. Thus Plutarch, Sol. I9 init., says of Solon avt0-777adcLievos TV ev 'Apeiy wr&yY Pov\uXv EK iTWV KaT' evtLavTrv adpX6vTW. But in Ar. Pol. ii 12 i274a, it is stated that the Council of the Areopagus was already in existence: 9OLKE oie 1oXwv dIKEIa LEv vTrapXoPTLa rpOrepov oV XiovaL, 7T7V 1e 3ovXN7v Kal Trj) rwv dpXiwv acipecrLv. On the other hand, Cicero, de Off. i 22 ~ 75, speaks of it as the senatus, qui a Solone erat constitttus; and Pollux, viii 125, describes it as established by Solon as a tribunal of homicide, in addition to that of the Ephetae. 'But there can be little doubt' says Grote, ii p. 281, 'that this is a mistake, and that the senate of Areopagus is a primordial institution, of immemorial antiquity, though its constitution as well as its functions underwent many changes. It stood at first alone as a permanent and collegiate authority, originally by the side of the Kings and afterwards by the side of the archons. It would then of course be known by the title of The Boule-The senate or council; its distinctive title, "Senate of Areopagus" (borrowed from the place where its sittings were held), would not be bestowed until the formation by Solon of the second senate or council, from which there was need to discriminate it.' The Areopagus appears to represent the Homeric opovXT7 YepovrTWv (Meier and Schomann p. io), and is probably as early as the time of the Attic kings; but, if so, its number must have been very limited. By modern writers its number is sometimes supposed to have been either 300 (Schimann, Jal-hb. f. kl. Philol. i875, p. 154, Hermann, Staatsalt. ~ 102, 17, Lange, Ephet. u. Areop. p. 27, Duncker, Gesch. des Alterth. v 473 =H. G. ii 14i E. T.); or 360, representing the 360 yevr/ (Philippi, Areop. u. Eplheten, p. 206); or 60, i.e. I5 nominated by each of the four tribes, and including the 9 archons, the remaining 51 being those known as the Ephetae (Busolt, i 418). As soon as it became customary for the archons to be added to the Areopagus at the end of their year of office, the number would cease to be fixed; but we do not know at what time this method of recruiting the Areopagus was first adopted. Mr Kenyon suggests that 'the automatic process of forming it from all ex-archons was probably put into operation from the date of the establishment of the annual archonship.' riVv }ev rTaiv KrX.] This confirms Grote's statement that 'the functions of

Page  12 I2 AOHNAIQNN COL. I, 1. 36-4I. 35 To;F w~tovs, Gt~)KeL &~ rh wrrXet-ra Kat TL /ke~Yw-Ta roW Ev 7v 70Xet, Kcat KcoXa'0ovoa Kdat 5,q7cto]i'o a 7ral'Ta9 70V9 aKocliOwY7al?VPLpwS 7 yap at'pEocv T(ov aPXovTOwv aptoTtv~qv Icait -7XovT~lv?1V tvv, E cv 01 LAp TowayZ'rat Ka~ t7av. d r ~6v~j 7ta aPXo W aTrq FLE/1LEVqK6 8ta\ 81lov tcal vv-v. 4. 2, p 1E' oiV w p60Tq 7tOXLtEra Tav'7Tv E[j]XE T7V' tv'7ro[ypa]V?)'. /.kE7- & rara, x7'v' 7tV9 01 7roXXov &EOOvT0So,~, '7' 'ApL 36 Kal KoXci~oaa: Kai delet Gennadios (H.L). ante -q' y&p aliquid excidisse putat Keil. 37 y&pa: 5R mavult Gennadios, the Areopagus were originally of the widest senatorial character, directive generally as well as judicial.' With the context, cf. Isocr. Areop. ~ 37, 771 f' 'Apiou irciyov fpouX~ovi q iersa-rqo-av E'regXEJ-OahL T7 EliKOodCLas, 7'7s oiiX ol6s 7' 7'7v /iSeTaaXEiW rX7)'I TOES KCaXWS yEyoV6)rL Kai roXXi'p apETrqv E'VJL 7 T 1lp KCLi rW~pocrv071 iVp&EvyAkeVOLt, and ~~ 30-55, esp. ~ 46, rov' a'KOO-/SOVVTas dp-yop eti' 7T7/ PovX?5P. Athen. iv ig p. i68 A: SiTL bi 0V' cUTWLTOVS KULLTOU'S TO L eK TLPOS 7PELOVO11as 3wv7as 7b -iraXauiv aiVPKaXOU'TO Ol 'ApCoraCyZiral Kal E'KbXCaoV, lo-T6pn-qOap (DavP63-os Kal 4utXoXopos (FHG i 394, cf. 387, 17). SLCLT7'pE V 'roils v6lovs] Aeschin. 3 ~ 6, STc7v 8a7-77p-qOGlao ol i' vuo - 7-JrSXcL, 0(j)SEoat Kl ~ 5-?7/LoKpaTia. ycip] The Areopagus was entrusted with all these powers, because it consisted of archons who had themselves been elected under special qualifications of birth and wealth. The constitution of the Areopagus is the subject of a fragment of Philochorus (frag. 58 in Miiller's Frog. Hist. Gi-., i 394): EK -yp T(wP E'vJl KaOcL/sl&COwv ripXblTwv 'AO 6?7o Toir 'ApEonrayicrs 96Et orvvPEc7-cacaL &KarcrS, 6i5 /n-qa 'Av3poTriow Ev SEVTiPlz 7TCOP 'ATO16WP tkbrepoV Si 7rXELbvwv -yyovevij7 i' 'Apelov wciyov 1ovXh\ TOUTIOTWY Ef O1'SPGl ~7reLaEp74JcWVolp 7EVT77KOp-ra KCa epbs (this implies an identification of the Ephetae and the Areopagus). oil ratvTs cvSpbs 'P e's r v i'5 'ApeIoU vrci-yov IovX'pv TEXE-tV.aXX' ot 'rap' 'AOrmaiort 7rpwTEiovTEs 9Y 7-' T vEL Ka 7irXovrTW Kall P4w XPn7o'P 'j5 iOT p 4rop 6 cMXPXopog Sti r77 TjLt7* 7i-TW aOA7)TWv 'AT-Otwv. BLo3-KcL viiv] 'This is also the reason why it is the only office which has continued to be held for life down to the present day.' Fur SL4 PCou, cf. 2 ~ 1. IV. Tihe Draconian Constitution. rjv itrroypa.rjv] 'outline', 'sketch'. Ar. de Gen. Aninz. ii 6, 743 b 20-25, esp. oi ypaq5ns UV7r0ypqt'avcTes -racs 'ypaf-,saZs ob'rwS &aXeitovo- trois Xp#1-acrt 7 -~43ov. De Aninia, ii r, 413 a io, -r6wy TtL63 LtwpioOw Kal r7eoy-ypca4w w repti VlvX*ij. Pal. ii 5, 1263 a 31, goTLv ev iviarts W6XEoLv Oii7(rw s brO-yEypa/t/d101'. XPoVOV-SLEXe6vToS] A vague note of time, the event from which the writer reckons being apparently the affair of Cylon and its more immediate consequences (c. i). 'ApLO-aTXCOv c dipXovros] The name of this archon ('Api~oarxjros) is now known for the first time. It follows that Dracon was not the dipxwv hrdivvauos of the year, as has been sometimes supposed (e.g. Busolt, i 50o). Cf. Pausanias, ix 36 ~ 8, ApCiKovros 'A6q77pa1ot3 OEofLOGer7 - CvaTOs EK TWi' IKEt1OU Ka-r&07) v6-q swt, ov0s &ypaq5IEv e'rl 775 ripX~, 6'XXw1 Te brow' tlqcV Ta x~6 L 577Kc jsor o-wv EIGetav dpa&r XpPj, Ka' 6~' Kal rtjuwpias AotXoO. It may fairly be assumed that he was one of the OEauOe6&at, in the narrower sense of the term. Hence Grote is right in describing him as 'the thesmothet Drako.' His legislation may be assigned to B.c. 6,2i (Clinton's Fasti, sub anna; Busolt, i 5io). *Ecr~O's 90-qKEv] This confirms the view that he was one of the OEO OTctUe-ra at the time. OEo-Foi was the term generally applied to the laws of Dracon: Andocides, de Myst. ~ 8i, Xp~oaro -ro7s 16Xwvos v6rors Ka' Tots AparKOV7-OS OEa0gs. But even the 1 laws of Solon were by himself called OEaAsoi. Plutarch, Sal. i9, quotes from one of them the words STE OEOCLOS iCu'a b'&3, and the word occurs in his own poems C. 12 ~ 4, line i8, OEo-)uol....-ypaipa. The same ancient term was preserved in the oath of the wepiroXot in Pollux viii io6, Kal Tot' Ps Eohois Trois i6pv/IOvo ireloro~saI, which in later Greek would have been expressed 7o6s v0' /50(o TOZ KEMLlVOLS (cf. Grote, c. io, ii p. 283, note). ~ 2. Si rd 'rELS KTX.] To identify the TCi'L, or constitution, with the POc-/o', or

Page  13 CH. 3, 1. 35-CH. 4, 1. 3. 1OAITEIA I3 o-Taqxptov appCov'rosq Lpa[Keo]v ToV" 0crFoV'q eOCEV- 7)7 Se 2 legislation, is inconsistent with the distinction drawn by Aristotle in Pol. 1289 a 15, 7roXtrelia fAb -ydp arTTL Tcrdaits a 7ro6Xerv aT 7rEpl Ta adpX&a...v6.POOL 8U KEXwOPLOtvYO TWV 6\7Xo6vr7w r7'v 7roXTCelav, KaMO' o s & TObs dpXovras d&pXEv KTX. Cf. also 1286 a 3. This distinction is maintained in cc. 7 and 9, but not in c. 34. The term OeoAoli has a distinctive meaning and can only refer to a code, not to a constitution (Class. Rev. v 167 a). Dracon has hitherto been recognised as a legislator alone. There is a well-known passage respecting him in Ar. Pol. ii I2, p. 1274 b I5, ApaKOVTOS 8 v6tjot tlzv Elat, 7roXLTeIqa d' v7rappxo6ro1 roTO v6jS ovs 9t6Kev KrX. This passage, which describes Dracon as adapting his laws to a constitution already in existence, is inconsistent with the present chapter, which almost ignores the legislation of Dracon and represents him as the framer of a constitution. The passage in question comes from a chapter which, in the opinion of Zeller, Susemihl and other Aristotelian scholars, has suffered from considerable interpolation. Thus Mr W. L. Newman conjectures 'that Aristotle may have left only the fragment about Solon and a few rough data for insertion after the notice of the Carthaginian constitution, and that some member of the school, not very long after his death, completed them as best he could' (Newman's ed. ii 373, 377). Accordingly it is possible that the passage about Dracon in the Politics was not written by Aristotle himself. In Rhet. ii 23 ~ 29, 1400 b 21, Ar. quotes Herodicus (the physician) as saying of Dracon (6 vouoOTrijs), 6SL OiK abvOpw7rov ol v6/ot da\X& spaKovros' XaXerol 'yap. Of the actual legislation of Dracon little is known, since his laws (with the exception of those on homicide) were repealed by Solon (c. 7 ~ I 7rX'v 7rv fovtKwv and Plut. Sol. I7 there quoted). This is possibly a sufficient reason for the absence of any reference to it in the constitutional part of this treatise, except in the words robs 8ea-Liobs r'OqKe. All that survived is W sufficiently described in the second part of the work, in the account of the procedure in cases of homicide (c. 57). According to the text the main points in the constitution of Dracon's time are (i) a hoplitic franchise, already in existence; (2) those who had this franchise elected the Archons, the Tamiae, the Strategi, the Hipparchi and the Prytanes (unless, indeed, these are identical with the Archons) from among those who were duly qualified by a property-qualification. (3) A Council of 401, elected by lot from among those who had the franchise, and were over 30 years of age. The same limitation held good for other offices filled by casting lots, and no one was to hold office twice till every one else had had his turn. (4) Members of the Council were fined for not attending meetings of the Council or Assembly, and the fine varied with their status. This 'Draconian constitution' has, not unnaturally, been viewed with suspicion. It tells us of a Council of 401, of which we never hear elsewhere, and (which is more serious) of certain property-qualifications which have hitherto been regarded as part of the subsequent legislation of Solon, and which the author himself minutely describes in connexion with Solon (c. 7). A writer in the Athenaeum, 189, p. 435 b, denounces it as 'the amazing Draconian constitution.' It has also been attacked by Weil (7Journal des Savants, Avril, I89I), and Cauer; also by Mr Macan in the yozrn. of Hellenic Studies, April, I891, pp. 24, 27, and in detail by Mr J. W. Headlam in an article in the Class. Rev., v 166-i68; followed by valuable criticisms by Mr E. S. Thompson, ib. p. 336, and by M. Theodore Reinach in the Revue Critique, p. 143-5. Mr Headlam's main points are these: (i) No other writer knows anything of a constitution attributed to Dracon. Plutarch, when speaking of the Oeauoi of Dracon, mentions nothing but a code of law. (2) Other passages in the roXLreia itself support the view taken by Plutarch and in the Politics. (a) In chap. vii the writer speaks of the Oeauol of Dracon in connexion with the new code of laws made by Solon, but makes no reference to Dracon in speaking of the constitutional innovations of Solon. (b) The recapitulation in c. 4I states that the characteristic feature of Dracon's legislation was the publication of the law. This is inconsistent with chap. 4 and its very remarkable constitution. (3) Among the provisions of the constitution at least one could not possibly have been devised in Dracon's time, the property-qualification for the archonship being expressed in terms of money that probably belong to a later age; nearly all of them are very difficult to reconcile with what we know of the state of Athens at the time; and several of them inconsistent with other ~~~$ ja

Page  14 14 AOHNAIQN COL. I, 1. 42-2, 1. 4. avTw7 TOvSe 7Tv Tpo7rov eLXe. a7re8e0oro 1LEV 7 7rOXtTla ToLq o7rXa 5 7rapeX0oJLevo0t?poivro Be 8 ovE ieV v evvea apovTra [cab T]oV1 [T]a/dasL ovaiav tcetcTrI7/evov? oV C e rXarTTWO eKca /pLvwv eXev0epav, IV 4 ayT' (= avur7s): correxit K. ruxv per compendium, ut videtur, scriptum (K-W, K3, B): mihi quidem A' (ei) potius quam M' (JLev) videtur scriptum: om. H-L. 5 ApXONTEC 6 MXarrop 1 K-W. EACK: eKarTv Thompson; &taKooiwv Weil (Joutrnal des Savants, p. o); 'maiorem censum nemo non expectet' H-L. statements in this book. (4) None of the provisions, some of them very remarkable, are ever quoted by later writers. (5) The whole constitution is exactly like those afterwards described in connexion with the aristocratic revolutions in 411. The details connected with the above criticism will be noticed as they occur in the following notes. Dr P. Meyer (Des Aristoteles Politik utnd die 'AOrpvaiwv roXLreta, pp. 31-44) regards the passage in the Politics and the present chapter as, both of them, equally genuine, and vainly endeavours to reconcile the two. He holds that the 'Draconian constitution' does not differ materially from the constitution which preceded it, the dapaia roXcreia of c. 3. If so, the writer of the present chapter has not succeeded in making the points of resemblance clear. The 'Draconian constitution' is defended with greater success by Prof. Gomperz (Die Schrift vomn Staatswesen der Athener, p. 43). He holds that, in distributing the citizens of Attica into four classes, Solon availed himself of existing social divisions, and gave them a new definition. This may hold good in the case of the irures, the 'evytrat and the OTres. But it is difficult to accept it in the case of the 7revTaKoUto/U&/LVOL. The term is used without any explanation in the present chapter; but, in the description of Solon's constitution, it is defined with precision as though it were then used for the first time. One would be glad to believe with Mr Kenyon, in his note on this chapter, p. 13 ed. 3, that 'a sober historical judgment will probably in the end find its statements not so startling as they at first appear'; but at present the contents of the greater part of the chapter seem to require the most careful scrutiny before they can be finally accepted. Considerations in favour of the account are urgedby Busolt, in Philo. 189 I, vol. 50, pp. 393-400. He points out that the Pseudoplatonic Axiochus, which has several points of contact with this treatise (cf. c. I8 ~ I, 34 ~ 1, 42 ~ 2), uses the phrase e 7r TrTS ApacKOvros KXet(oOivovs 7roXTretas (p. 365). While admitting the coincidences with the oligarchical constitutions of 41 I, he holds that the oligarchs professed to aim at the restoration of the rdcrptos 7roXTrela, which may fairly be identified with the pre-Solonian constitution. (i) The term 7reivaKorLo/jLdsi&vos must originally have referred to measures of corn: Solon extended its meaning to measures of wine and oil, and gave it a different value by changing the standard. (2) Fines in money may have been exacted by the State at a time when private transactions were settled by the transfer of oxen. (3) We know little of the early history of the T-rpaT-'yia, but it is possible that the fears inspired by the affair of Cylon may have led the aristocracy to limit the authority of the polemarch by means of four -TrpaTrtyoi appointed from the wealthier class. dc7irc8oro KXT.] not aire6oO7. The tense implies that the franchise had already been given and that this was not part of the alleged constitution of Dracon. This point is brought out by Mr Poste who translates: 'Sovereign power was already wielded by the class of persons capable of providing its own equipment for war.' He adds in a note: 'This agrees with the statement of Aristotle, Pol. ii 12, that Drakon made no change in the constitution. The revolution had already taken place. Drakon's task was to adjust the laws to the changed centre of political power.' Mr Kenyon's rendering is here less exact: 'The franchise was given &c.' (see, however, Class. Rev. v 467 b).-The same kind of franchise is to be found in the constitution proposed by the party of Theramenes in 411, c. 33 at end, Thuc. viii 97, and Xen. Hell. ii 3 (Class. Rev. v 168 a). SE'a Kc v v] We have to notice (i) the nature, no less than (2) the amount of the property-qualification required of archons. (i) At this time property was reckoned not in money but in corn. Now, the qualification of a 'evyitrJs was to possess land capable of producing 200 u.dtl.vot: a

Page  15 CH. 4, 1. 4-II. nOAITEIA 15 [Col. 2.] raS' 8' aXXa adpXa il <raS> dXdTrrov ECK TI V OrXa 7rape~[o vtcov], aTpaTyyov Se Ka8 itait radpxovw ovoalav aw7roaivovraV OVK Ec arov E ~Kaarov ivtWv EXevOepav Kcat 7raZas e[K] Tyaerij6 7 yvvatogS yvr/7 -otovS v7rep 8&Ka er77) yEyovo0Ta' TovTov9 8 e8et StE[yyv]a[o-0at] 'rovU Io 7rpvTaveL, Ktcal ToV' TpaT7-7yOOV Kat ToV ' Irrrapp ovl TOV E6ovsU 7 <r&s> eXdrrovs Richards, Blass, K-W, H-L, K3. 8 XarTov Marchant coll. Dobr. Adv. in Thuc. ii I3: eXXOTTov' olim K. 9 X CKaTOV in eKaCrov 7' (=OK7&) mutabat Marindin (Smith, Dict. Ant. ii 107I b). 7 delet Thompson, utpote ex numerali H (=iKaTov) natum. eAeyOepPoN: corr. Wyse etc. 10 A'Ai (supra scr. AC1)...' t&et 6laT7)peLt H-L; tfeyyvav Schulthess deletis verbis Kai ro)S o-Tpar1-yo)S Kai rotS iLr7r'dpXovs; t......K-W; 5' 95ELt &teyyvaU0aL K3, B. 11 -roO yV01 K1: tros E'ovs Paton et van Leeuwen (edd.), quod et in papyro scriptum et unice verum est, cf. [Dem.] 25 ~ 20 Tas cvalS apXas Tats yeaits EKoaas vTwreitvaL, et Ar. Pol. I322 a Ii 7a'l TrwOy VWY (Scaliger) c\\XXop ra&s e4as (dpxais). ULei/,Lvos of corn was worth at this time about a drachma (Plut. Sal. 23). Land of this extent must thus have been worth not less than 2000ooo drachmas. According to this, men were eligible to the archonship who were excluded by Solon from all office (Class. Rev. v I67 b). (2) In the constitution described in c. 29, the archons and prytanes alone were to receive pay, 2 obols a day, implying that no high property-qualification was required. The comparatively high qualification for the generals, 1oo minae (if the text is sound), would be natural in 411 but not in 621 (ib. I68 a). Busolt, however, points out that the two qualifications of ioo and of Io minae respectively correspond to the relative values of gold and silver in ancient times, O1: i. He supposes that a piece of land valued at Iooo Aeginetan drachmae might produce a return of I20-130 Aeginetan or I66-i8o Attic drachmae; and if we assume that in those early days, when money was scarcer than in Solon's time, a medimnus was worth only 2 to 3 Aeginetan obols, the yearly produce would be from 360 (or 390) to 250 medimni. This would correspond to the census of a 17r7reus under the Solonian constitution (Piilol. I891, pp. 393-400). 1. 6. \eAv0epav, 'unencumbered.' Isaeus To ~ 17, 6 esv, KXjpOS e~XE0Oepos ~v, contrasted with vbrodpews. Dem. 35 ~ 2I, v7rorTLOaac' TauT' XEevOepa, and ~ 22, C-r' AXevOepoLs rotS Xp'rxaaut av~e1y6/evot. Dittenberger, Sylloge, no. 344, 38; 294, IO; 126, 20, 28. Cf. c. 12, 34. 1. 8. orTpaTrqlyovs] It is urged by Mr Headlam that (a) We have no other record of o-rparTtyoi at this time: in the list in c. vii ~ 3 they are not mentioned. (6) The clause about their children is entirely new. (c) If there were such officers, they held an inferior position, and the comparatively high property - qualification is unaccountable (Class. Rev. I67 b). Qualifications of a similar character may, however, be noticed at a much later date, in Deinarchus, contr. Dem., ~ 7, trov v6,Oovs TrpoX7-yeV T7r pjrTOpt Kal rTw oapacTl7y (TC) T7V 7Capa rov O-jOV riaTt5 v aTiOVVTI X\ajcaiVELV, 7rwLO0T7rtOLelff6 Ka7CT -TOVS VOY/OVS, yijV EvrbTS opWv KeKT7 -O at, 7rdaas Tas SIKCas 7riot-reL 7rapacKaaOe4VEYov, OVTrWS aitOv wpoeTaiCvaL TOv 6t)tIov. sLeyyuv&r0aL] If this is the right reading, it must presumably be rendered 'should have security given on their behalf.' The accepted meaning of the word in the passive is 'to be bailed' by any one, e.g. Thuc. iii 70, OKTaKoaTiwv raXa'VTW rTos TrpodvotS t,7Y-yU vr7Y v OL. Trovs WrpuTcivEs] Here mentioned for the first time, whereas the form of the sentence (so far as the text is sound) implies they have already been referred to. If so, they must either be included among the dXXas apx&Ls ras XdCrrous, or they are identical with the e'vvpa apXovres. As to the latter alternative, it is probable that up to the time of Solon the archons were called wrpvrUvYEs. This is inferred by Busolt, i 408, from the term for courtfees, 7rpuravcea, which cannot be explained with the help of anything in the post-Solonian constitution, and from the analogy of Greek states in Asia, where the king was succeeded by a 7rprTavts. It will be remembered that the official residence of the Archon was the 7rpv-av'eov, c. 3 ~ 5. This appears better than identifying them with 'the president of the Council and Assembly in later days.'

Page  16 i6 AOHNAIQN COL. 2,1I. 4-8. /-C'x EV9VVCWV, &IIV7VTap ~ 'TETTapa9 EK 'To aVTO -eXv *ap7O IA.VOVq ' Qvw6p ol OTpaTfl'yot Kat ol t7T7rapXot. /ov-XeveGtV c6 TerpaKo- 3 COWgos Kat eva TOVN 1 XaXOlri-a9 EK T7r1s-worXtrT6Las KXvqp0VcT-0at 86 Kcat Tv 15 T177 Kat a T Xa s dpalx~ TOV1~ V57rEp TptaKoPra ET77 7670VO7-aS, KCat 77 tTov aP07117 apXetV 77T-c3 TOV3 7raVTas *[8c]AX6t'V. 'TO'TE &E rAX[tv] 6'~ 12 C[r..& 6'y-j-7-U3 s K1, K-W, B; f'7rt/JeXq7Tds H-L. 5' K1; S (-i-&-rapas) K-W, 11-L etc. ~ (? supra scr. o1?) XOM'OYC; ScXogevovs K, K-W, H-L: Tqpf~ouvor Rutherford, T\FCXOMCNOyc fortasse volebat corrector; idem conicit Blass qui in ectypo r-re (supra scr. OY=0oi~7rp) XOMENOYC in 1TrcXom6NYC correcturn agnoscit. 15 TpI&KoNOETH. 16 i7repteX~e~v K,1. Expectares potius aut et's 7dvrcas 7reptexOe~v nut &a. ird'vrwv &teXGeLv Tr?'v apX77vp: quad ad illud attinet, cf. Plut. Ai-st. 5 Wrs 7rept-XOev et's av'TOS i' apX-r; quad ad hoc, Ar. Pol. i1298 a 17 et 1300 a 25 EfCOT di' &ENXJ'6tp &7rwvrwv: etiam. rv7a-LVIL J'~s XaXeiv conicere in promptu est, coil. [Xeu. ] Rep. Ath. i 6 p?' C'Et X-yeu' 7rciv-ras 4Es g-q5i /3ovXve~ev. c4eX6Ev K-W, H-L, K3, B; UEXO0h' malui: praestaret &tc~eXOEU' (K, se satm non sufficit. FL4XpL eZi1vcUVv] ' until the audit.' At Athens, according to the evidence of later times, all officials were hI-e6OvvZoL. Aeschin. C/es. ~ I7, 0o66se iaT —rw cavUvr6 -Ovvos TC/VP Kat' 07rwCOv.U 7lrpO's 7a1 KMMVC I7rpoaEXIJXv006TWV. wrc~pcwcrojLavovs] Often used in middle with p~p-i-upas, Pal. i1269 a 2, 7rapaoui,cat lrXOos ptapr6pwov, and Ant. 5 ~~ 20, '22, '24, 28, 30, &C. Cf. Aeschin. c. C/es. 199, OW7-qyopovs 7rapao-X&Oracu The usual verb with 6'Y-YV-I7Ti'S is KaOLO-rdivaL, Dem. 24 ~~ 39, 40,.95 and esp. 144, 6s aiv c'yy-p-q-as TpIEES KLOtoT'q- T6 abTo' TiXOS TreXOUV-Ts. ~3. P3ovVXeELv] This is the only mention of a Draconian council Of 401. In c. 8 we are told of Solon 3ou~iv 51 erzol-q7Ce TETpaLKoOLOVS, i.e. 'he set up a council Of 400.' Had the writer already mentioned a council Of 403 he would probably have expressed himself differently in c. 8. The addition of the 'one' is a common device to prevent the votes being exactly equal. But it is a device mainly characteristic of later times, e.g. the 6tKao-r'1pta consisting Of 5oi, or iooi, 8&KaoTTai. On the other hand, we have the 5 Ephetae who are generally ascribed to the time of Dracon. EI 'ls WroXL'TEL'cLs = K 7T(i' 7roX u-wV. KX19poua-eCLL] the first mention of election by lot in this treatise. Hitherto, it has been generally agreed that, even in Solon's time, the Council was not appointed by lot, and this view is accepted by Thirlwall, Grote, Schbmann (An/iq,. p. 337 E. T.), and others. The introduction of the lot for this purpose has been usually ascribed to the time of Cleisthenes (5o8 B.c.). But the present passage implies that the use of the lot was as early as the time of Dracon. This, if true, sup ports the opinion of Fustel de Coulanges. (la Cite' Antique, p. 212-4, ed. 1883), that the lot is an institution of religious origin and therefore of great antiquity. See Mr J. WV. Headlam's Election by Lot at Athens, esp. pp. i83-, and note on C. S I infr~a. '-rOUVT7V] TqJP adp~q', SC. 7-b J3OVX666LV. 'rdis Mm~a dp~cls, exclusive of the Archons, Strategi and Hipparchi, already mentioned, but probably not exclusive of the aiXXas aip~a&s 7-a's i'Xa'TOVS. TpLOKov'rn '1'n] This is the age at which an Athenian citizen could become a govXevi-'?s (Xen. A/em. i 2 ~ 35) or a &KaO-T'2 (c. 63 ~ 3, cf. document quoted in Dem. Timoer. i 5i, and Pollux, Viii 122). It has already been inferred (Meier and Schdmann, Alt. Proc., p. '240 Lipsius) that the same requirement of age held good for other officials, the iLXXau dp~ati of the text. (The Ephetae and the public Envoys were, however, required to be 50 years of age; the Diaetetae 59.) SIS TO'V MaTrbv [L?1 QPXCLV KTX.] Pal. 3,299 a lo, rsij - av c-dodv 5il adXX' diraeAc6vov (alp~et) and I317 b 23 7- A 61d 7-6y abrv'T a'pXEwV kulSE/SALCav ~ O'XVyaKLI S d'Xi-'aS 9~CO i-WV KaT' ir6Xe/Lov. Of officials in general we read in Dem. 7Timocr. i~o (document quoted as f"PKOT iXaUTO-rV) oeTC 3si Tr?7'p avLST?7P apXlI'7 7-)v av1)7-o' CLV6paC OJT 36o ripXa'g alp~1aL TO atrv i~v iCp, w aVTrp CVLavrcy. The same citizen could be a /3ovXCVT'S more than once, as is shewn by the case of Timarchus and that of Demosthenes (ad~v. Mid. 114 and Aeschin., F. L. i 7); and is stated in c. 62 ad fin. It is doubted by Boeckh (Stoat/Sh. ii 763) whether the same citizen could be a /3ovXEvi-rs for two years in succession, but this is purely conjectural (Hermann's 'V 4

Page  17 CHI. 4, 1. 12-18. flOAITEIA '7 v57rap~?g~ KXqpov-V. cc' 78E' 'rv~ rv /3ovXev7rW~v, 6",rav Apa flovX', ' UKKXiRt/a(~ 7, 'KXEI7r0t Tr~ oi0,vo8ov', c~rw-tvov 5 0rvao-to- IS 18 IEKX17rot H-L. Stoaasalt. ~ 1,25, i). The ewurio-almJI rdz'v 7rpvTraEW1' was not allowed to hold that office more than once (c. 44 ~ x). The rotation of all in office was a wellknown device of later times (cf. Headlam's Election by Lot, p. 88): but it may well be asked how far it was applicable to a large body of citizens, most of whom lived at a considerable distance from Athens. It was in fact the work of a developed democracy (Class. Rev. v i 68 a). Ar. Pol. vi (iv) 14, i1298 a 14, iv ilXXcg1 61 7roXrTelas /3OVXEb'ovraL aL' cvvap~iat avyto0lJ-m, EII 6SE Till alp~agia1I ou (3ti0 rd 7-vTes Ka7T11 /51po1 EK T(l' OwXwJV Kal TWI' Ao.ptiCJW rciI' eXaXio7-wv 7ravTEXCeI, E101 ill ace~eXOfl 'a& 7raivrwz. ib. p. 1300 a '23, l -yap lrvriTes (ol lroXLacu Tall aip~a'g Kca6to-TTC0w) alpGEac, 7'7 rP76C3E E'K 7rra'pTWI' KX7)p(JJ (Kall [?77] E'~ Ct7r(l'VTCV 77 Ws dv&, 111(70, 0101' Ka2Ta O/UXCII Ka'L 675/1011 KCal (/5TpCis, Nws Il' t1 q Btb, rQ'tT-rl TWYP 7OX1TW KTX.). It is characteristic of the oligarchical spirit u75 CiEt XVyel wiVraS Eij~sImq7e' 3OvXe6eLV ([Xen.1 Rep. Ath. i 6). SLIEXIEZV] Tip a' pxq'V. Cf. /3101' 36IXOEOV. It would, however, be more natural to Say S. 7rda'rVTI' 8IEXOE6v or &LE~eX6eLV (r7-5V pXOPas in Pol. 1273 b 17, &&1 7ral'VT1'l.. LEX7XV06 Tb6 a"PXELP' KcIl To' a"pX6rOc11, and the passages quoted in last note. For igcXOecl' ex urna (van Leeuwen) cf. Horace's sos-s exitiura, hut this use of 9~EXOELI is doubtful. In Pol. ii i i, 12 73 a i6, the word is applied otherwise, to the 'going out of office' (of certain officials in the Carthaginian constitution), Kal -ya'p 1E'E6t77XV0ilT1F C~PXOVU-L KILL /5e'XX0VT6I. i6pri POv~ijS C. 30 ~ 4.EKKX11G-CcLS] Of the general assembly of the citizens, in or before the times of Dracon, nothing is known. 'The people must have had some power' (says Mr Abbott, History of Greece, i 2301), 'or the Draconian laws would not have been published, and Solon would not have been chosen to reform the constitution. We do not know that the officers were elected by, or responsible to, the assembly, and of legislative and judicial authority the people had none. Perhaps we may assume that war could not easily be proclaimed without their consent, as they formed the bulk of the soldiers. If that were the case, the safety and power of the State depended, in the last resort, upon the General Assembly.' S. A. Be' 8r Ls.A-KX(CroL....WTF&LVov] Goodwin's Hoods and Tenses, ~ 462. EKXdCWOL.njv a-'vo~ov] Xen. Hell. v 2 ~ 22,, El 61 Tr11 T~l' lr6Xcwv CIKXLbrot T77V' C-T/l-recapI, e4eiyat Aace~raqsoviotI fi7rt477[ov0T47a-r7pt KaI-al TbV' a'h6pa Ti5I 'yspas. The phrase is not found in Aristotle, although in Pol. 1331 b so we have irpoll a'7opq^1...Ka1 GUI'6&wa -Ty'i KOCV?7. crivo6ol is applied to an fKKX77ICLIL in 1319 a 3,2, ol 1 -yEw~p-yo~l'TeI StiX Tb6 &LeOrdipOca KaLTa' T771' XcbpaV ov"T' aIa7IvLVatWOI ob'O' 6/1uolws SIoI'Tra T771 alpl'3o& TcaO5T77I, and to the crvoa-0LTa in 1271 a 28, 96eL 'ya'p a7ro K011'O Ud/IXXOP l'pat11 T7'71 o-b'P0601', KcaO'irEp 6v Kp '5-. EKXEi7IE11' is generally intrans. in Ar.-Fines for nonattendance are mentioned in Pol. 1297 a I 7 (among the devices by which oligarchies deceive the people), 7rEPI &KKX77OLIap /u511r' Tb 1eLYIa1 rCc10V fKKX77(T-La'E1V, ~Iqj1dav 61 WKE'7LK6FaIaL To~ el'r6po011a' IA'/17 E'KKX7IrOcTC~wa-w..., and (among the counter-devices on the part of democracies) 1,297 a 37, T-o~l /111' -yap awr6polI /11106Pl 70~pi~OVCTrP ' KKX7r1'CIOVLKall &K14ov0%, TOZl 6' Elilo'potI oli6,e[11111 TarTTovOL ~77/51al. 1294 a.38, Cl' /el'p obilvrx yt1066v, 6l 61a~ T1S7/IKpaITiat 111ro~l je~y ar~o'poLI /u510605', TO6sl 61 liro'potI ObE-,udav Ndu'a. Mr Headlamn observes that the only Athenian instance of a law inflicting a fine for non-attendance at the Council is to be found in the constitution of the 400 in c. 30 ult. There is no evidence as to fines for non-attendance at official duties in the earlier part of Athenian history. The fines inflicted by Solon's legislation are of a completely different character. In the laws of Dracon fines were levied in terms of so many head of oxen: Pollux ix 6i, Kil'V ApaKovToT P6ULS6/5071P 0Ti' IbI-TVE~l' ElKOudotfobpl. This may have been the compensation paid to a man's relatives in a case of unintentional homicide. But (as observed by Busolt, Philol. i891, p. 399) fines paid to the public 'chest in the form of oxen would be very inconvenient, and in such cases the payment was probably exacted in money. cLe'nE'ovo] Ar. Pol. ii 12, 1274 1b 2o, ~,q/uiaI1 dlroTrl'eLV (in an interpolated chapter). L-IES ~v~r see C. 7 ~ 4. All these have hitherto been 2

Page  18 I8 AOHNAIQN COL. 2, 1. 9-I7. uJeSit/voo TpEt9l paxiua'c, 6 [8e l]7rrev1 3vo0, evytq79f (Se S/kiav. 2} 8S 4 2o,3ovX\ X et 'Apeiov 7rdyov fvbXat rJv Twv VOfLOWV Kcat 8L~tET7p[6eL ra]9 apxa oT7rtow Kara T0ov 1[ vo/ovs apxoL'v. e v e tow d ' covutevo 7rpb[ T'7V Trwv] 'Apeo07raCyLT[ov] /3ovX\iv elafayeXXeLv d7ro/alvovrt Trap' ov ad8KcelTa vO/,ov. e7rl Se Tios oto[/,a]ovtv aav ol SavetaLol, 5 cKada7rep etpqrTa, Kcai a X opa S' O\Xlryv f). 5. ro70avtrT Se 7r9 7reW 9 oVrf17 elv Tr 7 oX7EtTa ecat rTwv 19 <O> Eiw7tT2lr H-W, H-L; sed exspectares 6 65 '. 22 apeonrareFT. 23-4 e7ri-4-v spuria putant Richards et Keil. Sea3eevot quondam dubitanter K (K-W); Se&aveLtrvot Richards, H-L; ot SaveLo-iol Blass (K3 p. LXIV). regarded as characteristic results of Solon's legislation; but some sort of property classification, even before the time of Dracon, is implied in c. 3 ~ i, where magistrates are described as chosen -7rXouWe here reach the end of that part of the chapter which is open to most dispute. Its possible origin is thus indicated by Mr Headlam: ' The constitution described betrays the thought of a particular party; the reformers of this school used to advocate their policy by maintaining that it really would restore Athens to the condition in which it was before the democratic changes began. Many as we know looked on Solon as the originator of the changes which they deplored (Ar. Polit. ii I2). They would then recommend a constitution of this kind by saying it was like that which prevailed in Athens before the time of Solon. This has misled some transcriber or editor. After the words roiSs Oeooiros gO —IKEV, influenced by the expression at the beginning of chap. iii he desiderated some account of the constitution in the time of Draco and inserted this passage out of some other book ' (Class. Rev. v i68 b). ~ 4. 4a5Xct -rT3v v4oJv] Plut. Sol. I9, T?7V 6' cZvO POUVX7V ET'IrIKOroV rtcV7TCV KIcd piXaKa rsv VO6LsW eKadOiCev, inf. 8 ~ 4. T-rv vOdJwv] esp. the.xtol of Jraco mentioned in 1. 3 immediately before the disputed passage. Eio'aLyy4XXEL] 'to impeach,' or 'lay an information' or ' denunciation.' The first known instance of the verb belongs to an inscr. soon after 446 B.c. (Bull. de Corresp. hellen. i880, p. 225). The use of the term here does not correspond precisely with any of the technical senses which it afterwards bears in a more highly developed stage of Attic law. An eiaa-yy/eXia could be brought before the Archon or the Polemarch in certain cases, or before the Boule or the Ecclesia, but not before the Council of the Areopagus. See Dr Hager in Smith, Diet. Ant. s. v. ~ 5. iWi. 8S KTX.] c. 2 ~ 2. In spite of the advantage of being able to appeal to the Areopagus against acts of injustice, the people had the standing grievance of having their persons mortgaged to their creditors &c. The statement follows naturally from the previous sentence and leads up to the account of the rebellion of the poor against the rich in the next. It is therefore unnecessary to accept the view of a writer in the Edinburgh Review, 1891, 479: " the statement is quite superfluous; the conjunction does not link it with the preceding sentence, which is concerned with a wholly different subject, and the form, 'as has been said,' shows clearly that it is a marginal comment made by some one who wished to impress the fact on his memory." So far from wishing to strike out this passage, we should be grateful for its preservation, as it has made it possible to restore the sense in the previous mention of the same facts in chap. 2. It has already been shewn that it is quite in harmony with the context. V-XII. The legislation of Solon. V ~ i. rdCIES] If in the previous chapter, the description of the rTais is an interpolation, and the mention of the Oeo-auo in relation to the Areopagus and the economic condition of the poorer classes is alone to be regarded as genuine, the use of rciews here becomes open to suspicion, unless we are content to regard the powers of the Areopagus and the right of bringing grievances before them as sufficient to constitute a rcts, or constitutional order of things. ev Trf 7roXLteI] almost equivalent to rTjs 7roX\relas, the gen. being avoided because of the gen. preceding. Cf. De Gen. Anim. i, I, 715 a i, e7reit e repL rTcv aXXwv /LOpIwv Ei'p7TraL 7rwv e rots T ots.

Page  19 CH. 4, 1. I9-CH. 5, 1. 9. TTOAITEIA I9 [7r]oXXO\ v 8ovXev6vvT(o TO-S oXl7oLSv, avre77r TroS 7vYopIIov 5o 2 8,,Ltog. a-Xvpa' 8e &rT CT-rTiaewS ovr KaZ 7o\[Uvv] Xpovov dvrtKarO,,UEevw v dX\XXotv,,eXovTo KcoLvY &aXXaKTrv, Ka, apXovra o Xcova, cKat T[7v 7roXL1Te[a]v e7rerTpetav av'T 7TroLt7avTi Trv 5 EXeeelav 1) eor7 v aEp0 X fyz, oS[-oK], ab[ tLOL (pevo Sv 'Zoev atXyea KlTrat, 7rpeao/vTaTr'r v eoop6ov ayaav 'Iaoviav. cal yap te7reXavvetL cal rrpov eKcarepov9 v7rep eKcaep(ov,aXeTat V 2 an e'rav-?7'r/? Wyse. 7 rlINA)[CKO)] K, K-W, H-L: 'yLyvLWaKwC certe usque ad annum 325 A.C. in titulis Atticis scriptum fuisse constat (Meisterhans, p. 1422): an oluO' w? H-L. 8 'Iaovltv Richards (Class. Rev. v 334 a). 9 eTeA,\yNeN legit K (e'7rr-Xavvev K1 sed tempus praesens flagitat contextus). E7raXXd7rTTE J B Mayor, Richards, cf. Pol. i255 a 13, 1257 b 35, I295 a 9. e'rtXeaive quondam tentabam, sed desideratur accusativus velut rovs rpaXvvo/^vovs; e7reXactveL K3, sed sensus in obscuro. [oavupov\Xewcv 7roXX] irpos H-L. 7roXL[TrKWc ~ 2. dvrLKa0etliovwv] a metaphor implying two forces watching one another. The literal sense is found in Thuc. v 6 ~ 3, and similarly with avTLKaOitecrOat ib. iv 124 ~ 2. sL8CXXC'aKTv KCal apxovTa] Plut. Sol. 14, Ob/OU Kal Sa\XXaKT71S Kal vo/.LOOT7s, Praec. Ger. Reip. io ~ i6 p. 805, ovoevl &yap efiAFifas eavrbv aiXXa KOLtvOS v Tao-t Kal rdvraa Xieywv Kal 7rpirTTrwv rpbs 6O/Ovotav, lpeiO? vo/o6Tr7S uTt TLS 6LaXlo'et, ib. p. 825 D 'jiepov La\XXaKTr'v, and esp. Amzatorius I8 ~ 14, 763 D, TOVTOP e'i'ovTO KOLV taXXc\aKT7 v KaL dpXovra KaL vYotloOTrqv. The last passage supports the opinion that Plutarch had a first-hand acquaintance with this treatise. The archonship of Solon is assigned to B.C. 594 (Clinton F. H., ii p. 298=3633; Busolt, i 524, note 2). Cf. note on 13 ~ I. rjqv e-ydECav] here, and in 1. 3 from end of chapter, 'the elegiac poem.' The fem. form is found in Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. ix 15, i, and also in late authors (e.g. Plut. Sol. 26, Cimon i0). Aristotle uses Tr& Xe'yeZa in Poet. I, Wta rpTL.dTpwv 0) eXe'yewv, Rhet. i 15, iXeyeta Zo6Xwovos, iii 2, iXeyEyea Atovalov (cf. Class. Rev. v 334 a). The lines quoted have been hitherto unknown. They may fairly be accepted as the opening couplet of the poem cited in Dem. de Falsa Leg., p. 421, ~ 255, sometimes called 'Tr'o7Kat ets 'AOWrvaiovs. The passage as there quoted begins with the words: tekepa oe 7TroA6L KaTaI yJev Albi OiVjTT' OXheTaL alc'av KaCL JaKapwv OeCOv fpevao agoavaTv. Voemel saw no difficulty in regarding the passage quoted by Dem. as the actual beginning of the poem: "Particula 56 non obstat initio.... Similia initia Tyrtaei, Mimnermi, Callini. Imo optime convenit commoto atque elato Solonis animo relicta sententia 'Aliae quidem urbes interierunt et interibunt,' sic incipere: 'sed Athenae sunt perpetuae'." But, if the couplet quoted in the text comes from the same poem at all, we now have the true beginning of that composition. The poet begins in a strain of sorrow and dejection due to the sad condition of his country, mingled with fear of the consequences of the avarice and pride of the wealthy (infra. i7Vr re q)cXap-yupiav r T-v 0' U7reprlqaviav). Afterwards (in the passage preserved by Dem.) he changes his tone to one of exultant trust in the overruling power of the patron-goddess of Athens. He then dwells on the injustice, the insolence, and the greed of the 6OjiLv U yefioveS; and insists on the evils caused by bad legislation and the blessings brought about by good. Thus far we have only an attack against one of the two parties in the state. The other topics may have found a place in the lost portions of the poem. 'Iaovlas] 'Iaovzilv is proposed by Mr H. Richards on the ground that Solon is not likely to have used Ionia for 'all lands where Ionians dwell.' The Ionic form may have been wrongly written 'Iaoviav, and then altered into 'Iaovtas in consequence of the superlative. Considering, however, that it was a fixed belief of the Athenians that Ion had been their own 7roX\/Iapxos, and was the father of the four progenitors of the Ionian tribes, Attica may well be called the oldest land in all the Ionian world. irXckaivcL] apparently intransitive; used elsewhere of military movements 2-2

Page  20 20 AOHNAIQN COL. 2, 1. i8-29. 30 Ka't (3ta/1ct0t1-3qTEZ, Ka't fLema Tav37a KOM~ WrpctEt [Ka-ra]wral' T7)Eveo-rwo-av cfJXOVtKLtL. iV 3 I6XUwV T" UV [']0-6t Ka' T?,) 3 80' r Twv wrpa'wv, T'rj (' o'ut / i To-t,~W7PaiyI/Lact TOWV /.tEOOV, CO( EK TrE TwV aX'Uw ob1oXyet'Tat Kat LvTOS el) Tot(7(S TOES' 7rot77laO-tl pLapTvpEt, 7TapatvO)v ro0l9 7rXovdLOts /1N 7TXeoVeK-reL 15 VL LS 3 1) v a aV Eocv fpecrt KapTEpo ) s-Top, oti 7roXXwl) a'yaO&W El9 Ko'pOl [n'X] aaaTE, EvI /LE-pOtotot -r[pEf0o-O]e pc'yav 'oo- T ya~p?IjpeL'v 7rECo/LEO QOM v tLv a~p rta wer [T'] EoE'rat. Kat ~ s a t T77V atT av Tq7S 7-TaaOE(O apa wr &e Toi t~vaot & 2o Ka~t eV apX y, TrJS E X y ta (3 ( Ot a /7 --rai-ca]? K-w, qui legi posse existimant K6t1Fc\p1TroM... ETW~KtWIPOC; quae si revera olim exstabant, hicet conicere Kad -yaip 7roXt[,red]ercr Kad irpo's, quod confirmat aliquatenus Aristides Hl 361 Dind. in commentario exscriptus, qui in loco nostro suos in usus convertendo verbum er1oX7-e6,ET0 bis usurpavit. 11 4~IXOTIMMN superscr. N IK I. BLhtE Richards, Wyse (edd.): po-Et olim K. 16 ado-care K1 sensu intransitivo usurpatum: correxit Postgate coil. Tyrtaei loco infra allato; idem conicit Naber (edd.). 17 T-[WeoG0E] Platt (H-L); /LETpL'OL 7r~p~reo-e Kontos. 18 dpta: cip6~ura Tyrrell, coil. Theogn. i3i32 gi'es~ 6 d o, a de H t i 8 e/ 1v Ss) ra b 0/m&6~a e's cXXs)Xovs: SpKta Kontos (H-L). ir[Xvr'] K-w quod locis infra laudatis confirmatur; T6XX K1 qui T& potius quam TT6, in papyro legit; rcar' H-L (K3, B); rw6XX' quondam Blass. 19 &IC (K, K-W, B): dcil(H-L). Formama utramque usurpant decreta such as ' charging' (Hdt. ix 49), or 'marching against' (i I7); here perhaps of 'attacking.' This sense would lead up to the next verb,gacXe-rat. Another suggestion, era-aX'i7-7eL, as ohserved by one of its proposers, 'seems suitable to descrihe the attitude of a man who sees and takes both sides of a question at once, who is at home in both camps' (H. Richards in Class. Rev. v 107 a). But we should expect &voIXepW'veL or aI'rn-Eaet. rrpi Ic r ou EK~p~ CcLr'pcv] T he purport of this part of the poem must have been the same as that of the Xyo'-o of Solon described in Aristides, ii.36i, who probably had this passage in view: MM~o 2;6Xcw Tc' gv e's Me-yap~as 9Xovra~ 'A /gaaC1 V -ye atC, TOyS 6U V',O/0VS 01K V57 ir p IWY OL ro61 X o-yovv To'/I 'r tp TWI Co To PW v wp 6s -rt/J 597/501, ot/5t Trots ~r t/p i r 7- iZ 7oXX diz' Tp T 7-0 S TX OV O1L'oVs 01/K q 5ev, o t/6 6' tLV w ~ re e o tK P5co o65' Jv 1.ei-rpots f'roN1t7EU6e7T, aiXXa& 7 -T717 P977TOPMK713 7rt/r Ka~ap//s Xpcb/ievos. ~. rjjp.v +1ireL KTX. ] Plut. Sal. 1, csv 5p6s o t/cria L 1dvu, cW hi 17511, Kad 3 1vcva /Setl/IL-o 7-c('D 7roXLTWVZ, OIKLIas & 7rpW'7-7 KamT1 -ytvos. TW*V j.LEO(r(V KTX.] Ar. Pal. vi (iv) i i, i1296 a 19, 077/IEZOP & SEL VOgl1'ELV KIal 7r6 7-ov's /3ckrlo-7ov vo/0lrcss~a Eiva TI~/v /A oaw v woXirJv~ - 6Xcv 7-s -Yap 77V 7ro6TcW (697XoZ 5' ELK -ri~ rt 'o-Eews). This statement is proved by the verses here quoted. TWYv ALuwv must not be confounded with our 'middle classes.' It refers rather to the moderately wealthy citizens (see Newman's Palitics of Ar., i p. 5oo). Cf. Pal. 1295 b, 1i296 a 7, 13, 1,2893b 29 f.?]o-ux~craVTES] The vb is transitive in this tense alone. Plat. Re.57 A, a~vc0111 [At/ -rt) 6 o 6`697, Tr6 TrpLt'ov U KtV?5O l1 These four lines have been hitherto unknown. Ot-4' S K05POV jXcdcrCvTrE] 'ye that plunged into surfeit of many good things.' Tyrtaeusi i (7), 1o, dA00/bo-tpwV 5' El' Kt/pov 7)Xd1o/TIFT, Hdt. ii 124, e's TroooV2OVri Xa (,r6 7wp6-y/5a), 'they drove it thus far'; v 50, es TloIalV KaKO'-r-q77-a AX&Tal. Ot/TIE -ydLp 1jjLdtS-9crETCL] neither shall we (who are oppressed) continue to obey you, nor will you (who are wealthy) find all things perfect. QPTLCL 7rrCLV'] Solon 4 (13) 35, Et/VOu4c7 5' E&/OCLTIL KItl aLpTL1a 7rdv7-' diTO/alVeL, and ib. 40, LorT S' liT' au'T-rtq7rTILYTa KILT' aivOpd'rovs a47-TL KItl rtu's-ra. Theognis 946, El/IL Trap& o-rdci6A77v d'pO/'v Sa0'p, ot/&ri-' pWO-e IKXLVo/SEVosI XP~ ya'p /,' diprsa 7raivTIa voev. njV CLvrCCwV...cvdirrEL] 'ascribes the origin' (K). Rare in Aristotle; Met. I2, 4, 46

Page  21 CH. 5, 1. IO-CH. 6,1. 6. FI0AITEIA 2 2 I T77v '1e 0[~tXapryvp]t'aV 737v 0' Ep37cfqavclav, 121 6. KV'pto9~ 83E rYEvobLkevo9 7(0 7Tpayf~ka'T]WV '~`ODWV ToPV TrE '7k 377X6E1ApweT Kcat ev '7- wrapov-t Kcat EI,9 To 1-'exxov, tKo~vlca9 8[amn']~'etv e~70t9 TOFVO wtIaotv, Ka1t lo/.obLv9 E"OnKe Kalt Xpew~ a'[rro]Ko~ra\ E~w[o]t',q-e KELLt 7-607) L&(07 K(a1t 7(01v (S3TL0(to)1), (19 (tEo-a"XOeta?) KaXoV'0- tV, (09S a7rYetca-tlLEvcov To f3alp 09~. ev 019 retpOJv'Tal TI[VE~] &Cta 5 2 /a6XXetv aiv',ro'i a-v ve'/3i yatp TWo $oXaw~ 1tt6'X0V' r oeiev 'r)V publica usque ad annum 361 A.C., ex quo anno ad tantum inventumn est, quamnquamn Omaowrwv in titulis dhu duravit atid (Meisterhans, p. 252); itaque detL ubique scripsi quod autem inter Aristotelis editores nonnulli modo bane, modo illam formam malunt, velut in Pal. 1276 a 36, 38 ubi inter trium versuum Spatium Kralrep aled et Kallrep deti legitur, vix credibile est scriptorem eundem formam utramque usurpasse. 21 -r'5 re /{[tXap-yvp]Lav K, K-W, H-L; -riv 0[tXoXp-qyuar]tav, Kontos, Bernardakis: -r?)v d[Xp-q~u]a-ricw B. 7-tv 7-e 1)7rep. (K, K-W); r'v 0' bwrep. J B Mayor, Jackson, H-L; et metrum et -re iteratum poetae versum produnt. VI 1 -<6'> 26Xwv K-W. 3 Kacd v6,uovs 90-qKC Seci. K-w, Reinach. C 4 Aceic&&&i: a's Oeto-dXOetca' K etc. KaX00JLtPl': 'fort. EcKclXOVP scribendum' (K-w). 5 61T0rCICAMENOI: &nroo-etoa/evoL K, H-L; dwroo-eta-ag wv J B Mayor, K-W, B. B~po K ec.:["xO]os H-L. TESTIMONIA. VI 3 Heraclidis epitoma:, vo/io~e7-~oh 'AO0q~a1otT Kal xpeWV 17TOKOr 'as ifroitlue, T)7V o-eo-c'XO clav Xeyo/udP?1v (Rose, Frag. 6ii, 33. Hesych. aeLtaaX~eta- 16Xcwi Xpe(v Ci7roKo7ri7V 637 A10UiWJcV Kal 1&WT-LKCQW i&o/500LTr-qa, '7'V7r6P rcio-a0etav eKciX60c irapcl 7-6 air~oaelao-Oat T6 &3cpOSrosi-d Sra'cwv. Photius (= Suidas) 0ctocdiX~eta, = Apostolius 17, 52. 3, wp ro61 X6,yovs et's dptO/Aois aibrlr-oV, 'to ascribe or refer to.' Common in Plutarch, e.go. Lycurg. 6, i —y7 adpxh'v KIL Tr'17V at-rLap r7 iroX1Tclas et's i-rv 1160tov dvij/',F 13 ~ 3, 1-6 S' o"XOV KU1L 7ria'ojeq vo~OIOeatIC lp-yov eL's r-'q raI~eiap dp'W'c, Numa i12 ~ s, Eis /LL0s 66Va/luV Ocou Tr& rept TaS-&IEP9yClOLS KaL T-as i-reXvi-as davirr-ol'Tes. Cf. db'aogpceji. Mr Poste and Mr H. Richards (Class. Rev. v 466 a) understand it 'imputes the blame.' This might be defended by Od. ii 86 ACojuoy db'cb/aa (Schol. rcptrloL7)aaL, 7repLOeLat), where Ameis prefers JK AC0LLOV dLVd~Iat. But in Attic Gk we should expect lrepmir-eTc in this sense (Dem. Le~pt. io). rn~s 4XEyeCc~s, ~ 2. SIESOLKE'VOL KT-X.] Plut. Sal. 14, 36 -80LWI' i-WVP /.l6 T37V (PXoXp37Isc1raP i-WVp T77V 67repi70/aVLaV. The double re is far more common in verse than in prose (Kifihner, ~ 5,20). VI ~ I. KWX'i'crcs SUVE'tELV K7-X.] Plut. Sal. i5, 10XWVOS... T7?V -novX pe WP &7 OKO'rX IE 06~etaP L'PoAOa'a i-Go. ToUTo -yap LgroL15ai-o lrp~i-ro' 7roX1i-cJa, 'ypcb/'a i-LI gSLJ Luirapxopra i-r(O XPecWp ' ru'cLLtc1, irpos r6 Xotro'v iwi TO 0 Zsa A o L gaCT 6avi,,E1ev., Diog. Laert. i 5. The phrase XpeWVi dLrOKo~ratL is found in Dem. 17 ~ 15, '24 ~ 149, Andoc. de Myst. 88, Plut. ii,226 B, Cic. ad Alt. vii i i ~ i, x. aiirOKO7ri7 in Plato, Legg. 736 C. aOeLwcXELO.v] (i) Most of our ancient authorities understood this to imply a complete remission of debts; this is the view of the text, and of Philochorus, frag. 57, and it is accepted by Sch6mann, Ant. p. 3-28 E. T.; Gilbert 1 30; Landwehr, Phkilal. Sitppl. Bd v (1 884) 131 iff.; and Busolt, i.525. (,2) Others, including Androtion (see note on i o~ i), held that Solon relieved the debtors, partly by a diminution in the rate of interest, partly by the introduction of a new money-standard; this is accepted by Boeckh; Hermann, Staaftalt. ~ io6; E. Curtius; and? (in the main) by Duncker, Gescit. d. Alt. vi ed. 5, i58. (3) Grote (c. I i, ii 304) assumes a total remission of debts, but limits it to the case of debts secured on the debtor's person or his land. ~ 2. aouv4iPi9-eiXoi',rouv] Plut. Sa. i5, rTp&y/-la 6' a6TLOw01J,~vgreo-eZ Xe-yeTat irca'i-cJ cbaip~67arov arb T-fl rpaci~EWS IKEL'

Page  22 22 AOHNAIQN COL. 2, 1. 29-40. TEto-aX[ etav 7tpoeotetEWro mw' T3 [yvot]p4Lo)[v], gwet9', ", t' ol 8fl1fLrtlco0& Xeyovo-r, 7wapaa-TpaLrfyq0l-pat ta' Tw' (/)tX&), (Os. 3 01 [I~ovX]6'/-e7 ot~/X U Y 7L W Ka't aV'To71 KOWV&)7EL71. &Lave toa/J&70t y tp 10OVrOC o-VVeTZ-piaV7- wroXX17> XUpap, [I.e~a 8] ov' 7roXv' T~797~TI XPEI7V aw0Ko7rn79 /76V10EVn? 6' 7tX0V7TOV71 OOev O/aai 7eve1&TOat TOyS'I Va7T6pO7 3o[Kco]fi71as' elvat~ 'naXatowXoV'TovS'. O~ pi?'7v XXa' 77dt[ava'-]3 TCPOS' [0'] 7(071 8'q1/0TtK0([71 X]O'yol?' 0v ya~p [EIIC]o'1 E) /LE' TO~tS' a"XXoV~ OVTW Pe&ptol ryeveo-Oat ca't KCOtVOP [6aJG]T', e'~ az'v3T[rO i [&T] '[po]Vl 15 uw~ w0L570- / E 7 T p 7 7 E V 5 S OOCS, a L /O T 'pO tlS 'a7reX [O I 'o-O a t Kat 7rept 7rXetOvoS' [7woi] jo-ao'Oat T[0\ Ka]XoZ) Ka\t 737 7rOXE()S' o-OAT'q7p taV i) ' v a&VT oi 7r tv4 a71 Ev [ol" E FUtKpoL9 [c f av~a~io]ts? KctTappv7raIV[e]t71 EeaVTO'1. O5Tt 8S\ ~Ta?7T7 EeTXE 73\71 4 6e~OvaiaV, Ta TE 7rpaiyp~ara 7100ov^vTa pta[pTV]pe^t [TOD^]TO, KUat El TOtS' 8 K, &d& K etc.: 6w6o K-W. 10 14era& 5'K etc. (Cf. Magn. Mar. 121 i b i, A7 o6 7roX6); elTra /Ler'-L 11 rFINOMENHC (K'): 7eodav-q Rutherford, K-W, HL, K3. 14co-r' Richards, Jackson, Blass (edd.): " a -r' OEM K. [v61j]oL'S K, el K-W: [C&]~[po]vr Blass (H-L) Coll. C. 11, 13. 19 M....pO... TO litteris obscure scriptis. /IcapTrpeL legunt Wessely et Blass, quod mihi quoque in mentem venerat. 7-0oD70 mecum coniecerunt K-W2, a" Idoa'cTo Wessely, quod vel propter hiatum vix tolerari potest. /SereXetplfoa-To quod olim protuli (coil. Plat. Rep. 408 C la-rpoi' voodsAus jueT,'Xetptaapro', et 346 E, TOd. daX~orpcr Ka.Ka' [LTaXeLpi~eo-Oat a'VOP~OOOPa) acceperunt H-L, sed repugnat papyrus. [capT6p[t]o[v ge]-ya Blass, sed TO potius quam Fe in papyro apparet. v77L. Ws -yap wp/.-ocrev awveiat Tri. xpea KaLL X6-yovs icpuirrovras E'N5ret Kad lrpe'7rouoca' aPX77V, eKoLJdalaT-o TWYv 5b1XWP ols uaciXtoc7a 7rLcT7EiWP Kati XpwMAevos e-6yxaVE, ToLL lrEpi' K6vwova Kali KXetviaP Kati 'Ibr0'VLKo', O5TL -Yi~z [LEYV 06' 1ItXX KWPEZV, XPEWVP 56 7roJv d~rOK07raLL 9&YVLK6V. ohl 6 arpoXaf36z-res E666 Ka'i (PO 'o-avres E&ave' L T oXvV rcpy-tov r-apac 7W,'P irXoiVcwV Kad /Le-ydXacL oTvvewv 'o-vrL1o XcbpaS. ETra -roO 66-y[Lawos C'~evEXOE'wros Tac ULEV KT-'15/LaTaL K~p~rO6/l~eLOL, -rac~Xp'i5~aw~a ToZL Sr'elo-aow 06K awrO6L60'v7TeL el, aITLaV 7T6v 2;0Xcwva IieYdX'ijv Kali 6ra~oX-q5v, W'o-7rep 06' o-vva&.SK06ALEZV, dX~ac Ovl/aL&KouVP ca, Ka7-ILTT7-L7o-v. a'X\a ToD7To [LiV 6VOSL A\L077 7TO 96YK'X37[Lr ToLL 7r 7 TraXa&7'tOs r oo-aih-a -yacp e'plOn7 3avetfLOv, Ka!i TLaJTL arp~j7og dop6KC KaTL1 -01'v s6'yv. 9VIOL 51 7ee7eleaI6eKa Xe-yovotv, cw' Kati IIoA 6i7Xos 6' T'Pc& 6s E'o7t. Troil, /.LI otO Ot~ovs av'roi XP6WK0-7rIaS KLXoOvwTes SLeTeXeocu' (the story of the five talents comes from some other source than the text). Pi-aecept. CGer. Reij5. 13 ~ 1o p. 807, ioi0r0 -Ya'p Kall ~2c0Xwpa Kan'XVe %l 6tfera~e 7rpos r'ovl' aroXI-ras liz-el% -yap e'v vcp Xap3cW' Ta' 0l/?X3/LcaTa KOV~ldtaa, Katl THIP LTELO LX OIELalv (-roi3To 8'?'7 Vwo0Kpopw,ua XpeW~v acrOKolf7r') eIcrel'EYKfF, eKOLVL$o-aTo TroIL 4$1XOLS' oh 8' -ybcp 6wro5Odacc-vres cipy-tov 7roXu', Katll per' 6XI-yov Xpo'vov et's q)cVL ToO' vo/LoU 7rpocXO6'vTo,', ol' Ae'v e/4)ca'72oru' OlKClL Tre Xavzrpacs Kall -y-v o-vz'ewv-qu9lvot 7roXXv e~ W'v ESlVEio-a,'ro Xp31b~aTL-wV 6' 51 2;Xwv al'rcap CV e o-vvalSKELV i'&Ki?7A&o,' 7rcAca~owXo~rV'Ts] Lys. 19 ~ 49. ~ 3. KaTCLPpv-rrcL~vE~v] To the passages from Isocr. and Plato, quoted in L and 8, may be added Plut. de C'ohibenda Ir-a 6, ii p. 456, KaTappv~rIZJL Kall 7r[LII-XflLV a&3o~a,', de Profectibus in Virt. I 7, ii p. 85 F, ov6 5' 0'rcrooiv ri4Lcv jkvralpeo-aL. The word is not found in Ar. ~ 4. 'raIU'rr9v r'njv liovorCccv] sc. TrO) 7-rvpav-,'e~z' Plut. Sal. I4 and Solon fragm. 33, 06K gov~ M6Xwzv 8aO69bpwv KTX., there quoted: also fragm. 3,2. 'rc re irCYLLC vocroiVv'CL KTX.] Prof. Tyrrell (Class. Rev. v I177) defends IL4eTeKpvouoaTo (K') as follows: "The idea of a halance underlies the word, as in ircpaKpoileo-OraL, and 'he shifted the balance of affairs' would he a not unnatural way of saying 'he changed the face of politics.' But, even if tt6T6Kp6oicaro were defensible in itself, one could hardly justify such a mixture of metaphors as 'adjusting the

Page  23 CH. 6, 1. 7-CH. 7,1. 3. TTOAITEIA 23 wonrjyao-v aVTOsI wroXXaXoi,' pUEV'1 a,,T Kat o01 ElxXo 0-vvo0,oU0oyoiY t 'o rrTaV[T61~]. av'Tqv tte'V OV'V XP' VOPI~EtV *E VU7 Ti 7v al'Ti'aV 67vat. 7. 77-X7et'av &6 KcaTE'cT70-CE Kat volkov/JJ EO/i7 aKXXou', -rot 8 aP 1O7'r OEJOL9 TOM7TaveOctl XPw/UEV0L WX?71) 7(01 f)vwLK(ov. avayp'*aTv7e 9 8& 701 VOFL0VSu EtS 70TVS KV'pI3et E0-T7IJ-a) 79v T 3 TESTIMONIA. VII 3 *Harp. Ke6p/3Es: "ayvaypa/avTEa-P~ 7f-1 UT^o 7~) jaaoXdq (/ao-Al& cod. D et Photius)." *Plut. So!. 25 (ot ' 6Xtvot di~oves) wrpoo-,yop66O?7-av, cJ, 'Aptroi-7ioXnA (O-t, K6p/611. *Schol. Arist. Av. I.354 (=Lexicon Dem. Patmiacumi, p. i5o Sakkelion) K6P3E(S...Kara'L i e'vioUSt acovtpeg rp1YWPO (Ka-CraKeVci/IUadta -rta 4liXwac rp'ywva Lex. Patm.) iv ofs qoav oti v 67Ir6Xecu v61-4ot yEYPact/5USOL... KCacirEp KCa 'Ap. EP Ir 'AO. -oX. oqrli Kat 'AuroXX63wpos (Rose, Frag. 3522, 3903). balance of the maladies of the state.' My former suggestion vocovYTa AIETE7etpio-cro is defended in point of expression by the passages of Plato quoted in the critical notes. It is also incidentally confirmed in point of sense by a passage in Grote's History of Greece (ii 327), where he speaks of the 'discontents of the miserable Athenian population' experiencing Solon's 'disinterested and healing managemient.' The Te in this case would mean Iand accordingly' (being armed with this authority), as often in Herodotus and Thucydides, and not seldom in Xenophon (Kiihner, ~ 5i9, 3). The usage of Ar. does not differ in this from that of other writers (Eucken, De Ar. dicendi ratione, i p. 13). The suggestion that the sense required is 'Idocet et res publica aegrotans et' (K-w') admits of being carried out by proposing Ta TE rpcay/,scaa voo-WrcLa /srL aP-VPEL TOUTO. The sequence flapTupE_. e.4v -l7rat... o-otkoXoyoicr would in this case find its parallel in c. 5 ~ 3, 9K TE i-cev t6lX\Xwv 6goXoy tral Kai a6TbE 'Sv 700ZT6E TOFS 7rooLhacrlv pzaprvpy, and 12 ~ i. Cf. Pot. 1334 a 5 071 6U SE..../apvTpEF Ta yLyvO/.Ev'a Trots Xo'-yots, Metaplhysica 282 b 22 6' X6-yos poap~rpeZ, De Aninza 410 a 29, 9 e -W /sap-rvpeZ u-b vib XeXtev, Eth. ii I, i103 b 2 /uap7-vpEL S KaL 7Tb yty-yvouevov iV Tas roXXEoov, &c. Since this note was written 1.taprvpet has been conjectured in _-W2, and this is the reading which I now prefer. voCooivraT] c. 13 ~ 3, o-aoa-Lc0vrEs followed by voaoiv-rEs metaphorically used in the same sense. Plat. Rep. 470 c, VoG-Crv...Kai oTaat-ewv, and 556 E, vooae -re Kai aUTO) aUTO)^ Iu e-rat (ij 7r6Xis). 1LEVtLp'1rL] 'makes mention of,' usually c. gen.; here Si- is due partly to the influence of crvvosoXo-yovilo, and still more to 1iapT-vpes, if that be accepted. Cf. 12 ~I, STr7L —ucA'wvouos-/-4'uv7rat. VII ~ I. ApdKOVYOS 0EO)LOtZS] C. 4 ~ I. krXijv CiOV EfOVLKwV] Plut. So! i 7 mnit. urpwvrov 1dv ONo 70T6S ApiKOV-ros v6AovS aEVXE ii X 7V 7TOV (OVLKWjDV aLTOSap7 aSol 7'v XaCXEzr67T-q7a KatS 7Tb 1-tye~os 7TCv f'riTt[dlwv. Cf. Dem. 23 ~ 66, Aelian V. H. viLi 20, Josephus Apion. i 4, TWo' 37Wqooo1TC ypafs/aT-&av aPXato7-7vs 7robs 'u6b ApcaKovT-Os aSvIrOL sIrEpt TO' rv OOJIKCV ypasJveTas v6P,uovs. On the revision of the laws ofAthens, after the restoration of the democracy in the summer of 411 B.C., the laws of Dracon respecting homicide were once more retained. An inscr. of 409 B.C. records a decree authorizing the ypapsuaTre6 of the 3ovXi' to give the dvaypapr~is, or recorders of the laws, a true copy of Dra. con's law. Apa'KoY0vo v6lsov rbY u-pi r -oi [06v]ov [C]o][alypa~dt6[o,]r[wv ol ca]v[aypa]TWV TiPv 6/54W1-i oT-u5XO) XtliV- K[t1 K]a[7]a[OV]T[WV iPrpdo'Oev r]41s] OTroas rqs pa/tXELas. (Cf. Andoc. i 84, 85)... Then follows a copy of the -pwrou-o cidwv of Solon, containing Dracon's law on involuntary homicide (CIA i 6i; Dittenberger, p. 87; Hicks, Creek Hist. Izscr. p. 112). KvppmLS] Rectangular wooden tablets painted white and arranged in sets of four, each set forming a' pillar' about the height of a man. This pillar revolved on an upright axis; hence the KVbP/ELS were called A~oves, the axes!oigneae of Gellius ii 12. The Kv'p/ELS are mentioned in a fragment of Cratinus, quoted by Plutarch So!. 25. An inscr. of 409 B.C. cites the -7rpworos 6icwv (see note on urX?' 7,v 0' covo. Kwv). Lysias, Or. 30, c. Nicomnaclhum (B.C. 399), ~ 17 TUaS OVOdaS TalS eK TCO' KWp/EWv. In Deem. Aristocr. p. 629 ~ 28, the law of homicide is found iv -ri d (i. c. urpd0'rrc) atiSos (as emended by Cobet). Aristotle is said to have written a treatise in five books rlEpi TWO' 2;6XwZaOs da6vwv (see list of his works, ascribed to Hesychins, in Rose, Fragm. Ar. p. i6, 1. 140). Eratosthenes supposed that the several tablets were trianrular in shape. This

Page  24 24 AOHNAIQN COL. 2, 1. 41I-45. 4 8taotXelcp Kca& w/LoOav Xpca-a vaimsv9 01' S' e'vv'a ~"P0VE mistake was corrected by Polemion of Ilium, who, on the strength of his own observation, insists on the quadrangular shape of the tablets (Harpocr. s. v. 64ovt: ol 2;06XwtoT v6,aot E'v 4vXivots irap acoort -yeypa1juja1'ot... 'orc' U, W~s c0-qjcr flo~dgwv E'v ro~s rrpo' 'Eparoo-06v'7v, r e-rp a y.,v o r6 o-X't7Aa1, 3tao-('0I'Tat 5U 6i7v Hlpv~cu'ehp, yypalgjA&ol KaIXTILai T-cITa r'a 7e —rotoVo% 6' E'vloTe e/OaP L-a iaJJ T-pi'yWl'V, 6Tap E7ri T6 0rrei'6V KXtOWOOL T~S -ywvicT. Polemo fragm. 48, Mdller, FHG 111 130). A pupil of Eratosthenes, the famous critic Aristophanes of Byzantium, gives a clear account of their shape: Etymologicum Magn. P. 547, djtoo7Tipco 6U (sc. -rdv' K6/7J1EW1/ Kai?-Cop d4~6swp) 76 KaLTalrK1iclcrelc,rotoOrov i7rXtpv1'op r1 u~dya adv~pp'q~ Wp~oa~eva 9Xop f6Xa rETpa'yw1'a, Tra irXeupais 71XarTeiai 9XOV'7c Kat' -ypa/J4JaXLTwV 7rXhpets, E'Ka-ipwOeV & KP1'O~aKca1 ('pivots'), Wgne KtVdLSOat K~l ~repto-rpeieo-Oat 6'r6' -r1W avca/yf-yvcL0cKoAd vwv. The 'grammarians' Didymius (Plut. Sol. i) and Seleucus (Suidas, s. v. 6p-ye~iope) wrote monographs on the di'oves. Plutarch, in his life of Solon, refers to the first, the thirteenth and the sixteenth di~wP (c. '24, I9, 23), and states that some small fragments of the di~oves were still to be seen in his own day in the Prytaneumn (c. 25). Some of the Greek lexicographers erroneously distinguished between the K6p~f3EL and al~opeg in respect- to shape, material and contents (cf. Schol. on Apollonius Rhodius, iv 280). The distinction assumes the following form in Tzetzes, (hIl/jades, xii 349: oi Jtoveq TETpay~vot, TPVYbWVOL SE a! K1;pPfV, e 5x 5 S 1 oiALv atoves v6iuovs ToVE 1&6=9a, at KUpPEL9 eTX0V V6LOVS Si Toii; i7epi &)f.OOLOWV. KaiL &TL Ot /EP a4oVeg 1T7rjpXov &br6 i 4wv, But the identity of the cZ~opes and Kdp/3EL has been proved by Hullemnan, Miscellanea Philol. (Amsterdam, i85o), and is now generally accepted. Cf. Preller on Polemon, p. 87; Frobiberger's Lysias, III p. 23; Rose, Ar. Fseuedejigr-ajPhus, 414; and Oncken, die Sta~atslehre des Ar., 42'2. In view of the text, it is no longer possible to regard the Kl6p/Etg (placed in the oi-roa) as later copies of the ai~oveg in the Prytaneum (so Busolt,i 539, and Miller, Handbuch, iv i ii8). -r1, cTo4 -rq, P3cGcTECT~] called a cro&' )' /3caaXelaz in CIA i 6i (quoted in n. on 7rXhv TrLop (/.)VtKWJ). Harpocr. s. v. ~aoX-A ELOS 07062: 660 dii` 0oCTa irap' dXXl)7XaL, 7 Te -roO 'EXeiiOepiov At6e Katl -q /3aalXetos. In literature it is known as ' ToOi /co-iXiws o-TOo' (Plat. Euthy~p/ron 12 A, Theaet. '2 10 D) or STo-rom -oj /3coAetog (Aristoph. Ecci. 684). Cf. Pausan. i 31, 1, KaLXovXe La v. Pausanias, entering the inner Cerameicus from the north, sees the aTToa& /3cunetos as the first building on his right, i.e. on the WV. side of the ('erameicus. Apparently he did not go inside, and he tells us nothing of the altar out. side, where the Archons took their oath. (See esp. Wachsmuth, Slodi At/hen, ii 344-351; Curtius, Stadtgesclhichte von, A/hen, p. xc b, and P. 294; and cf. Miss Harrison's Afythology &c. of At/zeus, P. '24.) The use of this o-roa as a place for keeping a record of the laws of Athens is attested in Andoc. De Myst. 82, 85, a a piib u IE q' — ro~, and 84, eI r i 7roFXov iv'a Irep wpo'epov adve-ypac95nqaap. The statement of Anaximenes (in Harpo. cration, s. v. 6 Ka'-wOEv vo',uos), that Ephialtes transferred 7o0's d"OvaS KaiL T061 Kedp/3ets from the Acropolis to the /3ovXevr'iptop and the riyoprd, is inconsistent with the text, and is probably a mere flourish of rhetoric. The KU'pO3e1 were apparently always in the ai-yopcd. Cf. Oncken, Stoatslehre, ii 422. Secret meetings of the Areopagus were sometimes held iv 1?7 /3aoXelp o-ro~, Dem. 25, Aristog. A, ~ 23. 6SILOrOW KTX.] Plut. Solon1 25, K0LV1'p ply vv pvvv 6~ov77 /3vq 06 6wo vPu /71&EVCiv6'fcOT1ri Oerp0,t0e7rwv iv ca'yop, lrpos TCU MLOW, Kca7Ir/aXL r 'W P, et rT 7rapa~fahql r CDP Oeo-pd~v, ca'Sptdv~ca xpvo-OV Icro/LTplq-rop cI~a075Oetv El, AEX4)o~s. On the oath of the Archons, cf. c. 55 ~ 5, and Plato P/zaedi-. 2.35 D, Kal 001 E-yW, W07rep 01 Epp'iC IlppXO7es, Uwio-XivOU/.La XpvcTqV ELKO'VI icro/Iip-qTov els AeX~o6' dcau'ciO0cre1'. The word io-o/Lirp-q-T0v is omitted in the text and in Pollux viii 86. It is ingeniously explained by Bergk (Rihein. Mus. xiii 448) as virtually equivalent to 19OaTaoULov and as implying that the statue in gold was to be equivalent in weight to the amount of silver received as a bribe. This, he urges, is suggested by Deinarchus i 6o, 11 I17, where the 6EKa~rXoUI' T1/.L-)/lca may be explained with reference to the relative value of gold to silver at Athens in the time of Solon, being i o: According to this view the archons swore th'at they would pay a fine equivalent to ten times the value of any bribe they 4 A

Page  25 CH. 7,1. 4-IO. UOAITEIA 25 O/IPVVTESq 71-ploS TcL X~Op KaTEcfa'Tt~OV a'vaO pl-av a'iv~ptacVTc XPaV 5 c~aV Truva i7-apa/3wo-)t ~-rwv vo4twzr 'OWEV &"t Ka't VlVh' OV'TCOS '11c/LlVTVOt. 2KaTEKV'p&W#YEJ8 TQV'S~ VO/.LQVS~ EIS E'KaTOP [~3rq Kca' t&E'a~1 T'V 77t0XtTrEtaV) TOlN3E <T'i-?> P'rp7rOV. 3 Ttl/l?7/pa[Ta &t]ELXEV EL'? T'rT'apa TE'Xf, KaOa'7rep p1TQ Kt 7rpoTEpOV, ELSq 77-EVTaKootTo/4e&/Jj.LV[ol Ka~t iww=a] Ka~t ~'Evryt'TqV Kal 10 8 -r6vSe <,r0'-> -rp6rov edd.; cf. c. 29 ~ 5, 37 ~ i. 9 <Tar' > rtgiu5ara Blass (H-L); ante 7tuLngaTa lacunam indicant K-w, 'velut <rT6 7rap' 7rX~Oos EK riw 1ziw aLEZtXCV,' coil. Hesych. et Harp. TESTIMoNIA. 5 *Hrp XWOoS...COlKactC 5' 'AO77vai~ot 7rp6s -TLvt X16cy Tro6s 0"pKOVS 7roteLoOaru, cWWAp. Cv i-j'AO. wOX. Kad 4)tXopos Etv -ry -y' Vroor7,uicvovotv. 9 *Harp. iwrrc's:...'Ap. E'v 'AO. iroX. ~nOiq-v O"TL 16Xwv Els r~TTapa 5LEIXE Tr~Xl received. In the text, however, we have no reference to receiving bribes and no mention of the hulk of the statue; nor again have we either here, or in the excerpts of H eraclides or in Pollux, any mention of Delphi. Suidas (as observed by Thompson on PI. P/zaedr. 1. c.) 'makes the statues three instead of one and represents them as portrait-statues of the delinquent' (XPV-oj EIKdI'P: gp~vuop otl 'AGO~r'P Ip XOPTEI, ap5 7TI rCpt~XGWULV 6k' OTS avapxj IIXPVO7~ EIOC ITJ dcG5e'7 do-r7et, E'v Hv~oF, 6'v '0Xvyurki). But portrait-statues were not in use in Solon's time, and 'it is very unlikely that the Delphians would have allowed their sacred peribolus to be defiled by the statue of a detected criminal. And if the penalty was intended to be enforced, the offering must needs have been of much more limited dimensions. It is therefore conceivable that both io-oge/p-qrov and av'-,roO were introduced by late writers into the text of the original oath, in order to make it conformable to the supposed meaning of Plato.' The text shews that this conjecture is right, and also that the insertion of Cv AcX~poh has no warrant in the original form of the oath. The Xi~os was possibly identical with the altar of Zeis d-yopa~og (Wachsmuth, Stadt A/ken, ii 452). ~ 2. E'LS &CaT-OV '&i] Plut. Sol. 25 init., TXP o~s P61.1011 -7r'oIV CIS Ekr.16V E'LavUTobs /SIOKE. ~3. TL 'RCLOTC KTX.] Hitherto it has been universally held that the classification of citizens according to property was first devised by Solon. Plut. So?. 18, 3&V'6TpoP & 10ACO TA'S Yeiv adp~a& awa'o-as, &oarep f7ada, T-oLs ev'r6pots ciroXLtreZz' /3 oX6)uevos, 7r's 5' a6XXrnp A~at iroXtrelap, 77 6 &5juos o0 [IeTeZXeV, gXa/3e Tra -TI/.1?5/1.4aTc Tr(lE 7roXtrwvP, Kal Tr6s iu~ Ev -'71po'h 61.Ioi Katl V-ypoL IA~rplI IreVTaK~o-011 row0I0VTas rpdTovs 9Tra~6 Kall 7reSTaLKOUO/leSI/JYOUI ~rpoo-q-yopevo-e- &e7ev 36' TroGI i'l-op Trp~q5eW civ~afIEovs f /I-paL 7roELev T-ptaKoG-LaI Katl T-oUTovs 1W7ra'ca T-eXOUEcs EiKciXovzr ~evUyFTIat 5' 01 T-O) TpIT-ov 7TLu.17j/CTos cwvo~uaGo-qnaa, ots /Ll7-poE ' orUCv/1dOTpoIwP 6LaKoa-Lc'W. 01 Se' XoIrl7rai Il-Ees 4KaXo~vE-o OG7TEI, ohs ov66e/lavI a'pXCLP 9SWKEP adpX7V, daX' TW~ 0-VV6KKXfq0'IL46IE Kall 5IKairetl i6 pov 1leTreLXoE Tf I 7roLTeLias. The quotations in Harpocration are to the same effect. They ignore the ' Draconian constitution,' and they lend no support to the phrase: KaLGIdrep 6tqJp-qro Kad Irp6TEpov. Those who decline to accept the 'Draconian constitution' must necessarily omit the words just quoted. Mr Kenyon suggests that the statements in c. 4 can only be reconciled with the general ascription of the classes in question to Solon, by supposing that the latter brought them into a new relation to the political constitution. Solon began his reforms by repealing all of Dracon's laws except those relating to homicide. This implies that 'Solon made a clean sweep of all the laws relating to the constitution, so as to have a free hand in reconstructing it according to his own ideas. He then re-introduced the property classes, as well as the Council of Four hundred and the Areopagus.' This explanation is skilful and ingenious and may possibly be right. On Solon's -TA/.7,uaTaL, see Boeckh, Book iv c. v; Grote, c. i i, vol. ii 318; Busolt i52 7. The term rTi/ALq/1c occurs first in CIA i3 1. tEvJyCTfllv] from ~6&yos, 'a team,' applied to one who kept a pair of mules (Isaeus 5 ~ 43; 6 ~ 33), or of working horses, or a yoke of oxen.

Page  26 26 AOHNAIQN COL. 2,1. 45- 3,1. 7. 0-Ta. Ta" tk4E' Ov5]V a'p~at9 aw774Et/pev! aPXe1' EK 7r6v'raKoa-to/lCk- [Col. 3.. \ \ 87/wov KCat 7t7eE v1) Kca\ EVr 7tTcoJV, TOvS' E'vEva apXoVJTaIS Kat TOyS' TapLl a K,'cat -oVI? 7w)X'q[rq] Ka& TOL\S' 'V 8Ka Kai TOyS'? KWXaKpETaS, a C ca E~Ea'YToLS avahoyov T~ fLEYEOEL 7roi 'ubCLiflbL~aro]S dwrO &8O; r[p'V I5 dP]XjV. Tro~ & TO\ 9?7LKO TIEXOUETV EKKXfa' q Ka\ 8fLKacfTflptO6l) 11 rai, /115 0v' CaPXa K, K-W, H-L: [Kai] Tcis [Tuc[,y1TrT]as] dpXcis Blass, qui aut Aeylo-Tas (quod legi posse concedit K) delendum, aut in sequentibus complura mutanda putat. T6 rri urXu70os 'AOup'cawv, lrevraKoITIo /.IC5'/ V0VI Kal ilr7r&T Kil ~EU7yTra s Kail 6)T7aI. *Id. I7rfPTaKI 0'LKOOoILAVOV:...O-T 3 TIX-q e7rob Tev 'AO-qvalwP aurc'rcwv 16Xwv, cv 7oav Kai 01 7rewraKocTlo/,.43LV0, SES76XWKEP 'Ap. Jv 'AO. 7roX. *Id. O?7T1r:...11 Treo-oapa &l-pt7/I&7I 7irap' 'AO77vafio T 771 7roXvTEICa0 oit ropworaroC lXlyov-ro O7TES Kll O?7TIK6V TEXELS KTX. Pollux viii 30 i to u Laaa 5' 's -rlrrapa KTX. Hesych. &K T-4i-W':...SIa' 7pu yap '7 7roXtreia KaTa& 16Xwpa Et's Tro-oapa, ewErTaKoOLO/d/IAPOP... Ld 77 51 7p?7pq/-q 7 r7oXcTEIl Etis Trroapa rt/I?5/Laaa. (Cf. Rose, Frag. 3502, 388'.) 15 Schol. Arist. Eq. 6,27 (ol 17res), OLE GUI a'pXetW E6E7TO, 7'7 &Ka'~EIV Kati iKKX77OLd'~etv Os6vov. 'rs LLdpX'iS L'TiEVELjEV `PXEtv] This does not mean that the members of all the three highest classes were eligible for the office of archon. The first part of the sentence must be read in tbe light of the second, which implies that there was a kind of scale of eligibility according to the class in which the citizen was placed. Those in the first class alone would be ligible for the archonship. Cf. Plot. 4ristides I, T77V i7E wVvlOv aPX?7P, 77?7PXE TWp KUyi.~ XaXWPv 6K TWP yEvWLv rwov -a' /.luyto-ra TLyk/cla7-a KEKT7J/I/VWV, O11 1EVTcaKoo0LTLEvt&JLO isrpoo'ijy6pevov. The same class supplied the Tra/icu c. 8 ~ i. On the 'rafLCcLL and the 7rcoXyrca, see c. 47; on the MevsMKL, c. 52. KoXCLKp&ctS] The form given by Pbotius and Suidas: KWXaLypITTJE in the Ravenna mS of Aristoph. and in the lexicon of Timaeus; lit. 'collectors of hams,' so called from receiving the prime parts of the victims to aid them in providing the public meals in the prytaneumn. They are said to have had the control of financial matters in the time of the kings; in later times they acted as treasurers of the naucrariae. They were left untouched by the legislation of Solon, in connexion with which they are mentioned in the text; but in the reforms of Cleisthenes they lost the charge of the finances, which was then transferred to new officers called Apodectae (48). Under Pericles they were assigned the duty of paying the dicasts, and they were considered officials of some importance in the time of Aristophanes (Schol. on Vesp. 695, 727, Av. 1541). There is no docu mentary proof of their existence after the Archonship of Euclides (403 B.c.). Cf. Boeckh, ed. Frankel, note 302, and Sch6 -mann's Antiquities, i 327 E. T.; also Mr Wayte's article in Smith's Diet. Ant., s.v., Gilbert, i iiq and Busolt, i 159. CKCLTrOLS-7tijv cQpXqv] Pol. 129i b 38 ev 1111' Oh' elPog 6-qCkoipariaS TO rOT, 7- r aS dpX~s ciar 'r6TIuciuaTI ETva KTX. Tro r TO OTITLKOV TEXOUOLV-JJ"OV0V] Pa?. ii 12, 1274 a i5, 06XcXv -E 9OCKE T7jV aivaIyKaLoTaTp77V aluro&8'vac TI 55wp &Cva/LIv, 7TO TalE iPXaIE aipELCroOa Kil EV`O6VEIv..., TaLS 5' apXalE EK uC3p yvwpi1YWV Kal Tc/V ELVur0P &u' KaT9 IT-7O1 E 7r c Eaa g, CiK i-r v 7rcY7'T KLKOOOL E&/.I'LVW Kal ~CUV LTWV Kai [upLTOV 7TXOVS] T77E KaXOv1.LV77e i7r7rci6sOE 7TO S TeTa7pTO T6 O-7qTKcV, OLE OL)SE/LIIL IaPX7E icErTji'. Cf. end of this chapter, To7Ll 6E ILXXOVS O'7TLK'6V, OUSE/UL&, jLE7TIOX TaL apX77s. 'r)' e79'rLKOv 'TEXOLYV] 'those who belonged to the thetic census.' It will be observed that they are not here called O77TEE. Of those who were placed in the fourth class Grote (ii 32i) observes: 'It is said that they were all called T/Iites, but this appellation is not well sustained and cannot be admitted: the fourth compartment in the descending scale was indeed termed the Thetic census, because it contained all the Thltes, and because most of its members vere of that humble description, but it is not conceivable that a proprietor whose land yielded to him a clear annual return of ioo, 120, I40 or iro drachms, could ever have been designated by that name.' See, however, 1. i i. TEXEO' does not necessarily mean actual

Page  27 CH. 7,1I. II -20. TTOAITEIA 27 4 /IeTEOKe [LPOVO. E&Lt 8' TeXeLtV 7TevTaKoOo-t1.e&AL.VOlJ PLeZ) a V9W EK 279 oitKetaS' 7Tot-y 7evTaKocTaC /IkeTpa Ta owVaikLf)& ~?7pa KCat vypa, iw7ra~a 3E',- TptaKOctcL 77otov~v'ra9 w e' Vo cL o V9 17r'ZroTpoo(,eil 83vvaltevov9.- (T-r)/.et'% V3 (f8\ I=r'TE6vo Tov] EoV, (09~ aV a77o TOV -rrpary[p]aTo9~ Ket/J.lle'Oz, Kat Ta avaO? 'a'a TO0)V 20 17 -ris: -yis Bywater; T77E defendit Kontos (Athena ii 321-,2). KpavKli 6-ypC0Vz H-L Coil. Plut. Sol. i8 (6iv 5-qpo~s 06yO Kat' UiYpo~s). 19 5' Elruc/JpovoLt H-L coil. C. 3, 1 1. 20 C&11 cL-K1EL/.CEV0 delent H-L; ii'p delet B. TESTIM. 16-19 Pollux Viii 130 01 A.LP E'K -rO7 rev-raK6oltac /LITpa ~)7pcl KalZ irp& ~roIeZ KX?7OI1'TES... 01 51 ri)'7 i~rraica reXO~vTes E~K /J.P roOE &JVaLLOaLL -rpIgJet Zr7rlOl KEKX?7-Oac 30K0L01Yt, '7rol'oIv 51 /.drpc -TptaK6olcL (cf. Schol. in Plat. Re. 45). Bekk. Anecd. '298, 20 7revTaKocrlo/Jk9l/u'oL: 01 fEK T77 1'OKeias -y?7 7ro010V1T6S 7r6P7TaK6O~ta /pirpa 0YUVclayobw SAqp& K~itv bypca'. I d. 2 67, 1.3 iir~rag:... ot 7roLoOIvTe -rptaK6oa Ag-pa. 18 Schol. Arist. Eq. 627....ir~reZ3 5 av'7o6T d'po/a~ov &E 7-6 36va0-6at...i'rlrov gKao-7-ov ac'7 rw~v T-pgr/.ew. Etym. cod. Vossianus, p. 170, Gaisford, ~eiryi'o-op:....Sevurepou &9 To61 iwro-rpoq5eZv uv~aAlvouS KacL 7-ovs 7-o~s Zwrovu 5 (leg. Ka! 7-obs 17r7rdca) 7TeXoOUVTE EKcLXOVV. payment, but ' the being included in a class with a certain aggregate of duties and liabilities, '-equivalent to censeri, 'to rank as'; Boeckh, p. 36, Grote, p. 321 n. EKKX'qrcCLs-tLO'vov] Poi. 1,281 b 30, Xei're-ra 5717 -rO) (3ouX6eoTOat Kati KpiVeLV /IeTIXeLV acL6T06S KTX. ~4. wmo-jj De.PhaenigPP. 42 ~ 20, p. 1045, CXOJTEII ELK6TWT ('~ret5a&v 7rot771 (TLO1 JA~V A6e81APiOVS 7rVOV 'A XLXLOUI, orplov e /Ie7p-qTras lY7rp 0'K7-aKCOOLOV3. 7FEvr1XO05OLM K7-X. Hitherto, it has been sometimes supposed that one who obtained from his land a net return of 500 measures of dry produce, such as corn or barley, together with 500 measures of liquid produce, such as oil or wine,ranked in thefirst class (Bruno Keil in Bed-. Phil. Woch. i1891i, p. 5 21 n.). It has also been held that a net return of either 5oo dry measures or 5oo liquid measures constituted a- claim to that class (Busolt, i 527). It is now clear that the 5oo measures could be made up of dry and liquid produce taken together, and this is also the purport of some of the evidence previously known to us, e~g. the article in Bekker's Anecd. 298, 20, which, it now appears, jwas taken from the present passage. By Aplrpca is meant either a piet&u'os (= six fiKrEi~s six. modii = about i12 imperial gallons, or a bushel and a half) of dry measure, or a fs4erp-qr-q'S in liquid measure. The latter is the standard dyoope6s of 1 2 Xle = 69- 33 pints, or slightly over 81 gallons, and therefore three-fourths of the standard dry measure, the Ae'&Avog. Lvirwd'cE] (-re'Xe6v). Isaeus 7 ~ 39, cire-ypcii/a-o 1hz' T41,U77JLtL 1MpOV, W's tiwwciaa 5 TnEXWoV ELpXetV 'iov -rats aip~ais. In the Lex. of Photius, the first article on '7r~ras (followed by Suidas) makes the curious mistake of distinguishing the br~re~s and the iirra's and treating the latter as a fifth class;the second article, with the help of Ilarpocration's quotation from 11. 9, 10 of this chapter, corrects this mistake, adding -rCow ov'v 17rwe'wv otl (sic) ibr7raiSes. WS 8' 9VLOC cfxQt-L] There is no real discrepancy between the two views, all whose land produced a net return of 300 [t'3tyuvL being deemed to have enough property to enable them to keep a horse for military purposes and to serve in the cavalry. Suidas, s. v. Uzr~rcI, following Schol. on Aristoph. Eq. 627, says: ilrirds 51' cturozs dw6vua~ov &11 rI 56z'ecrOt, ei'roTre XpEaa -yC'vorro, iL'7rlroV ElKa-r7ov aWTV' Crpe~petv'. In addition to the war-horse (It'wrog roXe/to2-T75ptog), a horse would be required for the servant of the Uzrirefr, and those who belonged to this class would also need a team for agricultural purposes (Boeckh, p. 639, Lamb, p. 579, Frainkel). WoS aLV-KEC[LJEV0V] 'as though' (or implying that') 'the name was derived from the fact just mentioned.' Ar. Analylica Pos/ericra, P 3, 72 b 9, W'S 06K aSiE' iwo-a[Le'vsU. lrept aKvoUnwv 80.3 b 5, gKaLT~o rL~' isopiwv 7rpo07rz~rrov, 64 0'v d711 7rX?7-y77 cIE9pas Si'v, and 804 b 25, /'wi'G au', w'S u'v 7-o 7rveOpa f31a~6[LA'OY. Kf(~LEVOV, used, as often, for the perf. pass. part. of 74i-qyt. Isaeus 3 ~ 32, C"' 7tI 7.7551 7r0v0 zro' T-0y irar-p6 K61eiVelOV, nonzen a patre impositum (Cobet, V. L. 311, A. L. 703). Similarly in the next few lines, vaO 'Aa7a dV. 0' KIEL-Tat... dev1q677e vcMLO 'macrcL] Polemon, a contemporary

Page  28 28 AOHNAIQN COL. 3,1I. 7-I4. ~p~a wv a aKetrat (yap Ev a/cpo7roX Eb a co i o ]I P i i ryeypa~rat raLSE AtoltXov 'AvOeFtlkov T?78 VE'OflKe Oeo's., OyTLKOD airr~t Te/EXOV9 t7r')af3 alwEL~aI.LevoS,2 Kat 7rapEo-TlKEV) twwos~ FEK1.apTvp6vJI, 4'c~T?7 7?V 7Wra48a Tovoo coy-aWi21 At4/dXov seci. Thompson, K-W, B. 23 Ka'-r6 'rlypa~k/ia Ao/0dXou'Av~qdcwP Irwoz' rWv6 aI'i7KC OEOFS Pollucis codices, ubi viderunt critici ant At~oluo et e'1ypa~ua coniungenda esse aut cum Bekkero legendum AtolXov 'Av~eAdwv TOSSP' l'rwop Oeots rIYIG7KEVP. Pollucis vero e codicibus unus habet AuptiXov 'Av~es1dwP 7r6i' avPlO?7cE 0OZ3L. Nostro autem in loco versum. hexametrum nonnulli restituerunt, velut <'L'rirov> zAtolXov 'AVOepiwv cu't0OfKC Oeo~dot Tyrrell; AtotXov 'AvOeldwP -r-4v3 <E1K61">- go?)KE OeoZo-L numerosius J B Mayor, dvlOlqKe ex OPEO'qICE ortum fuisse arbitratus (Class. Rev. v 177 a); AtolXov 'As Qqd~wv r?51u <EI616/L>- OcoZS cu'i0qKe Thompson (ib. 22 5 b). Sed Pollucis codices, non minus quam papyrus nostra, testantur versum priorem pentametrum fuisse. 25 EKM&pTYp(A)N (K): tfiKiuap-rvpCoP (K-Nv): J~ta~pD Tyrrell et olim Blass (H-L); etiam iK rLOP aptcrrep3vp Blass, sed exspectares e~ alpto-ep6,s. Equidem TCKMHPION ad explicandumn sensum quondam adscriptum postea in EKM&PTYPtAN mutatum fuisse crediderim; Ty in litura. els,.Lapr6 ptov ed. Blass. TESTIMONIA. 21-24 Pollux viii i~i 'AvOe~klwp 8U 6 AupiA0V KaXX&Jrl~cTw. 1 iryprL/J4JaTos o"TL d7ro 701) O-7TLK0V TeXov)1 d's r'ijv twra'8a /Le7-o-T?, Kaid 61Kh' go —ru' a's Kpo1O'Xet lWW0Io div3pl wrap1E0-T')JKWI$ Kal2 r6 ertypapguca 1 AtolXov 'Av~ekd1wv 7r6p6' aW'IOK6 0OFOL O?7TtKOU dvT1' reXovis L'7ra1V1 d/uetLV/aepos (Falckenburgii codex). of Ptolemy Epiphanes (BC. 204-I81) devoted four books of his 7reptu5-y-qaIIs to the aivcaOucara on the Acropolis (Strabo, ix 396). If the present passage was inserted at a later date than the time of Aristotle, it may possibly have been borrowed from the work of Polemon; but the only reason for doubting whether it is by the same hand as the rest of the treatise is the exceptionally frequent occurrence of hiatus, auKpow6XeG fIKW'P ALAovio 17' r' E'rvylypazr-rat. The passage was known to Pollux (viii 131), but whether his quotations from this treatise are taken at first hand or not, is uncertain. ALf)(Xov] The statue was dedicated by Anthemion son of Diphilus. Diphilus himself had apparently belonged to the O?71K6P -reXos and would therefore have had no claim to be represented with a horse beside him. Mr A. S. Murray is therefore probably right in regarding the statue as that of the son, Anthemion (Class. Rev. v io8). Anthemnion probably owed his promotion from the lowest to the second class either to a legacy or some other stroke of fortune which suddenly made him a wealthy man (Boeckh, p. 641 Lamb). It is very improbable that an inscription of such a date consisted of two pentameter lines. 'Vix crediderim inscripti onem vetustam ex duobus pentametris constitisse. Exempla quidem id genus titulorum quae Kaibel in ind. [Epigr. Cr.] P. 70,2 affert, sunt recentissima' (Preger, Inscr. Cr. Metricae, 1891, no. 74). The lines happen to give a consecutive sense but are possibly selected from two successive couplets of the original set of verses, the intermediate hexameter being omitted. ' alv~pa 7rrapeo-TriKO'Tal in versibus omitti non mirum... In anaglyphis saePius equi ad ordinemn equestrem significandum additi sunt, cf. Goettling, Opusc. Acad. '243' (Preger, 1. c.). EKcjcp~rvplL'v] (6K/JcpTvpW=Palaml tes/iflcor in Aesch. Eunz. 461, XovUp~p WI'c'E/Irp-r6pet 756sov, and Aeschin. p. 1 5, 1 9, Or. ~107, V'P 0Ve' cLP Ey7 ' 7razpcKaXWD SOpo T'7 fawroOU oU/Lr/opai', 'P5 eL'e70o LTryq V cis 7roXXoiis EKuaprvpT~ploat. This sense is just tolerable in the present passage, though the word is perhaps needlessly strong for the context. It would he clearly out of place to give it the technical sense corresponding to that of fiK/.aprvplca (Class. Rev. v 177 a), i.e. a deposition made by a witness who, by reason of illness or absence abroad, was unable to attend in court. The horse in this case may metaphorically indeed be described as giving evidence; but (so far from being either absent abroad or on the point of leaving the country) it is standing in the very

Page  29 CIH. 7, 1. 2 1-CH. 8, 1. I. HOAITEIA 29 vovo-[a]v. ov' pIidv aXX' eV'Xoy&Y-r6poV 7rot I.epotq t Syp-oa ia&7rep ro1)9 wevra~co0-t0oLe8tI1.Vovq)- ~evyio-tov 8E, reXEv 'rok) (taKot~a ra o 0aFcfd 7T&VoTo L9 0 q 8 cXXov9? OfrlToZ), o'c3E/luc9 LE Xor, apX?7q 8d' Ka't vi-v E'77Et8 az' e~pyrat Tv /ieXXovra K~npoivolai -rtv) afpXql), 7otov' re'Xo?) -reXeL-, ov)8' ' ett, E Et'tO 0777tC0'V. 30 8. Taq 8' a'pXa9q 'EWo'fC Kis19pwraq C/C 77-P0KPtT(0, [oVqs 26 METPIOIC. 27 6' 96,et rEXeV Kontos (H-L). VIII I1TA~.pXHC (=r~s 6' dpXis) frustra tueri conatus est Bury: emendavit K. TESTIMONIA. 27-29 Pollux vii i30 01 6 r6' ~ev-&-topo (codd., Hesych., Phot., Schol. Plat., Bekk. An. 260 ult.: ~ev-y0lo-t Etyrn. Magrn) 7reXotp7-es adw6 &aKOOIWVo [dgTpWI KaT6XVTOVr0.. ol 6U T6' 627rt1K1'V 6cud dpX~~v -lpXop. *Harp. O~7res:..obrotO 69 o66e~uts /ue TeFXoZ dp(X75, (iS Kcai 'Ap. 6,qXoZ 6i''AO. 7roX. Etym. Mag. p. 452, 15 d'q-1K6v: o~rot & ozW Ata /u LeTEXov dipx —gs. centre of Athens, on the platform of the Acropolis. The technical sense is therefore out of place, and the word is probably corrupt. (i0s-v-lfLcL~vovcrcLv] For the participle used as an accusative absolute after cWs, Cf. C. '29 ~ 3, cWrS oil S17f07-1Kq'I a' cXX& wrapair)\a1aicu o'o-av -r..... iroXti-rdcu, and Pot. v (viii) 4, i13383 b13, (ol' AdiKWPvsl) dnqp1$6eiS dwep~ya -ovrat -roimrw6vots, W's -roiro rpbT ava6piav, AdcXto-rct ouvu/pov. Kiihner, G. G. ~ 488 d; Maetzner ad Lycuirgurn, ~ 90, p. 231; Rehdantz, Ind. Demn. s. v. Participium. Trans. 'implying that this was the meaning of the status of Knight.' tEvyL7TLov] This form is supported hy the Etymologicum Magnum (and Gudianum) alone. The codtex Sorbonicus of the latter, p. I1170 D Gaisford, has ~e vy Io-t ov: TI~ XapaKT?7p1 -rWp 6t& 7TOl to-0op, oloY, 'At/po~ticto~, 'A-rpeltio-tov, (sic), Hpooa3rtioov. oui-ws ousV Kcat ~ewyio-top- 'Per Tscribendumn docet Choeroboscus in Crameri Anecd. ii p. 2i5, ro.' Frankel (n. 8o5 to Boeckh) urges that ~ev-y'o-to7 is the right form, and is better accredited than ~fwylcrtov. &LcLKoO-LcL] The property qualification of the ~ewyF-rat has hitherto heen a matter of dispute. Boeckh, p. 641 Lamb, fixes it at 150 medimni. This he infers from a law quoted in [Dem.] Macart. 43 ~ 54, p. i067, according to which a 7w~vraKoo-toju~i&'os was to pay the r'iKX?77po a dowry of 500 drachmae, a ihrwerlr 300, and a ~,Ev-yLltr7 150. From the correspondence of the first and second of these sums to the annual income of members of the first and second class, he infers that the dowry required of a ~,v-lruyis is identical in amount with his annual income. But he admits that all the positive evidence is in favour of 200 medimni. This view, which is adopted by Grote (ii 3,20 note), is supported by the authority of the text. SLO' KCI ViiV K7-X.] 'Hence it is that even now, when one who is ahout to draw lots for any office is asked to what rank he belongs, no one would say that he belonged to the rank of the Thetes.' The subject of gp-qrat is the officer super. intending the drawing of lots for an appointment. The same vague use of the verb occurs in c. - ~-, 7epwir-ootv and 0-qo-i7'. As it was under the superintendence of the Thesnmot/itae that officials were appointed by lot (Schdmann, Antiquitiies, P. 402 E. T.), the suhject is probably 6' OkoysoAt first it was only the 7reY7-raKO-1Oge~'&Aot who were eligible to the office of archon; next the iirire~s; the ~ev-yZ-at became eligible in 457 B.C. (see c. 26). The present passage, as observed by Mr Kenyon, is interesting as shewing that the property qualification can never have been entirely abolished by law. VIII ~ I. KX~qPC&TdLS EI 7rrpKpC-rWV] 'appointed by lot, out of candidates selected hy each of the (four) tribes. ' Each of the 4 tribes nominated io, and, out of these 40, the 9 archons were appointed by lot. The archons had formerly heen elected by the Areopagus; and, whatever may have been the rule under Dracon, it was Solon who, with a view to extending the political power of the people, devised the combination of selection and sortition described in the text. It has hitherto heen sometimes supposed that appointment by lot was not used in Athebs before the time of Cleisthenes. This is the view of Grote, C. F. Hermann, Busolt, Gilbert, Duncker and others. Grote in fact cannot believe

Page  30 30 AOHNAlf2N COL. 3, I. 14-2 I. 31?\e, e apXov.Ta9~ elaO-nflm&K, KaIt To'To? E'[7r1-eK]X?'povVr OOev E"Tt 8ta2 2rpOKPI VILfE Gertz (K-w, K3, B); 1TTOKPINEI (K'); 7rpo6Kple ohm B (H-L). 3 ro6 -7011 ElrCKVlpoVV K3 Coil..59 ~ 5, 'litterae unius tantumn spatio inter Toy et e relicto, ubi TOYC (ut videtur) in TOYTOIC correctum.' T0dTOVL E'KX?5IpOUI/ K1 (iHi.L); aut roVdTWv aut -<&K> TOVTWP ~CKX~pouV (B) K-W; KaiK -ro6rwp' iEK~apOvv Gomperz. it was introduced as early as the time of Cleisthenes (c. 31, ii 123 n.). Curtius (i 478 E. T.) assigns it to this time. Schdmann, in his criticisms on Grote (Consi. [9ist. of Athens, P. 73 E. T.), shews that an earlier date was not improbable; while Fustel de Coulanges (La Citi Antique, P. '212-4, ed. 1883) claims it as an institution of religious origin and therefore of great antiquity. The evidence of this treatise is in favour of its having heen introduced at an early date. The text enables us to understand the statement in Isocrates that, 'in the times of Solon and Cleisthenes,' they did not apply the lot to filling up offices out of the whole hody of citizens, hut selected those who were the hest and the most suitable candidates for each office: Areot. ~ '22, OVdK 4 U7IdiVTwv Tillx dpxa'S KX?7pOVPTEI alXXal T-0dI f3XT10OTOV3 Kail rods t'KIVw7aTdovs fq5' gKaU-7rov 7-Cov gp-yw' lrpoKpivorTes. Elsewhere, Panatlh. 145, he descrihes the constitution that the Athenians maintained 'for iooo years' down to the age of Solon and the rule of Peisistratus, and says of the Athenians of old time that they ei, ' Xi-yats hjupats e'dpwz' rozbr vPOovs avc-yeypaligyovsu (this can only refer to the legislation of Dracon). He then adds: I7repl TodI aVTrobl Xpb'VOV Ka&OLOTacOTapC'V Till C1~~'S Tb 7pOKP10&'Tas iur6 rdov /wXeTWC~V KaiL 6,qgorcv. [Dem.] Neaer. 59 ~ 75 says of the a~pXwv f~coztebr in the times after the OUVVOLKLO1)o6S of Theseus: Tio p v (3aarcAec...6 677Aog -qpElTo IK wrpoKP IT Co KaLT'aruoipa-yaclatc Xetporov&.', where however we have mention of election hy show of hands instead of appointment by lot. The use of the lot in the time of Solon is implied by Dem. Le~pt. ~ 90 (after mentioning Solon), 7o6s Oeor/JoOecas robs5 1211 70o)5;,6/50 KXIqpOv/.i~vos, hut too great stress must not he laid on this phrase, as the orators sometimes ascribe to Solon institutions which really belonged to a later date. The natural interpretation of the present passage is that Solon introduced a new principle by combining selection with sortition. In this respect it is not perhaps inconsistent with the statement in P01ci. 1 2, 1'27 3 b 41, 901KE 3lb 2;6Xwz' EKerWI /511 vUTIC~~PXTCZ iprepovEO 01) KacacTaItIZ, 77)1'x Tre fovX'im (i.e. the Areopagus) Kaid T7)v 7%Wv ap~ido aiplotv, TS'P &'56 37/1 KarCLOT77L111, T75 &Kao-rr'pt rGotOL 'cs K rlprtovw'. Aristotle had just before remarked that some had singled out, as an aristocratic element in Solon's constitution, TO' TI'S cdpxas atipfrdS (etrat). He adds that Solon did not abolish this principle, for ai'peo-s is not the 'manner of electing the magistrates,' but simply their election. They were still elected, but the details of the method of election were partly new; the new element being apparently the selection by the tribes. Aristotle approves of this method in Pol. viii (v) 5, 1305 a 28, JLITILj~iXXOVO't 6 KILL eK 775 irarpias 3rnboKpaTILs et's 7771 vffwTa'iTI7L 6711 -ya'p alperali 1dvp ai cipxali, A17) IL7oS 7TL/57,UhiTWZ' 6, caipeZTILL 36' 6' '3~yos, 35u77/sly~ouvTes ol crrov6ap~tc5r-e 111s 701/TO KCaOtTTCCo11' WIs K6p1oz 111p11 TO'P 377/LOP KCal TWZ' 1)6/1101. CI'KO9 3 701) U) ' YIPO-OILI 1 701) -YLLEO-0caL 777701' To TATl OV5IaS O~PCLV TOV'S I"p~XOVTIL, CiXX& In Pol. vi (iv) I14, 1298 b 9, while discussing oligarchies, he mentions some non-oligarchical elements: CilyU 31 w P /161' atperC7 401) &'IW 6 KX77pW-roI, Kal KX7-J pLOTOL' / '71XC5 7'7 CIC 7rpOKpTP1wx, 77 K0W77' ILtpeTro KIal KX?7P7pWo1, Ta' /5E 7rOXtTILILI dpI0-7OK~IaTLK77 EOGTt 7067101, Ta' 31 OXtTIL'as 1a6777. Cf. 1266 a 8; Plat. Leg. 945, B, 753; ReP. 537 D. 'eE~v ginr Stu1jJC'VEL] This passage and its context are among the many in which the author argues from survivals, or infers a fact from a reason. 'The signals of this method,' as remarked by Mr Macan (_7. H. S. xii 38), 'are the innocent -ybp (c. 2 1. 5, c. 3 1. 6 et alibi), the more elaborate 605Ev or 60eV Kai (c. 3 1. 8, c. 8 1- 3), the suspicious &6, &6 KIa' (c. 3 1. 17' c. 8 1. i6) and above all the term 07T/11101). Wherever these signals occur the critical reader will beware of danger ahead. It may not he necessary in every case to reject the supposed evidence and inference, but it will always be expedient carefully to examine before admitting them.' The writer is here arguing that the method of appointing archons

Page  31 CH. 8, 1. 2-I 2. FIOAITEIA 3'1 /J^VE rts cfvXa's TO ~EK~xipv E UOT?77, ELT7 EK TOVTC6iW Kva-,aeive[W]. 0'17/kEFOV 'O'Tt KX'JqpwTda9 eWOU7UtEV E'c Tr&TV Tqtpi~pd CD 5 0 7T6pt TWV Ta/14oJv 1JO/k09, (O XPWIJevot [&ctaTo]%'-tV &tI Ka( vv 2 tceXev'et ya'pKXflpoVl) O'roi? Ta p taq e; 6 7rePTaKoa-tO/t6,t1kV[V. YOX]a&w FLEY OiVV OVTCOI EVOPLOOET97TEZ 7rEp't ToWj ez'vvea a'pXO'VT-Ow. To yap apXatov iq ev 'Ap[Ei'p 7an~y / q3ovX]) ' aKaXeo-aPEni Kat Kptvaa-a KaO' avrTj T0OP 6E7tT 'ELOV 4' b E/aOT? 'V)7 'pXOv EWr [EvL]a[VT]OZ) 10 3 [&aara~-d cta- a'7re'aTEXX6V. cOvXacn 3 yraV T6'TTape9; KaOa7I-ep wrpoTEPOV Kat bV /3ttXtTE ap9 K 8& [T'ig] OV[X~1 e']6o 5 CTT01HC6&N (K): E'rohqaev Bury, Hude, K-W, H-L, B. 8 irepiTW' i(v C'lrI aipx6'prwv seci. K-V2 10 iEKdo7-r-qv H-L. 11 &aIT&dc1aTca K, H-L: KaOtw-rrio-a K-W. 77orav 7-el7-rapes: HCeAN~&. 12 TECCAPEC. 6K: 6un H-L, sed spatium non sufficit. TESTIMONIA. 11-14 *PIhotius l'avKpapila... i'aVKpapia jziv 0'ro?6v TL ' avgujxopla KC1 6' 5iuos, vafKpapos 6r doi6v rt 6 U5gapXos, ~6w'Io~w I0Ll~i~,I1KI "Ap.....EK r?~r 'ApwrorloXovurWoXItElas Si' Tp6rlov MITa~e r~v 7r6XtP 6' 26Xwvi "qpvXa&_-EicaoT'qV" (cf. Pollux viii io8; Rose, Frag. 3492, 387 3). Hesych. valJKXa~poL. adopted in his own day is a survival from that in the times of Solon. The intervention of the trihes is the point in common between the two methods: but, whereas in the earlier method they select, in the later they only appoint by lot. In the former, the lot is resorted to in the second stage only; in the latter, in both. K-cIFLJE'1JELV] is synonymous with KX?7POiUv the Kucalros, or bean, being employed in the process of appointment by lot. The procedure was as follows: Two jars were set up; in one of these was placed a number of white and coloured beans, in the other the small tablets with the names of the candidates. Then a tablet and a bean were drawn simultaneously and the candidate whose name came out along with the white bean was nominated (Schbmann, Antiquities, p. 402 E. T.). Kvaur/eUeIZ occurs in the o"pKOS -IX~ao-7-WI' in Dem. '24 ~ 150, 0O0at (cdpXal) 14IETi T&31' UPIiC aIPXOl'T(T1' KVCI7I60YTCIt, cf. Xen.-111m. i2 ~ 9 (Socrates) X9-ywv W's f5Wopov el'?) To~ 1iii' Ts7r lo'XEWs atp~ov7-as ariw Kuaf10o KaOt0TIY 'Pat, KVf3Epl'T J-r - nS' OIXEVXPO KEa~,LEUT~-l C. '22 ~ 5. 0O,9RrOV B' i"rL KTrX.] The law requiring the -raulta to be elected from among the wecvTaK0to-1O6tS/Ilot is quoted to prove that Solon regulated the allotment of office according to the property classes. The Law existed in the writer's time but was practically unenforced, as appears from c. 47. Pci. i7282 a '29, TiSJ46 p11' KKXo'cTica IIET9XOUOIt Kal f3O0XEu0Oa-1 Katl &~Kri~OVoLP a76 /.uKpCli -TukL71/.IcTWV KIal T77I TvxovohT77 7?7X1Kirar, TaL/IItE60V0-1 SI K~l' o-7paT?77oiiO-1 KatL rIa Le-ylo-7-as aIpXa's dpXoUo-V IL7r6 LLEIP 1WV. ~2. Ij 4'V 'ApeCcp Yrdiyyp PovXj] This passage gives us definite authority for the manner in which the public officials were elected in earlier times at Athens. Heretofore it could only be conjectured that they were elected by the Areopagus. TrO ripXa~ov is vague. and may either mean up to the time of Solon, or up to that of Dracon. In c. 4 we have been told that, under Dracon, the officials were elected by oi 0`mi-Xa raIpeX6/Sevot, but the Draconian constitution is much disputed. dLVCLKcxXEocrqLV1&] 'having summoned,' without any necessary allusion to the fact that the /3ovXq' of the Areopagus was ' 6vw/3ovX'. Cf. Aeschines, F.L.i17, g7ircTE 7`Pz /3ouX'~ (the 500) cdl'aKaLXIarIOatI TSv 'AptorT68mj~oY. ~ 3. 4v~Am] The successive names of the four tribes in the early history of Athens are quoted by Pollux viii i09. In the time of Erechtheus they took their names (rcxu~ov-re, 'O71XTes, Ab-yLKbpelr, 'Ap-yciaets) from the sons of Ion. Cf. Hdt. v 66 (of Cleisthenes) TWEo JIw'01 ra-cdwv r6X4'oVTOS KIal AtiyLK6pEOS KUd 'Ap-ydiew Kall 0'OrX-qjros airaXXri"as TiLE iwwvv~las. Eur. Ion 1579, FeXEwI' (Canter: TOEiIwP vulg.) /46tP &T-rat?JpWT0ros eia 6I6TEpov 'OWX7ryrr 'ApyaN15 rT', E'A~T 6' 11w' aliyi~os e' cfXoP ri~ovo- AZiYLKOP~3 (Schbmann, On Crote, ~ 2, and Antiquities, p. 317 f. E. T. Philippi, Att. Biirgerrec/ht, pp. 233-296.) 4wXopacw-Ads] These officials are iden

Page  32 32 AOHNAIQN COL. 3, 1. 21-30. 170-ca veI)Ea~lFLEval TIptTTVES~ FLEV TIPEVS, vavcpcapatc (3E' (Sco&Ka KaO' eCaCYT77V. CMw 8E Tciv] v~avKpaptc2wv a'pXyj KaOeaTnyKv~a vavKpapot, Is TETa7'/.kEVf wTp(S' TIE Tal E~ta](fopar, Kat' Tasq &w[aivasj] Ta' ytyvo13 N&yKP&dJPti1. 14 E'rl Sb u-r Zv Blass; 175 Sb 75.1 K; j'v S' Eu-i TLO' I-W, H-L, sed spatiurn vix. sufficit. 15 FINOMEN&C (K-w). tical with those called j~aacXeZs (i) in the i3th Axon of Solon, quoted by Plutarch, Sot. i9, 17r*17L/ovs elvat u-X-v 6'oot 6' 'Apec'ov 7d-dyo) -7 bao-o IEK 7rIDV 'Eoer~ov ) C'K flp7-raVELOV KaraI1SKaOoiPTev-e vii6 TWSv fOao-tXews iurt cp6vc ~ aoa-cyaiocv ~ Eun rupavvibt 99ewyov, and also (,2) in the decree of Patrocleides, Andocides, de Myst. ~ 78 (founded on the language of the law just quoted), ~ E 'Apelov urdiyov ~ 7-Co 'Eq5erd~v IK lpv7-aSELOV 1) A EX kW iou fibcK adothj 1) 0 m rb factiTXe4wv, ~ E'r 06vwp Tis &Trt ory7), Oavarog KaTe-yPc%617-, ~ h-1)aIIyeU-tv ~ -rvpaivvots. In the context of the first passage they are called 71-pv-rdivets; in that of the second, they are distinguished from the Archon-Basileus. The identity of the /3cuEEiS of Solon with the pvXof&crcASS Of Pollux (Viii III, I120) is supported by the connexion of hoth with the llpv-rav'eov. The /3oLXEZI apparently dealt with cases of persons who aimed at a Tvpaovvie. They also presided over the Ephetae in the court of homicide at the Prytaneum (cf. 57 end). They probably represented 'the priestly functions of the ancient chieftains of the several separate tribes which were ultimately fused into a single community' (Prof. Ridgeway in Smith, LDict. Ant. s. v.). The fact that they were four in number was already known from the quotation of the present passage in Photius, s. v. savKpapta. Cf. Pollux viii II I, as emended by Weckzlein, ol & /. E'~ evnrarpltc's TEreo apes (6 for Sb) O`5TES K7-X. In the Bulletin de Correspondence Hellenique, iii 69, we have an inscr. found on the Acropolis respecting a fund called -ra 0bvXo/3ao0cAcia, part of which was spent on celebrating a religious festival. -rPv~rrU(S... VCLVKpcXp~CtL] The plupf. shews that these divisions had existed before the time of Solon. Photius, s. v. vaVKpa~pta1, carelessly quotes Aristotle as his authority for ascribing to Solon the origin of the term sa6Kpapos (Y2ciXwsos Ob'rwS 6so0J&aoaVT'rS, WS Kal 'ApicrroTiXu7S /07oi)0. That he had the present passage in view is indicated by his quoting it verbatim at the end of his article. The existence of the gav~paplcaL before the time of Solon is proved by Hdt. v y,where their 7rpvu-cisEts are described as o01 ding an important position in the government of Athens at the time of the conspiracy of Cylon: ol rIpvTba51es r~o' vaVK~p PWV (al. VrauKpapL4Wv) otlI-p 9sEJ0V TroTe Tics 'AOu'vas; hut Thuc. i i26 ~ 5 corrects this account and substitutes for them the nine Archons, adding -r6-e S 7r0c riOXX& TCP 7roXLT-LK(Zs ol E'vsir aPXo5TE5 bmrpaowovo. Schdmann (Ant. p. 3,26 E. T.) endeavours to reconcile both narratives by assigning to the nine Archons a place on the board of Prytaneis. The Naucrari were the presidents of the Naucrariae, and the latter were the administrative districts into which the country was then divided. There were 1,2in each tribe or 48 in all. Every four of these districts formed a group called a TrptTT~s, or third part of a tribe. In Photins p. 196 Porson, and in Bekk. Anec. p.,275, mention is made of a sauepapira called K&Azais which is the name of a strip of coast and cliffs near Phalerum. The term savKpapita has reference to the duty imposed on these districts of equipping a ship of war, in addition to that of providing two horsemen (Pollux viii io8). Grote, c. I0, ii 264 n., thinks 'the statement that each Naukrary was obliged to furnish one ship can hardly be true of the time before Solon.' The actual expense probably fell on the wealthier inhabitants of the district, and it would naturally be from their number that the srobKpapot, or presidents of the Vav~papta, were chosen. There was one president for each vavKpapira, or 1,2 for each tribe. Hesychius S. V. 'a6KXrcpol (sic)-.. i-rtsis Si dqV 'Kdor-77s OVX~S 36&SKaZ, oiTLvsE dbt' e'KaiITIOS X,,pas Trcs ELtqoopasL Eb}IXEyov. b'iTTEpos Si 6S'7upxot 6KX?561717aV (Schdmann, Antiquities, p. 3-26 E.T.; Duncker, H. C. ii 144 E.T.; Gilbert, Cr. St. i i35; _7arb.f. ci. Phsil. 1875, pp. 9 and 452). va6Kpapos is formed from sails and the root Kdrp (by metathesis Kcpc) which appears in KpaiVcO 'to complete or accomplish' (G. Meyer in Curtius, Studien, vii 175). T-&S Evo-~opdts] Pollux Viii io8, -ris 6' E10a(0)pa'S Tics KaCLT& 6S5Acovv 6IEXELPOTb5oV5 01)r01 (sc. ol scalKpap~o) Kcal ricX i aiJTuwp cb'aX~cbcuaa.

Page  33 CH. 8, 1. 13-26.HATEA3 TTOAITEIA 33 pE'va 8t'~ Kait 'V TrO-s v 1~os TO-{S~.]O'X(A)VoS, 04S OVKETL 1 7rroXXaX[oD] yey-pa7l-Tat TOVS' VPUKyapovS eto-7rpaTTEtV KaL& avaC4 Xto-icW EK Tzo13 vavpaptKou apryvp[iov. 3ovX}?\V 83 67T-t37aE TETpaKOG- O[VS'], E'KaT~ 'V 6KOTS fv~ ~ 3 6W 'Acoryi'rr 6a~Ev Q'[7-' TO'] voo0/LcvXaK6FV, 6cO0-7T1EP v'7T17-pEv Ka~t '-pT6'rpoi. 67rt- 0o UKO7TO'01 O[v']ca T-1I7S' OXtTtCiaS- Kall Ta' TIE aXaTa' -7rXeW-tTa Kat Ta ALE 7L07Ta TOM '7rOXLT<LK>&W' &3Er'pct KaLL 7011\' apa'ravoraS' 'qv6VVeV 'vp[ac] o'o-a [Ka\~ ~'1FU[04~] Ka\t KoXc',Etv, Ka\t T\a~ EKTO'EL'aE oepev CIS' w6Xtv oi'K fvypa'ovo-a Tr\V wrpOcfao-[V TrOD *1p77~T],Eyo0at, Ka~ TO~S E~7Tt KaLTaXV/CrEL 70D &j1.OV 0-VV[ijorTape'vovS' 6`KPLVVE, '(5 VOS' O06'P[OS'] v6/LoV ctaa[ryy],eX[tav~] rEpit ai'Trc0w. 6 p(6V 86\ T7\IPE' 17 7roXXa~oi3 Wessely (K3, B, litteris incertis aX); woXXrtX6Gt Paton (H-L), sed spatiUM vix SUffiCit; 70XX[aiKC]s K —VT. 20 C'rl -rb Paton, Gennadios (K-W, H-L, K ),3 B): 9-TL K'. 21 Ka! Et's Ta' &.XM H-L. 22 T(LWN) rroN1Tco(N): TL~vp rIoXcTLKC~V Richards, Hude (K-W, H-L, K 3, B), Cf. 3, 35 7r& irXetor7a Kad Ayto-7-cc 7-(WV iv r-roc Tcjv -<7rep\ ri T'> 7roXtT&JV satis probabiliter conicit K. 23 Kad ~3J/LLouV Blass (H-L, K3); Tooi ~37/.Ltou K1 (K-xv). EkTeLI0-tS B. 24 rov6 rpa'-rreorOat (exigendi) scripsi, coil. Plat. Leg. 762. B Tr7V &7rXacoiap (~77,uav) 7rpaT-rlE~w r-Sv U'roq5E6yopTa,: roO KOXac~EoOat K'; (hiatu admisso) r-oO EiJ66vEoOaL Blass (H-L, K) ~ eiarparTco-Oat? K-W; TOt CiKTIVEo-Oat Tyrrell. 26 06/100 elo-a-yyEX~caI Wessely et K3; IOAOV..... K-W, B; 6 ILE [o~v TraOUT gTate] K1 (H-L). EVotOs v0ILOLSKrX.] Phot. Lex. PaVunpapica: KaiL evP T-o~s 06/10o1 S " ec'a Tts avctwpcpicar OLL33T,"Ka'L "Tro's VaVUKpILp0V TO6I KarT& rI~v PVc~KpcaplaJ. " ~4. P3o-uXkv S' i-ioCi9crE TETpcLKocTr0o3s] A new council Of 400 is here contrasted with the previously existing council of the Areopagus. There is nothing in the phrase to shew that the writer has made any mention of a previous council under Dracon. Cf. Plut. Sol. 19, o-var-w-cri/Jepos SI T770 6v 'Apeiy 7rd-yc /3ovXhv...eurpazv lrp00oKaLTE'vEL/Le /30vX77 airIJ 1OVX7 E'KaIoT77?, TreTTILpWV o1Tvo(P, E'KaLTOY &v~pas CEWLXEb~d/1EV 01. 'ApEowwryL'rcv] Philippi, Areo~p. u. -Epheten, pp. 199-246; Gilbert,i 136. Duncker, Cescih. d. All. (xii i2) vol. vi I87-I94. EW7LOrKOWO0S OiVO-CL KTX. ] Plot. I.eC., ThY'? 3'xrv~o OovX-'qv f7r10-KolrV 7rch'TWV KatLL56 XcaKc TOO'p v6/twy EIKacWorEP. TC rci Wt~rTL KCLI. TC'L VFE'-YLcr'rc KTX.] C. 3 ~6, 8L 'KEL SI T& 7rXeLo —r Ka~l T&a Adyoirc TWOCVp T'v -r6XErL, Kati KOXcLovo-a KaLd ~10,ULOtlTa rap-rTas TrUL IiKOO/.LOLJVTIa KVpt WI. cdve4epev] Dem. 45 ~ 8, Tri -jTLMPJ 067r' C-KCLV'&5 SdXJO-EV 06'TE 010' ELI T-O KOLV6V ayeV 500XEY. E'S wSlw =e' EL Kbp670XLV (cf. c. 6o ~ 3). Thuc. ii 15, KaLXETIaL 6I 7' adKp67IOXLS lUeXPL TroUe 9ITL 6w7r 'AO77VIaiwY 76XLs. Aristoph. S. A. Nub. 69, Eq. 267,Lys. 245. 'In inscriptions iv cbKpow6XeL is first found in B.C. 387-6, according to Bull. d. Corr. Hell. i888 p. 149. In fourth century prose the use of r6X1I is preserved in certain familiar and unambiguous combinations: [Xen.] De Red. v 1,2, Xph/.a-ra ELI Tip w6Xup ayeVeXGIVTI. Schol. Aristoph. Lys. '273, goT370IoVav W6XE1u ircpat To'p dpXa-toy PE(~f (possibly quoted from one of the writers of 'ATOLSEIs or from Craterus). For other references see Maetzner on Antiph. 6 ~ 39 PvT -r-r6Xe. On the other hand Andoc. 3 ~ 7, and Aeschin. 2 ~ 175, have dpcLI/dpeL ELI T3707 UKp6ToXLV' (Wyse). VArl KiruX15EL r02 8 tw~ov —vO1J.v e'trcuyeX~cas] Eloa7-ylXeLv has already been used in a general sense in 4 ~ 4. We now find a definite vo'6LoI elOa-y-yeXlaL ascribed for the first time to Solon. The special case here mentioned corresponds to the first of the three classes of crimes which, according to Hyperides, were included in the v6goI edTIay-yCX~TK06I, ro Eux. 22, Ecu' TLI TOP' &i~ov TM'p 'AOlqvaLcwJ KaLTIX677 7 TI~'3 E7T KILa\6a(TeL T-ot) S'Ikov ET7 oLK v rva-ya-y7 (Isocr. de Big. 6; Dinarch. c. Dem. 94) Cf. Theophr. apud Lex. Rhet. Cantab. s. v. eioIa-y-yeXlc: ecip 7TLI KcLTIaX67-' T6V 5/op. The text implies that the definition given by Theophrastus applies to a far earlier date than the time 3

Page  34 34 AOHNAIf2N COL. 3,1. 30-36. 7r'0XtV1 7rOXXabcv; urao-ta`ovoaa-, Tc-6Th 8& 77-OXt7-('V EVIOV9? 8[aN] T72v eaWvlt4i ]v [47cv77-0]VTaV? T\ a 'TOL 7OV IJO/zol EO?7Ke 77p \ aV'To \ taov by a (7Tact~a~ov(7fl9 T?)S~ 7WOX[EOW]S? i4? 0]'-rat Tda 67rXa /I1& 30 AEO' e'Te'paV, daTt/JZOl etlvat Kai 7279q 7T0XEW9 /.L7 tLETEXE 9. Ta' I.LeV oiN [7wep\ Ta, a'pXa\ rToVro LXE 0r po7077P. 80KEtC &6 7279 1oXGwVOs wOXCTrEta T-pia Tav'- etliat Ta' 8sfl/LOTOtCTaTa' 28 d&ya7rcPvTca K-W et Kontos: ai'rOKh'OuTas Rutherford; 7repL/JdoPrag (J E B Mayor, Marchant, Blass, Gennadios, H-L) quondam conieci, Coil. Plut. Sol. 2o 7repc/dPEVIEL dKLPHY&IPW Ta' TWPV KpcLTo6PTwP, sed &)NT potius quam OYNT in papyro apparet. 7rEpLOpPJTa.1 Bury coil. Thuc. iv 71 TS' A4XXov 7repLLSJE (B). Fortasse 7IreppLopWPras i-S adroj3raZPox scribendum. 29 6-~rat H-L (K, B); rTO~p-at Richards, Blass, K-w, sed spatium vix sufficit. IX 1 ci~e litteris evanidis (K, B): 9,ra~e K-W, H-L. 2 7rpia 7-av-r' papyrum se u u K pa T6a H1-L, K -W 2. & o. H L TESTIMONIA. 28-30. *Gellius, ii i12: In legibus Solonis illis antiquissimis quae Athenis axibus ligneis incisae sunt quasque latas ab co Athenienses ut sempiternac manerent poenis et religionibus sanxerunt, legem esse Aristoleles refert scriptam ad hanc sententiam: I'si ob discordiam dissensionemque seditio atque discessio populi in duas partes fiet et ob earn causam irritatis animis utrimque arma capientur pugnabiturque, turn qui in eo temnpore in eoque casu civilis discordiae non alterutrae parti sese adiunxerit, sed solitarius separatusque a communi malo civitatis secesserit, is domo patria fortunisque omnibus careto, exul extorrisque esto' (Rose, Frag. 353, 390-) after Eucleides, to which it has been assigned by Frankel, Att. Gesc/zworenenger., p. 77. There is a vague reference to dloy-cyyXicu in the time of Solon in Pollux viii 53, XLXLOL 5U KarcL ply' 16Xwva T2'1 Eia-ry-yeXias 9KpL'PO, Kw-&TU 7-0 tO Pa X-plr KaI wrp~s -7rePTaK6o-tot, cf. Philochorus, 155 Mifller, Eu T?7y-yetXap, 's Apy (JLoX6Xpos, tt w Ka6E~o/~dl'wP, W's & A'17/.Ii5pLosO' 0 4aX-qpel~ Xtiw 7IePraKOIT1WP (cf. Duncker, G. d. A. vi1 79 n). The special case mentioned in the text came before the Areopagus. ~ 5. v4LROV 90'qKE KT\.] Plut. Sol. 20 aini. -rib-' 5' dX2CwP aeuh-oi vPc'ln'w f&og AClIP A&XILOTY7aKa1 7rapcot3o~os 0 KeXe6wCP CaTI/SOP E'IPca -TOP IP YTaiatE JL?7517Ipasl fleptfo -yeP6/uepop. f&oNe~rat 3', W'S ebKE, /.u)' ciraOcj3s /277' divcuoO67'Tws gXetp 7rp61s 7-6 KOLPO'P, eIv dao-ga'Xe dI/LEPOP T' OIKELC KaU 7C y-q orivpa y t p 6low 'zoa-ei' r7 71 IC&W KaXX~w Lt6/CepoP, ciXX' rd,7-0r6Ev 7roZs TIaC /3XT110 Kad &KaLo'TepaI 71-pcTToUOTL irpoo-41evp0 OLrVKLP8VVPE6ELP KIlL /3ol76aP 1ActXXOP 77 7CEpt/LEPIEW aKLPS36;PWS TI TWP1 Kpa-To6PrwP,. Prace. Ger. Rei5. 3,2 ~i, ii 8,23 F, awo0pl5rEL.. KIa' Oavgpocet T 7raL6w' eKEPOS 0' acvi7p 9-ypa/ipu IITLuCoP elPIa TOP EV O-TTIELO 7r0X1101 A/67&TPOLT ilpOlOeAp~cov, De Sera Numinis Vindicfa 4, ii 550 B-C, 7rapaXo-yWdTa-oP 31 -So TrOl 20Xwvo5, 7rpoLo 4LeucoP /17731 avar~aoLdo-aPTra. Cic. ad Atticum x i, 2, ego vero Solonis... legemn neglegam, qui capite sanxit, si quis in seditione non alterius utrius partis fuisset. (Cf. Grote, c. II, ii 342. Prof. Mayor (Class. Rev. v i220 b) also refers to Cantacuzen. iv 13, and Nicephorus Gregora ix 6fin. OiyTax.CL 74,irXc] metaphor from taking up a position in the face of an enemy. Plato, Rep. 440 E, IP T7-7 T7 VXl -i TLOELTr6IL T'a oSrXa rpf'L1 TO) XoyurTTueov. The phrase is frequent in Xenophon's Anabasis in several military senses, e.,g. eir Td4LP TIC 07rX11 TIOIoO~at ii 2, 21 and v 4, I I (KrUger's Lexikoiz, or Vollbrecht's Worterbuc/k). [.'18& RIEW'TE-rpcov] Also in Thusc. ii 67 ~, cf. v 48, OtiS' b' 'TE'PcOP. vi 44 ~ 4, oU'R /AE6' E'T~pWP. vii 59 ~ 5, /0731 /116' e~cpa. IX ~ i. 'r4s 7,AXavos wroXvredOCS-rcZL 8fljhoTLK(QTwrcL ]~x Isocr. 7 ~ i6, eKEIP77-P T777P 31q7poKparlaP, 77P Mo6Xv pA6 6' 3?7/CorTKW$ TaLTOg -yevP6LePog EPo/2o6E'T770E.c D em. i 8 ~6, Mo6Xwv, eUPovg WPV l/JP Kal 327/uoT-t Kos. For Solon's relations to democracy see Pol. ii 12, 227.3 b 35. In the language of Mr Newman's excellent paraphrase in vol. i p. 373, we are there told that 'certain persons regarded Solon as the destroyer of an extreme oligarchy, on the ruins of which he constructed the lra-rpLos 677/loKpartcL, a wisely mixed constitution: they took him to have founded

Page  35 CH. 8, L. 27-CH. 9, 1. 6. flOAITEIA 3 5 'np~ov~vKa /ETcrOV TO,ctl' 8VL Ev t 70 ao-kao-tv, e7retTa '~,Eivat Tr 80VXo~k'V& [7Ltup&)e'] l'wrp Tc'V 'atKouVawTpTO SC (<CO> FUaXt9TT6 qaacrtv eXVK~vaL ro' vXi-6os) 7' Et'? To' &Kaptov] &fe-tc it( to ap c 6 7i7Lo 'r~ ~ v, icpt 7 ~ VE'at Tll 4 TriIcpeZJJ Paton, K-W (K3, B), Cf. i9, 2; TL/t~wpelo-Oat Wyse, H-L; &Kd~eaoac K'; SLK'1)V Xap~eb (hiatu vitato) J W Headlam et Lipsius, Coll. Plut. Sol. 18. 5 ' ins. H-L (K3, B); Y' Kali K-W; ~K1. 6, 9,13 FI N (K-W). the Areopagus, to have introduced the system of filling magistracies by election, and to have created the popular dicastery, thus as it were equipping the State with a complete set of new institutions.... To this view of Solon's work Aristotle ohjects: he says that Solon would seem to have found the council of the Areopagus, and the system of filling the magistracies by election, already established, and that he... left them as he found them, whereas he did institute the popular element in the constitution by founding the popular dicasteries. He appeals in support of his contention to the opinion of a second set of critics, who made Solon responsible for the existing extreme democracy. Tbey complained that, so far from being the author of a mixed constitution, he overpowered the oligarchical element by the democratic, inasmuch as he gave supreme power to the popular dicastery. Armed with this judicial authority, the people became masters of the State; one statesman after another had to play into their hands, and so the extreme democracy gradually came into being. Aristotle, however, holds that these inquirers ascribed to Solon's institution of popular dicasteries consequences which would not have resulted from it, if it had not been for accidental circumstances. Solon was far from intending to found an extreme democracy; he gave, in fact, only a modicum of power to the people-enough to content them and no more-and reserved office for the better-to-do classes. On the other hand,lhe was not the contriver of an elaborate mixed constitution, but rather the founder of the beginnings of popular liberty; still less was he the undoer of the power of the Few. He left office in their hands, and gave the people only just enough power to make the holders of office govern well.' FLA 8CLVIECtFLV KT-X. ] 6 ~ I. TO' ~E'tVCLcLLKO1JVIUMV] Plut. Sot. i 8, ol6pEpos MP~ dgrapKcEZP T7-J 6' 7 7W roXXw~p i-OeVelg, 7rav'rI Xa&FsO ' iK'qI/ b7rs~p 7T0 KaCLKW 7re~roPO6T-o I93WKCE Katl -y&p 7rXyy7yos VTO5i-pov i' /3Xra g&T'os C'-~v 74iy 6vvag4V& Kall g/IolAohVLP -ypd95eo-0at 7-o' dMKOOPTcL Krai &C$KIEL, 6pOz~s 901~ovr-os T- o~l O.OiToW7 Toils roXLTCas w&o'rep fv6s pipovs tcr~LJJ'c vTOLaELc Kai ouvvtX-ye&v aXXXots. 7ro67qy 5U 7cj3 v6,y oul.4 95toioOv7e X67you'acu7roO 3t1vPq~u~eoveo-t'u. Epwd7flOEt'S Ya'p, w~S fOLKE, 7flTLS OlKeFTrat KciXXLO-7ca 7c(z' 7r6Xe~wv, "iKCLPq, " 61trev, IEl 717 TWV a' CLK0VU/J*VWP OU)X 7'qTT7op 01 /11) aO6tKOL'/LPOL Irpo~3ciXopTra Katl KOX4iVO-~tL Troils cl&KOLU'Tas." r ELS 'r6 SLKCLcr"lpL0V 4oecTLs] The constr. changes from the substantival use of the infinitive to an ordinary substantive: The eulogists of Solon, referred to in PoZ. ii I2, 1273 b 41, recognise the 6LKac-rT7Jptop as the element which is 8a7Ap0TtK0' in his constitution; while his critics describe him as having subordinated the oligarchical element, K6IPto 7r-ohcoavr-a 7-l 3KaO-ThiPLOP 7rco'7-WV3, KX'qpcoT6PJ 05'. Aristotle himself subsequently mentions as one of the two elements in the necessary modicum of political power assigned to the people that of ev06v~ietv, i.e. calling the officials to account in the law-courts, LOAlq -Y&p 7o067oiV KilpLOS wvP 6' 5~AOS 60iXOS &P Erlj Kcai woofjos. Plut. Sol. iS (after saying of the O3)Tes that Tcp^ 00PEKKX'qo0ctjEtP Kai &Ka'~CLP 46vov IIeTeLXop' 7-~s 7roXvrefas) adds: 6 KaLT' cpaPXs /t~V ov'Uv,?rXELLT-lraz 76o La4)6pwv EVIrLurrep etsi7rv 3LKaoTTLaLS. KlI -Y&p 60-ac TaZ cip~aZS &acLE KPlVCLP, 6pAOICOS Katl 7repi' eKCL'P&WV CSi 7-l &Kcao7?'pLop CE956LTCLS filWKe TOZ9 /IOVXoAdP'ots. Grote (ii 3,25) holds that the popular dicasteries were not established by Solon, a view which is not in accordance with the text. He also points out (p. 3,26) that, although Solon laid the foundation of the Athenian democracy, his institutions were not democratical (as compared with those of Cleisthenes and Pericles). The dicasteries doubtless be-, came more highly developed in later times, but of their existence in Solon's time for certain purposes, such as the control of officials, there can be no reasonable doubt. See Duncker, Cesch. d. Alt. vi i79, i8o. I

Page  36 36 AOHNAIQN COL. 3, I. 37-44. 7j-OXITE'a'~. &"t 8E ica~ taN T~ o\PN yeryp[ai]OO[at TO]V'q VN i0Vq a"77-XW 2 co~ abcsdX wur 0 b rp Wr3 KX7paw Kat e7rtKc qpcov, av[a'y]ic~i?ro]XXa4 a to+-/3f'qT 7a-EL'; fyiyvecT6at cait 7ralVra /3paI8ev'EtV \ ',t 0 /aGT PM.O'Va pev OV 'V i0 Kcat Tca 1ColVa Kat Tra uta 'r K rlpLo] 7oratc v LE E M7T8~peS a'aa~e's- awl-oil 7rovqk70at T0V9? VO/JWVSq, 07rC#)Sq 7, T7?)1 pIE( [6, 8]7-aos' c]v'pto,~. ov p' pa E&oS',, AMX' &A To\ P7\ Uvao-Oat ca~o'Xov 9 o-XX6s Paton, Blass, K-W, K3; -'jv Ta&I KI; i'v 7roXXa~s H-L sed deest spatium. 10 TO' alKLo-T7 tpi K-W, K3, papyri lectio incerta (a): Ta 5iKaLoTIhp[ta] K1 (H-L), sed. propter tot generis neutri vocabula pluralia in contextu cumulata numerus singularis videtur elegantior. 11 K3 (B); ri K-W (in papyro utrumvis legi potest). SwwrW Ti TIJI Kp10-E&)1 0' 6SL 3 K6pLOS K-Wl; 'aut Ti delendum aut 6`'wwi - r9S KpioEWS 6' aSAO K6LpoS (a) legendum' K-' ii-oiT7 KIfEWS 6 AS~ij K6pioT H-L. 12 -13 rrepiA6,BeiN etiam ante K&OoA\oy scriptum et deinde deletum; 7ravria~oO sine causa legendum suspicantur H-L. ~2. M&ir~s...oc(~Cs] Dem. Lept. ~ 93, cwXF& Kail ~aa~p, Isaeus ii ~ 3,2, ii7rM Kai yvd~pt/uai /iILOeLV, Dem. '24 ~ 68, &w7XCi) Kai wr~o-i -y~1'uwpisw 'yeypai00ai. In all these passages perspicuity is described as a merit in legislative enactments. Here the obscurity of some of Solon's laws is said to have increased th~e powers of the people as interpreters of the law in the dicasteries. 0 rEI T6f.V KX 'pc)v] The reference is to the law of intestate succession quoted in Dem. Macart. 43 ~ 5 1, P. 1067. Parts of this law are paraphrased or expressly cited in Isaeus i i ~~ i, 2, and 7~ 20. The law of the E'rrCKXiJpoS is quoted in Dem. 43 ~~ i6, 54, and 46 ~ 2,2, ending with the words a've7rLSLKoI' 1ii7 iEWIetpa eXeiV )u'5TE KX37pOP /L?7Te (:'riKX-0poV. This law is referred to in Isaeus 3 ~~ 64, 74 and elsewhere. Both laws may be fairly ascribed to Solon, and students of Isaeus will admit the ambiguity of certain clauses in them. The greater part of Plutarch's Sol. 20 is devoted to details of the law of the c7riKXaqpOs, but the points there touched upon are curious rather than obscure. In the time of Aristophanes the decision of rival claims to the hand of an 'heiress' was one of the most cherished privileges of the Athenian dicast (Vesj5. 583-587). Cf. illf. 42 ~ 5, 7r~pt KX ~OV Kaid fVLKX 'poV), 50 ~ 6 E7rLKX77pOV KaKL~deiO1, and KX'piov Kai 6'lr1KX?7pwP 4F7l-i1KaoriIai, also 43 ~ 4. LVM-yKTI] SC. h'P. Rhet. i i ~ 8 adviiYKfl E7r1 TOES KpiTiiai Kca-ciXebrtpr, El/h. i 137 b 15, ahiaiYK-0176 /dV '7r1EZV KILO6Xov, A'i ol6v Tre * EA'VTCS.L KTX.] Plut. Sol. i8, V-yeTIa Se' Kai To61 vo/ijovs do-aabbTTepop -ypia''aS Kai TWEV &Ka0cTrqpi1u 1O-X6V ' p37 uV~ap3VOui 'yap U7r- TWED vO/iiuwp SaXvO?7zat 7r~ep' P8e5i WV Si)popVTo Ovpg~tp/3I aVt' CLeL SEOaIt (liKaiiOTW Ka~i Tp67rop Tuip TJJV P6/cwP KVP'OVS OVTILL. ' It is hardly just to Plutarch ' (says Grote) 'to make him responsible for the absurd remark that Solon rendered his laws intentionally obscure... We may well doubt whether it was ever seriously intended even by its author, whoever he may have been ' (Grote, c. II, ii 330).We now see that Plutarch quotes from the text, where the authors of this opinion are not specified. The opinion is only quoted to be rejected. The real cause for the obscurity of some of Solon's laws is introduced with the words ou' ~juil ELKOS KTX. SLG'L '6 p1i~ &VCLaO~CLL (SC. 2:0XWVa) McOO'Xo-U IrfpLXO43EV To' j3UXTLa-T0V] 'owing to his being unable to attain the perfection of legislative expression while drawing up his laws in general terms.' It is characteristic of a legislator to deal with To KILOO'Xo, leaving the dicast to deal with the details. Rizet. i I ~ 7, 'q il T-0) l'O/JOOITOV Kp10-i1 O6' KILT& adpog adXXa 7repl /iEXX6pTwl Te KaIl KILO6Xov VoTv 13 ~i3, Ovu/ij3IiVt Sc ToOTo (To'6 E71ifKC') T& /aErK6VTiWV TiC Sc 'K6I'TWV TCOV' VOM0067ETWV, aK YTWV 11EV OTILZ X 'O-7 'K6'TCOWV S' "TIap 1.k Stb'ivcuTIa 6iopio-ai, ciXX daVIyKILLoJ lev KILOO'Xov elreW, /.13 ~ X 's '7r' T6 wroX6. Elh. Nic. v I4, 11I37 b i5, Pol. iii i i, 1 2 82 b 2, (those in authority must be) KVpIOUC irept' 0)1-wP C'ILSVpILTOVoiv ot' VO/iOi Xe-E'P ae Kpi/3W1T && TS i?'? PptSop et PIL KILO6XoU &qXdcrIatiwepitrcivTwv, Pal. i1268b6 39, 1269 a 9, 1286 a io. irreApLfciEV, here'to define strictly, determine in express words, draw up in a legal form' (L and 5), Plat. Leg. 823 B, 6-)lpc

Page  37 CH. 9, 1. 7-CH. IO, 1. 4. FIOAITEIA - 37 wreptXct/eFv r' 83`X-rto',rovr O yap [3]tIK[aLov] JK 7(~^V VVl) 7t7'/.LVUE" VOv a7XX' EK 7j'r "XXq; 7roXt'riaq OEowpe-v T6y IeKE OV /3ovXg-tv. 10. ev [,Iaev oi'v -rjo' V61totsv Tai'ra 8O/I~E Odtvat 8?/J.TLtKa', 7tpO & 7279 vo/1oOEolaq 7Tot aat 7-6 7 XpEw-[v o]ICoifor, Kat pe-rd rau~a 7J7V TE 70TV /lETp(ol Kal U-TaO/WV Kalt 7'71 TOVy 2 vo,~L~t0-,La709 av$?7oLv. EW E'KEL'OVV 7yap E'7VETO KtL Ta /ETpa /.Lpet 4 X 2 'aut rocuaca fuit aut wrotor-as, certe non 7rot'a-ouOat' K-W;?rou00'a K-W, B; lrotrjaat I-L. 4 &YEHCIN littera I incerta (K), non lTT&y1HCIN (K-W) nec KATl&CT&CIN (H-L). MEIZL (K, K-W), non MEIO (H-L). yap lrab.roXV TI lrpry/sri ECTI, lreplEL\77A1 -suoV 6V6pLcaTL 11v o-XE6O'Y ivi. Ar. Et. Nic. v 4, i130 b 3, v'i '6IS.4TI t7reptXa3etv (embrace, include) TrXaa 7iraiz'ra, i 12, 1117 b 21, T-67ry 7rEpLXrafEtV. Pol. iii i6, 1287 b 19, TOa /1EV E56E'XEcat ToZI vo'goLs w7reptXrkOac, vi 5, 1320 ol I, v6/101 ot 7rpLXt~h/ovTaov TaO. oySovra Tri's roXLTEias. oi ydp 8CKLov-poiXTlorLV] One of the writer's favourite methods of reconstruction is 'inference from the present to the past, from existing circumstances to their presumable antecedents, from a given state of institutions to a former condition of the same.' We here find 'part of a formula for the critical application of this method,' or rather for the limitations under which it may be applied (Mr MIacan, 7. H. S., xii 37 f.). X ~ i. irpo' S~ i i VO~Ox6Eo(caL KTX.] Solon's general legislation falls between the aoeoriXOeta and the alteration of the currency. There is thus no direct connexion between the change in the coinage and the famous 'disburdening' ordinance. It was not by a modification of the monetary standard that Solon relieved the oppressed debtors; it was by an absolute cancelling of the debt. The opposite view was held by Androtion, whose opinion is quoted by Plutarch only to be rejected: Sol. i, KatcToL TLVIS Eypru/av, I'v Ea6oT/ 'Av6poriwv, 0O/K d7rGKo7rXpEWv, aLXXal T6KC/uE /pETpL0TBT KOVqITBtcYTlLv WyarvriaOc T0o' lrIi/l7Trag, Kal oreL-CoavXOeLav Ovo/riacu TO /LXa;V0pW'TrELvL 7T0UTO Kai T17P a/ua ToL/Ty yEVO1LAe 1 7- TjV Te uSIrpWp iEraruY ZI7OLV Kati ToO7 vOu5i11/LTog 7-TI/Si). EKaITOP y rp lno&7cE 6/aXfu T'qv - upiv 7rp6rEpov 360/?7hKovTa Kai TPLiWV oksav, cWc-lT a'p04S~ /1V toaov, 6vvdi.uet 6' gXa-rTrov aTro06I6rvwv, WA/IeXEL/T0at /u65 To06 EsKTU/OZyvT /sEYctXc /517~86 86 fX6.rTE60l.a Troi KO /.dPOUeV. Gi 6 I'ZXEi~oToi 7r1IVTWi 6puoi3 TWP OV//3Ov XIlwv azvadpaiev yEJ'pIo yLL TiJZa itEI rIX6ELaiv, KaLt To6Tots avUv4Et 46cXXOv 7a 7r0ot /sumCa. TC)V ILE'TpWV KCi 0TTO.OjLIV KMI.-.TOO voJJCoLCaGroT aitJO-.LV] 'the augmentation of the measures and weights and of the currency.' Andoc. De Myst. 83 (the decree of Tisamenus), WoXL7E6Eilo-L 'AO'qvroalvs KaIT 7TO. 7liaTpta, V6/JOLS 86 XPI'TO~I TOL L 16XwuoS Kail /ITpoLS Kitl o-cLO/soL. It was held by Boeckh (Mer-olag-ie, 1838, xv ~ 2) that Solon 'not only debased the coin but also altered the weights and measures.' Grote dissented from this opinion on the latter point, giving his reasons in the Classical Museum, i p. 25: 'I believe that the statement of Androtion... has no reference to the meeldimnus and metr-eles, and that we cannot even deduce from it the vague inference...that Solon made some new arrangement of the measures.' He interprets the words TWLc /drpwv 6w7a6L17at (Plut.) of the monetary standard alone, referring them to the 'increased number of drachmae, which every mina and every talent were now made to contain.' He even adds that 'we know positively that Solon did not meddle with the weights.' He holds that it was 'for the express purpose of affording relief to debtors, that Solon degraded the monetary standard, and maintains that Solon 'would not choose such a moment for rearranging the liquid and dry measures.' The present passage conclusively confirms the opinion held by Boeckh. TnjV TO; VOI.CaG.oULTOS ii1'9Lv] refers to the fact that 73 old Aeginetan drachmas were replaced by ioo Attic drachmas, so that the same amount of silver was represented by a larger number of coins. ~ 2. TO. pLE'T.L JECKtW TWV 4'ELSaV1EL'()V] Hdt. vi 127, 4P'e6wvos ToO 'ApyE'io Tupai/YOU...TrO T& /UJdTpII a0 IooaLvTO TOIlr fleXo7rovv17a-iot-. The date of Pheidon is dispitted. He is sometimes placed in 01. 8==.c. 748 (Pausan. vi 22, 2, followed by Unger, Duncker, and Busolt, i 140 n); sometimes (by altering the text of Pausanias) in 01. 28=B.c. 668 (Weissenborn, followed by Curtius). Hdt. l.c. mentions a

Page  38 38 AOHNAIQN COL. 3, 1. 44-4, 1. I. 5 T7WV eitwvelov, /catl 7 /lva 7trpoepov [ac'yo]vara 7rapa[7r\rXio-]ov E/3o8/Ir7covTa;paxuiL ave7rXr7ppoO7l Tra-t EKcaTov. II V 68 o dpxao [Col. 4.] 5 e'Kovoua K-VW, H-L, K3; dyovaa B; aut fXKovoa aut &^yovua, quorum hoc usitatius sit, legendum putat Wyse; cf. c. 51 ~ 3 rbv oTra0Oibv dyovTra. rapa[\rX?'o]tov K; 7rapa [utLKp]6 K-W; 7peXZ Kal H-L; rCs -y' Kal B. 6 Trats: r6T' els H-L; els (hiatu admisso) coniecerat Mahaffy (Athenaeumn, 189, p. 344), sed numerum omnibus notum indicat articulus. son of Pheidon among the suitors of the daughter of Cleisthenes, despot of Sicyon, which would make Pheidon's date shortly before 600 B.C. The first of these dates is half a century before the beginning of Greek coinage, which may be placed about B.C. 700 (Busolt, i 355). The earliest authority for the statement that silver coins were first struck by Pheidon at Aegina is Ephorus, quoted by Strabo p. 376, "Efopos 5' ev A'yivy dtpyvpov TrpwTov KOT7rjvi p'r)7L Vbr6 rbel&wvos, cf. ib. 358, jLurpa eevupe Tia 'aetowvta KaXo6/LEva Kal o'raIOJ.oVs Kal vojulatkIa KeXapacy/evov TO re d\\o Kai TO dpyvpoiv (cf. Busolt, i 144 n). This last is the only passage which describes Pheidon as an inventor of weights; and even here the epithet 'Pheidonian' is applied to the Aa-rpa alone. The ilarmor Parium, ep. 30, connects him with silver coinage as well as with a reform in the measures of capacity: eit&wv 6 'Ap-yeZos eo7r/jevaJe Tr puiTpa... Kal aveCaKceaae ('reformed them') Kal vYoftafa dp-yvpoOv ev Alyivr evroitjaev. The Etymologicum Magnum, s. v. 6p3eXitKOS, mentions his coinage, but implies that he made no change in standards of veight: IrdvTrwv 8 7Trpw-ros beioewv 'Ap-yeios v6/ulff/a EKOeEV v AiYivy' Kal oos TO v6 -pfnfoia Kal avaXaf3wv rTOS ofEXirCKOus (spits, or small bars, of metal), dved0RK Tr- ev "Apyet "Hpq, eiretior o T-6re ol op3eXiLKot T7) Xeipa e7rX-\povv, oToVurt-T 7 Trv paKa (the grasp), I/Usr, Kalrep A'i 7r\XpovTres T'7v opaKa TOls eo 6/3oXrS, SpaXw. v avTri7v Xekyotev trap T7O opa'aaOat. oi0ev TL Kal vv v Xeyoev 63poX0oa7TaT7)v TOV TOKLT'rTv, iTret6i TrrTaOUos [Tros oEXficrKovs addit Orion p. I 8 'qui Heraclidis Pontici auctoritate utitur,' Gaisford] 7rapeoSiovv ot apXaiot. The text mentions him solely in connexion with. gurpa, or 'measures of capacity,' and not in connexion with coinage or weights, the present section dealing in order with three topics (i) measures, (2) coinage, (3) weights, which must not be confounded with one another. Similarly, in another of the 7roXLTlacL, that of Argos (Rose, Frag. 480, 3, Pollux 1o, I79) /eTrpa alone are mentioned in connexion with Pheidon; el'l 5' a Katl pei8wv t daiyyeLov Xe\aILpbv Cdro WV e Lo w v I v ureTpwv &vo/.uapoxIvov, VITrp wv ev 'Ap'yeid lroXtTeri 'Apto'TorAX7r Xe/YEL. The present passage tells us for the first time that the Pheidonian measures of capacity were smaller than the corresponding Attic measures. The Pheidonian scale of measures may be identified with the Babylonian, and the ratio of the Pheidonian to the Solonian measures may accordingly be I2: I3. Thus, in liquid measure, the Solonian /-eTrplrTs is already known to have contained about 39 litres, or 8- gallons: the Pheidonian serpqrij would therefore contain about 36 litres, or rather less than 8 gallons, and be identical with the Babylonian epha and the old Egyptian artabe. Similarly, in dry measure, the Solonian ueL&auvos contained about 52 litres, or about 12 gallons; and the Pheidonian, 48 litres, or about ii gallons (Hultsch, ANeue yahrb. fiur Philologie, i891, pp. 263-4). For the opinion held hitherto, that the Pheidonian measures were larger than the Solonian, cf. Duncker, Hist. Gr. Bk 11, c. ii, vol. ii 26 E. T. j fv&o-IcKaTov] According to the statement of Androtion in Plut. Sol. I5, Solon, in introducing a new standard for silver coin, lowered the standard to the extent of 27 per cent. too drachmas of the new standard contained no more silver than 73 of the old. Thus the new mina was equivalent in weight to 73 unreduced drachmas. As 73: 00oo:: 100oo: 137; hence, too drachmas of the old standard would be equivalent in weight to 137 of the new. 73 to ioo is precisely the proportion between the Attic drachmas of 67*5 grs. and average Aeginetan drachmas of rather over go grs. (73: oo:: 67'5: 92'4), the Attic mina being to the Aeginetan as Ioo: I37 (Head's Historia Numorum, p. 309). If, however, instead of taking Aeginetan coins of average weight, we take those of actual maximum weight, the stater of two drachmae weighs 194grs. The corresponding Attic coin weighs 135 grs. Then as 194: 135:: ioo.T66. Hence the number of drachmas of the Aeginetan -----— L~ —~LII —~~~~~)i --__ --- I__L -I - -— ~-rL.IC,

Page  39 CH. 0, 1. 5-7. TOAITEIA 39 XapacTr7p 8&3paXIov. E7rol7oae 8e Ktal crTa0/.a 'rpo? Tr[o] vo/',La 7 7 XapaKTJrp 5tipdiXlov < Povis>? Wyse, coll. Poll. ix 60; XapaK-r1p < <3os Kai Tr v6gt.oja > l33paxfov J B Mayor. ora0/La K-W, K3, B; ~ral/bv K1; 7rpos rby CraO6aLv Tr vbo/tatjiAa? H-L. standard, which would be equivalent in weight to Ioo Attic drachmas, would be about 69~. Thus, according as we take average or maximum weights, Mr Kenyon's text, 7raparrX-rLov a iSoBoU xKovra ipaX-,uis, will mean either 73 or 69i.-The reading proposed by Blass gives us exactly 73 drachmas. The new standard introduced by Solon in place of the Aeginetan has been convincingly proved by Mommsen (Ronm..Ulznzwesen, p. 43 sq., Mon. Rom. ed. Blacas, i 29 sqq., 73 sq.) to have been the Euboic, and henceforth Euboean coins would circulate freely in Attica, side by side with the new Attic money (Head, p. 3I0, cf. 302 and xxxviii-xlii). Thus Solon's reform of the currency was not necessarily due to economic reasons connected with the debts of the poorer citizens. It had a commercial object and was intended to facilitate trade with the neighbouring island of Euboea (especially with Chalcis and Eretria), and with other Greek cities (for example, Cyrene), where the Euboic standard prevailed. It would also promote trade with Corinth, where a similar standard was in use (Busolt, i p. 525), and with the Greek colonies in Chalcidice and Sicily (Kohler, in AMittheil. d. d. arch. Inst. I885, x 15I -i 5). It has further been suggested by Mr R. S. Poole (Dict. of the Bible, art. 'Weights and Measures') that the new Solonian standard was borrowed from Egypt. The Egyptian unit of weight was 140 grains, and the Solonian didrachm weighed 135 grains. Thus, whether the standard was actually borrowed from Egypt or Euboea, the Solonian coinage would facilitate intercourse with Egypt as well as with the countries where the Euboic standard was in use. In this connexion it is interesting to notice that, after reforming the currency, and thus facilitating trade with countries employing either the Euboic or the Egyptian standard, Solon set out for Egypt, where he stayed for ten years, one of his avowed objects being the pursuit of commerce. dvE7rrXk1pWo9] 'was raised to the full number of a hundred drachmas.' iv-SCSpaXcLov] 'the primitive type of coin was the two-drachma piece.' xapaKTrp means (i), as here, TO KEXapaylxvov, that which has a stamp impressed upon it, cf. Plato, Politicus, 289 B, ' ro7 voUirJaLTroS Ioda Kai aipacLy6wv Kal rravros xapaKT7pos: (2) the stamp itself, as in Ar. Pol. i 9, 1257 a 40 XapaKrTpa 7rtPaX\6vrwv, i'v' droX6avr TjS /Aerpjrews avro6s o6 'yap XapaKT7p eTOr7Iq roo r6oov arteiZov. Oecon. ii 5 (of Hippias), r6TO v6o.utaa rTO O 'AOrqvaiots aoBKtPov e7roiriev a' Tfai7 V etS KdXevU rpos P avrbv avaKOC4eiV e' veXO6vrTwv 8 eT-i rTq KOpac eTepov XapaKT7cpa SotiWKe TO avrb dpy6piov. Before the time of Solon, the only money current in Attica, as well as in Boeotia and Peloponnesus, seems to have been the Aeginetan didrachm of about I94 grains; but there are no Athenian coins extant of Aeginetan weight. Thus, apart from mere tradition (Plut. Thes. 25 cKOpeE 85 Kal vo'gLoUt.a 3OV i yXPv xapas), there is no proof of any coins having been struck at Athens before Solon (Head, p. xlii). The text must therefore refer to the old Aeginetan didrachms in circulation in Attica before the time of Solon. These coins had on the obverse a tortoise with a plain shell and a row of dots down the middle of its back; and, on the reverse, an incuse square divided into eight triangular compartments, of which four or more are deeply hollowed out (Head, I.c., p. 332, fig. 220). From the time of Solon the standard coin of Athens was the tetradrachm of the full Euboic weight of 270 grains. The common type is a head of Athena of rude

Page  40 40 AOHNAIQN COL. 4, 1. 2-IO. 8 T[p]el? Kati ec}7KOVTa vas TO rXaov aryovora,, Kcal e7rt6t&evezuor0oaav [al] /,vai TrCo 'TaT7)pL Kcal Tros /X\\oL oTraO/,oLs. 8 rpets Kal seclusit K; ante Cp/ofr0KOvra (v. 6) posuerunt H-L, alii; defendit Ridgeway, retinuerunt K-W, B. archaic style with large prominent eye, wearing a round earring and close-fitting crested helmet: on the obverse is an owl with head facing and wings closed; also an olive-spray and the letters A 0 E (ib. p. 310, fig. 209). After the time of Solon, coins of Eretria, stamped with the head of a bull, together with other Euboean coins, may have circulated in Attica, side by side with the Solonian 'owls.' But there is no authority earlier than Philochorus (in the generation after Aristotle), for stating that the early didrachms, which preceded the Solonian 'owls,' were impressed with the figure of an ox (Head,.c. p. 309). Cf. Schol. on Arist. Av. I1o6, 7 yXavO iril Xapdyiaros jv reTpaCpdXiAXov, WS 4tXoXopos' eK\X)O 77 TO voYbtOLa o rb reTrppaXtov r6bre [X7] yXari. qv yap yXavt eTriayvIov Kat rp6a'-wrov 'AO7vvas, 7-Wv Trp6rpov &Spd'XAwv OVTwV eriaro-uov 6e Sovov eibvxrv. Pollux, ix 60, gicpaxouov TO- 7raXatbv e -roOr7' Xv 'AGrvaiots v6tuo'taLC Kal eCKaXeZTo 3ous, o'T f3oov etXev evrer7v7ruJLOvov. We cannot, however, ignore the fact that archaic coins of Euboea, bearing the bull's head, have repeatedly been found in Attica (cf. Koehler, Mittheizungen, ix 357-9). erroCoE-E-d-yyovas] ' He also instituted standard weights corresponding to the coinage, 63 minae weighing the talent,' i.e. ' at the rate of 63 minae to the weight of a talent.' Cf. c. 51, rbv aTraOJUbv adyovTas orov &Sv rautroi Crdwa'v. Much difficulty has been felt respecting these 63 minae, on the ground that, in every standard, a talent invariably consists of 60 minae. Thus it is ingeniously suggested by Mr Kenyon and others that Trpes Ka[ ' was written as an explanation of 7rapacrXrjoto above, and was subsequently inserted in the text in the wrong place,' and this suggestion has been regarded with considerable favour. But the text, as it stands, admits of a ready explanation if we regard it as stating the weight of the Solonian currency as compared with the average weight of the corresponding coins of the Euboic standard. The average weight for the Solonian silver coinage was slightly higher than that of the Euboic. Solon made his new talent consist of 63 old minae of the average Euboic weight; and this talent was, like all other talents, divided into 60 minae. As the post-Solonian mina weighed about 6750 grains, the talent must have weighed 60 times that amount, or 405,000 grains. To obtain the weight of the mina superseded by the Solonian mina, we divide by 63 and the result is 64284 grains. A stater, or fiftieth part of this, is 1284 grains. In other terms, 63: 6o: 135: 128k. This is in sufficiently close agreement with the actual weights of the coins of Euboea, as compared with those of Attica. The two-drachma piece of the former weighs 130 grains (only one grain and three-sevenths more than the weight above mentioned); that of the latter, 135 grains. The substance of this explanation is due to Prof. Ridgeway, who also shews that, while the Aeginetan standard was used for silver, the Euboic was used for gold and silver, being in fact the only standard used for gold. Solon framed for the coinage of Athens a standard founded on that already in use for all transactions in gold. Possibly to adjust his silver currency to the standard gold unit, he augmented the silver standard, making 63 old minas go to his new talent of 60 minae. Thus, while about 70 Aeginetan drachmas are equal in weight to Ioo Attic drachmas, rather less than 63, or, strictly speaking, 62 Euboic minas are equal in weight to 60 of the Solonian standard. The above note refers to the average weight of coins of the Euboic standard. In the case of coins of fall weight, that standard is practically identical with the Solonian, the staters of both weighing 135 grains (see Head's Brit. Mus. Cat. of Coins of Corinth, 1889, p. xix). irLSLEVEj e1q-cLav] 'The minae were divided into fractions consisting of (lit. 'were apportioned out by') the stater and the other weights.' e7rtatav'eLw, "'to distribute besides,' Philo 2, 651; rtv' rTi Josephus, B.J. 2, 6, 3 " (L and S). o-raTilp is the general term for a standard unit of weight and (more frequently) of money. It here denotes the weight of a fiftieth part of a mina. The weights here meant are probably coin-weights alone, market-weights being apparently left out of consideration. Solon made no change in the weifghts used in conz

Page  41 CH. 10, 1. 8-CH. II,.io. YIOAITEIA 4' 11. 8tardas~a &' 'V '7TOXLTEi'aZ o"V77-Ep Eft"pTat Tpo7rOv, EW7t82 rrpocrVToes avTe) 17TE,2t T&)V VL)OWAO T)VJ0XXOVV~, T' ra ' /.e') E MPO/.L)VTEs rTa & avaKptwOVTEs', /3ovXO16F~VO9 p.k7TE TiaVa KLZ'Etl /17T a7TexOameo-Oaet 7apC ), awro8F'qiaV 6wo07/oaTo KaT Eviropi~av] a4La Katb Oewpiav etSq A~'vw'YVrov, [Ew3 V oy ']Et 63~ v~? yap5 Otea-Oat Uc~tatov Eelat [To]V' V0/L.ov9 C'~)yEt0-Oat -rapawo a'XX' eKa(TTOl 2 Ta' yey1pap4E'va 77oup -at. a4ea &e Kat a-vv43,atv~ev~] aV5TC'j T' )V TrE ryvpt~uov ta~oopov9~ 'Yeyevr/cOat -7roXo\X0V9 8ta\ Tra\ q TaW) XPEW~V a71-o/o~ra~' K ta 7a9 'c a/4O0Tepaq iE'raOEa-a &a To 7rapa 806~av av5Trots ryevea-6at T?)V Kca'ra7'Oao-tv. o FLev lap &7/.tosq (19ETO lo XI 2 CNcAXAOYN (K', K-W, B): 77V(W'XXUvP J B Mayor (H-L, K3); verbum in codicibus optimis aiigmentum duplex habere constat. 3 KGINCIN. 5 dwci7v W' s o V x R7et Wessely (K, B); XlywP W's ov'X j7:et coniecerat van Leeuwen; [wepl Ka]vd'rov [7w6X]es K1. 6 &iKatos Jackson (H-L). 7 7wot~oat K, H-L: 7roLEZv K-W, B. K...CT&CIN 10 T H NIC e N T I I N: T77'V o ucraP' KardTacOcwV K1; T7JP Kalracro-TL K-W, B; Ti?)'7 o'Vo-cu' -rdit H-L. TESTIMIONIA. 2-5 Heraclidis Epitoma, Rose, Frag. 6ris 3,cols~ s~~u (codd.; a' EPc5XXUvP K-W) cair73 -rass 7reptI rCo s'61&wv, abc6~g-qoev et's AtvylrrTov. mer-ce, the Aeginetan mina being still retained unaltered (see Dr Percy Gardner on Poudera, in Smith's Dict. Ant. ii p. 44 b). XI ~ I. SLcsTdCsLs —7roLjo-cLL Pint. Sol.,25, EI7ret ai v-rv v6,sun) eLo-eVeXOeS'Twv epLot -rs ~2o0",We KalO' e'KaiLT77-v 7rpooTfE7I I slpav' V7raLl'OUJTE 7 es iiovr 77 vfou iore C/L/3IAXELW -ruLS -ye-ypa1.u[vLsdVOL TL rxtep XOLE dar/cpeu', -7rX,66-roL a 7'701a' 05 7rvPOavo'gEI'OL Kail a'LvaK~iVovTE5 KaU KCXEXCO'TP7es aVbrOv 0'7rws fKao-Top XC KIal 7rp05g 7'7V KEF-7CU a3aSOLIa E7-EKa&aaKELP KIal aa~mqvl~etv, OpWPC, 67TL TILUTIL KIt'7lO 7rb pairELP airo~roV KILL 7rb A7i7 71Jp1T7ELv E7rtq'0v0oL', o"Xws l -raZs dwroplats lSrEKOr77Pa5L f3OUXiEZ'og KILL 3a9aI5v-yeW T-O aUO-a~p6O-TOV KIal SbAlXLLOP TIVV 7roXLtnJ (9p'yqsaoTL ya'p iV FIE5YaLXOL5 7rILOL1P aa&Eti' XaXc'rbs, W'ls aLSTIJ5 Ei'plqKE), 7rp'o-X-qpua T775 7rXaiP775 Tm'v vVIKX77pL~a' 7roL77o-a/J.osEJ'059 -7rXEvo-e 3EKI67T~ WapcL TIwp 'AO77saL'wv droa77/ilap a1Tr7ip-i4EVos. '7Xv~e ya'p iv Ty XPI5'VL 7OI0T(W Ka'~ TroLL v/luots a&Tol~5 gOELTOIL a05W? Gets. 71-pwTOP ).dV OiVP ds A''yvwrToP 1L/iIKETO Ka~l adTpL4pEV, W's av'-r6' 0b77Lts, Nei~ov Eirt 7rpoXo-jc0 Kap'w/3ios f'y-yt~e aLKT77S. ijvbXXovv] This form is found in Xen. Cyr. v.3, 56, Isocr. 5 ~ 53, Aeschin. i ~ 58, Dem. Lacr. i6, Olymp. 19. In Lacr. 30 the mss vary between z'vWXXoi3-,uev (I and other mss), C'PoXXoiS.'ev (Aug. i), -vwxXoio~jeP (vulgo). The Rhiet. ad A lex. I445 b 2 has 7'wdXX77o-av. In Aeschin. 3 ~ 44 the Mss vary between 'vwxXXE~,ro (Bekker, Franke, Schultz), and evwXXsZ~ro. Voemel, Pr-oleg., Demn. ~ 67, quotes Photius: 77PEIXETO KILL?7VW'XXet... KOLPOV TWYo 'ATTLKWP 1aiw/ita. See also Lobeck's Phrynichius, p. 1i4. CLlroS~qjiCcLv E'7oL '1LTcrO] C. 13 ilit. Se'Kc &rCov] For the fact cf. Hdt. i 29, a71eHqa75L7e 57rea UaKL. For the construction, cf. ib. vi 58, C'WEaLY Oa'i,VooL, ai-yopi'9 alKa '17/l~piW WI' K LO-T7LTILa o-pte. Xen. Anab. i7, i 8, ov //uaXEL-TIL aKa -q7/s6pWV. Plat. Go 5.i6 D, i'z' V~bo5a'I ET&/1'aKOV0-L~a' T5~s Owpwzs (of Cimon's exile). 00 yap otcEOecLL KcLVEvL-TrrcLp 'v] The nom. c. inf. after 61iKatop 515pa1 may perhaps be defended (i) by Dem. i5 ~ s6, Wv obal'sI/ol a 3vLa'K-qV &aLKLop &L' el'vat (where, however, several editors prefer &iKatot al', which involves a hiatus); (2) by Dem. Prooem. p. 1439, 14, ly& /U11 ' &K7atKLop L)rEAX77~a 7rpCToP a7raLpTwi' avbrbs EI3IreLV. In the text the construction after &iKatoy eZvaL is apparently identical with that often found after aEzv (Rehdantz, mad. Demt. s. v. otEoTOat). ~ 2. C"L~CL Si KcUt KTX.] Plut. Sol. i 6 blit., &)EO0E a' OUSET-ePOLS, dXX eX67r77LTe Kal 7rous 7rsXouo-lovs dV1EXlw'1 Tr& avg]3Xata Katl /LLXXov 9TL Tro~s 7WSV77TIL, OTL -ys abakaao/6p OS lo77ri Xrfaao-aou' uots. tLETLaeEO-eaLL] 'changed their opinion with regard to him,' i.e. ' were alienated from him.' 6 p~iV -yQp BijpLos KTX.] Plut. So?. 14, 4Paplas 6' AlLTf3os au'-ri' 1o-TopEL -r6i' 26Xwvoa

Page  42 42 AOHNAIQN COL. 4,1. 10-27. 7av'r av'ac co-ra 77r 0t?)c7t) ai', ol 3 yV(OptUOt [7wc']XCV 7' i) 7 a r2)v 7-~ t a7ro&,oCE v 1' [,tUKcp\V] wapca X ac~[cwt. 6' & a]u orp jvavrttc6 V(1O'q, Ka\ '~\v air- /pEO' o7rorep(wv 43ot'XE-ro o-vcr-ra'v-rt] Tvpazivetv, ELXE7-0 7Tpo9~ aoo7repov a7TeXO6o-OaL ao'a-a, TipV 7Tapi'8a 15 Kat Ta /34X'rt]o-7-a VOP.OOET?'a-a9?. 12. Tral —a 3' O7Tt 701JV <7TOV> 7-o~o eoe ot 7- aXXot o7v/JOfXJvoULo-t 7ra'vTEs?, KCaU av'r0 ev r7)7 7roo70et p4,tPv]?-at 7rcpLt av'rcOV eV T0L03E6 3y7tLP5) ILEv Iyap e'30)Ka 7-ofuov ry'pas? boo —ov adr-ap[KE't], 5 7 L/~)9 0 acjce' c\ v o wl -r '7ro p e ~ a L v 9 A 0' / c a' r 'i? OL 0 ELXOV 8V'Va/ tv iKat Xpr)/. aotv?lOLv a7fl7jT J, ro eopao-afpv pq v4L]~ ~ U(7fl~v 3' a'/J4L/3aXc~ov KpaTEpOV c-aK0S? o/0Tpotc't, V[t]Ka^V 3' oiuc cE''a &- oU CTCr'pov9 da3IKWSX? 10 7wtXtv 3' a'wocfactv'pLEVOS~ 71-Ept TOO '-X2 W ow, (0 a[i' j d p Oa UPoI9 3' CO3 A~V etptora o-vv yye/LoveCccTv E6-OLTO, P Tdjr Xi'aV d'V[E]9c~ 11TE ffia~6'61tvosx 11 ' scrips. KW2, Cf. Pol. i1296 a 40 7cL6TW'v cro~oihvcu r,'v -rcdiv: I c (K, H-L), seci. K-W1, B. 12 ~ 0u1IKpi'P] 7rapaXXcd~[etv-' 36 ] Blass (K-w, H-L, K3) lacuna in altera p discerni putat K, in altera spatium. plurium. litterarumn capax superesse. /.LLKP6v K-W. 13 H BoYACTO (K-W, B), quod in titulis Atticis ante annum. 300 A.C. non apparet, Meisterhans, p. 1342. 14 &~TreXOECCHN~d. XII 1 -<rOv~> propter homocoteleuton exciderat. elXev' K-W. 4 AHMOI. -yepca: KpciLToT Plut. dafffpKE: e~rapfft Plut. (B), ubi clhrapKEL coniecerat Cora~s: a7rapKEZV H-L (nisi forte diir-jpKIEL legendum). 5-6 6e1rroPCI&MCNOCOCOI. 7 To~o-' H-L. 12 XfIp, Plut. (3LaLo6/Xevos: -7rte~6/LeZ'o Plut. TESTIMONIA. XII 4-9 Plut. So?. x8. 11-14 Plut. Com~p. Sol. et Pop?. '2. X a' 6I 'EV P d T ' 7 -q Ii P 1 c i i o c p o r? i OWT?7p1q5 T171 7r6Xews V' ooT-X1TOa Kp60/X 7rOZS ti~v dir6pois 7-ip veA-o-oiv, 7-o1 U Xprnl~artKOtI f35/alwoUTv T-cv crvpjA atfw v. &dvcLa-Tcrrc] Dem. '24 ~ 149, yA db'akcc — Ac6P, Plat. Leg. 684. i~o'vaAJ'TcKTX.] Paraphrased byAristides, ii 360 Dind., wrap6v at'-rc~ o-7aoca~o6o —qs T~71 w6XEws wo'-rO~pwv SO1AOLTO 7wpoorTdsrc T-vpra'VEF, daweXOdveOatL /,&MLXoJ dc/-cq5or-pots `ei2 r '7l-p T-0) &Kraiov. XII ~ 1. &tjju-dSCKws] These six lines are quoted in Plut. Sol. i8=frag..5 Bergk. 1. 4. c-wrQPKdt] 'is sufficient,' as in Aesch. Pers. 474 Soph. 0. C. i769, Eur. frag. 892, 4 Nauck, cV 011K CirUpKEL 7rXq 0710o75, Arist. frag. 395 015K dCIr2pKEL, 'it was not enough' (L and S). Grote (ii 3,26), who had before him Plutarch's reading 6?rapKd6, translates: 'I gave to the people as much strength as sufficed for their needs'; but 6ircapKet must mean either (a) 'to supply' or (b) 'to be strong enough' (whether to help or to hinder). Plutarch's EwapfeZ is the only instance of the absolute use of the verb given in L and 5, except Soph. Ant. 612, ewaCpK&o51 6so' `5', 'this law shall prevail' or 'hold good,' =8tapKO-ec. Such is the satisfactory explanation given by Professor jebb, who adds that in the only other instance, i.e. in Plutarch's quotation from Solon, ' we must surely read dbra/IKEI with Coraes.' This opinion is conclusively confirmed by the reading given us by the papyrus. ~ 2. 8fijos-PLa.~o4Levos] quoted in Plut. Soloni's et Poplicolae conzparatio, c.,2; frag. 6 Bergk.

Page  43 CH. II, 1. II-CH. 12, 1.25. FIQAITEIA 4 43 TtIKTeL 'Yap ictpo~ ilaptv, o~aP iov wois '/o9o 6'wrT[at] c~v~c~>-oww b'-ot- ~v~r prw~el 3 Ka't wc{Xtv 8' [Er'T6p]aw0 7rov XE'yEt 7rp T&WV 8tavet'LLao-Gat ot\ 8' 4b' a~pwayao-twt "XMOV, E'X7ri[S' 67lXOv a'bVca'V, a'a86OoVV V V X0EKaG-TO9~ avrJ- TOX/3v E~Y77TELtv 7rOXvV, KatLE K(O)TXo tX ikos- Tpa~vv etcoacvdw P-O'OP. xavva PE\ T77 ec'paE(TaVT0, lVl)P F"'po XOQVI.LEvoL Xo[4O&v 6]06aX[~ko~bjs o'p63ot W7a'SCI (JTTE8 6tV. ov Xpe'-~ a` pev yap etlra a-vv 0coFGotv ijvvlaa], aVla'&VE, flia Tt[~'Ev ov&e '7rtE[ipa]s~ X~vo, wa8p0qo KaKo tv-i Wo-Xoi~i-/opa 7',7 71VyIi 15 120 13 rroAyc: KaK~J Theognis i53. 14 dv10p '$rW Ka' Srcp Theognis 154. 5 a seci. K-W. 5' E'ripOOl irov R D Hicks, Wyse, Sidgwick, idem. ego quoque conieceram (K-Wt, K3, B); 5' aZXoOl ~rov J B Mayor, Bywater, Blass; aiXXaX60t irou Naber (H-L); 6tat-yvd~Ot r1oO K1. 6taviueo-Oat H-L. 17 ot 5'~5' A'cpra-ya~otv 'Xir[S' 27X16' sJxoP? K-W. 18 'Fortasse au-T6I' Richards. 21 6O560aijso~o-' B. AHION (K-_W, K3, B): S8)tot in Plutarcho Reiskium. secutus Bergk (K1, H-L). 22 a"/iE' -yap aeX-r~a Aristidis (ii 536) codices F0; a"Aa -yap cieXlr2- Stephanus, S Jebb; a' Ahv deIXrI —c coniecit Gaisford, recepit Bergk, versus initium. arbitrati. 23 In Aristidis loco awXXac coniecit Gaisford; legebatur cijtcc. o6' Bury, H-L, K-vt, K3, B: au- in Aristide Bergk (K') 24 au'SciveL K-TX.: `)v~avev (Richards) Ott=c X2'/ha7' H-L. TESTIMONIIA. 20, 21 Plut. Sol. O6. 22-23 Aristid. ii 536. -rKTrEL-9iTr9TCrL] quoted as Solon's by Clemens Alexandrinus (Stromateus, vi 740): 16Xwvos Sr' rot, oP-T01s TiK7t -ya'p (V. 1.-rOL) K7X. aI17LKP1JI 0 Oo-yvltS lypcd/Et T1K211 TOL K pO'IO u/3t 0TaV Ka1Kw( 6X/3o Ei-777-cc (Theognis 153, followed by the line a'VOpc$-r-I, Kat' 071j) FLu v6os a4p7~LOS j). The Schol. on Pindar 0/. xiii 2,, cites the first line as ' Homer's.' In the Proverbs of Diogenianus, Viii '22, it appears in the form ITlK76c T~OL-Ka1KCU diV~pl 1rapr13). Diog. Laert.i 59 quotes, among the apophthegms of Solon; Kal T-Si ge'V Kc'poi' 1)76 70V riXo6 roti -yri''ro-Oat, 7-77i1 Si V 3pt ir6 -ToO Ko0po0V. ~ 3. KcLI. 7rc'LXLv 8'] KKI-6c' is common in Ar.; e.g. Pol. 1252 a 13, 1254 lb 24, i1287 a 7, 1297 1b i6; and especially in Ethics iv, viii, ix, x; 'adjungit autemn Ka-Erem novam, saepe tmln oo ut idem. fere valeat atque T-ri Etiam saepius quamn Aristoteles Theophrastus uis particulis utitur' (In the Ifistoria Plantarurn there are about ioo instances; in the Characters more than 70)-Eucken, De Ar. dicendi ratione,i 3,2. C-r~pweC -rov XMYEL] Ar. de Anima i 2, 404 1) 2 ('Ava~ka-yo'pas), iroXXcayi) pv -y&p 7-6 aLTLOi' TOO KCLXWI KCai 0O WICO -TOP V01) X iey et, E'r6p w d0t S ToO70v rivat 7-771) iI/ux7v, De Partibus Anirnaliurn, iii 2, 663 b 3, &ip~w~i ro01 701 o-/Lbta-os. Plut. Sol. 2, adXX' i-z-ipwOL Xiyrt (of Solon). 11. 17-25. ot 8' E(Cf' pYrOyciOrLV-9)XELV] Lines 17-I9, 24 and 25 are entirely new;,20 and 2 i are quoted by Plutarch Sol. i6; part of 2,2, 2.3 by Aristides, ii 536 Dind., 6 Si S-q) 20XWV Katl oXiov i'~e7riTri7s rr o WlT-?7K6V..,-EtI airr6V KCai 7371) i'avUOU roXt-rriav, ii c aiX r -e S3 ) Xiy rt K Ca ' - OTayrc c p l ygp~ov. Two other fragments in the same metre are assigned by Bergk to the same poem. The first of these is described in Plut. So!. I4 as addressed 7ipO'5 4'wOMV; the second is quoted by Plutarch immediately afterwards, beginning with oVUK igbv 2:0Xcov /3a66p~pw. I. I9. KU.L ILE KW~L'XXov'rci-vd'ov] 'and that I, though smoothly glozing, would reveal my rude intent.' JKr/Jc1veV cannot be translated as though it were synonymous with Kpti'qat. For KWT1CXX\OVTCL XECcQS, cf. Theognis 85,2, 51 -TSP E'Tapov /LaXOaLKa KW&TtXXwv klrarrcu' iMiXrt.

Page  44 ~_I _ L ~ 1.I_~ X 44 A-HNAI2N COL. 4, 1. 28-3I. 26 [7raXLv] 3e IKa 7Trep' eP a7r[oKc]o7rs [ 7T3v x[pe]O'v /cKa T ov SOVeXUOv'- 4 TWVr /t1v 7tporepov tXe vOep eOETWv r E &ia r 7jv tetadXOEt[av]' e7yo 80 rv acUv ovveica vv1?a7yov 26 crioKon7rjs TrC Xpeiv Wessely (K3, B): a7ro[pi]as T?7 rTWV [7revrlr]wv K1 (H-L); a7r[optas] tros rTV [0br6xpe]wv K-W2. 26-52 5ovXev6vrwv-e'X7-qpw0ql r6Xt in fragmenti Berolinensis pagina prima continentur. 27 <r6Tre> 5& H-L. 28 oiveKa, in poetis Atticis a criticis suspectum, saeculi quinti et sexti in titulis legitur, CIA iv b 491, 8 dpeTri oi;veKa KaI (tX\as (saec. v), CIA i 487, I OVVeKa 7rt7r0rbo 0vs (saec. vi-v). Meisterhans, p. I772. e'veKc' K-W. ei'veKa uvvyayov Platt, coll. Pol. 1285 b 7 &&L rb avva'yayeZv (rb 7rXi0os) Eyiyvovro /3acarXeL? eKOVrTW. oUveKca ~.?v)yayov H-L. Equidem OYN~CKe~YNHFrrON in papyro cerni posse puto, recte tamen animadvertit K supra litteram I scriptum esse o, et litteras r'A litteris AAT aut CAT prorsus esse similes. o'veK' d8ioviX\arov K1; eLveK' e Xiovi'X\cTOv K-W1, &rovrXarTWV K-W2. oUveKa Fevr\iXarov Jackson et Tyrrell (cf. Plut. Sol. 13 E7r Tr'7v &tvrv TrrirpaTKo6/evoi, ib. 15 dvv7-yayev airob ev7rs, et inf. vv. 36-39). OiveK' eSaviryayov van Leeuwen. Aut wvy)7Xarov (quod nusquam adhuc inventum est) aut uvy7qp6pov (quod a papyri scriptura nimis remotum est) Marindin. TWV /lev oivCK' daovrvXdirov 6t7jLOV, ri TrovrV 7rpiv Trvxev eraudcT'7v; quondam Blass, coll. apcuarT7Xarev (Hdt. Xen.), Teuvy7XaTebv (Xen.), 7roX6v vavKX\7peUv (Aesch. S. C. T. 652, Soph. Ant. 994); eadem fere Crusius (Philol. L p. 177). riWv jhv oiveKa -vvr-yayov btJov, Tr TOVTWV 7rpVv rXer avcaciy/v; R C Jebb, cuius interpretationem unice veram esse patet. vvu^ryayov etiam Blassio postea placuit. ~ 4. 1. 28. The doubtful reading acov7XarC1ov is found in Aesch. Suppl. 181, op^yyes.... daov7XaroL, 'whirling on the axle' (L and S); 'the sockets (in the naves) pressed by the axle, or through which the axle is driven' (Tucker). It seems impossible to interpret it (with Mr Kenyon) as a metaphor indicating ' a torture such as that of Ixion.' Much less can we understand it as an allusion to the aooves of Solon.-aciovjXd\rovv, impf. of cidov7iXa-Tev, has been suggested; this is supported by O. Crusius (P/hilolosgus 1, 177) as a metaphor from the race-course which he considers characteristic of Solon, comparing 1. 47 KrVTpov...Xap3wv, and fragm. 23 Bergk, which merely mentions,LJwvves i'rrrot. ~ev)Xa7Tov, ' driven from the country as strangers,' though not found elsewhere, is implied in ev-qXaErdv, and might be defended by Plut. Sol. I3, Eiri 7ryv 5EV7]V 7rtLrpa-K6Aevot, and ib. r5 dvr7 -yayov carb Selvrs followed by a quotation of 11. 38-41, 'yXwcrav-govras. On the whole, I prefer accepting in the first line uvv'rjyayov. For the second I gladly adopt a suggestion due to Professor Jebb, who makes the sentence interrogative. He adds that the rhetorical emphasis obtained by placing the relative clause (row,uev) before the antecedent (ro-rwv) seems to confirm the view that this is a question. 'But, as to the ends for which I formed the popular party, or (less probably) gathered the people into one (by healing the divisions which separated the various orders in the state), why did I desist before I had attained those ends?' (With e'ravuo-a'v, cf. 1. 63 in fragment at the end of this chapter: 'anyone else would not have restrained the people' oub' e rava r o K\X.) Solon is here quoting the question addressed to him by some of his opponents who held that he had not carried his reforms far enough. He is in fact putting in his own words the complaint which elsewhere he gives in the words of the malcontents, 7reptp3aX\v 5' aypav cyaao'eis ovKs e 7rttraev &eyal t KTrov (frag. 33 Bergk4, 1. 3). In the triumphant (u//cxaprupot0! KrX., he seems to say, ' Earth is the best witness whether I had cause enough rou rovy /jLov -vva-yatyev, withozt going on to do those things which I am blamed for not doing.' Prof. Jebb further points out that it is probable that the first two lines formed a separate sentence, as Aristides does not quote them, and it is unlikely that he would have begun his quotation with the third line, v-uVcaprvpoir-, KrX., if it had been in the middle of a sentence. I may add that the sense thus gained is confirmed by a subsequent line, 1. 44, in which Solon protests that he has performed all that he has promised: &8i7X0ov Ws v7reo-X6biv. Cf. 1. 22, a 1j.Ev yap el7ra orbv OeotV'w tvuv'a.

Page  45 CH. 1 2, 1. 26-3 3. TTOAITEIA 45 &JFkov, rtI -ovJTawl 7TptlJ TvXeLJ eavo-ca/J7v; U-v/.Lap~rvp[o'jl7 -ra'r' Av E'v &8'pi~o y.r77p FLeyLo-r7 tat/JL~oVWZ 'OXV]J1wko6V apto-rza, F',q Le'XaLL'a, rq'79 efyo& 7tOTre [0']pov9 ai'vEXoY 7roXXaXp I7Elyra[s,~] 30 29 &77/50 T& i-rodi-rw 7rpiV TVXWZ' iCrcavocia57V, K1. 3iAO'1v 7-C T067-Wl' -nplyV 7,vx[C?]v /7ravocdy-qv, K-W, alii; i-OWotri-w Sidgwick, Toto6i-10v 7rpL'v rux~W van Leeuwen. Ti- ro-e i-wv rptv T-vXEP 6ravn-cuqv; recte Blass et Jebb. 30 xp'vov etiamn Aristides habet: Kp6ovoju /?5-rp Clavigerus apud Bergk 2, qui ibidem. ipse conicit iv A1'KJ3 fOpbvwp. Kp6vov 14'~-r-qp /AC-y1G-i-ij 3aLA0'vWV T' 'OXvjewiwv Poste. 33 roXXaXyq: an rioXX' e-77? J B Mayor. TESTIMONIA. 30-54 Aristid. ii 53z6-8. 33, 34 Plut. Sol. i 5. 11. 30-54- ('JLcpfJ=TPoC1q - MvKOS] Quoted by Aristides, ii; 36-8, in two portions, (a) 11. 30-49 ending 06'K aiv Kar&eXe 3L~ov, and (b) e'ya'p n76eXo to the end. (b) is introduced with the words: elira i-r 4op-qiv 6' 26Xcwv; 1. 30. EV SCK-fl Xpovov] possibly (i)'I before the tribunal of time,' a bold expression, but less bold than that in Eur. Bacc/h. 889, 6apz'v Xpo'vov ire'Sca. Or, less probably, (2) ' in the justice of time,' i.e. 'justice which time eventually brings.' avjueuapi-vpeiv is combined with xpovos in Xen. Hell. iii 3 ~ 2, o-vve/S4rlp-p-q7eE bi i-cai-' 'i-rCp I~ 6 dX770go-i-aros Xe-y6/5etos Xpoivo ElVcaL. Solon appeals to Earth to bear witness before the tribunal of Time that he had attained the ends he had in view. 1. 35. fajr-qp-Tj] Even the Attic land set free from its encumbrances is boldly personified as Mother Earth. Cf. Plato, Leg. 740 A, S&t i-0y 'XaXo'vi-a i-iv X~jtv -a iiv l 'e/ GEv /Udv KOLVIOP cuii-7v 7-is 7rOXew 5 ~uVg ra cis, 'aip ose 6Si oe6'e7 1 i-r~s X 'pas OE7waF~as, i-~ Kai' Uaroecpau O6bv ruii-i~v oeueav Ov-qTwov 6vi-wv ye-yopvatc, and 741, i-is -Yis iepcis ob'ans7 i-wv 7ratvi-wv OEcwv. 11. 33, 34. iipovus-&XEve~pc] These lines, and part Of 11. 38-4i, are quoted in Plut. Sol. i5, aeqvdvei-at 7a'p 26Xwv E'v i-OUi-011, Oi-L Ti-? 71 -E 7wpoJ7r K IELI51v77S -yjS 6povq OvLPAe-v v ~AEvOtpov KatL i-wv ai-yw-yi'4wv 7rp's cip-yuptov -yc-yvoiW rcoXcri-wv i-o61 /ply divi')ya-yev di b ~g -q -YXI~TOLV owcKr' 'ATTCKciV-~XOVTaq. 1.33. 6'povs] Sir George Cox, Hist. of Greece, i 201, has suggested that this mneans boundaries, and similarly in the Edinburghi Review, I891, p. 493, 'These boundary stones were the marks of the religious ownership of the Eupatrids.' This view is refuted in Mr Evelyn Abbutt's History of Greece, i 407. As regards the meaning of 05pos and cognate words in early Greek literature, the ambiguity in II. xii 421, cipq5' 06'PeLeI 36'opvpe 6-qpLrlcor0ov, is made clear by other passages, which prove that the o~pa are ' stones (xxii 405) marking off the allotments, and are easily moveable by a fraudulent neighbour (xxi 489),' Leaf ad loc. In Hdt. i 9 oipot is used of stones bearing inscriptions. In the present passage we have the earliest instance of 6pot in the sense of 'mortgage pillars,' ' stoneslabs or tablets set utp on mortgaged property, to serve as a bond or register of the debt' (L and 5).- This use is common in the time of Demosthenes, e.g. Or. 31 ~ s, i-i6770eLV S/JO VI 6En-i,slv i-ijv oLK '11 & 'X LXtcov, in-i Si i-b Xwpiov i-aXciv-rev, 42 ~ 5, ebSd s "opo ilE o-ri-1v En-i i-r 7 e - rxai-, and ~ 28, iElKXEVOV SEiFet b'pov efn-ev g-e-i-L, 49 ~ 13, i-oils 6povs dvien-eaKe, 'has (illicitly) removed the tablets,' and ~ ii, n' ode-ia v n-6X pe wsg i7v d7lrao-rI K a i op l ec -7 -i - e-av, ib. ~ 6i, beo-ocs aui-roO n' ode-ia ac/,wpte — /5 1 7 -7,q 2 9 1 i E l i E op ot co- m j-q KO6i-e, 45 ~ 6, 0'Povs E-e -i-o17e-aa XX1XW v 5paIXMLDv 6Efti i-77 lrpeIK63 eut i-71'7 Oi'Kiav. Isaeus 6 ~ 36, 0`n-ws..spot i-reO,6v. In Theophrastus (Char. 10 = 24 Jebb) it is characteristic of the UeKpoX6byos to inspect the Spot day by day. Harpocr. s. v. bpos- oi-rws e'KalXOVv oi 'Ai7-i-0c i-b. en-6vi-a i-acit llr Ket ueLsvatT OlKilat Katl XwpI'01 -ypcip/sai-a, 377Xodvi-a 0'i-t vn-eK~isvat 3aveto-i-qc. Originally the b'pos was doubtless a boundary- stone or land-mark. In the absence of other means of registration, it became customary to inscribe on these boundary-stones a notice of the charges on the property. Solon, by his o-Eeo-aiXPete, released the poorer classes from the burden of their debts, and set the land, which was security for these debts, free from encumbrances. No sooner was the debt itself abolished, than the stones in

Page  46 46 AOHNAIQN COL. 4,1. 31-4I. [wrp0'O8]EV 8E' 3ovXEvovoa, z43v 'xevOE~pa. 35 7roXXo '~ ' 'AO' as, api3' EL91~0 'M[O] [ v]ryayot' 7Ipa ON V'as', dXXov 'K3 KW9 aXXOP &tKatU(0, T0V9 3' &LvafyKat?79 v7TO XPElsOV9 0vry0Vraq, ryXa^)-o-av' OVKiic& 'ATwClqv tEV'ras-, wqS av' 7oXXaX7' 77Xav[o)ze'vovj,?] 40 T701 8' &vOid av'Tof) 8[ovXt]qv (LemK'a 34 3U: -ye J B Mayor (H-L). viiv 3' H-L. 35 6EOKTICTON: idem habent Anistidis codtices prope omnes. 38 Xpq-k' XI-yosrTa (quod intelligi nequit) Aristides. 41 q"- Aristides, correxit Bergk. scribed with the record of the security were removed, and the land set free. (Cf. Blass in Hermes, xv 286 if.) Many exx. of these inscribed tipoL have been found. Those of Attica are published in CIA ii, the ordinary boundary-stones forming nos. io6,2-i 1o2 and the termini fundoreuue pigneratorzum nos. 110 3-11i5.3. A specimen is figured in Duruy's Histoire des Grecs,i 3859; and all the extant Greek inscriptions of this kind are collected and classified in the ]Izseriptions _7uridiques Grecques by MM. Dareste, Haussoullier and Tb. Reinach, 1891, p. P107-142. Classes A and B are securities (diro-rtAu5 )tua-ca) for money belonging either to minors (1-9) or married women (io'24). Class C (,25-59), records of sale with right of redemption, 'ostensibly a purchase, but really a loan of money secured by the conveyance of property.' 'The debtor continues to occupy it, paying interest on the purchase-money and possessing the power of redemption within a certain time' (Hager in Smith's Diet. Ant. s. v. HORI). The following are some of the more interesting dated examples A 5 (CIA ii i1138) Ciwr NtK0 -KXEiOUI apxop-rog (B. C. 30'2/I)' b'p01 Xwt' Kal OL'KL'CL Kal T-oP VMa —os 7roi rpoco6'Pos 7011S XWPOLS1 KX75p(,P w6 dZ' rOTETL/A?7/LC'PIW lratlvb 63p4bcwo~s -ro1 Xaplov lo-ore~of Xaplpi7rq' Kai' Xcapiq. B 17 (CIA ii 1137) wiEz~evtww~ov dpXopros (B. C. 305/4)' b'pos XWPLWl' Kad OLKL1WV I1WOTL[OAhtiaTuWP 7TpOW~tl ~~cvaplo-TeL llv~o~w'pov Fap-yp-ri-ov Ov-ycaT-pt, 76 KcaTa 7-6 "/ULLTV KcLi TO K TLTL -yryl6/Sevop at`-t Cis AeLOaT-pa-roh apS~oYTR XXrHH... C 49 (CIA 11i 13 3) 17i IRpa~t/306XOU a4pX01T01 (B. C. 315f4)' 6'p01 01'KI'a1 7re7rpaI/uiI'71 C'rt' 2050-. D 6i (CIA ii 1134) Irn Osx/pacolrov'a'pXoZ'701s(B.C. 3I3/2)- 0"Pos Xwp1ov -TA/I f'vo(/)1o/56)fl 4)ClIvoo-,pcircp llcaPvG xx = 2000 dr. All these inscriptions belong to the latter part of the fourth century. It cannot be supposed, however, that lending money on mortgage was unknown in the previous century. Under the Second Athenian Confederation (CIA ii I7), the Athenians were forbidden to purchase lands or houses in the territory of their allies or to lend money on mortgage. This implies that, under the First Confederation, lending money on these terms was not forbidden. But it would appear that for some centuries the Athenians, while still employing boundary-stones for their public or sacred domains, gave up using them as records of mortgages. It has been suggested that ' in the early times, which followed the reforms of Solon, no one had recourse to recording his claims on the detested tablets of stone whose removal from the land had been celebrated with such enthusiasm by the legislator himself ' (Inser. 7'uridiques,ii 122). -For a similar reform among the Jews in the latter part of the fifth century, see Nehemiali v, I-I3. -r7r~llyc~rus] Lycurg. Lecer. ~ 73, opu 7011 fapfodpots 7r 'a 1711. Thuc. iv 92, 4, -ro11 L/Vt d"XXots ot' wXq-qa6Xwpot Irept -y17 6pcon T ill /IcX ca 7r-o Io l~vat, '7/UV 3/ C's r co-a 1',?171 1LK770610,LEI', f11 0/nI OlK ca'TIXEKTos ra-y1. 36. wrpa0E~v-rco~s] Solon ap. Dem. F. L. p. 42 1, TW~V 3/' reVXPW~v I L'KVo0VTIaL 7roXXol yc'ta E's a'cXXo~ar7'v I 7rpcIa /VTe P 1 KTrX. Cf. Grote, c. i I, 11 310 n. 1. 37. VcLaYKaC2C' b'ro Xpewi~s] Cf. 1/. viii 57' XpeIot apayKal'7. 1. 38-41. -yXcra-cw —4yovrTas] quoted by Plut. Sol. i 5. 1. 40. SovX~qv] Ionic forms are characteristic of Solon's verses: cf. 1. 41, Trpo)uev/se'v0U, and in Pint. Sol. I4, cti66/.zae and 60K/W. 1. 41. `0Oi ---po[Lev~LEvovs] 'trembling at each mood of their masters.'

Page  47 CH. 12, 1. 34-53. TTOAITEIA 47 E E]EVOCpQV9 EfltKa. TaV'a /LEV KpaTtL 7i0,OV, ai'aV TE Kcat (3tK?)) ovvapLouoasf, [6pP]ea, Kat &WX~ov ' v7rrEoXO/I47V. 0ecTFLOVS ' (3 0/J1ia) TCO KaK(Ol) TE Kar'aO, EvO6teav EL9, 6EKaO-TOv ap/oaa9 (SLcqv, eypala. KE'VTrpoV (' a"iXXoIZC' J' eyc\ Xa)3dw, [KaK]oopa(3/, TE Kat OtXoKT?7/haW I vrjp, OvK aV KaTeOXE 8&)/L0V Eb yap `j[OE]Xov a TOES evaVrto[ta-]v W avezV TO'ro, av'lOt (3' ' TOGL'V OVTEpOL Opaoaiaaro, 77-OXX(OV AV a V8POpjV 7'18' 6'X1qP(;0'q 770hXtl? el I 'X \ V f / TOfl) OVi/EK a qy 7TrVT0Uol) 7WtEV/1&V0Sq 45 50 42 KP~T&TI: KpaiTEr (Kpairfl cod. 0, Bergk) Aristides: Kp.7r Papyrus Berol. 43 NOMOY (K, H-L): Niuoii Aristides, Plut., Papyrus Berol. (K-w, B). 44 fpera Aristides. &7X0ovE: &SYUvo`? Herwerden. 45 TE, ut videtur, correctum in 6' (K): 6' Aristides (Wyse, K-W, H-L, B). 6~oiovs Bergk, Aristidis codices duos secutus. 49 ~,HMON: idem habent Aristides et Plut. Sol. s6: 6uO,'P hic et infra v. 63 legendum suspicantur H-L; idem olim Cantero et Reiskio placuerat. 50 ai -roZ: 6,yTOIC. -6rr: irocEV Sidgwick (H-L). 51 a TroLOWv Ob'TEpOL OparaiarTO Platt, K-W, K3, B. 6yTOICINOYTEPOI(vel 6d)(dP6, C a TOFOLE &VrTpoLS 3p6oaa, &&a (KaK& Valckenaer, /3bc Schaefer, &Xa 0 Schneider et Ahrens, 3pciora aixa Bergk) Aristides. cl ro-o~-c Cir7pq, 6pioau &iXa Ellis. a ' TOow Obr7TpFt (= ol E7pg) OpacalaTro quondam Blass. ca Xwplg a-repoL Oppcicaaro Sidgwick (H-L). c roLL8a (i' X TETOL cpaoccia-o Tyrrell. 52 'XEtpC O'q Aristides, correxit Valckenaer. 53 OTNCK (K, H-L): Ed'VK' K-W (cf. v. 28). aiXK~x,: dpX?'v Arist., Opy-yv Bergk. rroIoyMCNoc (K'): w7roiEr6wz'os Platt, K-W, H-L, K3; KJKe66IevOs Arist. TESTIMONIA. 38-41, 43 Plut. Sol. i5. 1. 45. ~EOov's] In Plut. Sol. ig end, OEo/diO e 1/a3v7 65E is quoted from one of Solon's laws. Cf. note on c. 4 ~ I. 1 47. K&VTrPOV] the 'goad' is here the symbol of strong control, as in Soph. Frag. 6o6 (of sovereignty), Xapq'v U XCPGiT Kev'rpa Kl5E6iEL 7r6Xtw. 1. 49. OZK LVi KCLWFE1E Sijp ov] With these words the first quotation in Aristides ends. Plutarch, however (Sol. i6), cites two lines with the following introduction: KaTOL 4J70-L'P, W's, Edt 7ts aXXOs goXE 771 a'vi-hv U6VCL/LLY, o67' CIv KaTYXE e 6lov o6,r' 6'ra6oa-ro irpiv aY Tapai as- 7rtap qX3 -yiXa. Hence in Bergk's ed. of frag. 36 these two lines are added to the passage quoted by Aristides; and the passage El yap ij0EXov-XMKoS, quoted subsequently by Aristides, is treated as a separate fragment (37). But the text makes it clear that this last passage followed immediately after his first quotation, while the couplet in Plutarch comes from a subsequent portion of the same poem quoted near the end of this chapter. 1. 51. TOZOLV 0'1TrEPOL 4pcurc(CwrO] 'what their foes devised within their hearts' (K.). This does not explain the construction; -roa cannot go with ob'repot, for 'their foes' would be -7wv ov-EpoL, 'those different from these.' -ro/o-C must be dative after Opacataro. 'ctopci~eaOtL c. dat. and inf. = to tell one to do so and so,' but the inf. is sometimes omitted, as in Hom. Od. X 549, a'XX' l''o/ev- 6&7 ycip /o01 Pr7r(ppa5e r6TvYra LKIfpK7. The sense seems to be 'whatever at any time the other party would devise for their opponents,' or perhaps, 'urge their opponents (-roZdot avriotoi) to do.' The &avw-iot are the party opposed to Solon's remedial measures. The ob`7epoL are the popular party. With qpacatcacro cf. 7rotoiaaro at end of next quotation. 1. 52. dv8p~v-4xiXpcpei0] Hdt. vi 83, "Apyos dvsppcvw iX-qpd -q. 1. 53. troLcvlLevos] An Ionism; cf. note

Page  48 48 AOHNAIQN COL. 4, 1. 42-COL. 5, 1. 3. (09 El) KV(7tl' 7roXXauYa l EocTpa0qvl XvKcq. 55 Ka't w6Xv l'vet&~wv 7tpO9, Ta'9 v'o-'epov av~'r[c3v] pelkp~frotpia9 qt Oore'panY ftpIL'v) E' Xp") &taca'8iv l'vet&Tat, A a Vvv e'~ovot oiwror '00faXpto~t a~v CV,8QVTE9 Et4iOVY 6o OOFOt &c /J1 Et~'QVq Kal /.Lav aFL.eW'ovEq atl'ozei aen'/1 Ka't (0tNO1 7T0t0CiaT. E yap `t X X O9, O fr7Tt, Ta VT 2J9 71)9 T tl[L1 9q T X V OvK aVi KarEeTxe &)/Lol oWS8 E6rav'oaTo, 7Tpt1) a l'7a p a a 7 ra p E 4E X l'ytX. I 6 5 E ( & E // E 7 L X Lp OpOS' KaTEa-7r?)v. [Cal. 5.] 54 ETpt4)HN Vel EFP64~HN: C'o-Tpdcibnq Arist. (K, K-W, H-L, B). 55 aOUT(ev Blass (K-w, K3): ai5Ois H-L. 57 AIWjp&&~HN: &aod5ci57P Kontos et K-'W (K3, B): CW9dl/k566 v Platt (H-L). 64 TrpINt&NT hptl6CTrry6.PE;CI\ N: i7rpiv al' rapia ri-ap 6'~Aiq -yaiXa Plut. (et K-w') unde Adam ad Plat. Crit. 44 D coniecerat -lrpitv apvrapcia se EX timGlesleeve iv-rapci~as legendum esse oiim viderat; eadem postea protulerunt Sidgwick, Blass, H-L (K3). wrpv ' Tapdas u-Zap 6'~eXev' -ydXa K-W2. TESTIMONIA. 63, 64 Plut. Sol. i6. 65-66 Cf. Aristid. infra exscriptum. Ofl 1. 40, 80vu\fi-v.In Soph. 0. C. 459, aiXKhqV 7raet6c-Oa means 'to succour.' 1. 54. OIS iV KvO.v 40-T pct4n1JV XVK6KS] A reminiscence of Homer,.1/. 12, 42, 9v TIE KVVEO 01L....Kc7rptos 7'76 Aewv a-7-pE~p171t. Cf. Solon i5, 23, TcUa7-a )uev E'v 5u6u o7ppeatKcaKa'. ~ 5. 8mc)cExSipv] 3tcc~pd3up is unknown. &ac1pa~ws means 'distinctly' (of sound) in Hippocrates 408. &ae/di5qv, ' openly,' is here accepted. This is found in Pollux ii 3,29, Jppu5S77v, &cappu5Srn, &roaci8rnv. 1. 59. Eii6oVTrES] 'even in their dreamns.' Dem. F. L. 275, a'/75 6'vap 3'Xmo-av -7rc7roaTe. 1. 6o. 08aol] sc. 1101. The last two lines refer to the rich, the first three to the poor. The whole of this passage (57-61) is new. 1. 62. et -ydp 'TLS KTX.] Plut. Sol. i6, quoted in note on 1. 49. 1. 64. wrpLv —ycLXa] urpz'p c. subj. aor. (or u-rply ui in Attic Gk) is properly only used after negative clauses, to denote a point in future time before which something else must happen; or (as Goodwin puts it, Moods and Tenses, ~ 638), 'when a clause with -ptiv, untiZ, refers to the future, and depends on a negrative clause of future time (not containing an optative), u-7ply takes the subjunctive.' Such a construction is out of place here, where we require u-ptly c. indic. With the text, as emended, cf. Plat. Mfeno 86 D, OUK aii' E-7rEOKEq/ai.ue~ca 7rpo6Tepov Et-re 6tSaKrSp t'iTE 0o) & SIaKT6V 7) apr? irpti 05 71i & 7e urpw raop es77T?50'a/asv (ib. 84 c and Th-eaet. i6,; D: Goodwin, ~ 637). CdVTrCLpdEs] In Ionic (as well as Doric poetry) ap- and a'4.- stand for adye-. Od. 1440, atYKpE/acoao-a, and elsewhere dvPOT3-00wv, apo0T7-T77-Y, ravo-T?7sevat; ii. xxiv 756, cLVo-HloreLs Od. v 3,20, clvo-Xe0dew dva0X35IToO~aL, dpo0Xeo, WTPXero's. 'tricap] (urtlw) lit. 'fat,' an Epic and Ionic word; Ii. xi 550, xvii 659, /3oc~v EK wr~ap E'Vo-Oat, of cream in Solon; also used metaphorically of 'the cream' of a thing, the choicest and hest (L and 5). Hesychius, 7r~ap: r-b Kpa-ito-rov. This suits the context hetter than iriap, which is 'the first milk after calving,''bheestings,' or the rennet made from it. The sense requires not a particular kind of milk, such as 'beestings'; hut the best part of the milk, the 'cream.' The constr. is either urpiv ciw-rapci~cas -yaiXa d4ei\ey -r~ap, or else -yciXa is acc. after the complex verb 7rirzp E'vtXey. I. 6 s. b-YW'KcvrE'c-q1v] II set myself as

Page  49 CH. I2, 1. 54-CH. 13, 1. 3. IHOAITEIA 49 13. T?'nViv Oi v ado8~,q1-k1av E TrOb 40-aTo &ea Tar'aTa TaC ai'Tiasx 17 Yo'XWvoq 8' dwo178q1ja-avTo9,, &r 'rq 'n-XeIW TeSTapa7yAE'vf, E'7Trt 116 6TI rTrapa 8rijyov [e]i.E 7ivt CO 3C w/17MO FLETa 717L' a landmark between two armed hosts.' Hdt. viii 140, 2 (of debateable land), 8etlalvsw bzr p Viuwvv iv rpi& re!AaXtora OIK'LuY1vov rwTVY 'vfuLadXWv 7ravrwv ale re 0Oetpou9.vwv tJo6vcuv, edaiperov AieraiXtu'bv re TqV r yiiv 9KTrVjvwv.. opos, 'landmark,' or 'wall,' seems a harsh metaphor, except perhaps in one who, like Solon, had the spot, the boundaries as well as the mortgage-tablets, of Attica much in his mind. The passage is paraphrased in Aristides, ii 360 (of Solon), vO-TI 8' ev Ae0opict 7rdvTrwV acvpei6rara Kal &tKat6rara, c0airep TiV&s Ws aIXOr)03s EK yyew/ierpias repLypaCLrob vXdTTWrv 6Opovs. XIII ~ I. dS'roSqlav v eroLi'qraoco] c. II ~ I. 6Xotovos-TEapaYcLyjl4vl S KTX.] 'When S. had gone abroad, although the state was still disturbed by divisions, yet for four years they lived in peace, but in the fifth year' &c. daro8rlLeZiv has two meanings (I) to be abroad, and (2) to go abroad. (I) is found in Pol. 1303 b 23, and Poet. 17, I455 b I7, daro8yvfiovros: (2) in the present passage. The fact that rerapa-yjLdvVs precedes, accounts for the article in TriV crrdo-lV. Tri 8 1r4JLTrra LETdC TqiV SoA6Xvos dppXqv] The archonship of Solon is usually placed in B.C. 594/3=01. 46, 3. This is the date given by Diog. Laert. i 62 on the authority of Sosicrates of Rhodes, the author of a work on the History of Crete and on the Succession of Philosophers, who flourished between 2oo and I28 B.c. The archons about this time are given by Clinton as follows: 01. B.C. 46, 2=595 Philombrotus 3=594 Solon 4=593 Dropides 47 1= 592 Eucrates? 2=591 Simon 3 = 590 [Simon, in Marmor Parium] Jerome places Solon in 592: and the Armenian version of Eusebius in 590. 592 is already occupied by Eucrates, and 590 (in the Marmor Parium, see ~ 2 n) possibly by Simon. The text of c. 14 ~ I appears to place Solon 31 years before the archonship of Comeas (B.c. 560), i.e. in 59I. But if Solon is placed in 591, Philombrotus and Dropides must be placed in 592 and 590, which are already S. A. assigned to other archons. Again, if Comeas is (by another method of reckoning) assigned to 56i, Solon falls in 592, the year assigned to Eucrates. Eucrates, however, may really belong to a later date. Sosicrates (ap. Diog. Laert. i ioi) places him in 01. 47 (592-589) and makes Anacharsis visit Solon during the archonship of Eucrates. But Solon left Athens for ten years when his own archonship was over, so that, if Sosicrates (our only authority for Eucrates) is right about the date of the visit of Anacharsis, Eucrates cannot be earlier than 583. On the year of Solon's archonship, cf. Clinton, Fasti, ii 298; Fischer's Gr. Zeittafeln, p. 114; and Busolt, i 524. If Solon was archon in 594, and if 'in the fifth year' means four years after Solon, then the first year of anarchy falls in 590, and the second in 586. Then, if 8ta rTv aorTwv Xp6vsov is retained in the sense, 'after the same interval of time,' i.e. four years later, the archonship of Damasias begins in 582. This is Mr Kenyon's view. In this calculation the first period of four years of peace must include either the year of Solon's archonship or the first year of anarchy; and the second period must include one of the years of anarchy. On the other hand, if the first 'four years' extend from B.C. 593 to 590, then the first year of anarchy is 589; again, if TreL TrgTrr(y is taken as meaning 'five years afterwards,' the second year of anarchy is 584. Further, if &&a Twv abriwv Xpbvwv is regarded as an interpolation, the beginning of the rule of Damasias follows at once in 583. This is the view of Bauer, and of Kaibel and Wilamowitz. But the first year of Damasias coincides with that in which the Pythian festival was transformed into an ayswv TreQacvirTqs, and the festival was held in the third year of each Olympiad, whereas 583 is the second year. The opinion that it fell in the second year of the Olympiad, which has been inferred from Thuc. iv 117 and v i, is refuted in Clinton's Fasti, ii p. 95 = 2453. Again, if the archonship of Solon is placed in 591, the years of anarchy may be put at intervals of four years in 587 and 583. Then, if &&a riv abTrwv Xp6vwv 4

Page  50 50 AOHNAIQN COL. 5, 1. 3-7. ap4 ov ov KcaTecrTra7av apyovTa &la 7rv aTr[Cao]tv, Kacb rcraXv eTes 5 reft7r7 < Sa > Tvj av'Trjv artiav dvapXtav e7rob7orav. /Hera &e 2 ravTa 8ta TWv avTrv Xppovwv A[a/u]a[lo'a? alpe]0elS capXWv "rT XIII 4 OyKATECTHC&N (K-W, K3): OK e7rirT7caav K1 (H-L). 4 dpxovra18 8toKiev continentur fragmenti Berolinensis in pagina secunda. 5 <ca > add. e papyro Berol. alTl<cNdpXalaN: alrlav dvapXlav Campbell, Jackson, Housman, Burnet, K-W, H-L, K3. 6 8a rCvy abrTv Xp6vwv secl. K-W; && TOV avrov Xpopov? Herwerden. be omitted, we get 582 as the first year of Damasias. This is the view of T. Reinach and of Poland. It has the advantage of leaving the text in c. 14 ~ I untouched, and it gives a date for Damasias which is consistent with Pausanias x 7, 5, where the first Pythian ciydwv srTTEavlT7-s, which coincided with the first year of Damasias, is placed in 582. If so, the archonship of Simon which, according to the Scholiasts on Pin dar, was five years before Damasias, may provisionally be placed in 587, instead of 590, the year assigned to it by the Parian Marble; but 587 was on this view a year of anarchy; hence it is not improbable that Simon was really archon in 586. All the above views agree in placing the beginning of the archonship of Damasias later than 586 B.C., in or about 582. The following is a conspectus of the views above mentioned. Solon, archon First period of 4 years First year of anarchy Second period of 4 years Second year of anarchy Third period of 4 years Damasias, archon Mr Kenyon 594 {593-0 590 590-87 589-86) 586 \586-3 585-2 582 Bauer and K-W. 594 593-590 589 588-585 584 nil 583 Reinach and Poland 59I 591-588 587 586-583 583 nil 582 A space of 13 years, 594 to 582 inclusive, does not allow of three periods of four years, and four years besides. It only admits of three periods of three years (and four years over). But these can only be obtained by altering ETTrapa into rpla and Wtp7rTT twice into TETrpry. This, however, would perhaps be going too far. ~ 2. AatliamCas] On the discovery of the Berlin fragments, much controversy arose respecting the Damasias there mentioned. It was at first proposed to identify him with Damasias I, the archon of 639 B.C. This opinion was conclusively refuted by Diels (Berlin Acad. I885, p. I2); and, now that we have the context of the fragment before us, it is obvious that Damasias II can alone be meant. Hitherto the determination of the date of Damasias II has depended on a mutilated passage in the Parian Marble. (This important chronological document was bought in Smyrna by an agent of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, 1585-1646, and sent to Arundel House in 1627. It was first edited by Selden, 1628. In I667, at the instance of John Evelyn, Letters, Aug. 4, I667, Diary, Sept. 19, Oct. 8, 17, 25, it was presented by the Earl's grandson to the University of Oxford, and in I676 it was edited once more by Prideaux. After being preserved for many years in the Ashmolean Museum, it was removed to the University Galleries in I889. It has been edited by Boeckh, CIG ii 2374, and C. Muller, FHG i 535-590. The authority for the chronology recorded in this Marble is probably Phanias of Eresos, a pupil of Aristotle. The dates are reckoned by the number of years that had elapsed before the archonship of Diognetus, B.C. 264-3.)

Page  51 CH. 13, 1. 4-9. nOAITEIA 51 Kvo tcal Svo jvas 37p!Ev, eW E?7 e^Xady ic 7La 1r7 apXdS. eLT e8oe[v] avro? 8ta' TOb O-Tar-tdlcev adpovtra eX OaL SecKa, 7rVreT UEv ev7raTrpt3v, Tppet' 8e a[yp]ooiwv, Svo 8e,S1L/tovp7j v, Kal ovroC 7 CiHAAC0H: correxerunt Richards, K-W, H-L (K3). <&K>T37S aipXjS H-L. 9 adrotKsv Berol.; litterae p partem inferiorem cerni posse putat K. TESTIMONIA. 9 Hes. aypotrcat' CypoiKOI (locus infra exscriptus). The passage, with which we are concerned, is restored as follows: 11. 53 -54, [4p' o3 'A[UKTr6oves eviKqc7alv iX]6vres Kvppav, Kai 6 adycv i yv6u/ LKOS e'redO Xp7luarTLTrS areo ToV Xa0pPWv, Tr-q HH[H] AAPII (327), aPXovTro 'AOjvra-t L. tuvoS. ad' ov [iv AeXo0oLT aTE(e]avTvT7 a-ywv 7raiXLv e0Ti7], eT-7 HHHA..II, dlpXovros 'AO-7,vraqT AaLaatoiov roo 3ev3rpov. The interval between the year of Diognetus and that of Damasias is here denoted by the symbols HHHA..II (312). (a) Boeckh and C. Miiller insert P I (6), thus making the number 318; (b) Chandler and Clinton, A (IO), making it 322; while Dopp (the latest editor) proposes AI (iI), making it 323. The corresponding dates B.C. are: (a) 582/1 or 58I/o, according as we reckon exclusively or inclusively; or (b) 586/5, according as we reckon inclusively with 323 or exclusively with 322. But the archonship of Damasias coincides with a Pythian festival; this excludes 58I and leaves us the choice between 586 and 582. It has been urged in favour of 586/5 that Diog. Laert. I i 22 describes Thales and the other Wise Men of Greece as flourishing in the archonship of Damasias; and that 586/5 would be an appropriate year to mark their epoch, because the eclipse predicted by Thales took place on May 28, 585 B.c. (Cf. Busolt, i 493.) On the other hand, 582/I is supported by Pausanias (x 7, 4-5), who implies that the first a-ywv o-repavTirr3s was in 582/1, and the last acyw'v XprfAarirtiS in 586/5. It may here be suggested, that probably the first year of Damasias coincided with the"ffst celebration of the Pythian games after their transformation into an dywv -TrecavLTrls, i.e. with 582. Subsequently, a confusion may have arisen between the year of that celebration and the actual year in which the change was made (586). The archonship of Damasias was thus put four years too early. If the archonship of Simon coincided with the last a'ywv XP7f.arTLirT7 and if that aciyc3v was four years earlier than the change in the Pythian games (586), it follows that the archonship of Simon must be put in 590. Simon is placed in that year in the Parian Marble; and the evidence of the text, which gives at least Io years between the year of Solon and that of Damasias, points to 582 as the year of Damasias. If Damasias was archon in 582, Solon would by that date have returned to Athens after his absence of ten years (593-584 inclusive). This may be held to favour the conjecture of Diels (Berl. Aca(d. 1885, p. I3 f.) that Solon refers to the usurpation of Damasias in fragm. 32 and 33, quoted in Plut. Sol. 14, el 6e y is EiQetca'flL KrX., and OVK e50u Z6Xwv f3aO6vpwv. The trochaic passage quoted above in c. 12 has been ascribed to the same poem, 7rpo'i (wKOv. 1X.ciqd0q] The form eXXctrarsO is given in the papyrus and in the restoration of the Berlin fragment by Blass ir\Xca[o]0r/. For rXcda'0ro7v Veitch, s.v. iXa6vw, quotes Diod. Sic. 20, 51, -vv- Plut. Caes. 17. Gaisford, however, edits o7r- and ei7X\da-0,v in Hdt. iii 54, vii 6 &c [Hdt. vii 6 eirXio-j Vrrb 'I7r7rapXov...i 4'AOnvow^v. ieXcir\ari cod. Florentinus: ir7XadirO al. iii 5I and i 173, eeXacires, in the latter passage the cod. Parisinus has e'eXaOdis]. dpXovTas-8eKa] Owing to a lacuna in the Berlin fragment, which only mentions the three archons elected by the second class and the two by the third, it was supposed that the first class elected four, making nine archons in all. It now appears that in this particular year the number was ten. This election was a reactionary measure. It implied an abandonment of the classification by assessment which was the cardinal point of Solon's constitution. aypooKov] The Berlin fragment has a7roiKwv. There is a similar confusion in 1. 2 of the poems of Herondas, where ATTO I K I H C was first written and then corrected into A FPO I K I H C. The usual name for this class is ycowuopoF (Plut. Thes. 25; Bekker's Anecd. Gr. 257, 7; Etym. Mag. p. 395, 50, &c), or ye wpoyol 4-2

Page  52 52 AOHNAIQN COL. 5, 1. 7- I8. Lo'~ ~~ ata -av i1l47~ E]Ptav'ro'. co Kctt 8,qXov 'rTt ALEYtOT?77P EL EV &ha/Jdx 0 ap~(w it O dvov~ait ryap ret fYT[a}Tta~'OPTE9 7r~p~t TaT1( Tip aXq'* 0"X 4 8\ 8tETEXovv Z)0cTOvzTEq Ta\ 7T-poqEaVTOS,3 Ot /LEV) afJ~7) Kat, 77Tpoclaotv E"XOVTES' T9yV TO) XpEWVP daWQKO77qV, O-VV1E/863 E 'KEt 'yap aVTots ~ ~ ~ ' U 7r 1 1 O V L 7) T X 7tq '5 8voyXepatvoVTC &ta 'TO aLE-la~x'I ry6yorEvcat /JLETaI3OX?27, 6"Pot 86 8[ta\ T7\)1] 77tp 6\, AX A~ov9~ (ftiXovtcav. T7(7a [s] at' OTacyetS- TpEts', 4 /.d a,tLEV Tm6 7rapaxawv, COP 7TrPOELT717KEt MeyaKXq- O' 'AXK/pt'60Ovo, O[flw77EP EeSO'KOVI)1 /Jka'XtTa 8tSLWKE-Z) T7P.4O-17V 77oX~teTia7zr a~xx1) 8 T0fJP wre~a[K03v], o't' Tq\W 6'Xtyap~t'aP C'rTOVV, n1)EtTO ~'aVTro Av'20 KOVP70q' TPLTI)8 97' TO)?-' 3taKpt'Uv, 1f) er1/,o vIEt0o-aTpa11 SUvagtv elxep Berol. ade Berol. (H-L): MIEI (K, K-W, B). 12 1'ooaOv1'es om. Berol. 15 Si': lj' Berol. 16 'Saav [5'] K, H-L: ~o-av Si Berol. (K-w, B). 18 olrep: ol' S (Ut videtur) Berol. Si: 'an 5' '?' Blass. 19 -~rovv: E'NXovp hic et C. 34 ~ 3 coniecit Bury (H-L). 7 TESTIMONIA. 16-20 Schol. Arist. VeSJ12. Kae a~ ror0Xvo '~u TrpE1s atT1'c 7ai~Cts (sic), At'a 5E'V 7TWV 2rapaXiw1', WV' P 7PEL(TT77KEL Me'ya1KX271, E-ripa1 &6 7W(~v 2reSIov, WI' IrpOeLOT25Kct AVKOiOpyos, 7Tpl-r- SE' 7TW1' S6cKpicev, WV rpoeOta-rKft Hetaic'rpa-ros. (Schol. on Plat. Axioch. p. 253, Moeris, s. v. -yel'l'77ai). But a-/pOLKOL is the term used in Dion. Halic. ii 8 (after mentioning the ei'ra2-pibau), a'YpoiKovS & (eKdXovv) 7o~s dXXovs 7orOaill ol T(VV KOLVCWP OSSep's 1?1aV K6PIpCG i_&V XP6O'PCP S Kat1 ov'70 rpoa-eX250677hav ert -ras aip~cs. Cf. Hesych. s. v. a/poL~tr17L' iiy/20K01. Katiyepo1 'AOt~V 270u'P, oi d'vrst LcrriTeXXOVrO wpits -rozs E S'ra'&a~s~. 7'v 51 Tov -yIEWP-YwV. KalL TpiTov 26' -rdv S-qguovpywvv. (Landwehr in Philologus, Suppl. v, i889, p. i39-i55, Die drei Stidnde in Attika.) ~ 3. vocrofiVTES] of faction, c. 6 near end. ''.V....O Si...9VLOL Si] The first two are different sections of the Eupatridae, some of whom resented the loss of money involved in Solon's ceto-a XeLra, while others lamented the loss of political influence; besides these, a few were actuated hy the mere spirit of factious rivalry. ~ 4. crTdLreLs 'rpeZS...T'V 7rcLpcLXMWV TZ.'vIJ 'IrESLCKC0V... TWv SLCLKPC(wv] Hdt. i 59, (Peisistratus) o-crao-ta6pvrwv TWV., r apaiX&,V Kai TWOV EK T0OO 7rESLov 'A62-q VcaLWV, KaL TWYu /111 7rpoeo-7-eWTos Me-yaKViOS T-0) 'AXK/.dWlO9 7W1'p Si IEK 70y 2reblov AvK06p-yOt 'Apot(roXat`3co, Ka~raopop01'a-ag T7'71 Trvpcapp'LSI 7ryEtpe Trpit'-v or-cicru', o-vXV~as So 0rao-tWTIra Kal Trw, 'X6-yq -rwv vwr paKp W, lp -7~ s [ j c i tr T O cIS. (D ion. Hal. 1 3, ds S'repaLKpiOVS TIu'Si Kal rapa Xious 'AO 5v77cru'.) Plut. Sol. 29, 01 1' 4 LOTEt eoTaataLopO 'Wo6SI~uOUVTos ro 01)26Xwpflos KIL 7rpocLt T-75KEL rW1' jel H e~tiw p A v. KOtOp'YO, rwzv Si llapaiXwp' MeyaKXi~S 6 'AXK/uahwvos, lletoifor7paros Se' -rdv AtaK piW P, i'V OIS 271 0 2 T K I ~ K LL /di1XLtT-ra Trots WXovUotOL IXOOIAE1'o5. ib. 13 (of the o-rrio-ts just before the legislation of Solon), 777'v 7raXaIIC1V (1611T oTracLYLV rp 7-771 roXvreias 'o-racla~ov, 6'1'as h X1)'Pa, Strufopas EiXcv, et's -rOoO LTaL ful'p? T277 witecos 6tsrao- o-qs 'v -y'p TS' fIl'p -rc AL aLK LWV 1' Yi1OS S27fUOKpIrTLKWTIraTo1', 62ut'YaLPXLKW271Tov Sc' nit 7T Y IIeSLEW'cv rpt'Tot 5' t'011arpcaXoL LeaoO1 7tL1'L Kat' fIegcyAsi1o1 atpopl4Evot 7roXcreias Tp62rov 6/IuroSw1' 77oraw KatL SLEKL$XVOV roks ETrEPOVS KpaT77OrL (More/ia 805 D TwvP ArLKpiWJV...-rdv lle3Ldwz 'c" Ja&Xw, 763 D HarpoXwv, 'EraKpL WV, HE6LEiwv). HeSteZs is the form found in Diog. Laert. i.58, and Schol'. on Arist. VesA. 1223, a confused account (founded on this passage, see Testinoenia), in which the 7-ra'EL1, as they are there called, are apparently regarded as the result of Solou's legislation. Suidas s. v. HdcpaXot mentions the HeS~rdrtot and AtaiKpLOL. On these three parties, cf. Schomann, Ant. p. 32 7 f., E. T.; Gilbert, 1 2 6 f.; Dunicker, 6, 44 fE For the form wrESLaK(;V,Cf. P01. viii (V) I305 aL 21-24, vairrL es1 Si roO1)o 9pcov unit' ToO S7)/LoU 7nLoT-l)vi17T1, ' SI r767-11 'v h

Page  53 CH. I3,I. 10-26. U1OAITEIA 5 3 5 709, Eti/at (3oK(OP. 7TPOO-EKeKOO7.?7PT'0 &e 'rVovoi TE c q ]p,77aivot Ta' Xp'a &a' T7p7 a7op[i']av, Ka' o' To ry'vet /k' Ka2OapoLt &cta 7o1) Ef0/3ow MqILEFOV (3, O'Tt /LETa' T171 <7(051)> TvpavcL1oJV KatTaXvo-eL' EWoo70ctl) (ta*4fq~ctotTALov (9 7WoXXO01) KOLV60VOVVlT(01) 7179 TtOXtTEt'aq ov 7rpotol7KOV. 1E'XOV 8' e'KaUXTOt Taq E7OJ1Vv/JuaCL d7rOT60V70 25 T[O']7rw1) El) ol9~ E7E(Ot'pyOVV. 21 -7IpooT-EK6K6XX?u7v-o H-L, Kontos, Gennadios; wrpocrFevPvl.ol)'ro Butcher, coil. Dem. 0/. ii 29 7rpooTVeV~I~o7LTe ol gL6V cWI 7o67rov, 01' 56 W'S E'K64'PO, E.iii s ra~s Trob)6775)UOV 7rporLpEO-EOL 7ir-poe'vtuep EcavlJT6V, Aristog. 43 a-POoLTAo"'TE cdir0'9 r7_rcp 23 -r(Dh addiderunt Rutherford, Blass, Gennadios, K-W, H-L (K3) 24 A164HMICMON: tai1u~o-A6v scripsi, idem scripserunt Blass, K-W, H-L (K3). cirl~6 eta ' wrp's ro6s 7wXovo-rov3, olov' 'AO35 -v)3701 TrE HEfLO-LOTpaTos traotao~at 7rpO'S T-06 7rE~taKOV's. 8%o7-LKoSra1-ros] I'4 ~ I; i 6 ~ 8; 2,2 ~ 3. ~ 5. 1rp~o~EKEKOOr[LTqVTO] 'had joined their ranks'; the compound verb is -not found elsewhere in this sense. ot rE-(~o'PovJ The faction of Peisistratus was joined by those whom Solon's legislation had deprived of the debts due to them. The allegiance of these was prompted by their losses. Peisistratus was also joined by those who were not of pure descent. The latter were afraid of the oligarchical faction gaining the ascendency and depriving them of the privileges of citizenship in consequence of their inferior birth. Landwehir, who doubts whether the parties really existed before the time of Solon (P/ti/ol. Suppi. v 15)' suggests that oi' 6'(~P-q fvt Xpea are the capitalists belonging to the 7rapaXLot who had lost their money, whereas the 7re~taKoi still had their land. O-l IEtov &'-irpool3Kov] The writer infers that the party of Peisistratus included persons of dubious origin from the fact that, after the rule of the Peisistratidae was brought to an end, there was a revision of the list of citizens. Cf. note on S ~ i, 60OEV 9-TL &ba/LVEI. &CLG+f'cILLOv11] The word occurs in Athenaeus, 218 A, 6ta~n7/3to7Ae's 6 -yepv6-,tEV'OS KaTa TwP 'EpaotLPiS37vi o-par-qycwV. The verb is used in c. 42 ~ 1,1.-4, 6ta~/-qoi~ov-rat. The admission of citizens took place in their i8th year, when, if their title to citizenship was sufficiently proved, they were entered on the register called X-q~taPXLKoVP ypcagl/L-raEtov and (probably two years afterwards) in the 7rtva4 E~KKXIqO-trorrtK63l. The lists of citizens were revised on special occasions, particularly when there was reason for suspecting that a number of persons had been improperly regis tered. The names were then read one by one from the register, and, as each was read, it was asked whether any objections were to be made to it. Such objections were discussed and evidence brought forward, so that the matter could not be despatched in one assembly, but required several meetings of the members of the deme (Dem. Eubulides ~ 9 seq.). If, finally, a vote was taken, and the result was unfavourable, the name was struck out (Schbmann, Ant. 368 f. E. T.). See esp. Dem. Eubul. (an appeal against the vote of the 6rnso-ral, who had struck the speaker off their list) ~ 7, Ez' -ro~g 6,tt6 -7rats-T7J &rtta45Oto-V -yEvioOat, ~ i5, 7rept' a7rarvVTWV -r(WV 6-quordV3 6tctaoq/ii9oraurat, ~ 62 -r-, rpo-rlpq. &act-tojtfet. Hitherto, the earliest known revision of the roll of citizens has been that in the archonship of Lysimachides Bac. 445/4 (Philochorus in Schol. on Ar. Tesp. 718; Pint. Pe)-icles 37. Philippi, however, contends that the procedure of 6ta~'Otraot3 was not resorted to on this occasion, Blirgerr-echt, pp. 34 -49). The next was in the archonship of Archias, 346 a.C. Cf. Harpocr. s. v. 6a /o'95to-tt: 131ws V-yerrtt e7r-l re's ES roll Ugots 0E'~rao-ftwV, at' -yiiyy'ovrrat lrEpi E'KC'OTTOV 7TWV 6,qg7/eLoTEVdwV, EL 7-c- 61Tt 7roXiT37L Katt 6S7golT-qT f'or~iV 7i 7rapEy-yiYpalrcTt ~eiso Wz' Aitr0-XoPjs KrT-a' TL~adpXOv (~ 77, YET'LIa 6taVl/7t'o-ets 1'P To~s 6-o')tOLT, Kat EKaOToIS V&/SWV '~05OV SE'taKE r1Epi' T-O) at)5/-aTOS, &rr7tL 'AO37Va~os &7l/wg E'o-TI MCU &oTTL /0). Ep~VTEXEOa-ra 56 &GEEK7-at I7rEpl TWV a~7 E/5i-EWV, WI5 -yE-y6Vatv Et'rlw 'ApXiov aipX0o7r0r, 'Av~po74wV it'V T-q 'A7rOi't Kall 4uX6XOPOT it) / —T3 'A-rOl~os. Cf. Schol. Aeschin. i ~~ 77, 114; Hermann, Staatsalt. ~ 1,21, i19, and Meier and Schbmann, p. 989 Lips. ELXOV 8' &Kcwxr~oL-EiyEip-yovv] 'These parties derived their respective designations from the districts in which they held their lands,' the Plain, the Shore

Page  54 54 AOHNAIQN COL. 5, 1. 18-27. 14 8,wor-tK(-a'i-os- S' elvat S0O'w oP llEUGiffTpa'rQS~, Kat a,63p' EV8OKt/LL77KJ~ z'P Tp' wp'?~ Mcycpe'a,~ 7oXe',a, Ka-rarpavg.a~w-taa, EfLvTov CTVl)E7TELO'E TOV t8r)FLOV, W)S~ [V']740O] T6V a'vTtOTaO-ctcorV raIvTa 7revovO[wO]S-, Ov-XaKq2> cavr'7-o 3ovvat -rov3 cT&)/iato0, 'Apta-rtcovo,~.5 [y1Jp~a']-*faPro,~ ~-rv yvct4yzv. Xa/3(') 83E 7roV9I KOpVVqc/opovS- KcaXov XIV 2 -7V'30KI1J,-qKWd H-L. 3 n'r6' K-W (K3, B): 7rapa& K1. and the Mountain (or Highlands). The men of the Mountain led a hard life in the uplands of Parnes which afforded pasturage for sheep and goats, and were scantily supplied with the fruits of the field or of trees. (,2) The men of the Shiore enjoyed more abundant means of support in the building of boats, in ferrying and fishing, and in the manufacture of salt. (3) The men of the Plain formed the wealthiest class, with their groves of olives in the valley of the Cephisus and their fields of corn stretching inland from Eleusis. (Cf. Curtius, fL. G., i 311 E. T.) Grote, c. I, ii P. 300 n, observes that Plutarch's description of the men of the Plain, as representing the oligarchical tendency, and the men of the Mountain, the demnocratical, is 'not quite accurate when applied to the days of Solon. Democratical pretensions, as such, can hardly be said to have existed.' Plutarch (or the authority he follows in c. 13) possibly makes these parties come into existence too early; elsewhere, c. 29, he places them after Solon's time, probably on the authority of the text, which distinctly describes the men of the Plain as oligarchical in spirit. XIV ~.EIU'8OKL L~KWis-.nroXgpL] Hdt. 59' 7rp6TEpop EV6SOKLW6LTIIas Ei T?7 rps ME-yapias yevogdv-f o-Tpar-qjyiLj NI-atdY TE EXWV Kail a'XXa dbro&E~cdyevos Ae-yaiXa tp-ya. Plut., Sol. 8, mentions the long and distressing war with Megara for the possession of Salamis, and describes Peisistratus as taking the lead in supporting Solon in his endeavour to rouse the people to fight once more for the recovery of the island. At the end of c. 9 he says of Solon, EI'VKIO37E TO~S Meyaplas. He implies that the war for the possession of Salamis was the origin of Solon's influence in Athens; if so, it can hardly be put later than 6oo B.C. But Daimachus of Plataea (third century B.C., quoted in Plut. al. etPa/. comp. 4) denied that Solon acted as general in the war against Megara. That Peisistratus took any prominent part in a war as early as 6oo B.C. is improbable, as he lived to 527 B.C. (Abbott, H. C., i 400 n). Solon, who was some 30 years older than Peisistratus, took a leading part in the conquest of Salamis before he was archon, i~e. possibly about 600 B.C.; Peisistratus in the capture of Nisaea, probably about 570 B.C. (Busolt, 5;21 n). Curtius (i 672, note i35) places the capture of Nisaea in 6,; and Holm (i 481) shortly before the tyranny. In c. i7 we are told that the relative ages of Solon and Peisistratus make it impossible to accept the story that the latter was oi-par-q-yo' in the war with Megara for the possession of Salamis (i.e. the first Megarian war), in which Solon was concerned. Salamis and Nisaea were, however, recaptured by the Mlegarians (Plut. Sol. 1,2); and Pesistratus may have distinguished himself in a subsequent war with the Megarians for the recovery of the island. KcLrcwrpcLbuILcLr(o-aLS KTX.] Hdt. i 69, Tpw/SuLTLioas EWUTQ1-'V TE KaiL 27/.LLI'YOlJ1 ~XaafT es T-f7v ciy/opfV7v 6 ~60iYOS Ws EKWrcevEyWL 7?)OXfloa-a' dr7oGXIatI.577EV, fCSEETO6 7-s 7r0.5kovLOv ~XaK77S TLVo's 7rp6r asurou Kup~jo-at... 6 Si' 3$AOS 6' TCOV 'AO77valwv E4ararILT?70EL, 9&5WKE'o 0-WI TCOV1Oi-TWl Kai-aXE'as aivpas ro6 -i-ovs oT 5opuq56pot aLIv 0&K yi'ov-Y'O lle OV77rpcroV Kopvv77Js0/O26cpt 5 ~UAWV ya'p KOp6 -vas e(ovres ei7TovT6 o' 6w~o-e- ouvveravaraIav-riies 6i o6i-ot " ac TIetoto-Tpdi-ry fo-xov rihV a'KP6woXLV. Plut. Sal. 30 ~ 1, Ka-raTps$oILs ILL)T6s Eav7r0v 6' Het-Lo-rpaTOS. Polyaen. 21 ~ i and Diogen. Laert. i 6o have KaraTpderas, or KILTITp WO-, ib. ~ 66 6'avrw,i-pa6)uarTa i-7ot'oas. Diod. Sic. xiii 95 end, (of P.) EILLv7O6V KIai-ITpILvgaI~riavrc 7rpoeXOeZv. KaLTaTpavbIItai~LJ is also found in Polyb. xv i 3 ~ i, Dion. Halic. and Din Cass. 'Apur.rCowVOS Ki-X.] Plut. Sal. 30 ~ '2, 'Aptu-rcvos (sic) 5i ypa'fravTos, 0`irca 6oOwa-t 7re1'T757KoS'i- KOpUvv-c/OOpoL r&-cp HleLO KOpvv1~'9OPOUS] Plat. Rep. 566 B, 7-S Sf77 i-vpILviJ'KGV altrI/LL i-L' IroXvOp6\77ToY.. a~iTEdy 7op65 Sfop q/JLaIKaLS rIpas Too oc~ILka-os. Ar. N/het.i 2, 19, Hewtoa-rparos r st/3OVWecov "TEL L/AJXaKh7 KaId Xa3wlv ETvpctv A

Page  55 CH. 14, 1. I-13. ITOAITEIA 5 5 pevov4;, e7TavaorTaq,tEra TrOV~T(A T (A KaTEO-XE Tr3v a/CpO7tO~ e'TE& ~t3VTE'p&pt Kai 'rpta/COO-TCf /JUe'a T?7V TCOV VO/JWV OEO-tV, EWLt 2 K[wop]E'ov adpXovTroq. XE7E'rab & 6\ Xcawa, ll~ectao-paTOV Tm)V v'XaKc~v al/TO V'rO', dlvrtXeat Kcal elrtw'[v b'}]-t TOV UCV E7 uofxiO'TEPO%? TrWV 8 dl)8pf1o'[Tr6po]q O'O-ot P6V IAp drpoovaot lleto-i- 10 ou'rpaTrov 67ItTtOe/.tEVOV Trvpaiv{vit]t, a-ofcj'6poq dlvat TOVT(rwv, 6ooe0 8 el OT6' 'r c amro-ww63catv, dV8petoT6poq. 671r&t E Xe'ywv [oVK e7ret]&ev, E'~apa/.tkCV'9 T're o'7rXa 7wpo 'r63^v Ovpcz'v ai7T01?~ pe4'V /3e/3ofl80770lKe' vat 7 &Ewripq: 8' (=Tecrdprqa) K-W et Bauer (B). 8 TTICICTPATOY ut saepe: IHci. ubique K3 etc. 12 K6.T&C1W1TT&NT6C: correxit K. 06iK h7reL~ev R D Hicks (K-w, H-L, K83). 13 616IpAMCNOC: i4apd/hevos K (K-W, H-L). TESTrIMONIA. 8-15. Verbis fere isdem rem narrat Aelianus, Var. list. viii i6:..(2:6Xwv) g4/5,7 67tL TWPox u& lrt~ co-o06Tepos, TWY & hiv~pcL6-repos/ 06ir6o-ot AV A'~ yV-Yp' OICOVGOLV 6Tt (/vlaCK77 Xa/WVP 7Tepl rb o-i~ja T~paO'vos go-rat, dXXCLo6rw TOTAfl f ECTTr o-oq5d)Trepos- 06r6o-ot 5U -yL'(0-KOKVTE1 i'7roo-W7FWo1, -ro67rwop dv5pEc6-rcpbe fio-TIv. 6 Si Xa~W'v r7'v &5a'a/L -rupavvos 7'P. KaOc~6h1w'os SU 26Xwpu 7rp6 7-^s oldas, T'v cToIr3a Kica r6 &6pv 7rapaO4Levos (Xe'yEV 87t lcbrXwTaal Kal Po770eF 7 — 7ra7p~lj &'c1c7 Pvevo-c. Pot. viii (v) 9, 1 30 i o bi crxe~i yi&p 01 7rXfE1GT7Oc riV rvpcavvwv -yey6vcoww E'K 6&q/ha'yyct~yv W's EibreZ, 7orvLOg~vTEcs EK roO &taa/cX'Xew rois -yvwplAovs, and ib..30, olop... 1llerori-par-os 'AOhz'jo-.... &/ Sfl/hatyW-yLas r6pappos Ka-rgo-T-. KG'rQ-)GX TfjV cdKpOlrOXLV] Plut. So?. 30 ~ 4, 7-'77 &Kp67roX& Kar~OXe. Phaedrus i 2, 5, arcem tyrannus occupaz' Pisistratus. The political importance of the citadel in revolutions is exemplified in Juv. x 307 n, Lucan viii 490, Diod. Sic. xv1 70 ~ 4, Plut. 7'imol. 20 ~ i (Mayor). IIrEL-TPLcLKooa'r~] As Comeas was archon in 560 B.C., it would follow from the manuscript text that Solon was archon in 591. But, as Solon was more probably archon in 594, 3cv-repcj should be altered into 1 '-Erypq, the former being possibly a corruption of 3. We thus get an interval of 33 years and keep the usual date for Solon's archonship (Bauer, p. 45 f). irr1. Kwp~iov] Plut. So?. 32, 17rq10e 5' oi~v 6 16X(Av ip~ag~v7ou Oi fletwwrpaiToo rvpavvetv, we /hVHa 'i~ 6IlovnrKde 'POEL v~o Xp6pov, W's Si 4Tdvlas 6 'EpiLTLL icLTova vo~v e7TWP. ier' Kcog4ov dpXovT-os /iv 'y,&p 1Jp~aro TupatvJ'Cp HI&L t LO'Tparos, Iq ' H'yco-rpcrov Si X6Xwvd q5-401OV 6' ckavias d~ro~apve' roi3 A.L-r- Kw/htav ap~avros. (Plutarch is possibly quoting from the work of Phanias, on Trvp4LVVwv ca'atpco-ts KTL/wp~sptL. Oncken, Staatslehre, ii 445 n.) The present treatise and the Politics, v 5, 23, agree in stating that Peisistratus lived for 33 years after usurping the government of Athens; the Peisistratidae ruled for i 8 years (Pol. i. c.), and the interval between their expulsion and the battle of Marathon was 19 years (Thuc. vi 59). Thus the rule of Peisistratus began 70 years before B. C. 490, i.e. in 56o. The year given by the Parian Marble (,297+,264/3=) 56i/o (as well as by Jerome and the Armenian version of Eusebius) must be corrected to 56o (Clinton's Fasti, sub anno). ~ 2. crEv''LIEV1r~ Tov-C'LVSPELO'riposI Plut. Sol. 30, 46pv S rov's 1.t& rvnpcs (bppig4 vovs Xapl~ecr~a T-j~ REtorto-rpa',r Ka~i OopvfPouvras, -robse i rXovo-lovs a'ro&S~pa'Oiovrcs Ka2L aL7Co&ALXLIvTs, diriiXOCV C1irWV, O"Tt rTWv Aev E'-7tT aOo/crepos, rCov i av~pectorepogaoO~d~Tpo5 /lv TW~v /577 o-vvLVTwv TO' rparr6 -Aev/op, dv~pe~o'repos Sir~ rwvvO1JVLEVTCO t'vavrouorOat & 777 -rvpao'v1& (/Oo30v/ugvwv. Cf. Diog. Laert. i 49-50, 65; Aelian Var. Hist. viii i6 (who tells the story in almost the same words as the text); and Aristid. i 765 Dind. The story is also told in Valer. Max. v 3 E 3, viii 9 E I.igap4tEvos -ra' lirka] Plut. Sol. 30, 065K/li/ U 7Tp0o'ixovT0 aiircj && TOP po[30v drl-XOev eis 77'v oIKiaLV 7771v iarTO) Ka~i Xaj~c'v 7r& 67rXa Kai rpo6 rca' Ovpc~iv Oi/5Kvos cis Ti/V o-TKvwrf6V, "e.c0i *tV " KeuKY 1,we Sv'crd ujifK~'Oqa 7 ura-rpl& Kac Oi v6/ocs." Moralia 794 E, 6' Si 16Xc, r-qs HLOUitarpdTOv 87)/ua-ywytcL Srt TvpaLvv&KO'v 771' /It77Xu'P71Ia Oavepis -yKPoghis'7, IA5775K/b

Page  56 56 AOHNAIQN COL. 5, 1. 27-37. 79wap t a6 ioov ~v 8vva-r6', (4', rya'p c-oo'pa wrpEG-j3Tfl? i'V), '5 a ov'v 86 ica't Trov'9 6'X ov T V O OVTO 77'tO EtV X v [ v o h OV SE1 37vV 0EV TOTE 77-ap c oT aOaicaX 'vw Hewa-Lc'rpa I & XCL/W\tW T7\7v apXrn/ & WOKEL Ta' KOCJa' 7TOXtTLK&J'1 ka'XXOV)?7 T-va ml~K&). ovirwAo & 7- ap -, eppt V379q '-oopov 7o-aVTEq ol 7t~p TO M aK ea Kat T-ov AUKcoi[pryo]V eE'E3aXtov avTO\V EKTh) e"TEL FleTa 717v 77rpamTp7 16 "Pvo1e H-L. agoh'eoata /5277 'KWXdeuP `-OXpG(aPros, acuTr\S IEPEveyKa'/sepos Ta 67-Xa Ka' irp r Kiait Oe~uevos, 7'7i0o g0o776eF roke 7oXlras. Diod. Sic. ix 29 Bekker, o065e1O1s 5 aU'Tq 7rpoolXOTO dtvaXca/3'v T 7ravomrXiceJ wpoi~XOev 'ELi T7,)V cyopau' 7yE'7paLKdbS, Ka~l TodI Oeoks eWL/tjupTvpO/IueVos 9/170-e Kal2 XO"yW Kal gp-yw, 7T 7 7rTCLpLL KLPVSIVeV)60 —7 TO/07?7 I C L 7 KaT7' acidr'v ispoe. Grote, ii 352, says of this incident, as related by Plutarch: 'As a last appeal, he put on his armour and planted himself in military posture before the door of his house.' 641150o1, however, is not used absolutely, but must be construed with 0`7rXa. ~3..irokiLTW~0t ~LcXXOV 1)" TVpcLVVLKWZS] Cf. inf. c. i6 ~ 8. Hdt. i 59, OOTE rTL)ea' -ritx fouocas rUVV apaicae o0671 6diita fLeTaXXdL~ag, eirt T6 TOWLt KaLT607TEWO /51/51 Ti'V 7r6Xw KOOSI~WP KaLXC0 TIE KaU EV'. Thuc. vi 54. For 7rOXLTLKWS3, cf. (with Mr Wyse) Isocr. iv 79, 151; ix 46, Ep. ii 3. '5TI Se o' 7roXX6iv Xp6vOP TrcVTr6 d/poP'5 ocaVT6S &L T6 TOO) Me-yaKX/OS O-TaoLwTCL Ka'L Ot TOO AvKOu'pyou, /keXaOVovai uLLp. o V)T W /U5 1I6e40oTparoe goTXe TS' 7rp(TOP 'AOq'Pag, Kal 7T75 Tpa~vvi6a 06KwO KCapTCL cppL~co/aEKT(Q 9EL] The sixth year from 560/59 would be 555/4. The following are the notes of time given in the manuscript text for the chronology of Peisistratus: 14 ~ i. Beginning of rule. e/rt Kwueov. 14 ~ 3. First exile. 9KTL1, 97ret. 14 ~ 4. First return. 9TeL &W36KaITYp /,LETa TaLUTI. i5 ~ i. Second exile. 9TCL /_tciXto-Ta I 5 ~ 2. Second return. e/P66KatTWp... 9TEL. I17 ~ i. Total duration' of rule. (9Tiq) EVOS U1057a E''KOO1. ilK Death, 33 years from beginning of rule. /6rl 4utXoP'/w apXO'VT0..9T7 TpLaKOzo-a KIL Tpia. The above data alone account for a total of at least (5~11i+ 6 + i o= ) 3,2 years; and, as Peisistratus lived for 33 years after usurping the government, they leave only one year for the third period of rule. But c. 17 ~i tells us that he ruled for i9 years in all; if so, his third period of rule must have lasted (19-5-6=) 8 years. On the other hand, the passage in Pol. v 9 ~ '23, p. 1315 b 3,2, gives I7 years for the total duration of his rule, thus leaving 6 years for the third period. The chronology has been much discussed both before and after the discovery of this treatise. The following table gives a conspectus of some of the arrangements proposed. As typical instances, before the discovery of this treatise, I have selected Clinton (Fasti, vol. ii, Appendix ii) and Busolt (i 551). To these I have added the years as arranged by Bauer (Forsclzungen zu Ar. 'AO. u-oX.), and Poland (in the notes to his German transl.). Thus far the chronology proposed accords, in the total number of years of rule and exile, with the data in the Politics. The other two estimates, those of Mr Kenyon and M. Th. Reinach, adhere more closely to the data of the present treatise. ISt TVpaSvvs 1st exile 2nd rvpavvi; 2nd exile 77 6 6 1 5 1 11 17 - 9.1 0 10 C O I 11 6 8 c.9 17 17 19 c.20 i6 i6 1 4 C.13 3rd rvpcsvv~q 10 years of rvpavvfr years of exile 17 I6 It will be observed that there is a general consensus as to the duration of the first rupavv'se and the second exile. The greatest discrepancies are in the duration of the second and third rupassvft.

Page  57 CH. 14, 1. 14-28. TTOAITEIA 57 4 Ka7Tadr ao-Lv, ef' ' lHyrloov ap roT. TEr 8E t8OwSecKaT7't HerdlT 20 ravTa 7repteXavvo/fLevo 6o Me~ya/caX r Tara0-et, 7r'acv ETtir7pvKEvcraj4evos 7rpto [Tor]v Ilet-l'r-TpaTov Cf Cj rTe TV OvyaTepa avTroV X7'frerat, KaTr)yaryev avrov dpxailcw) Kata Xiav a7r\'X. Trpo8Laa-crelpas yap X6cyov &) rTi? 'AOvrvas Karayova7^s ITeetarl-rpaTov, Kcat yvvaZca /kedyaXrlv Ka /KaXqjv Eeevpo v, c&,uxLv 'Hp6ooro' 0r-tC v 25 Ec 'ro 8t JIOV Tr'V HIatavtLov, t ' 8 EVtotL X\e7ov'Lv Ee Tro KoXXvrov cTEfavo'Trro XLv Optarrav, Y) ovo/La b?, T77V 0E6ov ta7rol/ujLrCOd/jaLevoQ 7T(V KIoyt- avv[~et-rf]yay~[v] a7T' av'rov, Kcal o6 ev Tllea-l'TpaTro 20 6WOeKariTd (K, H-L): rerdprT Thompson (K-W1); ~rurTTyp K-W2. 21 raOra: WoI cracTrnv Bauer. 23 aPXAIKCOC dpXaiKcis (K, H-L, B), cf. 2et. 1089 a 2 Bonitz dpXaKcc)s drropoat: dpXaiws H-w, cf. Po. I3330 b 33 Xiav dpXaiws VroXafcdavovut. 25 [cKail] yvvatcKa K-W2. (p0iv: ()H. 26 IIcaavtca H-L. KOAyTOY, etiam altera T, et fortasse altera A, suprascripta. 28 oavvesrf/yacyev (H-L, K3) potius quam KaTri/yayev (K1, K-W) in papyro legi putat K; eir)zya-ye coniecerat Richards. 23 Plut. Sol. 3 ~ 5 (de alia re) a7rXovs ecTr XMav Kai dpXaZos, unde apparet hanc narrationem Plutarcho fuisse notam. In the first exile, Bauer and Poland assume that eTret 8oweKCTd (14 ~ 4) is reckoned from the beginning of the usurpation and that L~erT ravra is to be either omitted or altered into ueTra ruT7r7v; while Mr Kenyon and M. Reinach alter &oSeKdcTi into re7rdpry. In the second rvpavvis, Bauer alters Tre...i6.. i/36 (15 ~ I) into uqvi...i /36/5. For the length of the third rvlpauis we have no data except those gained by subtracting the two earlier periods of rule from the total duration of actual rule. Of the above arrangements, Mir Kenyon's alone strictly adheres to the total of 19 years. The 19 years of this treatise do not seem to admit of being reconciled with the I7 years of the Politics. It is suggested by Bauer that the difference may be obtained by supposing that the fractions of the years in the three periods of rule were excluded in one reckoning and included in the other. This would imply that each of the three periods of rule, as estimated in the present treatise, extended to an average of two-thirds of a year beyond the duration stated in the Politics. This is possible, but not probable. It may be added that the genuineness of the passage in the Politics is not certain. Susemihl, in his 2nd and 3rd editions, brackets the whole of the paragraph in which it occurs; and, even if both passages are equally due to Aristotle, the present treatise may possibly represent his latest views. ~ 4. rEL SOSEcKdCTq jierd rcavTa] This would naturally mean ' eleven years after the first exile.' But the sum of the two periods of exile was (according to 17 ~ I) 33 - 9, or 14 years; and the second exile lasted Io years ( 5 ~ 2), leaving only four years for the first exile. Such a number of years may perhaps be obtained by altering WoSKcar-o into rerdprc (see N. C.), and by assuming that the symbol 6 followed by the erroneous explanation SeKCaT-r led to the reading SwSeKCdrT. Another alternative (adopted in Kaibel and Kiessling's transl.) is to count the eleven years from the beginning of the rule of Peisistratus. This involves either omitting IerTa rauOa or altering it into jeTa& rarT7]V (rirjv 7rpCT'rT7 Kard7TaCai o). See Bauer, p. 50 f. wrrEpLEcavv6oivo s KXT.] Hdt. i 60, IrepteXavv6/voevos 68 rTj aordo'et Me'yaKX\s C rr e KrP v Ke IT Ievro e trpadrq, etl pO\Ofl o ol T7rv OUyaTepa gXELv YUyvalKa Citl r7 rvpaVviai. OvyaTwpa] KotIarpav, Schol. Arist. Nub. 49, 800, and Suidas, s. v. 'Hpo'STOs] i 60 ad fin., iv Tr6 -riu} 7 IHlaayeI,. This is the only passage in which any writer of prose is named in this treatise. The only poet quoted by name is Solon. KoXXwvTov] Wachsmuth, Stadt Athen, ii 262 f. vI61] The Schol. on Arist. Eq. 449 calls her Mvppiv7.

Page  58 AOHNAIQN COL. 5, 1. 37-6, 1. i. &~' apf.a70s~ E~lo-jXavZE 'rapatla'lo1o-3~ 79 T9 7yvvatKO', Ot E' Vi TW 30 aOTEt 7TpO7CFVVOVVTESv C~ E8EXOVTO Oav/tkaoz7OTEI 15. I.LEv oiqv rpo? Kaoo08O 4ye'ETo TotaV'Tfl. /eTa TaiTa, W9 EE7TECoE TO aEVTEpOV ETEL La'XtoTaa Efl&/J8 0 F0ETa T?)V Ica00o8o0,-OV yaNP OXvv p XoJO) KaTX l~, aXX[a] 8t a\ To /otXeo-a0 T? ' TOI MEryaKXE'OVS' Ovyarp\ G-vyly'y veo-Oat coloO/3i) ' 4'5 OOTE'Ppal Ta9 -aQa"Et b7rE61}7XOCEV Kat\ 7rp((W)TOV FEV UVVOJKL-e 7trept 2 7To O8eppuaov Ko'X7rov %optOV 0 KaXetTaL TPait'KXo9, 'E'KEFOEV 3E 7iapr7 Xev Et)e ro t arept llcTyy\a\ov ro roVs, b'Oev XPqFLaTLtaf - 30 7rpocrKvolv-rffs delet Gennadios TOl OvUIACf4OVTEs interpretamentum arbitratus. Oavjdcibovi-es delet Richards (H.L), defendit Gennadios coil. Xen. Hell. i 6, i i. XV 2 T6&yT&WC61 (K, B): 7-aDT' CWreoe K-W. raD-r' alis 4E'7raeo Gennadios (H-L). E36fe3cp: rpirqp coni. K-xv. 3 KATECXEN, KaTiCLXEv Wyse (K-w, H-L, K3): 3taKa&XXEv B. 4 CY-I N (K-W). 5 OTVV KLOE: CYKLOE coni. Gennadios, Hude (H-L, B). 6 p&KH~,Oc. 1rapQLPcLTro0'crqs] A noteworthy Ionism, but not derived from the account in Hdt. The same word is used as a reference to the same incident in Cleidemus, ap. Athenaeum, 609 c, o-rTe/avu6rwXts 5U 7V, Kai aLDTir7v E'i&KE IrpbS Yd'yoU KoIIWviav o' Hesr1loiparos 'I ra'pXqJ TO, MOp, Ws KXE5IJ-LuOS lo-7PEr oel 6-yS6c v6crewv ei~aW0KE U Kai 'Iirwrpayp Tc1w vle? -r q rapacLL/3cTaaav avO(T1 y- yvva'Kca 4'vY, T'7V YWKPU7-OUS 6v-yar-pa " (MUller, FHG i 364). Cleidemus, who wrote an 'AOL's (Athen. 235 A), has been identified with Cleitodemus, mentioned by Pausanias (x i5, 5) as the most ancient writer of Athenian history. Plutarch (Arist. rg) refers to his account of the battle of Plataea; so that his date is after 479 B.C. The story is also told in Polyaen. 1 2r, i; Val. Max. i 3, 3; Hermogenes de Invent. ii i85, 2i Spengel, with Schol.; and Phylarchus ap. Athen. 609 c (Mayor). XV ~ i. 9TEL jiCdLkvrcTa 1E'86jF] It has been urged by Bauer (p. 5i) and Riihl (Rhein. Mus. 189, p. 442),that it is improbable that Megacles waited so long as six years to avenge the neglect of his daughter by her husband, Peisistratus; and the text implies that the duration of the second -rvpavvis was short. Bauer accordingly suggests that 9TEU should be altered into i/run4i and for similar reasons K-W alter CCU56A into -rplrc. On the other hand it is plausibly suggested by Gomperz (p. 23 n) that the compact between Megacles and Peisistratus was made before the daughter of the former had attained a marriageable age. Tr ro MEycUKX'o0s Ovyarpt] Hdt. i 6i, oca de' 7raciwP Tt ol U'rapX6i-Wm vEq74I&Wi Kait XEyoyepwv Evi'aa4wv ETi'ia i-Cv 'AXKULEIWVLGewv, oD /3oUX6yssv6& ol yEpeoTOat EK &T'I7 veoya/Aov -yvvaLK6S TeKva fl/41t'yET6 ol oD' KaZTa v6,uov. virTEt-7XOev] Hdt. i 6i, diraXXro-ai-o EK r9s X~bpas i-r rapdrrav, dc7K6sepvos Ui iS 'Eperptav i/ovXE6ei-o asa ros 7rata-4. Ilerodotus mentions the help offered by the Thebans and Argives, and byLygdamis of Naxos, and then continues: i6': 'Epe Tpit'Si 6sP[L U IpjiT SiLe EVSEK6O7-U 7TCEOS d71lKov1o 0iiaw. Eretria alone is there mentioned in connexion with this period of exile. ~ 2. 'Pa(KiqXos] The Schol. on Lycophron, 1236, states that this was the old name of Atvos in Macedonia. It is identical with the Atpveta of Hdt. vii 323, and is situated to the S. of the promontory at the extreme west of Chalcidice, opposite the mouth of the Axius and Ludias. (There was another Alpos in Thrace, near the mouth of the Hebrus.) TOis wrEpl. lCLyc'LQLV TofroovS] the region near the mouth of the Strymon. Though Herodotus says nothing of this region in connexion with the second exile of Peisistratus, the account in the text is illustrated by the passage in which the historian says of the tyrant on his final restoration: (i 64), E'ppiSwTe 7T'1 Trvpavvi6a EiTLKo0pOaiIT i- VrOXXOLOL, Kil Xp-q/IkdT-Wv 0-vs6S0Loi, 7T(i' pyv aii-76Oev, -i-dy Si di-r 2-pvA6vos roi-a~roO a-vit6vrwv. Here TWY eiv~x and i-rc Si naturally refer to Xpqscid-wv alone, and 0UvLv6Twv in the second clause echoes 'O.

Page  59 CH. I4,1. 29-CH. 15, 1. 12. flOAITEIA 5 59 /LEvoS~ Kat orTparTUOTas~ 1LLLocoWOa'/Ievo, eXOaw Ev 'EpIEptav ev&KCaT) TaiXtV E"TEL TO<TE> '7rp(A'roV avaofcpo-acrOat 83[' Try apy)nv e7r1EXEIPet)GL, VOV.Vtvo avTC rxovpvwctaXV,1 '~XLToa &eaUl) atAvy&4 ov 'ro NoV, if 'c 3 17T7 OP r3V OVTW)V Jv 'Epe7-pk Tn~ \VnATrdaV. 11 vtK)79 &a, 73)7J [Col. 6.] 1 7 9 7r6 <r7e> Blass (sK-w, H-L, K3). C ANA~CLOCAC0u,1 dvaor-caaoOat K3, B: AN &KTH CsCEt,&i? avaCrho-'oao-Oat Herwerden (K-w). TESTIMONIA. 12-13 * Schol. Arist. Ach. '234 HaXXh5va&e: ot' laXX-qvEzs 5i/Jg6, Co7TL T77s 'ATTLK37S, 9pV~a II1EL0TLO-TPa'Tq, /3VXopi'vw Tvpavv'EZv Kai 'AO7Jpaiots a'1uvo0Afvo0S allT6V auP&-crrq 6Xe~os...A6e/tv-q-at Si' T0670V Kai 'Avolpo-rwv Kai 'AP. i9v 'AO. 7roX. (Rose, Frag. 3552, 3933) ovv66otat (= 7wpoo-65ourt) in the first. We may therefore agree with Thiriwall (ii p. 6ias against Grote (iii 9,2 n), who refers -rc~v psi, to Xpncdrwv and TWcV & to 6l'7rK06poLOTL. Thiriwall had said of Peisistratus that he 'possessed lands on the Strymon in Thrace, which yielded him a large revenue.' Grote thought this improbable, adding: ' If Peisistratus had established any settlement at the mouth of the Strymon, we must surely have heard something of it afterwards.' The text does not indeed tell us that Peisistratus made an actual settlement near that river, but it supplies us with exactly the kind of evidence which would have removed Grote's hesitation in accepting Thirlwall's inference from the account in Herodotus. The text tells us more than the historian. It informs us definitely that Peisistratus visited the region near the mouth of the Strymon, and thence drew his supplies of men, as well as of money. It is interesting to notice these details respecting Rhaecelos and the country around Mount Pangaeus. The Pangaean Mount is plainly visible across the gulf of the Strymon from the neighbourhood of Stageira; and the bold promontory, north of Rhaecelus, is in full view across the plains that extend to the mouth of the Ludias from the Macedonian capital at Pella. These topographical considerations may serve to support the ascription of the treatise to the- authorship of Aristotle, who was a Macedonian by birth and spent the first seventeen years of his life, and seven years besides, at his native town of Stageira. In the His/oria Animaliumr, pp. 592 a 7, 597 a io, Aristotle makes special mention of the eels and the pelicans of the Strymon. 'rrcdXLv] confirms the account of Hdt., implying that Peisistratus had in the first instance retired to Eretria, though we are not expressly told so in the text. dcLa-cwa-O(xac-r0L...r'rv ctp~~jv] Hdt. i 73, avaacPaaoreat Tipv aipX7z7v, and in the same chapter cbmaXa/3ev and a'VaKTCX0r0aL T77Y aipx?7v. E)fTrxcLwv] Hdt. i 6i, 7roXXCwv U /ke-yaiXa 7ra~pca-X6VTWP xp'z~/ara, 07/3aZot V'repe/36-_ Xov-ro 7 —j^ 36oT& T6) Xp'iiiacirwp. AvwySdjLLos] Hdt. Z.C., Kai -yap 'Ap-ycot /LoOOwTrol a~irKOVTO IEK H6XOirOlVV?71r0, Kati Nd4t6s aobt a'v?7p di~rvyA~ios CEOeXovT?', TrwJ o6volct 77v A6-y~alus. Ar. Pol. viii (v) 5, 2305 a 42 "~L i~ a'T-iS LTvIJ~q'j TiS 6XtyapXtcas -yivecTata 7-6v 'iyjyei6vc, KaOclrEp iv Nd~w, Av'y6apusv, 6S Kail fETvpacv-LO7ev tarepov Tr~ov Na~lwv. The story of the way in which Lygdamis became tyrant of Naxos is quoted in Athen. viii 348, from ' Aristotle ev -r-, Naiwv, 7roXLt-dg.' In consequence of the wrongs done by some Naxian youths to the wealthy and popular Telestagoras and his two daughters, a'yaLvaKTjio-aVTeS Oi lNai~LOL Kai 7- Or& 'Xc cb'aXa/36vres 6iri~X~ov TroIL veaItvlKOWL Kail fte-yUto-3r r6-re a-(Ttci671 ETO, 7rpoo —ar-oOVTOS -r2'v Naf~lwv Avy6(ci/AL0SO, 6S dwo6 ia6TIOS 7nis o-rpar?7jy1ic 76paviLos avEociv-q T771 lraL-piSos. (Frag. 55 Rose 3.) 're'v UL-rrrwEwv-wroXLrELcaV] 'the Knights who held the supreme power in the constitution of Eretria' (K.). 7roXvrelaL is here ius civitatis, poles/as in civitate, often used in the Politics in the phrase pAe-rlXetv 7$)s 7ro\LTELas (Index A r. s. v. 3). Eretria was under the rule of an oligarchy of Knights, which was overthrown by one Diagoras, probably not long before the Persian wars, Pol. viii (v) 6, 1306 a 35, T'l0'v 4Fv 'Eperplg, 6' 6'XvycpXcL'a rv r-qv TiW 7rw Ata-y6paT Ka7T/XUOEv aIL&KI71OE1Z 7rept' -yailwv, and vi (iv) 3, 2,289 6 36, 6Elri TW~v aipXatiwv xpov&wv boa-s lrOXEotv & -o' TOLL r~roLL 7)S. vagts i~v, i'XtyapXtiat lralpa To6-roL fITaLP

Page  60 6o AOHNAIQN COL. 69,1. 1-7. H)'IaXkqi~v[ [FL 'Xq]v icca XaIri'v [71)7v dpX1]v Ka' 7TapEX6',aEvoq 7TOv &n'uov Ta o,7TXa Ka-rELXE7 ) 7j8?7 7-r)7v TvpaVVt(Sa /3E/aiwS, Kat 1s Nad~ov A wv adpyov~a 1carE'cr-ro- Aly~aatv. TrapeXe[-ro] 83' -roi3 4 3iy o v -ra' o7 TX a TrOZNS 7-01\ ) 7P 0'7T V. E o6o0l) E) 7 (p E ( 13 disaXaf~W'P? Richards. 14-15 Kal -yap Nci~op C'X(~ K-XV: Kali 'Nd~op E'XcW K3, B; Kra' e's Ncd~op e\&n K1( -) 15 rapeiXcro Rutherford, K-, H, K: -7raPELFXcl K1. 16 CIOTTA&CI&N retinuerunt Kontos, K-w, B, titulis nonnullis freti (Dittenberg(,-r 158, ii, titulo Iliensi post Alexandri mortem scripto, TrC.I E4oWXca-Ll/i, et 349, 40, lapide in insula Ceo invento, 'v 7 —' ~o~rXrao-iq c,,'er'ctp; eadem scriptura etiam in Diodori Siculi codicibus servata est). OHCCIWi nunc in papyro legit K (B): AINt\KCIC0I legunt K-w, qnod ex Polyaeno quondam sumpserat K1 (H-L). 6XPWVTO & TrO Is T061s 7rOxe/1100 i7r oIr Is 7rptaS 7rovS a'oT-ryeiTovag, olas 'Epc7-p tELs Kard XaXKt5SEFS KTX. An inscription preserved in the temple of Artemis, about a mile from the city, recorded that the Eretrians used to march to that temple with 3000 hoplites, 6oo horsemen, and 6o chariots (Strabo, p. 448). Cf. Gilbert, Gr. St., ii 67 fl. ~ 3. T'iv 4id Ill~X~ivL'SL [t&i qv] On the way from Marathon to Athens. H dt. i 6,2, 6'rt HaX\Nijvi5o 'AO8vat'js tipov. The deme Pallene lay near Gargettos, between Pentelicus and the northern spurs of Hymnettus. It has been proposed to place it S. E. of Hymettus, near Koroi (At/i. JAlitt/ei/ungen, XVi 200-234); but this appears to have been the site of Sphettos, and the proposed identification does not suit the data in Hdt.; while the name of Pallene survives in Ba/Ibina betwNeen K-an/za and Hier-aka (Milchhbfer in Berl. P/it. fxoc/hensc/ir., 189,2, nlo. i and 2). Cf. Arist. Ac/i. 23 3 /3Xrct' BaX2X'Pa&c. In the Austrian map the name Ba/ayes is given to a stream which rises near KOantza and falls into the sea at Araphen, after flowing in a direction parallel to the route by which Peisistratus, marched to Athens round the S. of Pentelicus. N't~ov-AV'YScpLLV] Hdt. i 64,K~ -yap raL6T?71 0' HEtcLLT6TpaLTOS Kareo-rpel/ikTo Woxe/Scy KalL ereTPESL'e Au'y3apu. Schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 355, Nai~os Eci~w cri' 11uat-r~paITov. As Polycrates came to the end of his rule of i6 years in B. C. 521, having been aided in its establishment by Lygdamis, it follows that Lygdamis was in power at Naxos in 537 (Duncker, G. d. A. vi 465 and 5 i2). As Peisistratus, who restored Lygdamnis, died in 5,27, it would follow that the third -rvpran'ls probably lasted so or i years. The only alternative is to suppose that Lygdamis aided Polycrates before he himself needed the aid of Peisistratus. ~4. 7rcLpELXETO-Tc' `irra] characteristic of a rvpaiwI's. Pot. viii (v) 10o, 1 311 a i12, -ro -r~ WX7WCI u1375EV WIIT76EVEI (3t1 Ka~l Tm'p WrapcipcoIP 7rotovv'rat T/V 6WXWS'). 4o7ALcr~o.] Cf. Xen. Anab. i 7 ~ 10, /s' 7 — i~oWXatopq, of an armed mustering of troops in preparation for a battle, the only passage in which the word is used by Xenophon. C7y-o~p. viii 5 ~ 9 ic6orXtatse-~ow\1'~corOa occurs in Anab. i 8 ~ 3, ii ~ 2, iv 6 ~ 7, v 9 ~ IH, / WX od s iii I,28, iv3 ~ 3. Diodorus xix 3 si' rats Ei:oWXtaitsS 0e/petv ra'olrXicu'. The story is told as follows in Polyaenus i 21i ~ 2, IHELcricrrpar-os 'A 0,q'cdwv TIL SW~a /3ovAopsVos lrapEXc'TOat, 7rcpl~y-ye1 EV 37KEIV d varcV Is cis To' 'Ava'KELOV /SeTI Tr ' 07X WV. 01 fI-EV?7KOV 0 St ~ XO WpO VXG f 0~ - /JueVos S?7/Iflyop2717a1, Ka!L 07SIKPO, T-3 I/IllVp X ey s ' ~ipX ETo. 01' Sc E~IaK 0"EtV lu aSt S/SeS'o, IrpoENOeFV a15T6'p s)~iw oaV 515 To' rlKo rI 7ra55 O V 1 C KOV pO 7 p E X ST E Iipli/IE V O I a-S O W NI K IT-i V E K C V7 6 ELa 7-es 7-ap r b A pe7 v. A 3 7 ' Lot / y / V i K L i L NI I / P V E, i S - 7 O V O T 7 7 1 5 0 p L O 3pro -yp Va s, oT SA7pa ot ' Ttyv1,tof Ka rcI The 'Asa'cKeRos, or temple of the Dioscuri orAVIK I(P u. ehs. 33, Cic. N at. Deor-. iii 53), mentioned by Polyaenus, stood S.E. of the market of the Ceramicus (Curtius, Text der Sieben AKarten, p. 53; Stadtgesc/iichte von At/ien, pp. XLVi and 82). It was probably some way up the northern slope of the Acropolis. Lucian, Piscator, 42, humorously describes the philosophers 'planting their ladders against the 'ApaLKELOV, and swarming up' the Acropolis. Andocides, De Myst. i 45, mentions a cavalry muster at the 'Ava'KEIFOv, and Thucydides, viii 93, says that the hoplites who had destroyed the

Page  61 CH. I5, 1. 13-20. TTOAITEIA 6i 7rotlfjaflevo ec~KXqrc1aedLV E7TreXelipet, [T Se & O)wV 9 eXaX]aaev giKpOV' oV aa'Ko6vTwv SE KaTralCKOV v fL eEvoev avro' wrpoo'av[a]/3ir[vat] rp To 7- Trpo7rvXov Trj daKpo7roX\e'w 'va yeyCov7,a\XXov. Ev ' 8' e 0ceIvo~ StLeTpt/3e 8T7f7U7}yopov, aveXov'res o[ ' r' vo'TT 20 17 Tis 65 Wovjs eXiXao-ev coniecit Kontos (laudant H-L in praefatione, accepit K3): [0fdyyEo-Oac 8' ownrov8i]aoa'v K-W; ErtTnSer s 6' efp)v7lae Tyrrell et Gertz (H-L in textu). 20 AIETpelBe. 20-21 TOyT(cN). TeTAr: TOTgr Rutherford et J E B Mayor, coll. Plut. SzUla 14 ~ io Kovpiwvos eirl rovTry Tera-ytUvov (K3, B), roTro K-W, roUT' c7rtLTrTay1eL'ot H-L. fort of Eetioneia 0eEvro ev -ry 'AvaKeIp ra oriXa (Miss Harrison, Mythology etc. of Athens, 152). The precinct of Agraulos, also mentioned by Polyaenus, may be placed below the ancient stone staircase in the N. cliff of the Acropolis, some 60 yards W. of the N. Porch of the Erechtheum. (Cf. Curtius, Stadtgeschichte, pp. XLIV, 37-) The O0loecov is mentioned in the text. Its position is approximately determined by the description of Pausanias. After leaving the Gymnasium and the 0-qO-eov, which are near one another and 'not far from the Agora,' he passes from the 077eoPv to the 'AvacKeLov, and adds that above the latter is the precinct of Agraulos (i I7 ~ 2, 8 ~~ I, 2). The Oqoreov was probably E. of the Agora and is not to be confounded with the building on the 'hill of Colonus ' within the walls, popularly called the 'Theseum,' but now generally identified as the temple of Hephaestus (Miss Harrison, 1. c. 145, i8). According to Polyaenus, the weapons are at first left in the 'AvcrKceov and transferred to the 'AypauXtov. According to the text, they are left in the 0-qotrov and are then locked up els ra 7rrortriov otiKtcara ro OOr aelov, not 'the buildings near the Theseum,' as we might have expected, but 'the neighbouring buildings of the Theseum.' The latter phrase suggests that some other building than the 0troeiov has already been mentioned, and this (so far as it goes) is in favour of ev Tr 'AvaKeiqy, although it is not in the MS. If ev Trw 'AvaKei' is accepted, it proves that the Theseum is near the Anaceum, below the N. cliff of the Acropolis (C. Wachsmuth, Rheinisches Museum, xlvi 327). TnS 8 4>WVjS EX$ Xa.Ev iLKP6V] Lucian, Bis Accus. 21, XaXCvTeS TroU TOPVO, Aelian, Hist. Anita. xii 46. With >06yyeo-Oat 6' eo7roSraa'ev utKp6v, printed by K-W, may be compared Dem. F. L. 206, (POe'yyerOat U/eytLffov a'7rCvriv, 216, KaX\V Kai AS7ya oBTros J0C7erTL,... bavuXov e^7Y, 337, KCaXov (Peyyogdvw, Pant. 37 ~ 52, /7E'ya 0dyyerTa, Steph. 45 ~ 77, XaXeOv yetya, Lysias i6 ~ 19, /JKpbv &6aXeyo6/uero. eo-7rovacrev is not, however, convincing. -ro rp6o7vXov] Apparently used on purpose to avoid the grander term irpowr6 -Xata, which would have been an anachronism in so far as it would have suggested the Propylaea of the time of Pericles. 7rporvXov itself is seldom used in the singular. Cic. ad Att. vi i, 26, audio Appium 7rpo6rvXov Eleusine facere, Plut. Mor. 363 F, ev Tro 7rporv3'X TO0 LepoV TijS 'A07v6as (at Sais), Plin. N. H. xxxv 1 o, Minervae delubripropylon, xxxvi 32, in propylo Atheniensium. Pliny may have borrowed this exceptional form from Heliodorus, who possibly lived under Ptolemy Epiphanes, and wrote a work on the Acropolis (Wachsmuth, Stadt Athen, i 36). The word is found (in pl.) in Hdt., Hippocrates, and in an inscription from Smyrna. Mr H. Richards accordingly suggests that it may be an Ionism. But the word is also found in an inscr. of the 5th century from the Peiraeus, CIA ii 521 e, p. 122, TrpoTr0Xov ar96ouiov 6pos. Traces of the foundations of this ancient portal have been noticed S. of the E. hall of the Propylaea. It faced S.W. (Milchhofer in Baumeister, Denkin. i 201 a). y~EywvIvI] Ar. De Anima ii 8, 420 a I, ta Tro 1pa6vpbs elvat 6 dilp ov ye-yovei. 7rep aKov-rTwv, 804 b 24, (POeyyovTCrat fLv dAX ov 66vavraL yeywvewv, d\XX\a t6vov r3wvovaLv, cf. 802 b 6, a 23. P-obl. 917 b 21, 6 arVTOs T ar17 (xpWV- 7roppwrTpW -yeoyuvel EuT a XXWv ao6wv i /ovos, cf. 901 b 31 yeOywvao-t, 904 b 35 /yeywvcvw (Index Ar.). Antiphon, de caede Heriod. 44, 7roXXp TrXiov TyeyWovv E0rTL vVKTrp /eO' 7fsJiepav (Cobet, Mnem. iv I53). elywveiv is the normal form in Attic prose, but the word is far from common.

Page  62 62 AOHNAIQN COL. 6,1. 7 —2I. Te'rafy/ltEVOL Ta o7rXa [Kat KaTa]KX77ea?7E e~ [T'n] 7r'nO-X -OV 01 -K/J?71aTa TOv t q) (9oEt'OV &EorfA/77Yav E'XOoZ)TE9 7TpO? TOV HetcltorTpa68,['ire' T]\V ctXXOV Xo'yov '7tETEeXEOEV, eL7Te Kal 7Tept raw 07wrw To r yEyO?)09 [aws! oi] Xp Oavu tcEtv oi'48 ' cfvate'v X,25 a'n-eX0'v-ra9? t cov t8w dvt 6V& KLC3V[ir w]t X75o-Eowatelrat,7&Jv. 16. [3q /LEV oi'v ll~tIc-to-TPacToV Tvpavvtl e~ax?( TE ICaLTEO"T?7 [TO'To'OV] TO?) rpo'7rol) Ka\ [FUE~cL18o1Xa9 EO0XE TOe7aVTa9?. 8tSEL 2 llew-iOaTpcLT09, COOr7Tep etpnepat, [Ta KcTra\] TIJV 7'n-Xw p.leTpt( Ka\ fX- o) WaL K3 7) -v pavvtK43v C?) Te y/ap T0L(~ a ats ~bjov5 OoJ~OS~77? tet 7-po9 CJA703 a~apa?)vovt CrV177?)O/.LOVtKOV Kq Kat T70L9 'l76]po4-,] 7rpo08a?)et~'E Xp[ '/ta]Ta 7Tpo~ '7- S~epyactaa9, WeO'TE 8ta'pe4eaicrLa yecopyoVlVra9?. TOVUTO 8' e~rroieb 8VoFV [Xy4fptv, i'iv{a] 3 E1 ~)aoet8t~p/3~TV X a tE7ap/Levot Ka'7a Tr?7V Xcopav, 21 a,5rdz'v [Kad 00 -YJKV5(TcwTES K (K-W, H-L), sed aurv'n quidem. in papyro abesse, partem. autem notae quae Ka-rci significaret apparere, indicavit Blass. 24 [Kad W's o Xph] H —L (K3), [oh oi] Xpii B, [Xe-yo 'T O' olXp'] K'; [eonq 65' &F ep] K-W. duL~ K-W (K3, B): [ciyavcaKT]e1s H-L. 25 civat add. Marchant Coil. Aesch. 3~8, Dem. 15 ~ ii, 6 ~ 4, 26 ~ 33 et infra i6 ~ 3 irpo' To~s iilots OZ'Tes. Compendium quod verbum, elI'aL exprimit \ in papyro inesse divinavit Wyse, invenit K. a~-rb.T f7r4/fALeoX1 ai~er Blass, K-W, K3: air'Tpio' i O r. H -L. XVI 3 dpfoJ-aL [T-A Ka7-a]I B:- E'plq7atc ['3iq] (K3, K-w): 1E1pqKau~ev (K', H-L). 4 ToZS dXxots (K3, K-WV): rTas 6[ecqToZs] K1, 7Tc~s 6/uatas H-L. 5 ~pe&OC (K, B), Cf. Voemel, Prolegomena Crammatica ad Dem. C'ontiones, ~ 29: WrZos K,-w, H-L. or[ 6?rpoa-e&ciVeL~e Rutherford et quondam Wyse. 7 Am.. qncCFCiProYNT&C litteris incertis scripta (K-w, K3, B): &U/.rLerpe'S (-yEwp-oIJPTo quondam K, &ca'EKE'S yEwp-Y&P -yoih'ro H-L. 8 &Fon-rapue'ot <(' Lt> Kontos (H —L). TETCLWE'dVOL] Pot.,1298 a 23, r&g 'pX'r TialS Lvi' fKclI TOLI TE-yfla)EMS~. TETaiXOcaL may have 6Thrl with the dat. or ace., the former is found in Xen., and both in Plato. Plat. Rep. 345 D, 6if' (p 7&aK-rat, Crit. 50 D, 01 f'rl To6Tp TreTa/J6JpoL VSo',ot Leg. 95,2 E, 70o11 6'rl Tro6ToLI alp(oprag Tre7a/yLueovs, ib. 77,2 B, 67rl iri'PTa Kal eKao-Ta TaXOels (Xpblos), Tim. 47 C, X'0yos E~r' cv-ulr TaOTa Tf'TELKTaL. The gen. is comparatively rare. ~ 5. dCvLOdEv] Met. iii 5, 1Q09 b 37, 7r WI vQ UK O M1L V ILO-JUtIL. &J6vo0/LEF (Hdt. viii io) is not found in Ar. filTClV 'LSCIWVI'EZVCU] C. i 6 ~ 3. Pot. viii (v) 8, 1309 a 6, oi -yap il~ropoL oul [ovXo-~ovrat ApXeLv TLcp p316iV K6pSIa1VEV, dciXaN&PI Tpl TOs laLioLI ctai/ILLItAov, oi 35 efiiropot &vv2'oTov-TIL &a To' /.nplv~s 11poa 36EL0tOL TWYP KOLZ'WP. XVI 2. 1EtP7~raL] 14 ~3. KCaL. Si KCLI] ~ 1o. TOZS cL lropoLS-YeWlPYoV'rcLS] In the same spirit, we read in Pint. Sot. 31, oh 35' Oe64-pao'ros ilorT6p37KC, Katd T-O'v 7?s dipylas 6eoi' oi 6XoXWX " 3JKEV, dXXcc I1tiiLTOpo, ip T2Ifl TIE XLlpC&V EY6P76E0Tpav Ka~l Til' 716 70A?7pE/cLao~ripap f7rollo0Ev. For &arptec/JEOatL Mr Wyse compares Xen. de Red. i i; iv 49; Schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 1446, Jp-ya~6,aevoL &~a7plq30'To. For the general sense, cf. Pot. 1 320 b 7, (even under a democracy) XapL6epwv Jo-rl Ka~l vov E~X6VTwy -YPLYWP/JV KMIl &aIXca[L3Li'PTILIa 70o1 dibrpovs dibopya's &566'Tas TrphreLv iii' ep-ytacriag. 7rpoESdcLveL~] In this verb wpb' does not mean 'beforehand,' but ' in advance.' 7rpo~avel1,EwI, originally 'to make an advance,' develops the meaning 'to lend without interest.' The conjecture i7rpoocEdavet~e, I'be atso ient money,' is withdrawn. It rested on the assumption that 7rPoe6acivEtPF meant 'he lent beforehand,' a sense unsuitable to the context (Wyse in Class. Rev. vi '254. ~ 3. P.4rTE...cXX4'] Pot. Viii (V) 8, 1308 Al

Page  63 CH. 15, 1. 2I-CH. i6, 1. i6. flOAITEIA 6 63 Kat 0oww~v [e Vr~p~rs r&3i- ~kETpWfV Kal 7Tpk t T tS[]&ots OVTE9 p77f cwtOv/it'a-t pq're o-XoXa[wo-tv1 E'rtp1eX eta0at 2-cay K1OWlCOZJ. 10 4 aua 8e' cnwe/3czvev airrw' Kca'l Ta', 7rpoa-6'Oou' ylyveaOIat p4ei'o]vq 6'~epya~ofleW7'r rnm' Xwpca' e7rpaT'rcTo y7zp adwo rcv rytyvop~evow 5 &Ka'fl7V. &di Kai 'rov'? Kaa'a [8 'l]ovv? Kcareow/el'a~e 8tKao-,a9 Kabt aim9 E6E 7rXa~t'E 2- xopav ~to-Ko7rcoV [Ka\] 8taX[i']aw 2-0v5' 8taofeppO/EovS, 67T(O9 /1U? Kara/3aLvOPTE9~ E'TrO aaTv 7rapa- 15 6 FLEXO 0-cr 'rc~v [Jyp]car'. -rotavir~ yap rtvo~ e~ooov rco' llat-ra'cp co 11 IN (K-w) sed in versu proximo rIFN (K-W etC.). 12 E' ep-yra~04719 H-L. 13 KATECKEYAZC (K, H-L): KaT7EOKE66aTe K-W, B. 14 6taX6wP' (K<3, K-W, B): &taXXac-TTwP K1 (H-L); lacuna vix quattuor litterarum. capax. b I s,.o-qr' ab~hivetv Xlap Awql6a 7Iapa& riz'p Ul)/4Le-pLLap, ciXXa A&iXXoP -7-etpaa-Oc. Rhet. i4, 1359 1) 6. For the general sense, P01. viii (v) I0, 1311 a 14, i-6o ~4 Ll0reos awe~av'VeLV KIal 6&LKL'~EIP aLi[4oreTpCWP KOLPOI', Kad -771 o'XvyapXLIa1 KaLL 7771 -rvpalviS&s. 8LiEcrTrcLpjLE'V0L KCOT. 'nV X(iPcXv] Pol. vii (vi) 4, 1319 a 30, &&a 7-6 w7ept' rIjV aL'YOPIIV Ka~l 7-6 (107TV KVXL'eTOaLL 7rCIY 7TOIOU7OP -yevos0 W's el7reLV p5161'wT eKKX-q~T1L'I~EL. 01 6U -YEWP'Y0U1'7-E &a'L To6 61 -oTTLapOaLLKar'T&7-7PXL'papovLJ'a06' LLaVTWOWL o66' 6'Aoiws 11-L UoTat - arvP66ov -raI6T-qT. vi (viii) 5, 1,292 b 25, 6',rav lu& oiv 7-6 -yECp-yLKOli KLL TO' KEKT77/LL&OP /Le7plaiW oVOLTLaV KVPLOV 77-~ 777 rOXLTeiaL, -7roXLtE6oVTaLL KaLTa J'6JLovU gXovat. -yap 'p-ya~6juesOL NP, ob 661 1v7-IL 61' 0X0X46teV, W0OTE T6V v6Fwo' E7rLa-r'o-aYc7-es eKKX 770T1a ~0V0.L Ta'1 aiva-yKaLasc 6KKX7JOL'Ia1. vii (vi) 4, 1318 b 9, O3'XT-7-0a3o -yap 677/ 01 6 EWP-YLKbI f'o-TTLv... && ' Apy -yap -ro A- w7oXX~V oVoLJOa;L 9Xetv aaxoXoXS, W07-6 /1J77 OXXa1KtS f'KKX770FLaI~eLV. Diogenes Laert. i 98 says of Periander, on the authority of Ephorus and Aristotle, QUK eLta e' ao07et N7V T0ilI 00V01A0VSl'U. Similarly, in the abstract of Aristotle, by Heracleides, 011K e7rtTpe7i-wP e/ ala-i-c NiP (Rose, Frag.3 6ii, 20). Cf. Aelian V. H. ix 25; Max. Tyr. xxix 3; and Dion Chrys. Or. 7 i P. '257 f. R., i 52o-i R. (Mayor). 'r~3v FLrETPC(0V] '27 ~ 3. 'rps Tois 'SCO~s 'v'res] See note on i5 ~ 5, Eirt' T7-lS iiwv el1'IL. FL TJe crT(oXdtcrtOv] Similarly in Pol. viii (v) HI, 1313 b 23, the object of the Peisistratidae, in beginning the building of the Olympieum, was acorXoXt'ap (KIal,7TeVlav) TWZ' dp~opevwV. Cf. ib. 19 if. ~ 4. 8fcdnqv] Hitherto, the main evidence for this has been the spurious letter of Peisistratus to Solon, Diog. Laert. i 3 The present passage supports the view of Boeckh (iii 6), Arnold (on Thuc. vi 54 ~ 5) and Thirlwall (c. xi, P. 72-74), that Peisistratus levied a tax of ten per cent. Grote demurred to accepting this, on the ground of insufficient evidence. (It is mentioned in Zenobius iv 76, Mantissa Proverb. i 76, and Proverbiorum Appendix, ii 66.) Thuc. 1. c., after mentioning Hipparchus, says eI7TE-)6ev0-IaP /711 7rXe~oTTop &i TbppIv~ot o1)Tot aIPpET'iP Kat' ~6VIEGTV, KIal 'A0,qvIaiovg EiKOorTjV /ly01P -n-pacrcroA6V0L ierX., and the scholars abovementioned accordingly assumed that the tax was reduced by the Peisistratidae. The text implies that this assumption was correct. ~.TOUS KCLTCI SO1JL'S-SLKOOcTcIS] The origin of these 'district-judges,' who went on circuit through the demes of Attica, is here for the first time ascribed to Peisistratus. Their number is stated as 30 under Pericles (c. 26 ~ 5). After the time of the Thirty Tyrants the number was changed to 40, four from each tribe (C. 53 ~ 4 ~6. T0LCL1lrTqS -Y TWVOS Eo'gSoV KT-X.] Zenohius, Proverb, cent. iv 76, Ka IL 1a _ KCXOL votoiio-t dI7-eXeLILv (=Suidas s.v. KIal o05bIKEXOL P. i89, et o-OaIKeXto-/L6 ): HEL10i0TpILTos, (L'11 Oiauiiv, 6' -ru'pIvvos iEKai7771' T-(' -yewpyov1L/l'wV a1777-'Et 70's 'AO7-q valo0v)1 ra-Ipt~wv 6/ i07-, KItl 166V7r peIT/36T77V 71/7-pIa E7pYyIL6/Lev01 KIal 7-671ov XtQL$6eLI, 77peT0o Tro' 7rpeof37 —rqv, r11v11 EK 7-WI'p T67rwu' K0/Li~OLTO Tro11 KIaprTob. 6' 63 cL7fK1EVZILO, '0366vag KIal 0JILK/XOVS, KIal ro6T7W.P 5SEKIIT?7V Heuto-rpa-rog 09pet. OILv/LioILI & 6' 1111111 -a7TpILTos T771 raIpp-qo-tap avroOV 7-77 36Kci7-r-1 wT/Xeta1' 3WK6 KIal EK 7OGTOV 01 'AO7vaILth 777 ILAOL/LI Xp0IL1arro, Mantissa Proverb. cent. i 76 (= Apostolius x. 8o ed. Pontini). Diodorus Sic. ix 57 Bekker,.6efpyai7-771 995b70e XagIIfIVELP JK 7-017 XWplov KILaI 666'VIL, daXX' o60/ a' Tp AL/AILS ro-0 -

Page  64 64 AOHNAIQN COL. 6, 1. 22-43. yryvj o1Iv s' vp 3' vcd Obaot Ta' r pt' TO'V Cl) T(O' [coT] yeeopyjovvTa To KX'qOEV VO0TEPOlJX(0pt'o a'TEXEs'?. 18&'o yap Ttva 7Wa[TTa']X&) 7TerpaS' olcaW~ol'Ta Kat ' pya~'o'pkevov, T~ta\ To Oav/Lac'aa]I TO\v -ra[ Wa 20 EKXEVEZ- [IEp]&'o0at TtI y'yveTat 'K TO'X~p~t'O 6' 8', &' \ Ka~ '8 'vat, ec/n, Kcat Tov Twl r~wV KaKWOZ Kat TO [63v~i fl IioTpaTov &t Xa/3wFV T\V tSE[Ka]T~qV. 6' PEi'V O1vV a'VOpwwos [a']wer[KptIjvaTo 1yv 63, 6' 8E lle o-&crTpaTos yoO ts t a I'7V7 77rapp iqcrtaV Kat TI)V qLXIEprytaV [a']TeX7q` a'77TCVT(A)P 'EWO7)o(X7el) atTOP'. ov &V 8E\ TO\ hT-Xij0os 7 25 Vl TOZS' "XXois' 7rp XEt Ka a XV~ a'c\7rat e C7K[Ev']a~'ev elp?~P7l) Ka~t e[T]'qpa TJ7V qo-vXtavP &O Kat 77QX'Xa'Kts W'[pv]XX[,EF]To, (9 [7'7] llEto-to-Tpacov Tvpat'vt9?o 67Iw\ Kpo'v[ov] /3Ios' Eup (TUPe/7 ya~p VO-TEPOV 8ta[8c~auevw ~] TO) vi`E&Wo 7roXX(A" ryePeoOat Tpa~vre'pat' Ti7v apX?7p. /)ueytJ-Tol 8Se vaV-wv 27v [T03~v 8 30oe~atriov] uevrv TO' &7FOTtKO'V ELvat Tc'o 776Oet Kat, 0tXa4pwwrov. C1, TE6 ya~p T70'q ctXXO[ts. 7Wpo yp6To] IT 'a &OLKELZ) KaT\ T-o\VS7' OVt-Se,LLav eaVT(,'J 7wX COV cE [' t SLI3[OVS, Kat' 7T0T]E 7WPOO7CX77OELS' 46vov SIK77V E15'~ "A p~OV 7nacry[ov] a'To0'? lku\P a 77l'T970-El) co? [a'77woXo]y77o0-6 -17 TA: T-6 H-L. YMMHTLEI? 1 8 wcnr aaX q K; ~r... Xco~s] K-W, WcIVTeXWos Wessely, B; sed exspectares potius 6'rctxeXt~ vel Eiwlw6vws: 7rpeo/31-rmP' invita papyro H-L. 19 -7r6-pa: rreTp6.IC?, [ehi] 7rf'pats K-WV et Wessely. &a' T6d OavudaaO& seci. K-w, 'Oavudoaas scriptum. malls' H-L. iraZ&a K-W, H-L, K3, B: 7ra'-TraXop K1, sed spatium non sufficit. 20 [7repl]-yL-yve7-at K-W invita papyro. 21 7-CUv KaIKWP Kal 7-Cov 065vvCov OM. H-L; 7-Tv ante 0Suvv~ov SeCi. K-W. 23 <aih-r'v~> dyvocwv H-L. 25 Tr6pWX,\Ct (K): 7rap-qvWcXXEt J B Mayor (K-W, H-L, B). 26 &-`pEt i-r'v ho-uXiav (K3, K-W, H-L, B); C'r-7peias iouyvjeav coniecerat Blass. 27 [7rapqo,,wdi]67ro K; [r-o07' feX'],yevo K-WV, [VJo-Tepov 6'Xe'ye7o] H-L; E'p6pX-qo-ai Wessely (litteras priores saltem corn papyri indiciis obscuris congruere existimat K); ~O[pv]XX[6]iro B. 28 &a[8e~a-,udvwv] E Bruhn (B): ta' T7).v bj~pt Sidgwick, Gennadios, K-W, H-L, K3. 30 e'~,-et vo~.vcu'~j J B Mayor, Newman, Bury, K-W, H-L (K3, B). 31 eho'Oft K (H-L); 7rpo7)pELo K-W, B. W 7C-v -yap 7T6 t~dpos 11E10L0TcpaVT-y llLS0'vat. 6' & vva'ar-q...yeXchocal Elrot'37o-E T X(wpi'Ov caTEXIS, Kai e'TvO-6 Ev'3 lra~potbda ' Kai o-/xdKIEXOI 7r010V-Lv alTO\EtaW.' Procopius in Villoison, Anecd. ii 40. The story has been traced to Demon, the writer of a work on proverbs, who is prohably the same as the writer of an 'Ai-r6s, earlier than Philochorus (Zenob. Athous ii 4 quoted by 0. Crusius Anal. tadParoem. p. i332 f). But, if this Demon is the same as the nephew of Demosthenes bearing that -name, he is later than the date of this treatise. ~7. WrILpWO(XEL] wrapo~Xhs is found in Theophr. C. P. iil I0, 5. lrapevo(VeW is less uncommon. 0 C7 Kpo'vov PL'os] 'the golden age.' [Plat.] ZHip~parch. 229 B (after the death of Hipparchus) 7-plc &37- fET-paIPve6637Ocua 'AO77vaZot h'r6 -rOi dl&Xq5O aCOITOl 'I7ritou, K id 7r'iv7Tov `xv 7-wv 7ra)lXIIL v 37K~voas, 0`TI i-au-ra IAOva 7ral 7-r77 -rupavv'vs eye~ve-o El 'AO 'vaLs, royv Y'dIXoV XP6vop E'y-yVI i- 9fov 'AO7)va~oL Io07rcp 6'rl Kpovov ~3ao-XE6 -ovi-os. The same proverbial phrase is applied hy Plutarch, Arist. '24, to the happy condition of the Athenian allies under the administration of Aristeides, and in Cimon io to the liberality of Cimon (inf. c. 2 7 ~ 3). acrUV(,i-cdpXijv] C. I, ~ I. ~ 8. STflLoTLK0'V] C. 14 inilt. KCLL WTOTE 7rp~o~KXq0EILS-'A~rrEv] Pal. viii (v) i32, 1.335 21, Oao-li hi Kal Huailo-,palTop v7ro/IEWal W0TE lrpOOKX7)qE'v7ca 51'K77V EI '1ApEtoiv ir'yov. Plot. Sal. 31, 61 'YE Ka'l c1 6vo 7roTX7OeiI E's "Apecov 7r 'yov -M q' rvlaplvvj'v a'r3)vi7)IrE K0O/xIWT adwoXo-y7cr-0 /UEV09, 6 hi Ka7T3)yopos oV'X V'7r77K0V0e.

Page  65 CHA6,1-U-CHA7,1.2. 110AITEIA 65 9 FL6vos, o, 8E 7rpoa-aXeo-a'/Levos? 0fo/3?Oet9 k'Xt1ev. tO' KaL 7roX'VV XPOcflJ eE/veLvE < el> IT,' apxy, Kat] 57' 'Kcw5-ot 7r6'Xtv dvekci~v ja~&'oq. E/3oi5Xovro yaNp Ka Tcvyoptw ia r~ [8iyiuo]7uut v ot7roXXoi" TO'q OLV yap a luXlat9.TOlq 8 aL L"T t~ta /3O77Oei'atq 77po o-]yeTzO, Kat 7rpos' ap~O'rE'pov E7FE0V'KEL Kaxco',. 10oiooav 8& Kat ToZs? 'AOJvaloti? 0 1 7rEpt, Tr^V [TrV]pa'vvco volu~ot 7wpaot Ka KLO97V atpow? ot a )XUot Ka't 87Ka't o'S tG 40 KaO[77K]eTA 7rp'l TNV1 <KaT ra'cTrtv> 7?~ Tvpam,80oS. vo',uo' yap al"o871 O oect/a Ta '8 A0rn.ai[t'[os Kcat 7rd'Tpta- cz' V[TrtV]Eq 7-p~.Ew E rVLTCV]Tat T[E7rt vp vi8t]I, 77 rTv Tva1ita Tt I aVYt~KaOtUYTy, a-tU.o[V v Eat, Kat] av'rv Ka' yE'v. 17. fl1eto40oTpaTos? 1L46 ON~ EyKaTey17pao-E TV apX?, Kat & r [6'0]avE Poo'oa[s~ e~r'] hJDt'veco a~lpXOVTO9, chf oiv /Lv KaTlEO-T77 TO 34 E'5}XtIrev Richards coil. Dipnarch. 3, 98 et Plat. Leg. 943 A (H-I.L). 35 ez' a px H-L (K3): -r f, 'px-, quondam Blass, K-W; cf. 1 7, 3-4. nppr en posse putat K et post f,iewvei partemn inferiorem litterae l, deinde quinque sexve litterarum spatium. cTTE6\&MBN6~ (K1); dlreXdjqcae \Vyse, Gennadios, Ferrini, H-L, K3; dveXcd,.~3cu' K-w (B). 38 di/Aqor~pas H-L. 39 Trp~ot (K), cf. v. S 41 KcaO 5KWV K (B): aciv7'Kwu H-L; Ka4OIErT76s] K-WV. THNTHC:7T& T$~s H-L. KaIdITaotIrv addidit post -rvpavvi~os K, post T'qv B; lacunam indicant K-W. 42 'A077vaiots Kontos (B): 'AO77vaiLwv] K etc. ~ o-t1 K (H-L): Kai-ax -rd K-W; K(al) Blass. 43 HeTTITYP&NN IAITICYNK&OICTHITHNTYP\N NI,&6: ' rip' rvpavv'3da rt5 ov-yKaOo r77 Blass. eirl TJvpaPVVIS secluserat K (K-w), utpote quondam supra verbum -rvpavPiFv per formulamn usitatiorem interpretandi causa scriptum. n' E'wir 7rpavv16& 7rt ou-yKadOTTr3 oTvWW/jo0oial', 6TI/Jov H-L. l71-I<Tto77rTcu> rvpa~vvL& Richards coil. Z'ol. I IOS a '22, Lycurg. Leoci. 1,25. Ec'v Tt E71I Tuvpavv'5u e'rav-rqrat ' 0O1yKaOfoT77rm upvLc Hager. <7)~> rt < 5 > K3:corn in papyro 7'7 et TIL prorsus similia sint, fortasse nihil nisi 7) legendumn suspicatur K; 7) K-WV, B..44 eivat Kat H —L ('fortasse recte' K), B: ELvaL K. XVII 1 CNK&TeFHP&C6 (probat Rutherford). ~ 9. &L3-~7eim(V'KEL Ka.XOJS] Cf. the sketch of the best means for maintaining a 7Tupalvts in Pol. 13141a2 o-I3 i5 b 10o. 'ci eKrgcr0L... dVeXCJ.dLFcve1 Optative of indefinite frequency, followed by the impf., as in Pol. viii (v) 5, 1 305 a 7, 'i-i 7-dv dip~aL'wu, 071e -yIVOvTo 6 ai'-T6E 35qua~ywy6 lc TpCT s6, ets Tupapvvic L e /3aXXoxv. For divI~ciccave cf. Hdt. iii 73, (7-n'p dipX7)v) cwaXa/31L1. ~IO. KCGX Si MI] as often with oit' TI 6LXXot preceding; supra ~ 2. Eo.V TrLVES-KaLA -yfvos] Andocides, De Mlysteriis, ~ 97, MPi TIE Tvpa12eVV v'aao-T77 7) T1 Tpcovoz oly~aoT707 g. In later times such an offence would be met by a KcaTraX6aIWs -roO 6eov -ypao') and the penalty would be death and confiscation of property. The decree against the orator Antiphon and Archeptolemnus (one of the Four Hundred) required them to be put S. A. to death and their property to be confiscated. It also declared each of them to he arTy/oI'.. KatL rb -yeivo TrO EK 76TOVTO (Pseudo-Plut. vit. Antiph. ~ 28). Cf. Arist. Tlzesm. 338, IfT`-Et...Trvpa~vILV 1711o011 77 Tr6v Tdpavl'ov ~tWyKarayIelv, Vesp 495, 498, 50,2, Lys. 630. The text shews that in Andoc. 1. c. Dobree's suggestion, <1'7r' TIP>, TlvpaOVeL, is unnecessary. XVII ~ x. iEyKaLTVy 'PaO-E] used metaphorically in Dinarchus, Aristo6.~ ~ 3, 7rov-qpiav adpxouev77v, contrasted with fi/YKaTcay-ye7y-pcacv~av, 'inveterate.' Plot. Phocion 30, 7rIpfV c' 1 7'....iyKfaTry?5pa10. E-y-y-qpciO KIll' is similarly used c. dat. Cf. Thuc. vi 54, '2, HI. -y7pcatoO TIeXIUT7 o-a~vTos; Val. Max. viii 9 E 2, 'decrepitum.' -CD LXOSVEWa 4PXOVTOS] B. C. 52 7. The name of the arjqhon of the year is now ascertained for the first time. The date of the death of Peisistratus was known 5

Page  66 66 66 AOHNAIQN COL. 6,1. 43-COL. 7, 1. II. 7wpc)TOV v 'pavvos~, ET7 Trpta[Ko]v[T]a Kat rpa/t 'aa9, a` 8' eP UPX 8E~t1)V Z'9,EvaEK0 E/ ]Z ap ~a Xwa~. 0 2 5 iat ( Wa~po?Vqp IV <0> (fUKVE EpJLVVEvat llet0uL- [Col.7. o-TrpaTov 1AWXOv? Kat 0oTpaT?7qy6LV eV Trj wpOI Meyape'as 7roXE'/.k \et IaXa/.dvos ov' rya~p evUX aai& i'XLKiaLI, a' V Ttsq avaXoyi701) TOEKaTrEpOv /310V Ka1 e4) 0o) areOave1) a~p~oVTOq. rEXIEVT37 a-av'ro9 It7cTpaT0V, KaTetXOV Ot VtEb9 TlyV apXrn7' 7TpoayoYTE9 10 Ta wrpay//JaTa T0OP aVTOl) Tpo7rov.?70-a) 86\ UVO 1) EK 1 q 79 a/LT77, Jm7rwiag Kai '17r7rap~oq, &Uo 8' eK T379 'Aprydiaq, Ioo0bw1) Ka't 'H11o4 o0'TpaTOsq, CO' 7ap&ovv1ttov 9V eETTaxo'g. e7?7/.Le1 ryap H16lffLUTpaTo9 E~4 '4 94)evywV J B Mayor, Rutherford, K-W, H-L, K3: 64). FEN: 9PV-y6V K1, B. 5 AHpoyci: Xijpo0oTvP ol K-W, H-L, Lacon, Hude (K3, B). 7 C&,\&MEINoC. 9 TTor,0TC corr. Rutherford, J B Mayor, Blass, K-W, H-L (K3). 10 <'ATrtK?75> ya/.4LET~3 H-L. TESTIMONIA. 3 Heraclidis epitoma (Rose, Ar. Frag. 6ii, 43) HIEoLOcrLTpar-os already. He died in the beginning of B.C. 5,27, the latter half of 01. 63, i. The date is fixed by Ar. Pal., quoted below, and by Thuc. vi 59 ~ 5. The former makes the rule of the Peisistratidae last i8 years; the latter says that the battle of Marathon was in the 20th year after the expulsion of Hippias. 490 + i8+ I 9 =527 (Clinton, Fasti, ii 5 4). '4rt ~rpLdK0VTCo KCLL.rpLcL] Pal. viii (v) i12, 1315 b 30, rJov HEluo-toi-paTt6CiV (adpX-i) 'AO 'v-qo-t. 06K &YE' VETO SE 0U1'EX 'SE &S~ yap IIEY61JLo-lcrrpaTos Tvpauvcwir W`OT ev gTeatL TpLa'KOvTc KaEI TPLG-tlV r7racKaiEK i6JT6Ci ~puzEOV KT&WKa1 -5EKa 5U 01 7rat~es, W`OTE Ta' 7raPTa. E'Yi VETO ET?7 TpLcLKOVla Ka~i 7riTE. The passage is part of a paragraph regarded as an interpolation by Susemnibl, ed. 2 and.3. EV4$SSE'OVTEL Ct.KOcTL] In Pot. quoted above, the rule of Peisistratus is said to have lasted I 7 years. It has been proposed to reconcile the two accounts by supposing that fractions of a year are included here, and excluded in the Politics. See, however, note on 14 ~ 3. ~ 2. pip61Lvov] Ael. V. H. viii i 6, XE'yCTat -yap a6'TO3 lraL&K' -yeie'aoOat. ME-YaUPi.s] C. 14 ~ I.Mir~e'vav] Solon died not long after 560 B.C. (Plut. Sal. 12); Peisistratus, in 527. ~ 3. T'rV MZTO'V Tpdrrov] Thuc. vi 54 ~~ 4 f. 6. iK Trijs yhLIerls] The name is not known. EK TqS 'Apye~cas] Hdt. v 94, HECL-"L a~paTos... KpaT1)TcaE aviT0U (SC. 24tYeOV) KaLTeOT7I70E Tr6pcappop elpiat 7rcLa TaP 4C'WVTOU v66ov 'HYnao-7oaTpcVo, 'YeyoV6Tca e4 'Ap-yeiazE -YvpatKOS. " Herodotus calls Hegesistratus v66ov, because after the middle of the fifth century (c. 26 ad fin.) women of foreign blood certainly could not occupy at Athens the position of a lawful wife: the children of a ~ier-j were both v6Oot and 4epot. The same distinction is present to the writer: he contrasts 'the wedded wife' of Athenian birth with the 'Argive woman.') The reading need not be altered. Thucydides (vi 55 ~ i) seems to include Thessalus among the legitimate sons of Peisistratus, Trc2V -yz-qo-iwP '&cd55ewv'" (Wyse, Class. Rev. v '226 b). Ini 20 ~ 2, after stating that Hippias was the eldest son, he adds that Hipparchus and Thessalus were his brothers. The name of Thessalus was probably given him out of compliment to the Thessalian allies of the house of Peisistratus. The Thessalians ineffectually sent iooo horse to defend Hippias shortly before his expulsion (Hdt. v 63). Plutarch, Cata maolr '24, calls Thessalus the son of Peisistratus and Timonassa, but we now know for the first time that this was another name for Hegesistratus. As regards the nationality of his mother it will be remembered that Peisistratus was aided, during his second exile, by mercenary troops from Argos (Hdt. i 6 u). 7rctpowv,1JFLLv] = 1Ecwvv/.41a (C. 45 ~ i)

Page  67 i \ CH. 17, 1. 3-CH. I8, 1. 2. TOAITEIA 67 "Apyovq dvSpbo 'Apyetov Ovyarepa, c o'volka v PopyiXov, TTLwlvaocrav, v 7rpoTepov EoXev yvvaiKa 'Apxtvo o6'Au7r'paKtcrfl9 rTc3v Kv#re-.X Xt8tzV' ev KaCL r t 7rp rovb 'Apyeiov9 eveon' 'i LtXa, cabt avvepa- 15 Xeo'avTO 7r, H. arpaTOv K0otcavrTo. 7yLa 8e acat Tr7V 'ApYeav ol pev eKTre-ovTa TO TrpcTov, ol se KCurXEovTa 7r7v apXrv. 18. Sa'av 8e KVEptOt LEv T-V 7rpay/.tLrMv 8&a ra datIwpara Kca la & Ta 7?XtLictaq "I7r7rapXos caL 'Iw7rrias, 7rpeaCr3'Tpo 8' Wv o 14 gaoX H-L. 15 ENECTH: oTviTy7 H-L. detexit J B Mayor (K-w, H-L, K3, B): IIeTrrTpdrou K1. XVIII 1 TOWN MEN: tuiv roVv Blass, Richards, edd. 16 'Hy7lorTpdcTov primus Plat. Soph. 228 c. The adj. rapwv6,uos is found in Plat. Leg. 757 D, and the corresponding verb in Ar. Phys. vii 3, 245 b I, 28, 7rapwvvlutd4ovres X\-yoLoev, and Eth. Eud. iii I, I228 a 35, Trapwvvuactd^aOat = rrapwvi/ws Crapa rTI XigyeoOLa. The ordinary form of the adj. in Ar. is 7rapwjvvtos. ~ 4. 'ApxCvos o 'AlrpaCLKL(T'qS TrV KvtX\L8I5v] Cypselus (tyrant of Corinth for 30 years from B.C. 658 or 655) was succeeded by his son Periander. Among the contemporaries of the latter was another Periander, son of Gorgus, who was either a son or a brother of Cypselus. This second Periander was a tyrant of Ambracia. The establishment of a branch of the Cypselidae in Ambracia was in accordance with the ambitious policy of that dynasty. They attempted to occupy the coast of the Ionian sea as far as Illyria (Miller, Dor. i 8 ~ 3). Periander was deposed probably after the death of the Corinthian tyrant of the same name (B.c. 585). Pol. viii (v) 10, 1311 a 39, IlepLadvpp roT &V 'Atp3paKi~1 rvpdcvvq, and 4, 1304 a 31, ev 'AL3pCpalKi... lepiavUpov owvv6KPaX\Uv Tros infOel&vots 6 uijios Tbv Trpavvov els iavrO TrepLtdTrIfe rijv rTO-0 -relav. Ambracia was colonised in the reign of Cypselus (Strabo, p. 452) either by that tyrant's brother, Torgus, or his son Gorgus. Strabo, p. 328, describes Ambracia as T6Xyov (sic) troO Kvw\Xov KTOa/Lua (Clinton's Fasti, sub anno 612 B. C.). In the Politics the affair of Harmodius and Aristogeiton is mentioned just before the fall of the Ambracian tyrant, Periander: here it is narrated shortly after a reference to another member of the Ambracian branch of the Cypselidae.-On Ambracia see Duncker, H. G. ii 353 E.T. i-iir IIacXXvC8] 5 ~ 3. 4Klreo'vTda...K.'reXOVTL] If Peisistratus married Timonassa on his first usurpation of the government in 560 B.C., Hegesistratus may have been either 21, 23, 24 or 26 years of age at the battle of Pallene according as we place that event in 539 (Bauer), 536 (Reinach), 535 (Kenyon) or 533 (Poland). If he married her on his first expulsion, the son may have been four years younger (i7 to 22) in the year of the battle. The latter view seems preferable, as his marriage with the 'Argive woman' is more likely to have taken place, when it was to his interest to secure the aid of Argos, than on his first usurpation, when her presence in the palace would not have ingratiated him with his Athenian subjects or with his wedded wife. The beginning of the second tyranny, four to six years later, is out of the question, partly because Peisistratus was then in alliance with Megacles, while Timonassa was probably no longer alive; and partly because this would make the son 15 at the most on the occasion of the battle. Within about eight years of this time Hegesistratus was old enough to be placed in charge of Sigeum (Hdt. v 94). He was 'much younger' than Hipparchus (c. i8 ~ 2). Hipparchus, again, was younger than Hippias, and Hippias was an old man in B.C. 490 (Thuc. vi 59 ~ 5). If Hippias was more than 70 in 49o, he was born before 56o. Hippias and Hipparchus were already 'young men' (Hdt. i 61) when their father married the daughter of Megacles, either 8, 9 or 11 years after 56o. All these considerations are in favour of placing the marriage at the time of the first exile. XVIII. Harmodius and Aristogeiton. ~ i. 'rrpcr]'3repos-o0 'IrwCas] Thuc. i 5-2

Page  68 68 AOHNAIQ2N COL. 7,1 L I1-20. I1r7rim? /ca&ty JcTLTXLKO a E/rp?) ETOaTtT7 dp~? 6 & '17rwapxoq 7rat~t(3Sn Ict pousica~bECOM1 KatXoa~ovcro9 1W~3, Kab -oi, 7rEpLt 'AvaKpe'ovrra Kalt V,_t/1COW1v Kica rov\, d`XXovq ITO77Ta9 015709?7V) 0 /jzeravelrE o/tevo 0ETTaXO\9 83E\ VE&JTep0o 7roXv 2 Ica r /oi10 Opaoa1\ Icai Km 3Vptor',. ado' 05 Kica GTuvE/3?7 T4\7v dapX\7v 6-7 Oer~aXO's-V&/3LoT-r delet Herwerden: defendit 1-leraclides infra laudatus. TESTIMONIA. 4-7 Heraclidis epitorna (Rose, Ar. Frag. 6iI, 4 3) Ir7rrapXos O' v163 IEato-orPa'ioU 7ratSL('37J1?JP Kali EpWTLKO'S KO ' OX6,atouaos, Oeao-aX6s 8e\ I'EW76pOI Kazi 6pao-6s. TroO/Toy rvpauv~ovvrca ui 6vV?705'Yrc diveXEZv "IrlrcpXov a'7riKTEL-~ vay T6 V a E0 V vT. I '20, I, 'AO?7vadwv -Ioi~ r6 7rXojOos"Ir~rapXov otov~rat io'0 Ap~ko&iOu Kal 'Apto7o-yesIrovoS -r6pavv~ov 6vrat a'ro~avcsw, Kall Ot6K foaowL 07rt Iiira Wi~7pO3Vc~ dV "ipxe,r~u Hsca-o-arpciLrov vl~wv, 'I~rrcpXos SE' Kati OcovaX~s d~eXq~ol 7'o-av avroO, and vi 54 ~2~ 55;. ~~ I, '2. In [Plato], Hip5parchius, 228 B, Hipparchus is wrongly described as the eldest son. cfLXO5JLovoros] Hipparchus is said to have set up in the demnes of Attica Hermae inscribed with verses. Higlparch. '229 A, 1tkvdla -r65' 'Ir~raipXov- o-TeLXE 3SIKata O/povwvY...&7TL SE TCOV 7r00)7/AaTWV Kad axxa s 'X~otT 'EP~taZs,roXX& Ka'i KaX& iirLyE-,ypayue~a. The Homeric recitations introduced by Peisistratus at the Panathenaea were improved in certain respects by Hipparchus (ib. 2,28 B, Aelian, V. H. viii '2). roils wrepl] 'Formula ot' 7repi' 7nsa.. interdumn ita usurpatur, ut ab ipso personae nomnine non multumn differat, oi' 7lrEp1'E~.re50KVcf, Kai A-qa6Kp&Tov de Coelo ii 7, 305 b I (Cf. 'EA4re6oKXi~S Kai Arn7b6Kpt7OS 305 a 34) oi 7repi 'Ilr7rOKpaLT7p' Meteor. i 6, 342 b 35 (cf. I7r7rKpc'7-74 343 a 28). ' 7-rdv irept FiXWoVa -TvpavvL'S Kal 1vSv 7 TWY ~rept' Te'v Aiovihrov, ' 1.kv F'E'Xwvos Pol. v 10, 1312 1b 10. Cf. de Gener. ct Corrutpt. 314 a 25, Pol. v 6, 1305 b 26', Index Aristotelicus. In such cases the proper name has no article (Eucken, S~prachg-ebrauch, Prae~p. p. 66). 'AvCLKpe'ovTcLKOi. XLZLIwvC~v] Hi~ppac,228 c, (Hipparchus) EVr 'AvaKpiovra Tiev Th5iov 7revTr1K6vTropov o-TetXas fEk6/SLrev cis~ A7-z' 7rr6xtv- 2'Me'15"wv7- SI -rcv KeZov del rept 0.1/6v/ E'xe, ACEyCLXOLT ~LO KaIl SdpotS ~rELOWV. Simonides (born 55 B.C.) was 29 years of age on the death of Peisistratus in 5-27. It was probably after the expulsion of the Peisistratidae that he wrote the epitaph on Archedice, daughter of Hippias, quoted in Thuc. vi 59. Cf. Plat. Protag. 346 B. He also celebrated the death of his patron Hipparchus (n1 jue-y' AO7IWaloOta Obws 'yiveO' 'VLK' 'AptTrro —ydr'wv`I7r~rcpXoz' KTreWE Kai' 'App,68ios, 134 Bergk). After spending some years at the court of the. Aleuadae in Thessaly, he returned to Athens and there commemorated in verse some of the great events of the Persian wars. See also Freeman's Sicily, ii 258-,264. There is no evidence of intimate relations between Simonides and Anacreon, unless we ascribe to Simonides the epitaphs on Anacreon in Anthol. Pal. vii '24, 25, which are assigned with greater probability to a later poet, Leonidas. Anacreon lived for many years at the court of Polycrates of Samos (Ildt. iii 121r, Strabo, xiv 638), who was put to. death in 5,22. The death of his patron and the unpopular rule of his successor would prompt him to accept the invitation of Hipparchus. At Athens he made the acquaintance of various members of noble families, such as Critias, son of Dropides (Plat. Charmides, 15 E) and Xanthippus, afterwards the victor of Mycale and the father of Pericles. On the death of Hipparchus, he probably went (like Simonides) to the court of the Aleuadae. 'roi'S MXovs rroLvvyrcls] e.g. the founder of the Athenian school of Dithyrambic poetry, and the teacher of Pindar, Lasus, of Hermione, one of the rivals of Simonides (Aristoph. Ves~p. 1410 Schol.). His detection of the forgeries of Onomacritus. led to the banishment of the latter by Hipparchus (Hdt. vii 6). ~ 2. OerTrcLX~s] Diodorus Sic., x i6, i, gives him a character for wisdom: def ira-ro 7-7s 7rvpassipa ii~' oZ] Whether oS is neuter or (more probably) masculine, it is clear that the troubles of the Peisistratidae are here ascribed to the b'/3Ls of Thessalus, who is naturally the subject of the next sentence K

Page  69 ,CH. i8, 1. 3-I4. HOAITEIA 69 aVT0tq 7yE1Eo-Oat 7r7av'r 'rcTv KaK&cv. epaao)e'is yap TiO eAp)Uo08o tai aLat apr-vo w 'Vi& V T T -I a7r rq cT X aa, oV KaTeLtX6 77V Opy?7v, xx' ev TE 79 a'xxot eveo7a-7atVCTO 7/C[p]0o9, Ka't To TEXXEv'awLV 10 1ae'XXovoav a'Toi r')T \ V X b2v \Kav7coppev flavaO27vaiovs 6'[KW']Xvacv, xoL6tp8o-a9 'ra T v 'Apgl&ov (0C puaXaKO\v 0'Vra, o`0ev ov14/327 wrapo~vv9ev7cT ra w T Appo'&v KaL TO'V 'ApGTaoryeTova 7rT77ELV 7T71V 3 7rpa'1.L6eTeXOVTW0V 7roXXWv. iI&l &6 [wapa'rq]poi0V'rr qEV a'Kpo7T'XEL 10 7rLKPpr K-W (13, B); E'VEO5jkaLW 7r6 7iLKpbV K1, EveOLcTalLvETo ro -r\eLKp6v Richards (H-L). 13 rapouvv64-ras H-L, sed 'spatium deest.' 14 LfE7eX6vTWV 'ivoXXwv 'satis dare legitur' Blass: per& 7-roXLt7iV 'vroXXiDv K; /uLET&l 7roXLtrvv o6' 7roXX(jv Gennadios; SEkTT aUvEL -<6>6i-wv <o6 > roXXijv J B Mayor (K-W); /SETa& O-UVW/LOT( O XXu~v Thompson; ueT' 6Xi-ywv ciXXwv Richards; /JAET' [UiXXwv oi] 7oXX6Dv H-L. ipaor6Eis yap K7-X. This is so completely at variance with the account in Thucydides that Mr Kenyon in his first ed. felt constrained to throw the description of Thessalus into a parenthesis. But the writer does not hesitate to disagree with Thucydides in several of his details, and he may have deliberately disagreed with him in this important point. It does not follow that Thucydides is wrong. The whole of the episode on Harmodius and Aristogeiton is apparently written with,extreme care to refute a popular error. It must also be remembered that (according to Hermippus, in Marcellinus, Vit. Thzic. p. ix, and Schol. on i 20) the historian was related to the Peisistratidae. Cf. vi 55 ~ I, Ei16W'S...KK d'KO? 'KptL/3i0EpOV aXXwv. On the other hand, the writer of this treatise shews in the latter part of c. 17 that he knows more than Thucydides about Thessalus, and Thucydides himself tacitly corrects in hook i 20 some of the details in the account inlook vi (WVeil, Jozirnal des Savants, avril 1 89). Epau-Nis roZe 'Apj~o8Lov] This is reported of Hipparchus by Diod. Sic. x i6 ~ 2, Plut. Amator. i6 ~ 27, p. 760, Athen. p. 602 A (Mayor). EVIEO3jLRLVETO nfrLKpCs] On the other hand, Thuc. (vi 54 ~ 4), with greater partiality towards the Peisistratidae, says of Hipparchus, fiatov giev o6&Sv efov6Xcr0 3pds. For ivo-,aqgaiv1o-6cT, cf. Isocr. 20 ~ 22, fvlro?7LavEro-0E...,r 'py'i. 1UXMovrcv- EKcSXUo-ev] Thuc. vi 56 ~ i, daeX'i~ v y'p auh-or K6p'7v, 47rayyEIXaPvTES KELV KaOYOUv o-ovoCav &S WO/1)U7r7,7 TLVL, di)~rXr VI o7 X -YOvrEs oilv E'IrayyrtXCu r7ij apxijv 7r6 17.d1 ciaiap Eit'at. Ar. Pot. viii (v) io, 1311 lk 36, (the rule of the Peisistratidae was attacked) &ac T6 Wrpo~rflXILKiL0c MIS' r' 'Apfko~ioU a5EXoiv l717 -pocaoa- 5 Apg6&ov (6 gedv -yap 'Apu.565os 5La 7hv dceXq5-'v, 6 ' U'Apwo7royvi1rwv 6&& -pv Apu6&ovP). The text connects this incident with the approaching Panathenaic festival, at which Hipparchus was put to death. The Panathenaea are mentioned in connexion with the sister of Harmodius by Aelian V. H. xi 8, and Max. Tyr. 24, 2. The year was B.C. 514. On KMV9lopEZV, cf. Aristoph. Ecci. 732, Av. i55r, and Harpocr. s. v. KavP7 -eb6pos...4sLX6Xopos iv /' 'ATOi'os 07aiv cJs 'EpLXOoPiov faoLXE6oVTOS 'irph-0OV KL7ea~siav aL i CifLw$/uC1TL 7rrapOeVol (p T& Kavi67, WT i( f f a 0 n PbP7~ K,' Oe, Es/' ots '7reKETo TiL urp's 7i-v Ouoiroa, -roZs 7E lava0qV~aL'OOS Kali -rad aXXaX s 'ro~srais (for other authorities, see Michaelis, Parthenon, p. 329 f.). The Panathenaea had been revived hy Peisistratus, hut even in 566 B.C., six years hefore his first usurpation, it was attended by a large concourse in consequence of the institution of gymnastic contests at that date (Marcellinus, Vit. Thitc. i). The Scholiast on Aristides, iii 323 Dind., says of the great Panathenaea, Hecrh-6rparos JuLXcdKOv] 'effeminate,' opp. to KapreptK6S in E/h. 1476 b 23, iI50 a 14, 33; Eth. Eud. 1229 b 7, 'rpBe TS'P OrivCn-ov /aIaXaK6 )i rephio00os. Cf. c. 3 1. 7. P.eTEXOVTc&IV wroXov] This contradicts Thuc. vi 56 ~ 3,?70av p1 o6 uroXXoi ol r vvo/IwLLoK6TEE ria o-XElaI IVEKa. ~ 3. &v CLKPoWr6XEL] Thucydides (vi 57 ~ i) describes Hippias as marshalling the procession outside Athens in the (outer) Cerameicus, and adds that, on noticing one of the conspirators conversing with him, Harmodius and Aristogeiton, fearing that the plot was discovered, rushed within the gates (etow -r7ov 7rUXCjV), found Hipparchus near the Leocorium and stabbed him to death. Hippias, meanwhile, had remained outside the

Page  70 70 AOHNAIQN COL. 7, 1. 20-38S. 15 Tot-q llavaOnvaiov~ 'b17=rav (e'rTv7Xavev ya1p ov7t09 I-kv [(3]EXuv9 6' (3`1I7= apXos. a~ro rE'X cv Th 7r/tf 8~) ov''rc v 'ib wp4 ]ew - tXaz'Opaw wsco E'v rvy ~aivov a. Teo 17J~ ws', Ka't lo liOal)7e9 /_447 lvetY, Ibvo ~ z't r 3p c~at 7rpo 7 79 crVXX *#Eewq, KarTa,/3a'vreq Ka I 77-poeavao-TQZJTe9 mcov [Xotwc 'h], 7'rv,u \v `17rwapXov 30o 8SaK[oc-jL0Vl' P-a Tn\v wop~ri-p 7rapa, To AwKoic6ptov a~rEKT~tvaP, [T \v (' 6]'X37v fXvP7vavTo 7wp a4~t v. a i', 5)v (3' 6' a Ev 'A pu t8t6&os e V'OE'w q 4 -ETEXEV" E^ '~ r~ v (3[opvf6]pwov, 6 (' 'Apto-'o[rye]i'ra O E crvXX1700Etq Ka\ 7ToXv'v Xpvo atKtarOcti. Kai7-3yop37aev (3' eV ['7]a'tq azva'yKatq 7woXX6ThV Olt Ka't [T?^] 0 fGNtE T'rv '7rtcavc"V Ka\ ot'Xot 15 ~t Tvpawvotg jacav. oi' ar2p e] va' o w pa p? a XaI3edv OV(3E ''v9 3S 7p 6(os-, aXX' 0XEIyO/EVO9~ X67Ios~ W9 J1-7=t'a9~ a w7o o7Toaq 15 /je'v aeXSILeVos K-W, IH-L (K3, B); 1AeTepX6/.uevos K1. 19 Xooiinw B; dX~wP K, K-W2,9 H-L; &EWpwv K-W3. 20 Tr6p6,: -n-epl H-L. 21 -r'v 5' K-W (K3, B); [r77'V jav ov'v] K1; 7- T'v H-L. 3': y'yp invita papyro K-W. gates, and it was there that he disarmed the citizens. The text describes H and A as waiting for Hippias on the Acropolis. On ohserving some one conversing with Hippias, they descend (Kara3cv-reg) and slay Hipparchus near the Leocorium. The two accounts are impossible to reconcile. In more than one point our author deliberately differs from the historian (inf- ~ 4).,805VT(S-crVXX j'jJEws] Thuc. vi 57 ~ 3, wsi eT36i rTLPa TWYv ~vvw/LorWv o-4)ict 6taX y6 /z6UVoV GIKeLW3 TL~ '1IrwL14... 96LocaV Ka d eV'6ogwav /cIE/L37vOcUat -r KatL 60oov Ol'K ~65q ~vXX37qo7aeo-ata. 7rpo Tr37s O-vXX7tews conlfirms Thuc. i21, 7rP1V ouXX-q4103vat, suspected hy Cohet. 1TpoetLvcLcrT~cLTES Tr~iv Xovrrcv] I'having begun the attack without waiting for their confederates.' "IWr7rcLp)(ov 8LCW0oo-jLiVVTcL TriV 7rofp.Tnjv] Thuc. i 2 1 ~ 3, T-y' JlW7rdpXLP 7repo-vX6v7Tes 'n-epi i-6 ACWK6pLoP KaXo~4Lepov T75~ H1avaOql aVKuc'v 710/r717 3taKOO7IOVV~TI ai3-eKTetvaw. In vi 57, the historian mentions Hippias alone as marshalling the procession outside the gates: (Harmn. and Ar.) 7r-ept&-v~op T73 'I7rarrpXcp 7ra~p& 7TO AEWic6pLoV KaWOI4IEOV. -r6 AEWK05peLov] The monument of the three daughters of Leos who, at the command of an oracle, sacrificed themselves for their country, [Dem.] 6o ~ 29, Cic. Nat. Dear-. iii 50. Harpocration places it in the midst of the (inner) Ceramneicus. It is mentioned in connexion with the d-yopd, in Dem. 54 ~ 7. Cf. Wachsmuth, Sladt A/eien, ii 417, and Judeich in Fleckeis. 7/ahrb. 1890, ~- 75. 'rroXi~V XpO'vov cLLKLOees] Thuc. vi 57 ~ 3, Ol' pq9"W 31t671037 KwT —qjy~pqrev-jcraOv] The story is told of Aristogeiton and Hippias by Seneca, de Ira, ii 33, and Justin. ii 9 ~~ i-6. Cf. Diod. Sic. x i6 ~~ 3, 4. The like story is told of Zeno of Elea, Cic. Tusc. ii 5,, Val. Max. iii 3 E ~ i(where the tyrant is Phalaris, as in Heraclides Ponticus in Athen. 652 B), Diog. Laert. ix,26, '2, Plut. ii 505 D (Mayor). Polyaenus i 3,2, 'Apo-ro-yeirwv, i'7or T63v 3opv00'pwV O~pe/3X014evos 7repl Tr~l' OvvleISt6ew, TCov /1e'i oUvPet86Twv 4'oX6-y-qorev o&S'Uva, wcairras T o~lS 17r7r-iov r/iA0V KoLvwev3Jaa 7rs EfrItiI)s- 0iro'e M6 ro6-rovs 'Iriaes careKTEIVe, T6T'E 6' 'ApLYo-oyeiT'wv W'veLIo-ev avdi-~ T6o o-,paT3Jy-7/La TWY~D 0AXWV. -rcis CLVc-yKcLLS] Hdt. i i i6, 'AO-7Va-vcjs a6 /IIV O, El f3ovXe6eo-OaI 90-q e'7rtv/u6P7ra es a Vd'yK as /.eya6Xas d~J-KP&EO-Oat, a"/se re Xe'ywv TraIVrae o-7/IAaPe TroLo- 6opvq56poto-L XaIsfdvewv ae'6v. 6 5U aiyo'/uevos C's Tbll r y Ki y a 5 OiJ'TW 5/7 fioave TO'P A rm~c V ~ o Antiphon, de C/hor. 35. Thuc. i 99 ~ i 7rpoO~-dyovT6S Ta'S aIVa'yKcas. I1TL 'in birth', as in c. ~ 3. tXvos] met. as in Antiphon, Tetral. A -y i0, /oavepwos &i Ta' 'tXv'i T3s ubro4/is eig TrOLIToP #povra, and A 5 io, Tra L O 0/6vov. Ar. Hist. An. 8, 588 a 33, iP' TOZT l7rato-I TWY~ Ll'I7Tepov 6`ew~v earoj&wlpe gcrrY 16SEIZ OLOY i'XV3) Kall alrlp/LcTa, a '9; 9, 6o8 b 4 S5 Xe-yo'pievos XOSyos] Thuc. vi 58, (Hip-1 pias) JKO~evo-eY e)T069, 5eiaS TI XWPI'ov,;

Page  71 CHi. i8, 1. I5-CH. I9, 1. 2. FIQAITEIA 7' a~ro TO w~ow Tlj 7t0FL7rEVOV~Taq Efowpaa-ev ToVs' Ta~~ EyXetpt'a eXov~a9~ ovc aXOq &TTtvW ov ryap 67rE/P7rOV TO< TE> 1ze60 6rXowV, 5 X'vo-Tepov vTo3 TOKaTeoKevaO-e 'qo 7L~o(;. KaTl7y1OPEt TC'OV TOy TlVfaV-VOV ob'XwOV, (4 p' V 01' &)[OTtKOI oaotv, E'7rt'T37,Es z'va da-re/377- 3 0 oatev al4-ca Kat rye'v-otvro acrOevets' aV6XovrT TOl~ dvatrLovs Ka& ~ 'ovso' EaVTc)V, Ws 8' 16vtot Xe'0yov-tv, oy'xyt 7WaTTO'/h4evo aX a Toys' 6 cvvet~o'Tas' E/AU7?)VVEV. Kat rE'Xos' wl? OvK e yl-aTO 7TOVTa Wotcov a~roOav-'ew, E'7la'YYEtXca/JuEvos' co' aXXovs' 1qViCro '7r0XXot ',? Icai 7Teicra'; a T -c T VV7fW6WlcoW 'I7T7;iav SolJvat Tyv &eta'v 7Tr'T NXapt, cbs q'X a/,Ev 3 5 Ov-et~cicLS O-rt TO') O~OVELF TOU a'83EXbov_ 7271) (Cta'V CSE'&)KeV, OV5T&w 7apoi~VVE Trw 17b~rwtaV c~o-O(' Ve7rO' Tq'r~5s' py23v ov~ icTEt~ev eaVTev AmX\ O.Trcrao-LEVoq T71 Pa~atpav 8E3L&0etpE6v a1'TO'V. 19. A.tCTa' E TaVuTa crvv 3awv wXX3 Tp, l-pv aIT7 Tvalaz-t Ka\ \cp 8ta\ T \ Tt/JWOPGV TO) d&8,X0 Kait 8ta To oXXoi\ I? 27 E4LWPtACCN B: -ose K etc. 28 AAHOEC. E1TEMTTONTO: 97reA~7rOv Tr6<75e> correxi cum H-L, K-W, etc. (K3); gweuar6s irw Papabasileios (B). 31 -aoetcu' H-L. &COENEIC, hitteris COEN obscure scriptis, super dz'eX6vwreg additum (K3, K-W, B); ai-yevVel' K1, &ac-yei's H-L, etc. 33 e'&h'a-ro H-L: HAYN6TO (K, K-W, B), quod in titulis non nisi post annum 300 A.C. invenitur, Meisterhans, p. 134 2. 35 av'7cp H-L. 36 T&2~A6cjqoy (retinent K-W, B). ~AEALOKC (K, K-W, H-L, B). 37 KbTECCXN correctum in -CIXEN. XIX 2 TIALOPEIN rili~wp63v K-W. Th&iEAqcWl (K-W, B). Kal &a' -r seci. K-W. a~reXOEZ' is au'r6 alvev -rc~ 6~r'XW. K al o I /u v aPQXdp?7o-aW 0L/Ei'ol 7L ipeUJ a16T65, 6 SE' TOFS f'7rLK6pOLS o/pcdocas Ta' o~rXa zVzroXaf~eZv keX&Ye70 IEV'O6S O'S E7- TCLOKL L l TIS sEvpe'6-q f'yXeLpLS6Lov efwv uLETaL -yap dowi~os Kat' 36pa-ros eld6co-ap Ta's 7ro/17TE 7roLe'. The conspirators purposely selected the festival of the Panathenaea (about Aug. 13,q~ 0 ~o )s~ OVX V7r07TOP IE/jYVyP70 vorXoLT T0o61 T??V 7roF7r??' 2T7r95L/5oVTIas ap6 -7; vGU -yEi~-Oat. (The passage in Lysias I23 ~.9 8o, O-UP'7KOX0~6Et 'ybp Xajb'P r& dirXa Ka'L o-v~ebre/17r6 T775 7ro[L7r7V ue-ra' -Wvp 7roXLrWvP * rpos i-rS do-rv, quoted in Michaelis, Par* thenon,.332, does not refer to the Panatlzenaea, but to the festal procession on the restoration of the democracy, on Sept. '2I, 403.) The statement in the text is intended as a deliberate correction of the account in Thucydides, but we have now no means of ascertaining the ultimate authority for the correction. The first line of the famous scoliumn of Callistratus (probably written not long after the Persian war), implies that Harmodius and Aristogeiton concealed their daggers in branches of myrtle( (V 1.s6p7OV KXaLti i0S 4I~oo 4)0p77iow), but says nothing about spear or shield. ~.co-,EP3icra.~v indicates the consequence of their destroying the innocent; -Y~IVOTO aloOOEveLE, that of their destroying their own friends. ~ 6. ira'VTCo i~roiv] [Lys.] 8 ~ 95, arLrK676... 7acivra 7ro0o0V7'T OUK 9XL 07rw1 arLIa~c-yl7Tt usov. Lys. I 2 ~ 84, 7rIaVTa IrOLOUVTEE SLKIV 7rcap' acLrTWV OV'K avL &6vatOOe Xca~e&. Dem. 2 r ~ 2, 7rasVra 7rtOOLVT-os,ro6T-ov (6' 6igOS) OSK Ei7reia-O-q. OVfLSCorcLs] Cf. Polyaen. quoted on ~ 4. 'The narrative of the end of Aristogiton betrays the same liking for sensational stories as we trace, for instance, in Phylarchus' (W. L. Newman in Class. Rev. v i 6i 65). XIX. Zii/y~ias. ~ i. 'rpaXirripav] Hdt. v 6,2 (of Hippias), JI/swL Kpaw'v/seG'ouv'A0qvaI0101 &&a -rbv 'Irwrapxou OCa Yaros. Thuc. vi 59 ~ 1, Tro~g 6' 'A6-oyacdots XaXEWWTgpaL uSra' oroth ' rupaVVL'S KaL7o-rT77, Katl ' 'Ir~riaE 5ta',b0jou 1~6-j ~kFXov b'p ICov -re irON Li-w iroXXOl~ eKTeLVE KTX.

Page  72 72 72AOH NA I QN COL. 7,1. 3 8-COL. 8,1. 6. av7p'qc atKa~,EK/3EfX?7ICLaL 7Taa-tv 7971 da7WTt070 icat 7rtKpOq. ETEL &6 TETa'pTejO /ka'XIOa FLETa' Toll '1777ap~o OavaToV, E76tE ICaIW9 5 E17El) Ta Ael T~o' aO'T~t, 7T7 MOVVtXiaV 6WEXIEIp?70E6 TEtXi~eLv, (0) EceWae FLEOt~3VcaoIkEVo9. El T0V0T9V Cov E'V'7Te(TevV {w? KXEotk'Evovs? TOV3AaKcc6ztawkomv /3attXEW9o, Xp77ta71UJwv YjtYvoALEcop aE1~ov 70'~a KcaraXv'EIV T?)1V Tvpavvt'8a 81a' TOtCV' a[IT'rav]. 01 Yfvy6q&, cV O' 3 'AXKcFEewvi8at 7rpo~aTo- r'c a, aiTnO' tLk \v aa'TwV Ov'K E&8vlaVTO lo vrouo~aao-at Ti\)V Ka'0080V, aXX ae trpoo-E'n-Tatov- II V TE ycp 0T9V [Col. 8.x~xotv~ 01, e,7TpaTTOV &coG-a'XXOVTO, Kat Te~tio-aVT6e9 EV Ty Xcopa AEt* 8ptwV To\ v7re~p Ha'pvq770o, ebt9 0' o(7vE~7-7XOO1) T1E9~ T(01)V EK T01) 3 rr-CT0: 7rtKp6S K etc. 4 KaK(~TI ENK&KLWI, postea correctum. 5 JTXe H-L. Tya correctore additum abesse propter numeros mavult Blass. MOYNYXIAN passim: Movvlxiav K-W, H-L (K3, B), cf. Meisterhans, p. 232. 6 ~KE?0-E J B Mayor, Sidgwick (H-L., B): CK6I K, K-W. 7 AaKE-3alguopo K1, K-W'. F-IN (K-W). aci (edd.). 9 E36'cwavo K, H-L: H~,YNtNTO (K-W, B); cf. i8, 33. 10 meit (K, K-W, B); Cf. 5, 19. 12, 15 \AW'yApION, idem habet Suidae cod. Mediceus. yTrep: i'7r6'? J H Wright, in Herodoto i'7rfp fla~ovi-qs i'7r3' fladpwj~os scriptum fuisse arbitratus. TESTIM. 3 7rtKp6s. Heraclidis epitoma (6jI, 4 3) bIrwias &6 7ruKp6Tai-a eWupcivvft. 8-18 Etym. M. p. 36i, 32 Gaisf. (=Suidas, Eustath.) e~ri' AeL/~vOptyb ~~kaix37: XwploV v U7P 7371 llc ipv370os 6 E'Tet'Xo-a ol O/v-yci3es -r6~ -rvp'vvwv wu' ot X~~ wvL'&iL 7rpoecT7?'7KecTrav. eK7roXL0PK3qO7GJ'WV 3' au'TCJP V'r6 7rs 7wepl Hetlocrrpcarov, ITK6Xtov et's aubro6' -`&Ero " aiaZ-e6'ra-rP16as," ol r67' (Etym. M. ed. Gaisf.; idem habent Athen. 695 et Suidas; 0'7r6-r' Etym. M. codex Dorvillii Bodleianus, et Apostolius vii 70) 93eL~aY olcwt irartpwv gaav. Cf. Rose, Frag. 3562, 3943. 12 * Schol. Arist. Lys. 666: AeqP63pto1': Xwpt'op -r* 'AT71K~S 7rept -Tob Ha'pv-qOo1 (ita codex Ravennas, -r3 iY'rep flaipv-q~os Suid., V'r6 7rhp Ha'ps37Gow Et. M.), EL'S 6 aviv~XOO6 rTLVes (cod. L et Suidas) 7-Cov CK 7-0o a"rOrTE0, W's 0-aw 'Ap. Elv 'AO. 7roN. lb. 665... (ol 'AXKqzaULWl'at) r6XejuoP lpaiJIetot rp3I l7rirlav r-0'p rbpaPPOP Kail T001 HlEto-to-rPa~rlis flreltoap -r0 Aet/'b5ptoiv. Hesych. Aetv~v'6ptoV: X'wpio' TI V'r~p Haripvq~os 6 EIelxto-ap 'AXKgiatwz43at. Cf. Rose, ic.e 7rLKpo'S] Hdt. 1. c., f',ewLKpawzLvoeV0. ~2. 9TfL-TET0'pTQ~] B.C. 5 1 1/0. Tnjv M0VJVLXCCLV-'TeLXCt1ELV] PlUt. S0l.' i 2, Xe-yertc 3 (Epimenides) ri~v Movvnjav 13l,'V Kad Ka7-aa/.cW'v iro~v xp6voy eirTeW rpos -robs 7ra~pol'7Ct, Ws T1v)XO'v &7TL.70O AkeAXXovros liv~pw~ros e'K4/a-yew -yap av AG37. vacLovs 7011 (Cu'rcd 66oboLv, et' rpo~eoca-cu, 0o-cl 717 Ai6tv cLJ 'o-icrr' 711wcpfox (Diog. Laert. i214). The height of Munichia, which commanded the harbours of Munichia and Zea, is 255 Paris feet above the sea, whereas the highest part of the Peiraeus is only 191. It was an important point in the fortification of the harbours, instituted by Themistocles; and its importance is also shewn by the fact that in 41I B.C. we read of the commander rW1v 7rept7r6'Xwv -rL35 Mouvixiao-L ETeray/uZ&w (Thuc. viii 92, 3); it was fortified by Thrasybulus in 403 (Xen. He/i. ii 4, ii-i 2; Diodor. Sic. XiV 33, M. X6'OOV 9Plqjpo Kail Kap-repoxv). In the time of Alexander (325/4) one of the o-rparq-yo1 was specially ap pointed to guard this point (c. 6i ~ i). In 3,22 it was occupied by a Macedonian garrison (Plot. Pizocion '27, 28; Curtius, Stadtgescizichte, p. 2,22); in 307 the fort was destroyed by Demetrius Poliorcetes (Plot. Denmetr. io), but was soon restored in the Macedonian interest, to be evacuated in 2,29. It was probably destroyed by Sulla. By the time of Strabo (p. 395 c) it was in ruins (C. Wachsmuth, StadIt Atzen, ii 42-45) iirr6 KXeo~iievovs] Hdt. v 64, 65. Xp-9aojwv] ii'. 63 (quoted on ~ 4). ~. oL +v-yC'Ses-~rpookrE"r,-cLLov] Hdt. v 6,2, (the Alcmeonidae) djkac 70071 riXXotoz 'AO37saiwP qmVyaLO1t 7GW~ePWi0t0-1 K117a1 7o t0Xvp6"P ov3 IrpoeX13 PEE K6c170S, adXXI 7rpor — ET~atov Ie-yaNXws 7rEtpc'41EV0L KaLTteVIa -re Kaevicuepouv 7a11 'AO'~vas, AEtqkb8ptoz'r70 blr~p Hazzovl-qs reLXiocarcTes. Duncker, C. d.A. vi.5oi, places this incident in B.C. 513. Cf. J. H.- Wright, The date of Cylon, p. 5 AeL+1iSpLOY] a 'waterless' spot on the southern flank of Parnes. The site has

Page  73 CH. 19, 1. 3-19. T10AITEIA 73 a0TTECQKfe, EEoXLopA%'7,ollcv V',7T0 T(CvV TvpaVViii, 09Oev VUT76pOP FETa 'ra 7 nvo74p? Eo 4'ro ocotoe I6aii]1 aiat Aet*rlptov 7rpo8w0-ETatpolJ, MOLO av~pa9~ a'7coXeoaaq Parr aJya~oV! 'rE Kctt 6v7ra'rptla,, di'TO r6'r' nEav ot'aw 7raT6'p&)w goav. '5 4a7r0orvyXavov're9~ oi~v E'v 'i a]o-t TOE,? XUotq, 4i/.ko-9a%-avro Tov ev' 13 MET&: elIs K-W (B) ex Etym. Mag. 361, 33 fYK6XLOV Ils ab-rois "&7To. 14 aled seci. Hude, K-W, H-L, utpote ex dittographia ortum. 16-17 /AdXetT6a1 7' d-yaO6o6 Kal Eustathius; r' hiyaL~o6r, ')45et r' Hermann, El. D. Me'-. 695. Kad ev'ra-rpl~cas, idem habent Athenaeus, Suidas et Etym. Mag.: Kad~ E677-pt~cu Tyrrell; ai-yaOo6s, KCA06S, ebraLrpl~as Bury. 19 * Schol. in Arist. Lys. 1153: 'ApUtoT7-orqI 9577al /er. Tbi ' Iirrcdpxov Odpvcrov Xp7T.6 -yeve-Oa r-o~s AdIKWULV KarcLaleLv T'~V Tvpa~vl'bl, i-ni lvOlas, W's ol 'AXK/SaLoVL8aLI e/.to-66oavr-o 7r0v iv AeX~/oZs vecwv 0L'KO30pAEtP, Ovv~eXw ro~lo Xpd'o-,r abrroZs jsaarevo~dvo~s, 9ws irp6i-epov /uLE1 'A-YXILoXovJ (cod. Ray.) gre/spav KcET& G6xaLOaV, cdlroKpOvNYOlJ'ro 5U a6ToO 6p'yto-0eVTes ol AdKWVes KXeojdieY- Tbv' gaonXc 010'P /el~iovt C'iereFL~bcav o-T6X(W Kai K'//I-cL r01s OeTTraoIJI eIla XOev III r'P 'A rTLK J'Y Kall 7T6V lInTrtaP 0-VVIKX6TeP eIII 76 HeXlp-yLK6V reF~ov, 9ws 01 71aFLsE TWvP -rvpdYVwxJ e'16Pres e'aiXwoaav (Rose, Frag. 3572, 3953). not been identified. Leake (Demzi, p. 39), placing Paeonidae at Menidhi, regarded the monastery of St Nicolas at the upper end of a long acclivity three or four miles (drei Stunden, Kastromenos, die Demen, p. 95) to the N. as the site of Leipsydrium. The monastery is I'built in a strong situation upon the summit of a height, backed by the pine woods of Parnes and near the right bank of a remarkable torrent'. But the presence of the torrent is un. favourable to this identification of the 'waterless' spot. Kastromenos, I.c., merely says of this torrent that its water 'has certainly never failed to supply Leipsydrium,' but he does not say clearly that this fact goes against the proposed 'identification. Menidhzi is now identified as the site of Acharnae, while Paeonidae may possibly correspond to the ruined village of Vanipompi, two hours north of Mfenidhi at the ssouthern edge~of Parnes, and Leipsydrium may have occupied the same position as the Pyrgos above that village (Hanriot, Recherches, p. 55 sqq., quoted in Bursi n s C o rphie, 334). j'8oV 4V rOZS O-K0XC0LS] Cf. C. 20 at end. On scolia, see K. 0. Muller's Lit. of Ancient Greece,i 249 E. T. 'The rhythms of the extant scolia are very various, though, on the whole, they resemble those of the Aeolic lyric poetry; only that the course of the strophes is broken by an accelerated rhythm, and is in general more animated. This is particularly true of the apt and elegant metre, which occurs in eight Scolia (one of them the Harmodius), and of which there is a comic imitation in Aristoph. Ecci. 9 38. Here the hendecasyllables begin with a composed and feeble tone; but a more rapid rhythm is introduced by the anapaestic beginning of the third verse; and the two expressions are reconciled by the logacedic members in the last verse.' This scolium is quoted with many others in Athenaeus, xv p. 695. wpo~cwrirCLLpov] a rare epithet appropriate to an impromptu song. It was afterwards used in late prose by Dio Cassius 58, 14. The only other word exactly parallel to it is 7Tpo6wo-1K~fgrOS Of ' a boaster who breaks his word'. Both words are noticed by Lobeck, Phryn. 770 (L and 5). ~ 4. 4jLL~TCr0UWv~.o —Ae'jvcLs] Hdt. v 6,2, rap' 'A/0LCKTv6PwP r61' P7761 /LL-Oo0W'Tat 76P iP ACX950url....i~0iK050/.L77a. ota Si EUq/tdw 6 7IKOVTES Kll I6PTES aLY8p63 56KLpAOL 64~KaOe' 9-rL, TrOP Te 5775 e~ep-yui0GaVr0 TOO ra-pai5E g/rLiT0 KaiXXtoJ'... (c. 6 3) Ws o10v 6~ oi 'AOflva~ot Xi-yovot, ol7Tot ol

Page  74 74 AOHNAIQN COL. 8) 1. 6-20. 74A pNiQN~ COL.~ 8ro,,1v 6-20. 20 LAEXcJ0S1q VE&J'V OIKO80/LEFV, O'OEV EvW7op'qaVXPflF7'-' 7TJS71VTO AaKa'WeoW /80 'Oetav. 8' H lvOia 7rpo "Ofepev act 'ro`s~ AaKe~aetuovt-_ oLS~ Xpqa 7pta~o/Je'vots- EXEVO6pQJ'V TCLS~ 'AO'vs~ EL roO els 77-poVTPEI*E TO'z-s Y.7Tap'7-taTaq, Kai7Tep 0VTW0V 66ovV aVTOLSq TOW lletacrtapa-rt8ov, aTvve/3a'XXeTro 8e ovKt eXa'TT60 p-opav 7q opa/L,25 -rot,? Aa'c~cwatv i5 7wpo rov? 'Apyetows TrO-t J.7J10-tapa-ri ats- i77Yp Xovo-a Ot~ia. To- IWEV oiV wrpc3'Tov 'AyjXItwXoV a~'7rEc~tXa cvKl-ar5 20 OIKO0/0YEw bOss Eihr6p-qoacw Xprnq~ia',rw, K; Xpnoau6~v? W 'yse; commatis signum post o1KOoLoLeLP, (B) posuerunt H-L ('gravius vitium subesse' arhitrati), et K-Wv (lacuna post Xp-qua'rcov indicata). n-w6rpqo-av H-L. 21 irpovk/spev H-L, Cf. V. 23 irpo6 -7rpei~e: lUpOC(l (K, K-W, B). MIEI (K, K-W, B); Cf. 5;, 19. 22 CICTOYTCyeO3WC: correxit Blass e Schol. Arist. Lys. 1153 (K-W, H-L, K3). 24 CYNEB6AA6ETO (K, K-W, B): ovvsefa'cReo Richards (H-L). d iPSEV A6Xq5on,- KILT?)/ueyot dpswstOov 7775v fluOL'77v, KSca 1eX6OLEV 2;7rapT~qTeWV avbPavs e'T t aw T6Xyj EtTe 3rn-'-4a-1' Xpqcro/JkevoL, 7rpoc/dpEt aq/n r&I 'A6-O5as iasv~epoviv, ib. ii i 8o. Schol. Aeschin. 3, ii6. The temple at Delphi was hurnt down in B.C. 548; the contract of 300 talents for rebuilding it is assigned by Doucker, G. d. A. vi 493, to about 535. Pharaoh Amasis, who contributed to its restoration, died in 5,26. Rose, A. P., P. 418, observes, on Schol. Arist. Lysistr. 1I53, that the writer of the 'AO. 7roA. must have closely followed Herodotus. But this is no proof of the spuriousness of the treatise, as Ar. frequently refers to Herodotus in his undisputed works: 123 b 9, 523 a 17, 736 a 10, 756 b 6, 134.3 a 20, 1344 a i6, 1409 a '27, 1451 b 2 (Heitz, Verl. Sclhr~ften, p. '246). 1)It appears impossible to take bOes as = dp' civ (as proposed by Mr Kenyon). It can only mean: 'hence it was that they had abundance of money'. Similar uses of 06Oev occur in 6 ~ '2, 7 ~ 4, 21 ~~ 2, 4. We have here a slight divergence from the account in Herodotus. The historian describes the wealth of the Alcmaeonidae as enabling them to undertake the contract for rebuilding the temple, which they carried out in a splendid manner. The text states that, owing to their undertaking the contract, they had large supplies of money. These sums were entrusted to them to enable them to execute their contract, but they were (partly) applied to securing the aid of Sparta against the Peisistratidae. This account is confirmed by a subsequent Atthidographer, Philochorus,frag,. 70, FHG; 395, ap. Schol. Pind. Pytli. vii 9, Xi-ycrat, 5i-r -rol' IIOLKO'P va1O.v e/rp77Lr-lJvTca, WT aotv uwo 7-rwv I~1a-Lrparul3Cvv ol 'AXKqcaLWV'15c /1v-ycleOEUe1TeS l7r' a!TV',c V7ri&XoVTo cdVOtKO&OO/h77al, Kcli 3OE~dcicVOL Xp?]/ca~a Kad crvva-yay6wrES 6sat OvcLc' irriOe T-O71 HIEWL — o-ra7-TpctiSl, Kad VMK75Iavres /4ET' EvlXapt0 —71pcv irXeto'w 0vKo6/uacu 4OEc~ 7-0 7r~AEvos, W's 'eXGXOopo L-TropeL. Isocr. de Per-m. '232- describes the Alcmaeonid Cleisthenes as having established the democracy, Xo'yw, irEt'ias roz's 'AuLSSKI-60vcQT OcaVEta-IaI TWV 7TOU GEoO x~p-q1/.wPaLTv'16T0. Similarly Dem. c. Mid. 144 says of the Alcmaeonidae: Tro6Trov Si OaLTLa-v,hrb' -ru3i -rvpcivwv verlp 7roO 3&1)ccou cra-Ta~o-'GvTBa1 Eis 7rEa-IE&, Kai' 3aveLo-apAvovs Xpw'7Aar' EK ZAEXObV iAEUOEPw~a-cct 7-7v 7ro'XLv Kai ro&1 Hletat-7apa'7ov raZ6scl E'KJaXeLS. lTrpov'EpEv} This defends wPO95lPEtV in Hdt. v 63, against rpoal/Xlveuv (preferred by lBekker and Dindorf). KCLCirEp gv-rwv tf'vwv] Hdt. 1. C., Katl orvvEcP0iXXcTo-p~oipcLv] Plat. Tim. 47 C, (Xo'YOS) /CL'y0a-TIV ~vjuf~aXXo/jUEVoS E1 av'-a Ao~pap, and often with ~c~pos. A r. cle A4nirna I, 402 6 22, a-V/c/3aXerat jueya /Llpos 7rp61 rb6 eil'3vr, Poet. 2,2, 1458 a34 de Part. Aninz. 111 1,2, 673 b 25, a-v/L/36XXe-rat iron ILe'pos 776s &'yicEtav. Pal. i v (vii) ii, 1330 b 13, Tra0J-a. irXEZa-rov TVA/3cXV7rcu 7rp01s T77vV'byiEcav, ii 9, i1270 a14 a-Iz~X~t1 TC 173P0T T7YV (/X~lctarp, iii 9, 1281 a 4, a-V/c/3XXOVML 7rXcia-Top 511-, vii (vi) 2, 1317 b i6, o-v/43aXXe-aL rabr-?7 71/361-. i9 wrpos 'ApyECovs-4LX~cL] c. 17 adfln. ~ 5. 'Ay)((4oXov] Hdt. v 63, ire'cirova-c 'A-yXL~6Xtov - KaTa' Oa'XaTrrv 7rXotOLO-L. 'A-y~t1/o~ov is the reading in the Ravenna ms of Schol. on Aristoph. L~ys. I1153.

Page  75 76 AOHNAIQN COL. 8, 1. 20-42. 38 ~4teTa T?77v Toy 7raZTpo9, TeXELJTq'V &"Tq /zXto-'a cETaTcaL8EKa, Ta' ovtz~awaza owv ois~ 6 7rari~p?77~ev EY 3EW6F 7TEVTI9ICVTa. 20. KaTaXvOeL'cql~ 86 T?'sq Tvpavvt20s-, 6'o-Tao-i'a~ov 7rpo' aX X[ 'X]ov'; 'Iayo'pa, 6 TetOa4v8pov, OtiXo,' &'v TcoP 'rvpa'vvcv, Kca KXeiLo-0 E'PIj TOD yE6'VOV9; (6~i -rtcv 'AXK/Luec0IJL&3v. 7?TTW/.L~evo9 8E\ Ta~t9 eratpekav~ 6 KX 77OE 9I 7rpoo-77-flfceTo ov 8it7/Jov, 77oO~t&OV9 TC1) 57rX Wet 7-7\ v7ToXtTEtaV. 6 8E 'Iaayopa,~ EwtXet7r6F16Voq Ty' 8vva/Jet 2 7raXtv e7rtLcaXEoaapevo9~ iT~v KXeoFLke'W,, 6'vra eaVTO) 4EVOV, ULJVE7rtET'EV A2ai'VEtV To\ a"0q 8ta To\ TOV9q 'AX.K)U~f748ag OKeZtv elvaL Taw' 39 &EZI J E B Mayor, Sidgwick, K,-w (K3): lei hic et '2 ~ 2 (H-L, B). XX 2 TICA~NIPOY. 3 &AKMEON~l&N hic et v. 20. HTTHMCENOC (K): 4pr-rdpeios Blass coil. Hdt. v 66 (K-W, ]H-L). 5 CTT1I\61rrOMGN0C (K, K-W, B), cf. 27 ~ 4, 34 ~ 3: diroXesirblevos Richards, Kontos, H-L; bw7o- Haskins. 7-8 6-yos et 7'7y7jXarct4 K et H-L; ceterum. cf. Jebb ad Soph. 0. T. 402. 39 Schol. Arist. Vesp. 502..O6KEL &E 7'7 rupacu'SL KcLTaCI7-naL, ws 477qatv 'EpaTG-oLr01P-q, iwiTrq i (so), roO 'KpL/3OOS &ausap-rc'Pw, 'Apto-ror-Aovs (Bentley; legebatur 'Aploro-0 ~4civovs) p~4v r-co-crapiKOP7-ra KIl' 9P (per errorem pro Eivzua scriptum) q5'5avaros, 'IpoS6brov S4(v 6,;) t~ Kal rpLcdKcV-rr (Rose, lFrag. 3582, 3963). 9&rn 1JXLa-ir~ E'Wra.KoC(8fK o.-fV0' BEtv 7rE r~j OV~.] In Pol. viii (v) i2, i13 b4 31, the rule of the sons lasts i8 years, while from the beginning to the end of the 7wapclpis of the father is 33 years, thus giving a total of 5'i years. The 4.9 years of the text include 'about I 7 years' for the rule of the sons, added to the 3,3 years assigned to the father in c.17 ~1 In Hdt. v 65 the actual 7rvpavvis of Peisistratus and his sons lasts for 36 years. It is probably by deducting from this number the 17 years here mentioned, that the writer gets i9 years as the duration of the actual rule of Peisistratus in i7 ~ i. 0)1'] Rare in Attic prose, except in Xenophon, its place being generally taken by ~LE7cs with gen. One of the special uses of abs' in Attic prose is to express numerical addition. According to Eucken, Sp,-achg~ebroauch des Ar., p. 29, the following are the only instances of obv in the genuine writings of Aristotle. fe t. 1 0 3 9 ~42 i, o-~ o' r — tX7 O fle AX77/J411' 05, 1044 ~4 15, ilas S 7rpoo-E7e07 TO' Vinrb -Y?75 15 /LEo-w -ytVoufLEv-I7, 6 abs -rw, cuTri X6byos o0UT05, io;8 b 17, ab j iX~ olI X6 yo abrc P. Mfeteor. 348 a '24, 0epcp6cEva absv /d/xp iroxxcp. Hist. AnlinM. 490 a 312, al 'yap KaI/srati -rtr7apes, 77 56o abs' -ros ~rrs~pv-y1'os, 525 ~4 15-17,,rb6 cs 8' oi' /Ils KcipcpOt eo' x77Xaus- 6,~IoiwT S Kai' ol KapftisaL SIKa robs 7rawras a-bs rats x-lXa~s. Depeirtib. aninm. 683 ~4 3, E~ci7ro SIa SE rcc Tota UTIa 7r 'I5T 'oarl absP TOES a'rI'KOZS /50/2(01. It will be observed that in several of these exx. the numerical sense is prominent. In the spurious works near the time of Ar. there is no instance of a-tb, but it occurs in those of much later date. In the most extensive of the works of Theophrastus it is only found thrice: Hist. PI. ix '20, 4, Cans. PI. ii I7, 8, v 6, 6 (Eucken, p. 30). Seiv, not Sei, is the right form here, and in c. 2 7, Cisbs SsEs 76TE5T7Koa-TL/o gret, as well as in Rihet. ii 14 fin. To nlake Seis stand for Sbos is a barbarism (Kiihner, Cr. Gr-. ~ 5o, i i, p. 21i6 Blass) and cannot he defended on the analogy of,rXe?s ('more than') which is really for 7-Xe~os, not for 7r~los. It is remarkable that this nunmerical expression (= undequinquaginta) has escaped lexicographers and grammarians (Mayor). t XX-XXII. The Constitution of Cleistihenes. XX ~ i. T'jT*jevos-S8j~Jov] Hdt. v 66, (K ~etba61V-S77 Kal 'Iaccy6p-qs) araa-lcurcw 'zep vscij~o3, 'aa ro6/ue as Sb 6 K ~eta-01qs7 -ro'p S3)uos 7rpoore-ratpl~ercau, ib. 69 fin. j)s b rio' S3 )gos lrpo0 4~EV0S 7roXXLo KcT6rlbepGE rCOV 6slsrtorracrtwTiws. ( 70) fis rcp ~ plps Sb E'oc1ovI4L so 6' 'Ia-a-y0p?7s ab t -reXP&,rca -rci~. On ErTa~petcu Cf. Pci. 1313 a 39 ff. ~ 2. E'wLKcLXEor0'ievos-tE'Vov] Hdt. v 70, ElrLaX&TrcI KXEoA&IEc.. -.yEP6~41uevo 'wur-6p ~EL1'Oy. A0I'MeLV Ira a&YOS] Cf. C. I.

Page  76 CH. I19, 1. 20-37. TTOAITEIA 75 Oea~a oPra a Tarav. qTr17[Oev}7ro'~ 8' ai'-roi3 Kal T-e oaawr?, La' To' Kve'av flo~ij60jaat TOv OeeTraot'v eXorr XtXtov~ t7rrt7TEL 77-pOGO~pryWOE'TES~ 7&)'rEVOAlEVP, KXEo[LE'7vq 6'E'veWE/'av TOP' /3aaotXa ar6'Xov 6"XOVra Pft't~W KaTa' Cy?-V, O1~ e7r~t TvqV To' )VE0TTaX0OW 30 C7r77Tet EVLK?7yYEV KWXVOVTa4? aVTOV EtlS T'qp ATTCKyqV 7r-apt~aL, KcaTaKXEIffaS~ TOP 17r'7ri'aP EV; TO KaXovFLevoP H~eXaprytKOPV TEtLXo, ewroXto'p6 KE& bLEra\ To' V 'Affqna'a60P. 7rpO0-Ka917uevov 8' al'Tov- cvPeWEO~EV v7re~tOPVTaq aXcovat T~oi\s~ TWO3V 1IIEt 0L tTpaTt8(0 P Vl'eLtq (iW Xn064~TWPV O~~uoXo~ytcwv e~ L T rcV 7rai'&o cr(T?)piL 7r0L?0-aFkEVot, Kait Ta ~aVvT~ 35 eV 7r-EvO,?',ep E'KKOALLO4IEPOt, 7rapE'860KaP T?>jv dKpo7roXtV TOFS'A6fqvaiov~ e~'it- 'A p'nraKTLr8OV a~~VT KaTao7XOVTESq T77V Tvpavvt'8a 28 6ECC&AON (K-W): OeTTaoA6v (K, H-L, B), Meisterhans P. 722. 29 7rpoOop-yLCU6VTES (K, K-W?, B): 7rap- Naber (H-L) et K-W. 32 -KNEIC6.C K, Coil. Mestran,.282 -KX'OcaS (K-W, H-L, B). 34 CflCEI0NT6.C: U&7re~L6xPT&a WVyse.T. (K-w, H-L, K3, B). 37 err irrT&prTTKILOY, 'rt 'ApiraKl-L'0u (K, K-W, B, p' 'Apir. H-L). ctav...XtX1-v TIE 'L'rVr0 KaC i-rv j~acr-X, TS~v Tc/JI-TEpov Ktveiijv. KXeojLE'V'qVP-MWcL1EVCLL] Hdt. v 64, )u~w o-r60Xop oT-cTEIa7e ab&7r-lejsgsv E'ri 7rs 'AO',5 vas, oi —pcarflov TIJIs oY-pc-Ln7s dro~g~awres /3aatXlca KXeo/.u~vEaL 7-6v 'Av'a~av6pfiew, o&'K6TL KaLTa Oa'XaIo-ocLv OT7eiXca'Tes cXXa' KalT' 7j7retpov- iroya 6'a/3c~Oat~o E' i-v 'ATTrLKCI)V TWPqv'-ro 0foE-olaXWv 'rwos irpdrT- 7rpoo-. 411t~:E KILL ov6.eTa& iroXXov 97pdlreTo. Arist. Lys. 1150-6. K~mlrf1KXecrcLs-'A6OqvcLC(ov] Hdt. 1. c. 6)ua 'AOiqvaL'wv ro~a-t fPovXotpvott Jfvat E'XEUOlpaLOL 6fwoXc6pKc T61E roT7vpdvJovs aiLrepy/iEI'ovs 6'P TI, Hs1,ao`YLKl 7-TEXEL. IIEXCLpyLK3V ~TdXoS] the ancient fortification surrounding the wvest end (if not the whole) of the Acropolis; it had nine gates, and was the chief fortress of Athens until the expulsion of the Peisistratidae. It was thereupon destroyed and its site was left unoccupied (Thuc. ii i17). Even in the second century A.D. the blocks of stone from its ruined walls were still to be seen (Lucian, Piscalor 47). Cf. B~ursian, Geogr. i 305 and Lolling in I. MUller's fHandbuch, iii 337. Curtius insists on the literal sense of the passages describing it as surrounding the Acropolis, H dt. vi 137, TO1 TEL'XEos 7TO) 7r~pi TrijV aLKp67roXiv 7roTe 6'X-qXabtvov, Dionys. Hal.i 28, Paus. i. 28 3 (Stadtgeschiclhte pp. LXXNVI, 47, and map on p. 6i). Cf. Holm, ii 341. After the building of the wall of Cimon, the name was probably confined to the west end of the fortification (Judeich in Fleckeis. _7ahrb. 1890, p. 753f.). ~ 6. V1TiEgLO'v-cLs] Hdt. v65, VwITK7TL6EJe~vot -yap Qw 73~s XIw'p-js ot 7rats rTWv H~eUtLOr-paIItL&ew ~Xceo-av. 0joXo-YLCLV KT-X.] ib. Trap&7T77o~3-aIJOTE E &reVTIE 77LE'PP0'O- EKXwp?7OIaL EK TJ1 'ATTLtK2). 1EWr 'Ap~rrcKTrC0V&o pYoVros] The expulsion of the Peisistratidae belongs to the year 51 I/O B.C., being placed by Thuc. vi 59 ~ 5 (7ravOEis E'v T7j Trcrcp-ry), in the fourth year of the sole rule of Hiopias, which began in 514 B.C. It is also the fourth year before the archonship of Isagoras in B.C. 508/7 (,21 ~ I). The name of the archon is now known for the first time. When Thucydides (I. c.), as observed by Mr Kenyon, describes Hippias as fighting at Marathon 'in the 20th year' after his expulsion, he is using a round number, as the actual interval was 20 years and a few months. Mr E. S. Thompson (Class. 'Rev. vi i Si) connects the Plataean alliance with the expulsion of the Peisistratidae, placing both events in B. C. 5 11I/0. Hence, in Thuc. iii 68, where the fall of Plataea is put in the 93rd year after its alliance with Athens, Mr Thompson proposes to alter the 93rd into the 84th year.

Page  77 CH. I19 1. 38-CH. 21,1. 3. JiTAITEIA 7 77 3 Evaty 'v. v7Te~XO'vro09 & roi KXEtaT6'Vv/ET Xio, fPrE Ir ~v 'A~acov evrralcootaq olca9* Tarav & &aT apaiE0,T P v /3ovXq)v 67r6tpcto Kara~eve, 'Ioayopav & ical Tptalcoa-iov' TVW 1 4 iXcov /.er' ai'7roi KVPLOV9 ica~to-ra'vat T27,~ 7ToXMc. ^I~~ &' /30vX% av~tr dri, ical Ovv~a0OptrOOe~vro 'rov 7rX Wowv, ole aev w7epi 'ro\ KXEo1.tE'vrqv Iat 'Io'ao'pav KaTE'bveyov elS Tiv a'/cP67ro'Xtv- 6' 3c 8n^/104' 8vflo pv?7epa9 77rpoo-Ka,046o~acvo9 E'7roXtO'pK~t, &"8 Tp17-y KXEop'v''ecv' o- o?,Ke'1 zniv P Icai -rovs',.ter avi'oi 7rav-ra,? a Eto v oo0v3vK~-' 4 LT9E7flV & Kca\ rov\9 aXXov9 cOvy 'aa FteTwerefav'ro. ica'rao-xo'vro9 8& To- 8 'ov Ta\ 7rpcyuara, KXeto-0e'vfl9 7'yq\o Iv ica ro^ 8j' 7rpoo —Tcifl. atmro'rarot, yap O-X686V eye'vov-o Tn7~ eic/30X 's~ Tl'v a' vwv01'AXKIqEwvi at, Icat, cTacta~o're ~7O~~&TX~ 5 TL & Trpoepov 'rcv 'AXKpEOwvt~w K '8av 471-EE'rOe To't 7-vpadvvoiq 20 5 ica OV/e8tE9TUTZ T7t9 07C0t EYV 6ca K '8cvt, &ai'cove, ~~ w~~v et x(pi oTO dyaOot', avWpca'o-t olvoxoetv. 21. 8ta P6 oi'v rai',raq Ta~q aITt'a9q e-r o-7evev 6 3'3F'? rc KXceo-&'vct. TOT-E &6 T-o? 7rXr Wowvpo7trOEO cflKW9, e'TEt TeTa'pTo, /eTa 2 PrT\,v 7 - 0Wv 7rvPavv(cov iaraXvo-t, 6E7rt\ 'Jayo'pov a~~v~q wrp63rOV I-4EV 8 <db1LK6Y,6eu 'o6 KXEoMdi'isi> Ae-r' 6'XLiywv I-yinXdrtE add. KW2 ex Hdt. v 70. wyqjXcaTr B, Coll. Hdt. v 72. 11\ITOY sc. /Iera 7rov. 15 A4IeCCN: do/Ecrav (K-w, B). KA\EIcOENHN (K-w, Ht-L, B); Cf. 2,2 ~ i, et Kuhner, Gr. Gr. i p. 5I12. 19 ivTLo aOiOVE H-.7p&TOTV e IZ&r v-u desiderat Gennadios. 23 el 67) Xp7i7 a'yaOoZs minus bene Athen. 69.5; EL 6' Xp' o-' d-ya~oZs Bergk. *0* XXI 1 ErrTICTEYEN, Cf. 35 ~ 3 gXa~pov i7? ir6Xt. 6E7ILTEVEV S' 377/50 K, H-L, B: oTrevop j[6 5?~eos] Rutherford, Bury, K-W. 3 er' H-L. ~- '.i~retXkv-ros] H-dt. v 7,2, KXeoAdvt W &ct ir~rwv (K'Ipuica) 4~1/aXXF K~eto04ecca Kati 'ro6 iva-yeas, KXecoO~v77 ply' ab-rbgVr ve~1cXe. Tj'YTqXdLT(L] ib. a~a~ct fr7raK6OLaL lirio-rcc 'AO77vcdwv..rcL.TcQ Si-bcoiroorov8ovs] Hdt. v 72, -raOra 1 irot p'aar &Urepa -ri't (3ouX77V Krc-a\6et llretpcco, TpOflK0oTLO-4T 1 -roZocn 'Icra-y6pew o-rao-t~riic c apx, S VexeLPL* dVTLT-aOCIOq1S Se' TiS /3VX77i Kli oc' /3vNoluPh'r ireiOeo-Ora 6 rec K~eo/.dvip Kat' o 'Ioacy6plog Kai ol aratrCwr-at ca67T00 KaTraXa/5 -Odciiovat -ri'pa' Kp67roXtP. 'AO-qxaIwv 51 ol' Xouirol -r& acolr& /~poz'iaaurre laroXtO'pKEOv a i 7/A 7y rr 7'obT iy epas 36o - --- 31 'rpi ir6o-rov3ot 4eIpXovTEa IK Tip X'bp'7' 6aot $~aav acr)vP AaKcESata~vtot. Isagoras withdrew with the Lacedaemnonians (74); the rest of the Athenians who had taken his side were put to death (72_fin.). f.LererEIE'I av-ro] Hdt. v 73, KXeurOt~zea KatL Ta e~rraK6ata 6LioroT~a T&' 81WXO1J7a Urb KXeoplveos A67aireg-odaepvot. ~- T. oi Srjjov wpoac-rrTjs] C. 2 ~ 2 adfinz. ~. Ki8wv] Nothing else is known of this person. His endeavour to expel the tyrants was doubtless one of the unsuccessful attempts recorded in C. 19 in the general phrase: del' rpoo-e77zraov. KOA CLg roi~rov] i.e. as well as the baffled heroes of Leipsydrium celebrated in the song recorded in c. i9, and quoted by Athenaeus immediately after this couplet. This juxtaposition seems to shew that both quotations were derived from this work. XXI~ i. grEL TTcLPTCt)pw...e'rt'Ioccyo'poi QpXov~rosj The fourth year after the expulsion of the Peisistratidae (5i i/o) corresponds to 508/7 B.c. The archonship of Isagoras is placed by Dionysius

Page  78 78 78 AO H NA I QN COL. 8,M. 42-COL. 9, 1. 4. oS eVL'EZt/E 7rv7aV9, ev9 83Ea OfvXa' acVT' TWV TeTT~apCO1, dal/a/I atc.5 /3ovXop,~vo,~ 0`7T-60 PCTao-Xwot 7TXEtbOVI~ 'T?7S 7TXLTEt'aY~ O"OEV 6'XE'XOn 4 OyNENEIME: o-v56'Et/JtE Newman, Kontos, Gertz, H-L (K3 Coil. 41 ~ 2-, B); o6/ OUJ'iPI/ge K-W, qui lacunam post @pXOVTOI indicatarn ope Ar. Pol. 1275~ b 36 explendam censent. &Eivetye Wyse, dve'vuei Thompson. rcrfvsagEr K-WV, H-L, K3; Cf. 3 ~ 5 O6u/i.11EL~IS: tsNA\MI6. Hal., Ant. Porn. i 74, in 01. 68, ir= 508/7 B.C.; and his second mention of the same date, in v i, shews that it was an Olympic year. The text implies that the reforms of Cleisthenes were subsequent to the expulsion of Isagoras and Cleomnenes. Cleisthenes begins by oqfering (dbro&olodr,,20 ~ i) the commons a share in the constitution; Isagoras appeals to Cleomenes for his assistance against Cleisthenes, and is defeated; thereupon Cleisthenes carries out his proposed reforms. Herodotus briefly mentions some of these reforms (v 66 and 69), and describes the calling in of Cleomenes as acounter-move on the part of Isagoras (70). Hence modern historians, e. g Thirlwall, Grote, Curtius and Busolt, place the constitutional reforms of Cleisthenes before the calling in of Cleomenes. This appears improbable, for (as justly observed by Mr Kenyon) 'there was not time to have introduced such extensive constitutional changes before the Spartan invasion; a remark which had already been made by Sauppe, De Dernis Ur-banis, p. i. The evidence of Herodotus, when carefully examined, is partly in favour of the account in the text. He begins by describing Cl. as courting the aid of the commons (rb'v 6trov rpoocrsratpl~erat). He then adds that it was afterwards (,ue-ra Si) that Cl. transformed the four tribes into ten. This part of his narrative is a digression, and the story is resumed in c. 69, i~r -re 7-1'v 35uop irporoils'jevos 7roXX4, Kn-67rfpOE 7WVo a'PTtaTaotIWLWTEWV. In this view, I find myself in agreemnent with Lugebil, Philol. Suppl. Ed. iv t65. ~ 2. E'LS S&MO (~vtXcis Odv'TL Th)V TrETTCLpcA) KT-X.] Hdt. v 66, IIET&a 7- ETrpaU/J6Xov)1 EbV-as 'AO-qvaiovs 36KaIp6XOVS Eri'7ro0qo K1-\. ib. 69, rag r vX 'S /.LETWI/ofcas Ka'l 'rroticre 7rXeih'cs fi~ 6XaG0oobePu' 61Ka Te &~2 95vXapXovs aciezi 7-,Eo-oEpwv ElroilOe, UJKaL 5 KILL 70bs 6Si0jSo KaL-iPe1/L~E Til r qsvXcdt. In the Politi'cs, Ar. alludes to these reforms as follows: iii 2, 12175 b 37, aA' V 'uwt iKeUVO 116lXXOP 9XE1t diropial, 01101 /Ie-ro-Xop /LE7-a[30X'q -yEvo/JIv77s 7roXlt7etfas (Cf. FDTericrXwocr....TSJs 7roXvrelasto7), o' P 'AO lfrsgot; 'iro'&qe KXeL cr0fhP'q FLE7i 7t7ip 7TWI' 7rupcdvzwv EiK/0X1 7roX~o's -y' '/WXE'76EVO ~~lVSu Ka'l &o6Xovs MuETroLKVSt, i.e. enrolled (as citizens) in the tribe not only free-born foreigners but also slaves who by emancipation had already become ILE'TOLKOL (cf. Gilbert, Gr. St. i 144; Hermann, Staatsalt. ~ i ii, i 8). The text, as it stands, makes no direct mention of these, though it incidentally names the vso~roX~rat at the end Of ~ 4. Cf. ib. vii (vi) 4, 1319 b 20, 9T1 & Kal TIL -rtaOraa KaLTaCrKEL~cio[LucLTI XW71'I 'ri 2V 537/LOKpa-rc'a T1JP 7taLL6T7-V, oly KXEtOY~i-qT 7-e 'A6)OhpcruV 'Xip?'7caro /3ovX6,isvos ab~aarc 7 —h" 61qfeKpar7cu'a, Katl 7r6/p1 Kvp~Pwqv ol' 7o'P 3iUOv KCOLOWT7dTeg. OuXat' KaLL KOLPJU, Kat rcivr-co 11ob-rrov bircws abe 07-r /scXLOrT7a da/vauX0(owr (cf. deauJ7-at) 7r''7SIXX17Xo1, a~t' 6 Si vcrt'iOeLC 3LaL~,EvXOCo-te al 7rp6-7-epat. See Grote, c. 3i, ii p. i109-11i3; and inf. p. 83. 6`OEv-fPovXoiLEvovus] 'Hence the advice, not to notice the tribe, which was tendered to those who would scrutinise (the lists of) the clans.' This is the interpretation suggested by Mr Kenyon who, in the course of an excellent note, observes that, as the OvXa1', after the reforms of Cleisthenes, ' no longer bore any relation to the -yfie-s, it was useless to enter on an examination of the tribes for the purpose of reviewing the lists of the -yE'P77... A number of persons were admitted to the new tribes who had not been members of the old, and these were not necessarily entered on the rolls of any of the yie-q. Formerly, on any review of the citizenroll, it was no doubt usual to go through it tribe by tribe, following all the subdivisions of the old patriarchal system. Now, the tribe-roll had no relation to that of the -yle-, and consequently those persons who wished to examine the latter would have nothing to do with distinctions of tribe.' In the words of Grote, c. 10, ii 273, ' the gxentes had no connection, as such, with these new tribes, and the members of the same gens might belong to different demes'.

Page  79 CH. 21I)1. 4-12. 1[OAITEIA 79 [Col. 9] Icat' 7-0 AU? 4WXo~cpLJEtU, 1 I p'7T 70o1)9 'e-Ea',EtV r' y4rnq Iov-ko/.Le'v 3 7rEtTa 7T7V /30VXl7i 77-elTaKC0a-40v] a7Tt 7E~pa/o00tWv K a 0]TfloEv, 7rE717?7COVr1a e' eI~a(7779 OVXJ~y T',ror 3 '[o-alv EIaTO'V. a~ Wo3ro 86 oWEl d9', &Ot{&]Ka OvXa9q oVVvE'a~ev-, 0'w7cow a]tV'TrO 1.0' ovpq3aivy /~eptvE KcaTa' 7-ai9 7rpov7tap~ovoYaq TptTT7vY i~cav ycap 61C TE77apO)W Io OrcV cVco&Ka TptTTvEY1~ d77- oz] [orvv]5rt < a'v> avaILui'o-yc Oat 4 0 IX?7009. MvLe7/t~e c8E KaU T7)75 Xwopav KaTa &?/Jov9~ TptCaKoV-'a /1.p?7, 10 Trpoc corr. in K&& TeTTci'pwv:. 11oyc /erreIrTTTEN? OtiK aiv avvrtrnev Richards (H-L); ob o-vvirtrL7rev a'v Hude, K-W, K 3, B. TESTIMONIA. 12-15 Michael Psellus lrept TG_0V 6'VO~s6-wv i-_V 61KWV, P. 103 Boissonade, p. 1015 ~ 31 M~igne, 7' & pT~rTsV16Wvewrpwv dvo~sa waep& roZs 'AO37valots Eoarl. KXeuro-viqs -ycp T55, E's TptsaKoVTa, /OL'iPcS T\7' ATTLtK77P iuraocav Saveslssas, IEweL~h To' AdV avTi7K e'7r-LaXcTT13tov P 3, TO SE E7rl ToO fJh&OV KaO37iTTo T77s XLO'pa1, TI) SL rapis TI) LLo-Tu auvvi-rpwro, SliKe JA6I /sOipaz TV7 ircapas~ic oJVT9TevXe, UKCL 5 KrXT&cT-gTeiv ert Tipv 1eo-6 -yeses, Ulia Si a'aTV56/Ious Elroi37s- Kal TI\ TpLT77/L6PLOv rpsrrI~s s'v6,uao-ro (attulerunt K-W). W cfVXOKpLVEZV] 'to draw distinctions between tribes'. The word occurs in Thuc. vi 18 ~ 2, Et-YE?ThTTXa'~OfV ir6Pre3 '\4V XOKPLVOLEP ols Xpewlv f~oi7~pe, where, like Tra~ssEVEG-OaLs in ~ 3, and orToplosowuev in ~ 4, it is a vivid metaphor characteristic of the speaker, Alcibiades. Cf. Lucian, Aliclicatus, 4, OVK is~600 /iOs 6P7-Vrv, oVS' Csicpsf(~w 0uXoKpWs'ov7.wv (Schol. 6LUKPOUV-'V TWV, 60KI5a56v~wPT. irepslp'yws) TaIs v6o-ovs, and Pkalaris alter, 9, 0s'XoiKpsVes Ta' civaoimcsa KUa -yev1EaX0oYeV Ta' 7re/Jr6/Leva, 66e6v Ka~l a'ip' T0ur Kai 0'woZa (in all these passages there is a V. 2. 0AsoKcpsve6v). In late authors we also have 0bVXoKpiz'37oss, )(JVXoKpLV37Te'ov; and q5vXoKPLv37T4KI'S (see L and S).- Pollux, viii 110, after recounting the names of the Attic tribes, adds cbs-o) be' sAwOV TO) O/J5OKpLVE~VW vluo-~sO37; and Suidas explains J)VXOKPLPet by ataKplVet, KaTa30Ks5Lci1s 7s-eptep-yss. Cf. Phrynichus, p. 7 1, 8 Bekk. An. OuXOKpsVEFu' K5JPLWS /5LEV To TaS OviXa's Ta'g E'p Tats 7s-oXeos Sscsapiveu', 0371LIL15et SE KIlTO XXO TI S5aTisTTEIV KalL 5saKcpiveu, id. 'App. Soph. P. 81, 7, 7O5X0. Kcpsses (Sic)' &~aKPL ve, 3OKLUSci6E 7s-epte'p-yw, KaITE~eErdLE5', quoted by Schmidt on Hesych. (PVX[X]o0Kpu'eVv Ta'S OVXAS SscsieT6ew~L] Dem. 45 ~ 82i, T)'P '7/lTp' rs-csepa i~7-TaLes O"aTts i~v (of one who was once a slave). Cf. note on Dem. Lept. ~ 5. ~ 3. rniv PouXkjv] From this time forward the Solonian Council Of 400 is superseded by that of 500, ' TW~v 7rep'TcK0COLWS' f30)X7, or 77 3osiXj ol 7s-evTcsKoas'Co (Aeschin. Ctcs. ~ 2) as it was sometimes called, to distinguish it from the Council of the Areopagus. The institution of the Council of the Five Hundred has always been attributed to Cleisthenes, in connexion with the introduction of the ten tribes; but this passage is probably the first express statement on the subject in any ancient author. 0irrws-p1sj cvp43Gcvil Znf irs/ei xmand it'va /siJ.. lEXiyXwutv. -rpLTTf)S] C. 8 ~3. ov(vvE~rrLrT1EV amv-wrXijos] 'quod si fecisset, non contigisset ut multitudo misceretur' Hude. (placing?'70IaY-TPtTTVJes in a parenthesis). ~4. SVEJ-TcK0r1 FLPTI C. 30 ~, S&aveisacss.. Tl1TTa~pa u~i Xen. Cyrop. vii 5, 3, TO' oTpai7ev/Jc Kare'ves/Ie Sd&Kac se'p-q, Plato, Politicus, p. 283 D SslXwj5ev csVT-iv SUo /ip?7 (Ktihner Gr. Cr. ~ 41 1, 6 c). Cleisthenes divided the whole of Attica into 30 portions, each of them called a TpLTTVs. io of these were urban or suburban, so on the coast, and so in the interior. Each of the so tribes had three TptTTlJ5 allotted to it, one from each of the above districts. Thus 'the tribe, as a whole, did not correspond with any continuous portion of the territory, nor could it have any peculiar local interest, separate from the entire community' (Grote). In this way the evils that had arisen during the previous century from the factions of the Shore, the Plain and the Mountain, were effectually counteracted. The number of demes in each TPLTTV5 is not known. From the passage in Hdt. v 69, Siiccs S KIUl TO~S SiUOVS KaT6ves/Jse es TI'S OvXdis, 'Cleisthenes distributed the demes among the tribes by tens', it has been inferred that he 'at first recognised exactly

Page  80 80 AOHNAIQN COL. 9, 1. 4-9. '3Era F4E' 7&wr 7rept ToUYTlV, E'Ka & T7i1s7 7rapaXlaq, 8e'Ka 86 T?7S /.LEXO7ELov, icat TaV'a9 Ecrovo/1ao-aS! 'TpLTTV9, EKXrpjPWoEl TpELvs Et'? Tip 15 cbVX?)v E'CKaT'T7V, 07T7W9 E'KacT?7 IJ6TEXY 7WaVTWP TWV TO7TCOV. Kral I" ioo demes, distributed in equal proportion among his IO tribes'. This is the view of Schomann (Ant. p. 365 E. T.). K. F. Hermann (Staatsalt. ~ iii, 12) held that this is what Herodotus meant to affirm, but he does not accept the account as true. Gilbert, Gr. St. i 142, notes that the existence of the Attic demes before Cleisthenes is implied in [Plato], HiJpparch. p. 228-9. He also quotes Herodian, 7repi ujov-7povs XSEWs, p. I7, 8, 'Apaprilv ets rwpv KaTrbv 6ppcdwv. Airaphen, one of the Attic demes, is thus identical in name with one of the Ioo KTriTra drSwvyJo of the demes. He therefore accepts the statement of Herodotus. Others again (e.g. Corsini, Grote in his first ed., and Dietrich, de Clisthene, Halle, 1840, p. 32) connect 6eKa with es Tr&s piXais and contend that such a collocation is not uncommon in Herodotus. Madvig, Adv. Crit. i 305, strikes out USKa 6a. Bake (Bibliot/heca Critica iv 272) alters it into Kal 38. Cf. Schomann, On Grote, ~ 6, and Ant. pp. 336, 366 E. T. Even supposing that ioo demes were recognised by Cleisthenes, that number did not remain unaltered. Early in the 2nd century B.C. (in the time of Polemon, quoted by Strabo p. 396) the number was 174. The number known to us from inscriptions is 182, besides 8 do'e1.ul cases (Hermann's Staatsalt. ed. 5, -P. 797). Out of these 182, there are 14 duplicate names, such as 'upper' and 'lower Lamptrae'; so that the number of known names of demes is I68. Landwehr (Philologzs, Suppl. v, I889 p. i6I —66) holds that 174 was the original number, and that this remained unaltered. The number of 7ptTrUS was evidently constant and it may be fairly assumed that the demes belonging to each rpurr6S were, as a general rule, contiguous. If'there were ioo demes, each of the 30 rpTrr7S would contain 3 or 4 demes, twenty of them containing only 3 demes each, and the remaining ten as many as 4, (20 x 3 + IO x 4 = IOO). Dividing this number by o1 we get for each tribe 2x 3 + I x 4 demes, distributed in such a way that each tribe has one TrpLTTr consisting of 4 demes, and 2 consisting of 3. In the case of each tribe, one of these TptTrrU would be situated in or near the capital, one near the coast, and one in the interior. The following scheme shows how it would be possible to distribute ioo demes among ten tribes while assigning ten trittyes of 3 or 4 demes each to each of the 3 districts: Erechtheis Aegeis Pandionis Leontis Acamantis Oeneis Cecropis Hippoontis Aeantis Antiochis urban or the the suburban coast interior 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 33 33 34 Total: ioo demes. Out of the I60 demes in Smith's Dict. Geogr., 124 are assigned to certain tribes; no tribe has less than io, though several have more; Acamantis, Hippothontis, and Leontis having as many as 15, 16 and 17 respectively. Athens itself, with its immediate neighbourhood, was divided into several demes and those demes assigned to several tribes, as follows: Agryle (Erechtheis), Kollytus and Diomeia (Aegeis), Kydathenaeon (Pandionis), Scambonidae (Leontis), Cerameicus (Acamantis), Lakiadae (Oeneis), Melite (Cecropis), Ceiriadae (Hzppothontis), Phaleron (Aeantis), Colonus ciyopaZos (Antiochis?). The Peiraeus was assigned to the tribe Hippothontis. (Lolling in I. Miller's Handbuch, iii 306.) In the case of the demes in or near Athens it would be difficult for them to be contiguous with the other demes in the same rp-rrTs. It is not impossible that less than 3 demes may in some cases have constituted a Tptrtru. On the distribution of the demes among the tribes, cf. Wilamowitz, Aus Kydathen, i io; Hug, Gemeinden und Biirgerrecht in Attika, 19; Milchhofer, Erl. Text zu Czurtius und Kaupert, Karten von Attika i 28, ii 39 n. 3 (Busolt, i 614, n. 5). O7rWS EKaO.Tt HiLETiXn X1 7VTWV TOV 'ro7rav] Pol. i330 a i6, ''va —cidfaorfpwv TWV r6rrwv Trrvregs terXwaotv. Plat. Leg. 745 B-E (Newman). p

Page  81 CH. 21, 1. 13-20. nOAITEIA 8I 8rfdiora e7rrolrl7rev XX\\riXv roIv olcovrra v ra Eca'r To'V 8rj/ov, iva )eO 7raTrp6dev 7rpoOaayopetvovTer eeX\,Xoa-tv TOV reo7roXraV, a\XXa rTo)V 7rjuoWv avayoperowLv' ev Kae KaX a[ov]atv 'AOTrvaLot 5 o '7a? avTov) TV S7v )r Cov. /aTreroT7o-e 8e 3eal Sjitq pa ovXov Tr avTrv EXozv7a? 7tLLkE\etav TO? 7rpOTEpov vavcKpdpotL' tcal ycdp 7rov01 7LjUo 20 18 rpooaayopewatv Richards. Kal <vuv> K-W. 19-21 * Schol. Arist. Nub. 37 'Ap. Uo 7repi KXELO'Pevovs O71L' "Kacr&T-qoe Kai 8byAdpXovs-e-roiluev" (Rose, Frag. 3973, deerat in ed. 2). * Harp. vavKpapKc:...'Ap. 3' ev 'AO.,roX. p7o'-i "KaTiarra-av ie rUtaCidpxovs-vavKpdpots' 6rniovs (83rnaiovu cod. A) &vrTi TrV avKpdpwv ierotv avA" (3592, 3973). * Harp. a'yapxos:... ro6roVS i 0qbolt 'Ap. ev 'AO. 7roX. v KXEo-Vrb ov KaTaloraOaPvat riav Car'T ovras erttfLXELIaI TOLs 7rp6repov vavKpdpoLs (ib.). Hesych. 6btapXot: ol I7p6repov KcaXO/LEVOL vaaKpapot... Sll.oTras —8,iJLv] Under this arrangement every one originally belonged to the deme in which he lived. His descendants, whether they had property in the deme or not, continued to belong to the same deme. It was only through adoption that a member of one deme became a member of another, by being enrolled in the deme of his adoptive father (Dem. Leoch. ~~ 22, 34; Schomann, Antiq. p. 367, E. T.). tva p-veowroXCTrcs] Many foreigners and resident aliens were added by Cleisthenes to the roll of citizens (Pol. I275 b 37, quoted on p. 78). Such a nrewly'enrolled citizen, if called by his father's name alone, would betray his foreign origin; but, by being designated by his deme, he lost the badge of his alien birth and was put on equal terms with the other members of the deme. irarpo0ev] Xen. Oecon. vii 3, Pausan. vii 7 ~ 4. EtXEAyXwoWv] Dem. Eubul. 57 ~ 3, rols uev i~EXeYXo0ePvotLS EvotLS oo-t xaCXETrat'etv, and ib. ~ 5. TrWV 8spov dvatyopeoov'ErL] 'publicly (or officially) call them by their demes.' Cf. TWV 6O),UWV IHiOE6s, TWPV 6 jLWV OopiKLOs (Plat. Euthyphro, 2i3, and Dem. 39 ~ 30), Lys. 23 ~ 2, OrTTo6ev 67U/LOTeVOLTO. It may be inferred that before the time of Cleisthenes Athenians were not described by the name of their demes. 'In Athens, at least after the revolution of Kleisthenes, the gentile name was not employed: a man was described by his own single name, followed first by the name of his father and next by that of the deme to which he belonged' (Grote c. o0, ii 274). ~ 5. KawTcrrrTlE-8TfqidpxovS] Photius, s.v. vavKpapia, quotes from this treatise (c. 8 ~ 3), vuXal o/ 'orav-KaOc' CearT7rv. After this quotation should follow the words which have by mistake been placed before S. A. it, viz.: oi-repov b8 drO KXeLtcroyovT /,uoi eOtL, Kai 3sjOuapXot EKX7rO?7aav. At the close of his article he cites Cleidemus (iv rT rpitT): OTL KXefoTpvovs iKa fvXXas Troltravros aVTl T(c3V Teoopa''p, ovvUYf37 Kal els 7rePvrrKovra Lip-l &aray7vat' aUrols (raTra Miiller) & eKa'Xovv vavKpapias, WSxrep vvv ei Trd EKaCrbv Uip7q bLaLpe0^vra (6&atpeOdCTas Siebelis) KaXoOa Ovu/lx/optas (FHG i 36I). According to this view, the change in the number of tribes from four to ten involved a change in the number of vavKpapiac from 48 (12 x 4) to 50. If the normal number of demes recognised by Cleisthenes was Ioo, it would follow from this that he combined every two demes into a PavKpapla (Schomann, Ant. p. 370 E.T.); or rather that he transferred the duties of each PavKpapia to a pair of contiguous demes. The importance of the Naucrariae naturally did not remain the same as it had formerly been, and we hear in particular that the business which had once belonged to the Naucrari now passed to the Demarchs (ib. p. 370, on the authority of quotations from this passage in Harpocration &c.). In the passage above cited from Photius Mr P. Giles (English rHistorical Review, I892, p. 331) proposes, instead of 7revPTKovPTa (i.e. N) 1npv, to read rptdKovra (i.e. A) /upv7, and to identify these,iaprq with the rpLTTUS. He also assumes that this sentence was followed by a clause referring to the tIjot.. He is doubtless justified in adding that this treatise gives no direct support to the view that the vavKpapia consisted of two The Peripatetic, Demetrius Phalereus (Miiller, FHG, ii 363), ascribed the establishment of demarchs not to Cleisthenes but to ol 7repi Z6Xwva (Newman). 6

Page  82 82 AOHNAIQN COL. 9, 1. 9-I2. avrT Twr vavKpaptcv e7rol?70aev. 7rpooT77ryopEVoE 'E rv SJ/LOV Tov; EbV a7wo TWoV [T]07r[II)V], TOVqs S& a7r7o TrawV CK7TLav/Tov ov yap aT7rav23 TE V7r77PXOV eTt ToV T07rrOtL. ta 8e yelvr EKab Tasc cFpaTrplia ecal Ta? 6 22 Araavres vrijpXov ert (K, K-W); eN| pro ern Berol. (B, qui etiam in papyro Londin. EN legendum suspicatur; certe litteris valde obscuris CTI indicatur): a7rao't KTX coniecit K (J B Mayor); a7raowv rvTrjpXev 6ovoyarca Bury (H-L); etiam aravres <ol KTr'aVTres > v7rripXov Q'rt rLTS r6TOTt coniecerat Bury. 23 (A&TplAC, idem habet corr. Berol. wrpoorT'yo pEvEr-KTLrodvTCoV] 'H e named some of the demes from their localities, and some from their founders.' Demes were already in existence before Cleisthenes; but they were now recognised as component parts in the new constitutional order, and had their names fixed by official sanction. Many of them had local designations derived either from natural features (IoraCuoL, K?70bioia, 'ETLKtlOqtiCa, AeLpaces, 'AXitouvs), or places in their neighbourhood (Olov AeKECXetK6V, Olov KepaeCLEKov), or plants or trees that grew there (MapaO'v, 'Pawvo0s, Mvppivovs, 'A-yvoLs, 'AxepSovs, 'Irea, 'EXatofs, 'EpiKEta, Opia, Hpaaiat, IIHrXea, U-royos). Among other local designations may be mentioned Ov677, B0ra, AauXrrrpal, 'EXeoais. Cf. Etym. Magn. s. v. 'EXeEs:...O adro 7rCv rbrTWv, 77 do7r TV TrapcaKe7c'vwv avrToS, 3 adro6 rWyv ee aVrols fvvrTWV, j daro r&Wv ev aOLrois XepoLrexvwv, a7ro TWy OiLKrCadTWV (oiKLcaidvrw Leake) ad6pwv Kal yvvacKWv, and Schol. Aristoph. P/nt. 586. Other demes were named 'from their founders,' i.e. from one of the ' hundred heroes' or eponymous founders of the demes (Herodian, quoted on ~ 3). The names of these are collected by Sauppe, De Demis Urbanis, p. 4 ff.; but since many of them are obviously coined from the names of the demes, it is in these cases inaccurate to describe the demes as designated after their founders. Many of the demes were called after distinguished,gentes who held property in them (e.g. Butadae, Thymaetadae, Cothocidae, Perithoedae, Semachidae, Scambonidae, Colleidae). There are as many as 30 such demes (25 of them are given in Grote,c. Io, ii 273 n. ); and it has been suggested that all of these were constituted by Cleisthenes. 'It seems that Kleisthenes ' (says Grote, i.. ) ' recognised a certain number of new demes to which he gave names derived from some important gens resident near the spot. It is thus that we are to explain the large number of Kleisthenean demes that bear patronymic names.' If, under Cleisthenes, the number of denes was too, it follows that before his time 70 demes were already in existence. (Cf. Smith, Diet. Ant. s. v. Dezmus.) 'The demes named after gentes are situated mainly in that part of the country which has been assigned to the Phyle of the Geleontes, and where accordingly the greater number of noble families and the most important of them lived' (Schomann, Ant. p. 366 n. E.T.). It is not impossible that TrWL KTLO-CdVTWV is meant to include the ancestors of these families as well as the 'eponymous heroes '; but the distinction is immaterial, as a deme might readily regard, as its eponymous hero, the founder of the family from which it derived its name. o0 ydp —Tots T6rroLs] 'for (from the time of Cleisthenes) the demes were no longer called in all cases from the localities' (understanding 7rpora-yopevOevres from 7rpoo(r-^ypevre); i. e. they then ceased to be in every instance designated by ' local' names. These old 'local' names had often been derived from the villages or hamlets included within the limits of the deme as constituted by Cleisthenes. Many of these were superseded by gentile or patronymic or heroic names,-names derived adro rTtP KT-crvTWv. ov yap 9rt is inconsistent in sense with VTrrjpXov, unless the latter is made to mean little more than hv. Possibly the sentence implies that (even in the time of C1.) the demes had already lost their local designations, and had received names derived from persons instead. C1. gave official recognition to both classes of names, local and personal. Poland translates as followvs: Desn nicht alle Gaue entsiraachen mehr den alten Naamen der Ortlichkeiten, adding in a note, that, in naming the new denes, C1. availed himself of the old names, but had often, for example, to break up an old deme into several divisions and thus create new names. Blass reads iv rots TOT7roS, with the following interpretation: non omnes demi erant inter 1'icos q2/ i aam exstabant; itaque zmultos ab heroibus azppellavit. 4

Page  83 CIC. 21, 1. 21-26. nOAITEIA 83 lepEwcrvva etaoaaev 'ert cKarTov KcaTa Ta 7raTpta. -rat- 8e cfvXaE eTroLflrev E7rrwvv[ovu] C T rWv 7rpoTKptL0Evrwv EKa-ro'v apX7yrfeT7v oi)F 25 cdekev 7 IlvOta 8ecKa. 24 lEpOCYN\C (K, H-L, B): LepewIoovas K-W, Meisterhans, p. 362. 25 erroNyMOyc Berol.; idem coniecerant J B Mayor, Richards: T7rwvv/u[ias] K1. 25-26 Etym. M. ei7rvviuot (locus infra exscriptus). ~ 6. TO. S y/dvT —rcdT'pLL] The parallel passage in the Politics, 1319 b 20, quoted on p. 78, implies that Cleisthenes increased the number of the phratries (and it was so understood by Buermann, yahrb. f. kl. Phil. Suppl. Bd. ix 1878, 597 sqq.). The text states that he allowed every one to remain in his former phratria. It was once held by Busolt (Gr. Gesch. i 394, note 5, after Landwehr, Philologus, Suppl. Bd. v i68) that the reference to the phra-. tries in the passage in the Politics did not necessarily apply to Athens, but to Cyrene, which is mentioned in the same passage; and with this view Mr W. R. Paton agrees (Class. Rev. v 221 b). See also Duncker, G. d. A. vi 591 note. Busolt, however, has since admitted that the apparpiai are those of Athens (I. Miiller's Handbuch, iv I, p. I44 note II); he adds that the present passage (as represented in the Berlin fragment) implies that the principle of the organisation of the phratries according to -yvn remained unchanged. 'Probably the phratries before the time of Cleisthenes were larger bodies which, on the occasion of his reforms, were broken up into smaller portions. The number of the phratries is unknown; but they must have been more than 12' (ib.). The present passage has been held to be 'somewhat out of harmony' with that in the Politics, and the question has been asked whether the statement as to priesthoods can be easily reconciled with the fact that Cleisthenes converted a number of private worships into a few public ones' (Mr W. L. Newman, in Class. Rev. v I62 a). If we are compelled to choose, one would prefer the definite statement in the text to the inference drawn from the less definite statement in the Politics, not to mention the disturbing influence of the mention of Cyrene in that passage. The two statements may, however, be reconciled. I take the text to refer to those who were already citizens connected with existing -yvr' and rparptac. Cleisthenes allowed all these to continue as of old in their respective y'vrj and ekparplat, with their religious institutions intact. Among these institutions would be (I) the sacrificial rites performed by the rvXoaotXZeE, who survived the change from four tribes into ten (8 ~ 3; 57 end); and (2) the hereditary priesthoods such as those held by the Eumolpidae, Kerykes and Eteobutadae. Cf. Lex. Dem. Patm. p. 152, Sakkelion, (of the 30 yevvrTrai) cv at tepwo avat EcKa'7-TOts rpOCTrKOUvt'a EKX\lpovroT, olov EVy/CoXirta KatI Kp KjKES KaI 'ETreofPOvrdia, Uw iTropeL ev rT 'AO. roX. 'Apr-TortX71S KTX. (Rose, Frag. 3853). In contrast to the existing citizens there were a number of other persons who had hitherto not belonged to that body and therefore had no yvrj. These are the veoiro\Xrcu of ~ 4. It was for these that Cleisthenes provided new qparpiat. At the same time he absorbed many of the minor local cults into public festivals held at Athens. In Class. Rev. v 222 b, Mr W. R. Paton observes that the veoiroXTra could not be received into the 'ydvr, all the members of which were allied (or supposed to be allied) by blood; but he considers that they could be received into the phratries, each of which was a group of -ygvr not claiming a blood-relationship with each other and therefore more elastic. He assumes that Cleisthenes did not increase the number of phratries; whereas it is not improbable that he did, and there is nothing in the present passage to prove that he did not. acts 8 4+vXaits-&Kac] In Etym. M., s. v. e7rwvv/Lot, after mention of the eTrwvvUOi r7tv 'XKLtWv (c. 53), we have, contrasted with these, oi 6SKa a5' W3v ai vuXat 7rpoo-lyopev0lrrav, otov 'EpeXOe6s, Aiye6s, IHav&owv, Ae's, 'AKcidea, Oive6s, KgKpo/, 'IrTwo06wv, A'ias, 'AvTioXoS T raTra 8 Tra oKa dvoJyaCra cr6 p' (=i 6ar6v, codices crb6potS) O HVtiLos e'Xero, KXecL^Ovous oT'rw &araaSaceivou 7rv 7r&Xv 7os els d Ka uvXads. Cf. Lex. Dem. Patm., p. I5, Sakkelion (Bull. de corr. hellbz. 1877),...troO eoV TroUro Xp7'CavTro... TO7OVS &yap e odvolLaTWV ~Kac-rov 6 0eos eTeXarTo, and Schol. Aristid. iii 33I, o2 Dind. This is one of several instances in which the influence 6-2

Page  84 84 AOHNAIQN COL. 9, 1. I2-I9. 22. T 'TO)rV & yeo~eVWV 897LorT~WCEpa '7roX[v) 77~ Vo E7YEVEGTO 77 7rX~Lra' Kal rya'p o-VVe'/377 TOViq 1AtV 206Xaov9, lO/lovS a4avia-at -?')v Tvparnd'8a 8t' o P i xP Xp'o-at, KatvoO'q 8' 1XXov? Oe'tvat ro~v KXetro-06V7V (TOXa~TOI.LVO/ ~TOO 7TX 76ovqi, v ol, E'TE~l Kica 50 77reptb TOv' 6'TTpaKtO0,LLOV VO)/109. 7T-PO)TO V IWV OiVP &t twre/7rT~t2 IIETa TaVT?7V TI7V KaTaO-Tacatv E4 E~/opOVTO9~ aX'VT~ T7r )30V'X7 TO' ",, 3OV7JTt9~ TrEVTaKOo-tOLS-T royplcov e7roifOaaV, ov Ert Kab Pvvi otv3 -XXII 3 K(WI)NOYC? (K&I... Berol.), K-W, K-1, B: [,v6/u]ovs H- L. 4 KAEICOENH (K, K-XV, H-L, B). 5 t~reurrcpt, an iyS/0'p? K. 6 EpMOY1KP6ONT0C (K). TESTIMONIA. XXII 5-39 Heraclidis epitoma (Rose, Frag. 6i i, 413): Kacl 701 73epl 61T7-paKLO7OOU v6Po'lo EO17oqyh-7-o*T, 6s ETeOlq && 70o31 7rpavz'lGvvras. Kali AiXot Te WLTTpaKLITG07I0caV Kali 'FcP1JO7r0rL' KiX 'Ap1oTi-re3qs. of the Alcmaeonidae with the oracle at Delphi was of important consequences to Athens. ctpXIqyETrcJv] The f'rcW'vvsoL are themselves called dpX'ijy~,at in Aristoph. Frag. i86 Dind. (rapat -ro3s ~dpXB-q-Tas), ap. Bekk. Anecd. i 449: 41X77T~rat 77ye1A6 -VfS O1 f7~WVV0LJ/ 7-101 q5VXc~w. XXII. Ostracism. ~ i. crro)xutOtLevov rol, wMkOovs] Pol. vi (iv) 1,2, ay....OXtIyapxCKo~i ro&T vPo'/ovs 7'LOq -r oTTX ai~e ra 1a Xp~' ru 1i-'&''P d0-TpcLKLcrJ.L0Z] Our knowledge of the procedure in cases of ostracism is founded on a fragment of Philochorus 79 b (FHG i 396), in the Appendix to Photius, p. 675 Porson: 7rpo~etpor-oveF piv 6 S3yiog 7rp6 -r~g 77' 7rpvrraveias (see C. 43 ~ 5),Ei' S0KEZ 7r6 6o-7-pCKOV 1Ei'0q59pfLV- 67-E SI &OKIE'l )w / IT0Oc 170 77 ci 'i Ka~ KaCITEXE'~O~ EfoOSOC 39KaI, Vt (WP EIrtL6vIIES KMrT (/vX&S Ejri eav r& oOpc" a 7T-p&/JovrTEI 77 E'rL-ypctr/n7. E'reocirrovv be' o'L' re hu'vt'a, dpxov7Te Kad h fiOu~h 3tccp10/qO'VTwJv Si i-(P 7rX60O7a, 'yivot-ro Ka'd, k1eXd'T E'caK17-XLX'WV, T0O7TOV 9act r& &SKtacc 3,vi-ra Kcai Xca436vra 3irlp TWYv ISIWV UiJV~aXXalygalTWP El 39a 'US/paLS UtTaCT77Va1 7771 -7r6\cw 9SrI7 S/Ka (fto-repov SI f'y9 -VO0170 7r/JTE) Kap~rO61tCIVO r'0 &c/Vroi3 A7' hrp atVOVT-X 6vr~s FepaW-rOO (Dobree's correction of -rr/pa 7roO) E?3/3olag a'Kpc0~7JpLou1 IA6vos Si' 'Tirgpj~oos 1EK -rcjp ' i6'~WV S0KEZ 6~oo-7-paKWO67I'IL S&/I [X0O77pf~aV rpo'rwv, o3 St /roq/'Lu T 'IW 6ov - [(EraI 70-0o1r Si KaTEX6010 TrS f003, dp~ca [15101 vo/o10E7-?7)o-WTos KXeLo-eo/vOU, 6TE r031 -rvpatv'PoU Ka17/XVOEfV, OTrWS O'VJEK/3ciX7 KI 's TO/i 4Xovs CIUTWYv. According to Ephorus and Theopomnpus the object of ostracism was to check WrEPooX75 (cf. Diod. xi 55, Nepos, Them. 8, Cimion 3;Plut. Anist. 7, Themz. 2,2, Nic. i i, A cibS. 1 3). This opinion is shared by Ar. Pol. iii i3, 1284 a 17 and 36, and viii (v) 3, 1 302 b i~.~ The checking of VbrEpoX7 may well have been its original purpose, but in process of time it was made the means of preventing mischief arising from o'-rdets by suppressing the leader of the opposition and leaving the majority free to carry out their wishes without hindrance. See Grote, c. 3 i; Busolt, i 6,2o, and in Mutller's Ziandluch, iv i, 1,21; Lugebil, Das Wesen und die historische Bedeutung des Ostrakismzos in A/hen, in 7ahrb.f. cl. Phil. Suppl. Bd. iv, 119-175; Gilbert, Cr. St. i 446-6; Abbott's Lust, of Gr. 1 48i-3; and Smith, Didt. Ant. s. v. ~2. '&eL i~~nr94ir] The text, as it stands,,implies, 504/3 B.C., four years after the archonship of Isagoras, 508/7. But the archon Of 504/3 is already known, Acestorides (Dionys. v 37), and not Hermzocreon. The year is the i 2th before the battle of Marathon 490/489, and must therefore be 5o1/o, the archon of which year has not hitherto been known. It is just conceivable that the reforms of Cleisthenes may have taken three years to get into complete shape, but nothing is said to this effect in the text, and it seems therefore necessary (as suggested by Mr Kenyon) to alter the 5th year into the 8th (J into q7). roiS -ircv'rGKOSTCLS] So called to distinguish it from the Council of the Areopagus. The addition of these words is not inappropriate here, as the establishment of the Council of 5oo was one of the recent reforms. 'reV O"PKOV] Xen. Memn. i i ~ i 8, TIC' /30VXEVTILKO'V 6pKOV 0,116011, iv '~ ~5V KW-T& TrobI v6otovI /30Xev 0-EtC. Lys. 31i ~ i, 6/cucrIas doL~Oo70 E/I 7I 730VX1ECT7)'pL0 7/I /3/XTWua -clOtJq80UXe1tEt1- 777 irlet, gVEIT7i 7- El vTy O"PKt, /Iro~Ida'Pw Eti T11 TLa 0OISE A

Page  85 CH. 22, 1. I-I3. FIOAIT EIA 85 ovov ET~t~ TV9 7-p7-y'/0 pofVVTO IcaTa avX9 e' EaO-T?79? <Trbl> OfvXi's- 6eVa, T77179 S& cia/-717 G-Tparta9 77/Ego&W i7v 0 7roXEltapy09?. 3CTE FLEITa Tafra 8(081EKarpft VtK?7EYaVTE9 Tr)V CV Mapa663vt 1_dX7 lo (D~atviwirov 8itor~- aXoto6VTC9 E"Tf 3VO pteTa' T7)77 Vt/K?7V, OappoviJToI9 "&qTO 8roD Svl TOT,7E 7TP0^COTV CXPn'yaVT0o 70^ VO'FCe T'r3 7Tp 0)o-'pL-~v 0 9 E0-76 8taN Tr7\V V7rO~taV TrCt EVLr~ ~va 8 f'KcwT797S <mjs > 0/VX77S B, [...4V]XiS e'KdcOIr[,q] Berol. K-W. 12-17 Harp. '1brwapXos (locus infra exscriptus). 13 rOO 6OrpaKL0lo/4OU -rwv XaX6vrwp cive~rL7-r)SeLOov 5-i-c 3ovXEeLvft. [Dem.] 59 ~ 4, 61LCOWLOK&1T 7-l /3c'Xrtorc j8ouVeX60E1 repv 374i )Wp i-JP 'AO77vacwP. In Solon's time the 13ovXi7 swore 7ro~s 16Xcwpo V6pO/uOV fparEawc%-EL (Plut. Sol. 25). The oath included a clause, o66&~ U6-4o 'AO77vaLiwv ov666'a, 6s ap f-y-yu-77a' 7-pEZ KaOLOT?17-6 7 T VT\O -qo'Tt aX p ci T-LS 7rl rpo6oarLq T775 7r6XEwos 7' #7rt KaL7a7-) 7)/O 156 CC,, 77 TfXOS TL Ka-rlaf&XX-7(Dem. '24 ~ 144). Arist. Thesm. 943, 93o~e 7-77 f30UXj7 05 30'. Dem. ib. I48 refers the S`PKOI /IovXVvLK6T to Solon; but it was the Areopagus that had cognisance of high treason assigned to it by Solon (c. 8 ~ 4), and presumably did not lose it until B.C. 46,2/i (c. 2,5 ~ 2). The statement that the oath in the times of Cleisthenes was the same as that in tbe times of the writer seems inconsistent with the account in c. 45, where we are told that the fPov.), had meanwhile lost the right of imprisoning, &c. (Wyse). a-pavrqryoOs -jpoOv-ro] Grote observes that ' there were now created, for the first time, ten strat~~gi or generals, one from each tribe... The ten generals, annually changed, are thus (like the ten tribes) a fruit of the Kleisthenean constitution (c. 31i, iii i i 6). Plut. Aristid. 5, 7-CiP (liKc Ka0OEO-dTWVw r-oZs 'AO77zalo~t f'rl TrSV w6Xsjcov o-rpa~t7-ywPv. Them. 6 ~ i, Tr~V 'AO77valcov &3vXsvoAdwvc 7rept 0-TpaLT77 --yoO, where mention is made of Xctpoi-ova (Busolt, i 6x6, n. 3). Unless we are prepared to accept the 'Draconian constitution' Of c. 4, there is no reason for departing from the ordinary view that the institution of the o7-Tpa777yol dates from the time of Cleisthenes. 'djs &L7rWiOT7S o.TpaiLaLs 71JYEfpc6'v-1roX4 -PCLaPXos] 'Even after the strati~gi had been created, under the Kleisthenean constitution, the polemnarch still retained a joint right of command along with them -as we are told at the battle of Marathon, where Kallimachus the polemarch not only enjoyed an equal vote in the council of war along with the ten strategi, but even occupied the post of honour on the right wing' (Hdt. vi io9-i i; Grote, 1. c.). In still closer accordance with the fresh evidence of the text, Busolt,i 6i 6, observes: der Polenmarchos zog nach wie vor an der S~pitze des Heeres aur der Stadt. ~ 3. 8w.XL-wo'vrEs &IT- St'o] i.e. in B.C. 488/7. Poi. 1,299 a 37, ToSS A~v &taXei7rE1v i7-oXu'v Xpo'voy, Hist. Aninm. 5,23 a 8, 5. 6 OcMppoivTOS-TOii Siliov. The connexion here and elsewhere established (cc. '24, 27) 'between moments of elation and self-confidence at Athens and constitutional changes for the worse' may be compared with Isocr. Areop.- ~ 3 sqq. and Panath. ~ 133 (WV. L. Newman, Class. Rev. v i 6i a). W7ept T'rV 05o-rp.] c. gen. in ~ i. ' Ad siganificandam eam rem, de qua agitur ac disputatur, 7rept' etiam c. acc. ita usurpatur ut ab usu praep. i7repl. c. gen. non videatur discerni posse, veluti...Poi. 1 300 a 8, 9; 13,2,2 b30, 31i, I1286 b34 et 128 7 a i; Rhet. 1414 a28, 1418 a 2' Ind. Ar. Xcmp~ov] Archon in 496/5. Harpocr. s. v..1rapo..XXos 85 6'-rt "Irriap~os 6 Xdiplov, d's 9b77crL AuKoiipYOS E'v TCW, KalTa AeWKpai7-rous (~ I I 7,"Ir~rapXop nw Ttgdip~ou, who, in his absence, was condemned to death for 7wpo~oo-ia; nothing else is known of him and it is not impossible that Tt1Adp~ov in Lycurgus may be a mistake for Xcdp/ov)- 7repit 55 7rov'rov 'AP5por1iwv 6'V Hetrotr~pdi-ov -roO 71VpaiVVOU Kaid wpdi-OS 6'c)0T-paK10a077 TOO 7EIrE TO'P OcT —paKL9T/s6V v~uv-oTTe 7rpWroV 7-rE17-ros 515 t ' 751vv Ur0o~11av T&)J' 7repl H1sLahrrpcu-ovo, 6rt 577/Layw-y6T w'P Kall o-,pacrT77y6s e',rpd;1'V7o1Tev. It will be observed that language almost identical with the text is quoted

Page  86 86 AOHNAIQN COL. 9, 1. I9-25. /hLE0-t, 07t UEW-ta-TpaTo9~ 8i71Layc~oy0\9 Ka~t aTpa-r?)y6 dv -rv pavvo'~ 15 lcaTeo-Tfl Icat 7'npO)TO4? (0CTTpaKL'O-0y T(0) E'KEt1JQV O-VyyEV0J)V 1Ir7rapXo~ 4 -Xa'ppov KoXXvTek, 3c 0v Kat La'XWo-Ta 70\P vO/.oV E6`071KEI O' KXELc00e1117, 6'~eXa'cat /3oUX6/.4Evo aVTOhV. ot yap 'AOnvaWo -rov\, r-oP T-VpaVV(0W f~oVq,, '3a-ot U \ o-VVE~1qpapravov ev 7aZL9 TapaXa'tl, ELOJV 1 coept OE tAa -^ ), V 7 ov7TpaoT7lTL 01) '20?7yEFWv Kat 7rpocJ-a-rn179 1 17) J7rwrap~os?. cv0OV\9 Se\ Tr60 V 7'-re'p(1 ETE 5 67r T we~~ov ap~oPTOS eKmaFlevo-av TolS? evv~a ap~ovma~ Kara 14 OTC: OTIt (K, 11-L, B); 6 -ya'p K-WV. 16 KO,\YTTeyc. 18 CYNCE6AM6APT6NON: O-vYe~?7/JpTra'o1 K, K-W, B; -vve~Bfgap-rivozev Poste (H-L, et omisso ~v K-W2 ). 19 TTPAOTHTI (K); cf. i6, 5 et 35. 20 YCTEPW I: fDGo7epop K-W, B; cf. 34 ~ '2. by Harpocration from the 'ATPL'S Of Androtion. The historian of that name is almost certainly identical with the orator attacked in Dem. KMre 'Av6po-,rhapos, in 355 B.c. He had then been a prominent politician for.30 years (Dem. 1. c. ~ 66). The authorities in favour of this identification are Westermann, and Arnold Schaefer; against it are Ruhnken, Dindorf and C. Miiller (FHG, i p. lxxxiii) and recently M. Weil, _7ourna/ des Savants, 1891, p. '203. All the extant quotations from the 'ATOL'S (except the present) 'just cover the period of Androtion's political career, and a few more years which he may have passed in exile: the latest event noticed is the 6LIthakot-Ls.. in B.C. 346-5.' He probably left Athens soon after -B.C. 35~5, retired to Megara, and there wrote his 'A-rOtis in the enforced leisure of banishment, Plut. de exil. 14, p. 6o.5 c, (ouvzypa~,ev,)'Av~poric' p'A6-qva~os Li' ME-yapoLs (Wayte, Dem. Androt. p. xlix, 1). If the present work was written about 3,25 a.C., the passage in the text may well have been borrowed from Androtion, who was probably no longer alive at the time. If he began public life at 30, he must have been born in B.C. 415 (355+3o+3o) and, if alive, would have been 9o at the date assumed for the present work. 8Sqp.Lyc*oy0s] Pol. 1305~ a 7, E'Ti SL T~ ap~aicev, 6'TE yvOL7-O O' a6-ror -qu~a1w-y0'S K a I o- p a r7 -y 6 s, es 7-vpapcu'viar frTe(3XXovaXc~p ya'zp otl 7r~eto-roL -rcb' aip~atwv rvpcb'tvWP EK 5?7/Irtayw-ycw -yE-y0i'ratv, and (on Peisistratus in particular) ib. 1310 6 27 Isocr. Panaiji. 148; Dio Chrys. i 303, 130D. ~ 4. irp~ros ~Ot'rPCLKC4TO0?] KT\.] Plut. Nic. i i, wp~v7-os 5' (6L~woorpaKaio60j) 'Ilrrapx~os 6' XoXap-yei's (probably a mistake for KoXXv7-cd', or for Xdpgov) av-y-lev~ 'r7s cW',roO -rvu'p~vov. According to Cleitodemus, ap. Athen. 609 c, Hippias had married a daughter of Charmus. T'j ELwI~v~cL -roil SliLov irpa0'Tr1TL] Dem. Timocr. 51i, 6' rio'v i'6Av TrOUT...OELs g7'eL T7-7 otXapOpweriav Kall 7rpq6rTjra 71)1 V/LITEpap. It may be doubted whether any such praise as that of lrpq6Tr-q is ever ascribed to the &L~gos in the extant works of Ar. ~.TCp VO'cTE'P(,0 9TEL] In 34 ~ '2 we have rq~i OT7epop 9i-et. In 42 ~ 4 7-6' bolE6 -pop (Eizoaurv70) is contrasted with 7-6' rwp6rop and the former is found in 45 ~ 3. brt- TEXE0L'VO0 Upxovros] The last date mentioned having been 488 ac.C (i.e. 'two years after Marathon'), the archonship of T. may be placed in 487/6. The only years after BC. C-496 (down to 2 92) for which the archons are not already known are 487 and 486. 482 may be assigned to Themistocles, and 481 to Hypsichides (c. 2,2 end). ~KV4L1EVJ00V TOVS &VVEa C'LPXOVTCLS KT\X. Under the Solonian constitution (c. 8) the archons had been appointed by lot out of forty candidates nominated by the four tribes. From the close of the -rvppcuvir the archons had been elected (oi &~ irp67repot 7J-cb'Tes 77oav alpETO', by whom we do not know, possibly (as Mr Kenyon suggests) by the fLKK'X?7G-La. The general principle of the Solonian system was now revived by introducing a combination of selection and sortition. The successive changes in the method of election to this office (as summed up by Mr Kenyon) were as follows: (i) the archons wvere originally nominated by the Council of the Areopagus, c. 8 ~ 2; (,2) under the 'Draconian constitution' they were elected by the general body of

Page  87 CH. 22, 1. 14-24. TOAITEIA 87 fvXas, E/ T7(0V 7TpOKpOeCPB0E 0V V'TO 7rTv 8rjLjOTwv 7TEvPTaKOaoLwv, TOTE eC'Ta r'rv TvpavvtSa wTTproV, (o[ S{ Trpdrepot rdvare?o-av alperot)' 6 cKa\l orTpali-Orl MeyacKXX 'I77rrOKpaTov9 'AXt7oreicOev. 7r\ Uev 24 22 rwiv SrJLOTUjv TrevTaKooiC0v (K, K-W, B): TOo OftxOV EK TWr TrevPTaKoiOfgLeS0l/vwv J W Headlam, troo 5jtov 7revTaKco-o i/ILuEvwv H-L. TOIC (7revreKCateIKoTr fretE Weil): rore Blass, K-w, H-L, K3. citizens (c. 4 ~ 2); (3) under the Solonian constitution, they were in ordinary course appointed by lot from forty candidates selected by the four tribes (c. 8 ~ I); (4) under the rvpavvi this system was perhaps practically in abeyance, though nothing had been formally done to repeal appointment by lot (Peisistratus, son of Hippias was archon, Thuc. vi 54, and there was always one of the ruling house holding office); (5) under the constitution of Cleisthenes they were elected by the ecclesia (oi 8 Trp6repot uravres Socav alperoi); (6) from 487 B.c. they were appointed by lot from Ioo (or 5oo) candidates selected by the tribes; (7) subsequently, from an uncertain date down to the time of the writer, the lot was applied to the preliminary nomination by the tribes as well as to the actual appointment (c. 8 ~ I). As appointment to the archonship by lot was apparently done away with by Cleisthenes in 508, and was re-introduced in 487, it follows that the archons in 490 were not appointed by lot, and that Herodotus was therefore mistaken in describing the polemarch of that year as 6 rT KVUd/xJ XaXOv (vi o09). This had already been maintained by Grote (c. 31, iii I26), Busolt (ii 338) and others, and their opinion is now found to be correct. Cf. Lugebil in yahlrb. f. class. Philol., Suppl. Bd. v 564-699; Holm, Gr. Gesch. ii I40, note I8. Aristides was archon in 489 when the office was still elective, yet Demetrius Phal. makes him archon in 478, and, consistently with this, describes him as KvdUCu XaXwvp (Plut. Asrist I, 5). On the other hand, Idomeneus (fl. B.C. 3I0 -27o), having in view the archonship of 489, as it appears correctly, speaks of him as having held office o0 Kva/vrobv \XX' iXojdvwv 'AO-vaicv. It was Aristides who, shortly after the battle of Plataea, carried a proposal that they should thenceforth choose (alpeTo-at) the apxovres (in the widest sense of the term) from all the Athenians alike. Duncker, G. d. A. vi 593, holds that it was on this occasion that appointment by lot was introduced: before it, we find the office of archon filled by leading statesmen; not so, afterwards. He also holds that the reforms of Cleisthenes did not touch the method of appointing the archons. There is a difficulty as to the persons by whom the preliminary selection was made. The text, as it stands in the Ms, speaks of them as 500 selected by the members of the demes. The practice down to the writer's time was for each tribe to nominate ten by lot, or too in all (c. 8). Now if each tribe ever nominated 50, it is improbable that its privilege would be reduced to that of nominating to. Hence Mr Kenyon proposes to alter 500 (')) into ioo (p'). 'It seems possible that Demetrius Phal. accepted this date (B.C. 487) for the introduction of the lot: he placed the archonship of Aristides the year after Plataea (Plut. Arist. c. I and 5) and spoke of 7) e7rijvvfios apXr 'jV 'py e - KVcdy XaXwv EK T7cV 'yevwOv Trwv & JLaytoYra Trt7L)u,uara KEKT7rrtiWV OVUS wrevTaKooLtogei/UrVov0 rpooVy6pevov (ib. c. i): the admission of ir7reis then, according to Demetrius, is after 478. We see now that there is not necessarily any conflict between Idomeneus of Lampsacus and Demetrius, except as to the year when Aristides was archon Idomeneus, like Plutarch, may have assigned Aristides to the year after Marathon (ib. c. 5): in which case his statement (ib. c. I dpac- 7ye TO 'ApbareiLr6v oV KUvaTeYvrov aXX' i\Xoudwv 'A077vaiwv) agrees with the'AO. IIoX.' (Wyse). MeyaKXijs] son of Hippocrates (Hdt. vi 131), grandson of IMegacles (the opponent of Peisistratus c. 14 and X5), and nephew of Cleisthenes. Through his sister, Agariste, he was the uncle of Pericles. There was another Megacles in the same generation (victor in the Pythian games, Pind. Pyth. vii I5), a son of Cleisthenes, and grandfather of Alcibiades. The ostracism of this second Megacles is mentioned in Lysias, A4c. 14 ~ 39. According to Pindar (/. c.) the house of Megacles was subject to 060vos on account of its evbrpayia. It is remarkable that an institution

Page  88 88 AOHNAIQN COL. 9, 1. 25-28. 25 oiv T) rp7 pia TroV rT3v Tvpacvvwv i\Xov? -Q7rpctaK ov, v XCpL 6 vLOS dTe07t/,,U erTC aa TB ava Ter'dpTw eTEL Kca TCt v aXX\ v E'a TtL 8orcoir7 L, eLov elvat,be0ia7raTco' cal 7rp wC)T09 oWapaKtdaTO7 T'wv a7rWOev rTI TvpavviB8oq,acvO'rv7ro O6 'AptLpovo9. 'reT e & rpTrp 7 N 27 M60ICT&TO: /IeJlOralro B, -oTr'avTo ceteri. founded by Cleisthenes should have thus been brought into play against his son and his nephew. According to Aelian, Var. Hist. xiii 24, Cleisthenes himself was ostracised, but of this there is no proof. As to the ostracism of the nephew there is no doubt. Even one of the pieces of pottery used in voting on the question has been found. It bears the name of ME-yaKXis ['I7rro]KcpdroVS 'AXw7rEKqe6V (published in Benndorfs Gr. u. Sic. Vasenbilder p. 50, pl. 29, no. io). It is a fragment of black-glazed ware, apparently cut into a circular form for the purpose. It was discovered in the prePersian stratum to the E. of the Parthenon (Class. Rev. v 278 a). CIA iv 3 no. 569. ~ 6. ikr TpCca] Mr Kenyon holds that the three years are B.C. 489-87, i.e. the two after the battle of Marathon and the year in which Hipparchus son of Charmus was ostracised; but, unless we press the meaning of the imperfect woTpaiKtLov, and apply it to the purpose and desire of the people, rather than to their acts, it seems better to consider the period of three years to begin with that in which Hipparchus was banished, i.e. 488/7. Thus the three years would be B.C. 488/7, 487/6 and 486/5. Then the ostracism of Xanthippus, rT TETacpTp iret, would be in 485/4 and 'the third year after this,' 483/2, the archonship of Nicodemus, which is in accordance with the chronology adopted in Clinton's Fasti. ev TrVTo70 TOiS KCapols (i. e. not necessarily under Nicodemus, but in the previous year 484/3) Aristides was banished; and, in the 'fourth year after,' he was recalled, 481/0 (Bauer, p. 59). Tr TETpT1f? TE.L] 485/4. E' TLS SOKOLCT] ECfw(OV Eivoa] Pol. 1302 b I5, oardotts arises orav 7tS. T3 dvvdiaet /LEd'wv, and the correction of this (says Ar.) was the object of ostracism. airwoev T'is 'rvpcvvCSos] Pol. ii 3, 1262 a 29, Wv ovb3v 6rt6v eoTt yiveaOat 7rpbs racrTpas Kati Jn7Tprpas Katl roTs n T7roppw TS avyyyevelas 6vTras, c-7rep wrpbs 7ros afr w0ev (distant in relationship), iii 9, 1280 b 9, 'yier'aL 7yap 7) KOtwv'a oravtuaXLa Trwv a\XXwv 7rbT' ox Lapovoa t46vov rTvW a7r e v arvuL/aXjLc (alliances, of which the members live apart), ib. 18, ef TiVes oiKcote XcopIS /AyV, Ai gIvrTO Tro0oOr airwOev (so far off) w&re /ju KOoVWVEV. 't ol arwOev, syn. ot da-yir(Te, opp. o0 yvwppLgOt, ol aUvv7 -Oets, oli vcrVyyeve.' Rhet. i iI, 137I a 12 oi lvvr)le~s Kai otl ro\Xira (ya1&XXov) rSw cdrwOev: c. gen. in Thuc. iii I i ~ i, adroOev forj OX7rs?7, Aristoph. Plut. 674 anrwOeV T7jS Kf0aX\S. dvOLr6wros 6 'ApC<povos] During the excavations on the Acropolis in 1886, a fragment of a late black-figured vase was found in the pre-Persian stratum E. of the Parthenon, with the following inscription clearly incised upon it. XSANG In O ARR IOPONO The fragment was published by Studniczka, Arch. Jahrb. I887, p. i6r, who observed that the position in which it was found proved that the ostracism of Xanthippus took place before B.C. 480 (Class. Rev. v 277 b). CIA iv 3, 568. In March, I891, after the first publication of this treatise, another fragment was found at Athens in the d6s I Hetpatus with the first five or six letters of the father's name written (with the double p) above that of the son (CIA iv 3, 57I). Xanthippus impeached Miltiades in 490/89 (Hdt. vi J36; Grote, c. 36, iii 312). The present passage shews that his ostracism falls in 485/4, before that of Aristides (484/3). Of its causes we know nothing; but it is natural to suppose that the friends of Miltiades had something to do with it. In 480 Xanthippus left Athens with the other inhabitants at the approach of Xerxes: Plutarch, 7hem. Io, tells the story of his dog, which could not endure to be left behind on this occasion. Xanthippus was the archon of 479 (Diod. xi 27). He commanded the Athenians at Mycale (479, Hdt. ix X 14) and at the siege of Sestos (ix 121). By Agariste, daughter of Hippocrates, and sister of the Megacles mentioned above, he became the father

Page  89 CH. 22, 1. 25-29. nOAITEIA 89 te'ea TraVa NLto8t7jLov apXovTro, W Eftadrv rTa L,'raXXa Ta ev 29 29 NIKOMHAOYC (K-W, H-L, B): N(IKO),HMO(y) Berol. et Dion. Hal. viii 83 (K). E4aNH: an dcre'ypa/Pr? Wyse (Class. Rev. v J12); <Xvo-treXeorrpac> pcidvq Richards (ib. 226). of Pericles (Hdt. vi I3I) and Ariphron (Plut. Alc. I, Plat. Protag. 320). The elder of the two legitimate sons of Pericles was named after his grandfather, Xanthippus (Plut. Per. 24, 36). ~ 7. IT[...'rp(rq after 486, would bring us to 484/3 for the archonship of Nicodemus. It was iv ro6iroS rToE Katpots that Aristides was ostracised, and in 48I/o all the citizens who had been ostracised were recalled &&t riv 9pOou arTpardeav (~ 8). But Nicodemus, according to Dionysius Hal. viii 83, p. 1711 Reiske, was archon in the consulship of L. Aemilius Mamercus and K. Fabius, 270 A.U.C. (Cato). In Baiter's Fasti Consulares this is identified as A.U.C. 269=B.C. 484. This would support Mr Kenyon's view. See, however, note on ~ 6, TXr- Tpia. NILKOU7'6o is the reading in the papyrus; N(MKo)AHMO(u) that of the Berlin fragment, and similarly in Dionysius. Mr Kenyon, perhaps rightly, holds that, in this conflict between the two MSS, 'the authority of Dionysius may turn the scale.' The name NtKo,?u571S ('victor in counsel ') is formed from u560oyat on the analogy of 'A-yasr/Tjs, 'AXiL)o'ris, 'A/zptldrs, 'AvPpofjoir -,) 'Aptr-rouxS~s, 'ATTrvtIJOsl, AViTOI)8brjS, AtsOgo5b7s, EVLV4uBds, EEvpuiAL7rsjs, Oeo/.u6L-S, OpacVuv706s, KaXtXoi'7/~, KXe,(= KXeo)J.hr6Is, KXvrojU70'rS, Aaotbl7s, AVKO'a)87S,, Neo/^7xJ7s, ~evoo6r)gV, 'Ovacrot(i.e. 'Ovaao'-)i71)8s, IIaXat67?s, I1epIACozjs and loXv/u7rl7s (Pape-Benseler, Eigennamen, p. xxx). It cannot be interpreted as 'conqueror of the Medes,' which would be M7fb6v1Kos. Similarly, the alternative name NLK6375pos means 'with victorious army or people' ib. s. v. WS ifvdWlq Cm IJIaOXXCL KrX.] Hdt. vii 144, 'AOpvaliota 'yevogYvwxv XprlxiTdrCv fEVyciXwv ev Tr KOVLP, Ta - K r&v fJerT\XXWV arpl 7rpoa7ojXe iWv airb Aavpeiov, eueXXov XderEaOat o6pxrlSo'v cKaaoros egKLa paxads. r6-e eeJLttOTOKX\sd av-yvwaoe 'AOijivaiovs T&atpelaos ra6r7s 7rauovaacLous vovs vaL TO6Tw TWrV Xp?7taCTWV 7rotoirao-Oat es TOP 7ro6XeAov, TOrv rpbs AiytvOrTa Xdywv. (Plut. Them. 4, Tiv Aavpe~T-rtKLv 7rp61roov arb iroSv adpyvpeiwv.Lera\iXwv eos e Xvrwv 'AO 7vacwv &avp/LEaTOat KT\X.) This account, esp. the word rravuaa4Jvovs, implies that the revenue for the mines had hitherto been distributed among the people (to the extent of Io drachmas a head). ef0dv7 can only mean' were discovered,' which may possibly be supported by evbpir1 in Bekker's Anecdota, p. 279, Mapcbveta: Tr6ros 7v r-iS 'ArrLK/c, bOrOV rd iiraXXCa evpO7q. The mention of the revenue of Ioo talents from the works comes somewhat suddenly after the first announcement of the discovery of the mines, and possibly some other word was really written by the author. The author of the tract 7repi 7rbpwv implies that they were of immemorial antiquity, but there are indications that they had only recently come into prominence. Aeschylus in the Persae, 238, the dramatic date of which is 480 B.C., makes the chorus answer an enquiry of the wife of Darius as to the wealth of Athens by the reply dcpy6pov T7rpyj -Is aCiroL errc, OrqTaavpbs xOovos. 'At what time they first began to be worked,' says Grote (c. 39, iii 406), 'we have no information; but it seems hardly possible that they could have been worked with any spirit or profitable result, until after the expulsion of Hippias and the establishment of the democratic constitution of Kleisthenes.' It is quite conceivable that a very recent discovery of a very productive mine at one particular place, Maroneia, may have given a new importance to the question of the best disposal of the revenue.-It has even been suggested that the mines had originally belonged to Aegina and had been wrested from her by Athens (Mahaffy, Rambles and Studies in Greece, p. I63); but neither the text nor the parallel passages in Hdt. and Plut. lend any support to this. The Athenians had to rely on the revenue from the mines to make way against the Aeginetans. Trdl v Mapovecq] 'The mining district, besides the denmi Anaphlystus, Besa, Amphitrope, and Thoricus, contained several places which were not demi, as Laureium, Thrasyllum [eirl Opao6XXy, Dem. 37 ~ 25, Aeschin. i ~ 1oI], Maroneia, Aulon [Aeschin. 1. c.]' (Leake's Demi, p. 274). Laurium may have been the general term for the district, derived from its numerous shafts and tunnels, XaOpat, lit. 'narrow passages'. Maroneia may perhaps be identified with some ruins five miles N. of Sunium. In Dem. Pant. 37 ~ 4, Nicobulus and his partner Euergus

Page  90 90 AOHNAIQN COL. 9, 1. 28-34. 30 Map WZJet' ca't 7TE~tl~YEVIE7O T7 7TOXEL Ta'XavTa efxaT0 EI co) o-vFu/3ovXEvoYVTW3 Tt1JCV TN' 8?7/'lt5 &avet/.lcao7Oat To' a" 'VftOV, eEL30-31 [7reptE-y'V6TO] I T[WP~ 9p'y&w] (vel r. T-OZS KEK7 —q[Id soul) 'KaT[6v 7rcNavra, o-vgi4ouXev]i'bzrrv 7T[tvG3] r-'?r-6[Xet S&aSe'/scuOat -rb pip]~Ypov Berol. 30 Bekk. An. p. -279 Mapc'iveuc: r-67ros 7z'v -ri~ 'AT-TLK$~, d7rou -ri /5i7aXXa EVbpSM7. Harp. s. v.: (Dem. Pant. ~ 4), i-birog EO0-T1 T$~I 'ATTLrKi3S. allege that they lent to Pantaenetus i05 minae, ir' 6ip-yacr'iptcpr ney noZs gp-yoci ip MapwP61qt Kad rptd.Koprac db'cpair66ots. On the silver mines of Laurium, see Boeckh's Dissertation, pp. 6i.5-678, printed as Appendix to Boeckh's Public Economzy, trans. Lewis; K. F. Hermann, Privatalt. ~ 14, 17; Biichsenschtitz, Besitz und Erwerb, pp. 98-io3; Select Private Orations of Deni. ed. 2, ii p. 89..rdXuv~rcL E&cLrdiV KT-X.] Polyaenus, i 3o ~6 (i5), 6e/.10uOoKXrr is -rw, wpbs Ai-yu7'-5ras roXletqt jtAX~xbrwv 'A0?ra'aws T771V EK TeSS ap-yvptwv wpbo-oios', CicarTv 7cia'XVra, &uev /ejtroOau, KwXA&Tas ereitoTev E'Ka-6V civ~pd.LtL Tro4 7rXovITLw-rT-rtOL e'KdC O7-W 6o~vaLt 7ca'XavTov K&a /1 ap &q r6 w7paX0tito- liiuvov, rjv WI E nb I 'Iv Xwua Xo-yt-Otpat, E''P B',L n' aipe'or-, -robi XaI36vrcas &ro~otiiac. 7TaOTa I 9604:15. 01 &6 E'KaLTov aiv6piE3 EKaO7-os siav 7/ 17)/ t KT~ i m v, ( ~ ~ h Xpqadiyevot KiXXOVS Ka'i -rctovs. 'A6Ojz'aiOt KatI'OV ITTIXQvro 1T017aTII'Es `tTO?7t0CtP, Kati ob 1.4'PVo Ka7-bl Ai"YLYIqTCOP Tads rpL 'peat riav'-atg, aiXXai. Kai KcaTa HiepcrwZv eXp-qjaaVTO. In Hdt. vii 144 the amount available for distribution is stated as 10 drachmas a head.- Elsewhere (in v 97) Hdt. reckons the citizens at 30,000. This gives us,~o talents for distribution, lie also speaks Of 200 ships. But 5o talents is far too small a sum for a fleet, even if only ioo ships were built at the cost of only one talent each. It has accordingly been suggested that Hdt. founded his calculation on the diminished returns of th luines at a later date, about 430 B.C. tein ad loc.). Boeckh considers that,,the population was probably 20,000 at the tim-e meant by the historian. The amount to be distributed, at io dr. a head, would in that case be 200,000 dr. t331 talents. It Was Boeckh's opinion that all the public money arising from the mines was (annually) divided among the members of the community (Dissertation, ~ 8, p. 65,2 Lewis ed. 2). Grote himself held that the sum for distribution only formed ' part of a larger sum lying in the treasury, arising from the mines. Themistokles persuaded the people to employ the whzole sum in ship-building, Which of course implied that the distribution was to be renounced. W~hether there had been distributions of a similar kind in former years... i s a matter on which we have no evidence (c. 39, ii 407 n.). The evidence of the text supports Grote's view. The date of the building of the fleet is discussed by Busolt, ii 123 f., but the text was then represented by the Berlin fragment only. OeiLo-rToKX~S was evidently not in the position of archon eponymus in the year of the proposal to distribute the revenue from the silver mines. The archon of that year was Nicodemus (483/2). He was in office, however, at the time when he proposed the fortification of the Peiraeus, Thuc. i 93 ~g 2, b7r9)pKrO 6' aOJTOO 7rp6Tcpov e'rti T77 eKfiZ'OV apX7fl 7) Ka-rT MVaVT6V 'AO-qvciot9 'p4:ev, and he may have been archon eponymus at that time. The archon for 48 I/o is Hypsichides (infra ~ 8). We may therefore place the archonship of Themistocles in 482/I. Dionysius Hal., Ant. Rome. vi 34, p. 1117 a, makes Themistocles archon in 493 B.C., but (as M~r Kenyon shews) this is very improbable. The chronology suggested by Bauer is as follows: according to Plutarch (/tzern. 31 and Cirn. i8) Themistocles died at the age of 65; at the time of Cimnon's expedition against Cyprus (448/7). Thii5 would give us 5i3 for his birth. Hlewxoulcl be 30 in 483/2, and this was the year in which he brought about the formation of a fleet. His archonship should probably be placed inl 482/1, a year that is not yet filled by any name. This is supported by the scholiast on Thuc. 7rpo' SI TV(3 Mn&Kli.cV 'p?7/1ev e. Iseparnbs Eba. Hdt. vii 143 describes him as as'V-p e'S 7r/5(TOVI v'ewo-ri rapu'v, which is unfavourable to placing his archonship as far back as 493: V5EWO-Ti is more likely to denote an interval of two, than of i 3 years. The Themistocles of 493 (Dionysius) would in this case be another of the same name. But there is more probability in Mr Kenyon's second alternative, that Dionysius has simply made a mistake. In 480/79 he was o-rpar-q)y0s of the

Page  91 CH. 22, 1. 30-4I. FOIEA9 F10AITEIA 91 O-TO/Cxl,7q EKWXVOEV, 01) E/ 0 Tt XP77CTat7' T0'q Xpiyao-tv aXXa (3ave'tara ICAEXvOV TOZJS 77WXOVOUTd'TOtS~ 'A0,yvahov &caTo'V e'1ao0Tco rTaXaVTOV, etT ~eav fLEv) apCJUy T /vcX roraT)Swoe ia (3avavv~, 618El /L1, Kcogw-ao-Oat Tae Xp?7~uara Ti-apa T7'V (3avEto-a- 35 p~e'vwv. XacrIAc)v (' E'r' TOi'To'q Eva[v]w7-y77o-aTo TPtUqp~tq ExaTov, Eicao-iov vav'q-yoVp.E'V0V TWV EKaTrov /JtaV, ais~ Evav/La~flc-av El 2,0a~a/iVt 77rp39 TOWs /3ap/3a'pov"~. 60GrTpaKta-'6q (3 ev TOiV'Tots' ToP 8Katpot'i~ 'AptoG-Tel(3y7 6 Avotpa'XoV. TE'rapTO (3 ETEt KaTEUSEaVTO 7MVTa' Trow~ WaTpaKto7LkEpovw, ap~oVTo,~ 'T4tLX1ov, (3t'a 737) Ep 40 ~OV (7'paTEiav ~ Ka rXorov cSptroaV Totsq Oa-Tpa~t'/.E't ~' 34-35 Ecv /.LE Cdp&(K- TO dvdXwyacc T?)1 r6Xews el pa, deletis T7)p 6airaciv?7v, HI., B, Coil. Polyaen. i 30 KIa'V /1EV d&prj r6 7rpcaXd3?-6/uEvov, Tq' wbXeL -r7 dvacXwja XwyoycOi~Vat. 39 -rTaTp-rw: rpi-ry 'corr. e Plut. Ar. 8' K-W2 (B). 40 Y'+HXi~soy ante conr. (H-L): 'T~tL'3Xov (K, K-W, B). 41 CTp6.TIAN: o-rparelax, (K-W, H-L, K3). In titulis (velut etiam in codicibus) et o-pcpareia et o-Tlpartac expeditioneme significat (o7-rpaTEb'eo-0atTIal GT-C7-re as, B.C. 32 5;-TIa' a77para' B. C. 330) Meisterhans, P. 43 2. ENTOC K, K-WT, H-L: EiKT6I \Vyse (B), quod egregie confirmat Philochorus in Lex. Rhet. Cantab. 6oO7paLKLO/J.QV Tp0ir0S: 1IJ.q E'7rt3a1'V0TcL EVTOs Pcpatcr7ov. Athenian troops that marched to Tempe (Hdt. vii 173). 0-LXpli~ercLL] Plat. Crit. 45 C, O'Uc 9XW 6" TL XP?7a~o,.UL T'wp p.yvpicp EV' TrOLToLs roiS KCLLpOiS] Jerome has, under 01. 74, i (=484/3), Aristides cuBm ignominla eicitur. On the ostracism of Aristides, cf. Plut. Arist. 7. ~8. Te~ropTCi) 9&EL] 48i/0. This fixes the date of the archonship of Hypsichides, a name that is now known for the first time. Plut., Anist. 8, says that the Athenians recalled Aristides, Vip~ov && OeTr-raXicS Kad Botw~TtcLs CiXaLVovT-os, i.e. in the spring Of 480 B.C. He adds that the vote for the recall was passed in the third year after the banishment. This note of time may be explained by the fact that, if the vote for ostracising Aristides took place at the 6th (or 8th) 7z-pvrapeta (c. 43 ~ 5), this would fall early in B.C. 483, and the corresponding date in 480 would be the end of the third year after. Ka.'re6SE'gcLVro] Andoc.i ~ 107 (of the same incident), eyvwo-av Tov's Tre E6yoI/Tas KaTaoil~aLOOat Kal T-ov's abrt'uovs ierLTtoso 7rodto-at..6 Xovrrn'v] [Dem.] 26 ~ 6, 'ApOTELSd'-qv pkflv -yap q~aacr bi7r6 TrwV 7rpo-y6p'wv 11SETaUTcLOiv7-ca i At'yiv-q ta-rpifeu' 9ws 6 juso abTILYP Ka-reUiEaTo. Hdt. viii 79, E'~ A'-Y L f t js Suidas, s. v. 'AptoTeti3-s, BLCTpVA/se iv Al-y'v- Wu~v i~o si aft7r0v EP T-q qpv-yq-j peo(3ev~raAiVov KalL TpLOXIAL'ovs 13apeLpKOb'I... S186vT0o, oubRV e71LGIO-pe O,EoOat i(P-q T-0 H1EpOIKOV 7rXovT70 KTX. The fact that Aristides remained in Aegina explains the provision that henceforth persons ostracised were to reside outside Geraestus and the Scyllaean promontory. According to Plutarch (ClMi 17), Cimon when ostracised appeared at Tanagra (Wyse in C'lass. Rev. v '274 1) EKTSS] Mr Kenyon, retaining 6i70',, suggests that the object of the regulation was to keep the ostracised person 'within very narrow boundaries,' so as to obviate the danger of a banished citizen entering into communication with Persia. But, as Aristides had remained within these limits, it is more reasonable to suppose that the line beyond which the ostracised person was to withdraw was thenceforward made the subject of special regulation. Banishment had in fact to be defined more strictly. Otherwise the exile might remain within a very short distance of Attica and carry on intrigues against his opponents. Themistocles, while under ostracism, lived at Argos, Thuc. i 139, i'Xwo &cwrav~ yei. ev 'Ap-yet (Plut. Them. 23 ~ i), E'n~Oocrcv i Kall is T?7.'p dXX?7V HEXo07vv (rov, and afterwards went to Corcyra, and Epirus, to Pydna in Macedonia, and thence to Naxos and Ephesus. He clearly kept outside the limits described in the text as emended. Hyperbolus, again, lived in Samos (Thuc. viii 73 ~ 2). Both these cases exemplify the rule. According

Page  92 92 AOHNAIQN COL. 9,1I. 34-43. 42 Fepato-Tol3 ica't 1,vXXatiov KcaTOLKELl) i3 ch~t/-OVs elvat icaGa7rca4. 23. TOTE Lel'P OVJJ I/16XPI TOVTOV 7TpO77Xdelv I 7TOXtLS% a/lja T7 8,wt/copaTt'a Icca-a',lulLpV av'tavo/Levfl,LLETa &e Ta M'8Ua 7T6XW HI.XvcTeP 17 eV) Apeift) 7Taywp /ovX) tcait &(Of IEt T'nV 77r0XtV, OV&14V 80'dylaTt Xa/3oi-a-aT 'V i1y[61Zo]VifaV, aXXd' ta' To' ryev&T-Oat T197rp.5 IaXap-tva vav.aXia9~ atrTia. TCOv ya~p o-T-paTrq3v e~a'nopnca'VTvWV 7TO 9I Ttp y/.La c ~t Ica t ic I7p v ~L V W ~ 9 E V e EL. O ) Ea T v.p ~ L SpaXtza9 e'1a0GT&) (KIT&O &te3&uKe icaIt EVE/3L'/cUev 6119 Ta\ vaivq. 8ta 2 TaLVT177l) 87\1T71 airtav 71-apc~wpotw aVT'y TOi a'cotaos ia XXII 1 TOTE: To' Poste (H-L). 5 6tarop?7oaivTwP Richards, coil. Cobet V. L. pp. '219-220. 6 CWzCIN: 0cr4 P (edd.), cf. Meisterhans, p. 1421. 7 inter fKdoT~ry et 6'KTCb lacunam indicat B, coil. Plot. Them. io, e'Kdo-Ty TwPl o-rparevoupdwP. 8 &YT(HN)TW1I&11LM&TI: av'-,^rwT^ ai~,cba-r, K; a6'TJ aicw',art Rutherford; aiiTJ TW ai~&d/=cTt Blass (H-L); az'T-q^Torau d4Wbearog J E B Mayor, K-W. TESTIMONIA. XXIII 5-7 * Plot. Themn. iO 06K OVPTW1' SE &?J/LGUL XP'uJI.afiT&J ro~s 'AO-pa'cots 'Ap. Ak4p fr-qot Tip'7 Ei~ 'Apeiov 7rc-yov g3ovXi~p 7roptaactap E'Kio-Tq TWVo o-r~paTevoIlAI'WV 6KTrw &paXIgd11 ai-r~wrriar-pv ~ypeo-OaL ToO rX-qpwOi~vaL Ta's TpL?57petT. to the Schol. on Aristoph. Vesp 97 one of the differences between those who are banished for life and those who are ostracised is that the former 'have no fixed place of abode, no time of return assigned, but the latter have' (Kai r67ros cL7rE51607- KULd XPvO11S). r(pcLLO-TOZ] The cape at the s. w. extremity of Euboea. (Hdt. viii 7, ix io5, Thuc. iii 3 ~ 4.) 1KUXXCLCov] the cape at the eastern extremity of the territory of Troezen (Thuc. v 5 3), the most easterly point of the Peloponnesus, and forming (with the opposite promontory of Sunium) the entrance to the Saronic gulf. CLTFOS- KCAO"Tag] The penalty is that of perpetual adrtjda. For Ka~cira~' in this connexion cf. Dem. Mlid. ~~ 32, 87, Arisftag i ~ 30. The various disabilities in such a case are enumerated by Aeschines, c. Timarekh. ~ i8 (see Smith, Dict. A nt.i 2 42 a).XXIII, XXIV. The supremacy of the A4 reapgu. -istides and Themzlltocles. XXIII ~ i. ~r.rct M'98LKC1-PVXj'] Pal. viii (v) 4, 1304 a 20, 7i7 ev 'Apveiy 7rci'ywp &Uov-q' EL}SOKtJuIo-ao-a El' Tot's M?77SKOES 93ote o-u' roTvwi-pcw 7ro117aa TI7v 7roX Lrelav. oZ8Sv1 S5yFLarL KTX.] This is said of the Areopagus to contrast it with the Four hundred (c. 29) and the Thirty (c. 34 end, and Isocr. Areap. 67, 01... *to-Aart 7raspaXa/36;,7-Es Tqv 7r6XwP). ris wP1 1cLXC~jtvcL v 'cCcLS] Pal. 1304 a 2,2, 6 aVc.TLKOS d5xXos -yev6/spos af'Tbos 711 7repl 2;aLXa/5LFa PL'K'qg Kal 6ta Tca6TqTp (ra6rqv? Susemihl) T~s ' 7-,uoptas &&a 7r7'? Ka~lai OciXa~rcwa &ivaaim' 711'p 571psoKpaTiap 1o-XvporlpaP iirohqcrev. &qc~rop-gjociv'ow 'rots irpc LYFLOJL Isocr. Paneg. 147, dbrop~5ocs ToLL rapofac 7rpa'yysaau. For the general sense of the context, cf. Cic de Off. i 75, et Themistacles qzeidem nihil dixerit, in qua ipse A reo~pagum adizeventl, at ille vere a se adiutumi Themnistoclem; est eninm belium gaestzum consilia senatus eizes qui a Solone erat eanstitietus. 7ropo-cw-cL SpaXtLcis] Probably from the sacred treasure on the Acropolis; cf. Philippi, Areo~pag. 293; Oncken, Staatslehr-e, 468. ~ 2. 7rrapEXw'povv cvrtT 'roil dLLWLCjLcLros] The most common construction of lrcapaXwpe& is e. dat. pers. et gen. rei vel laci. Isocr. i i 8 D, r. Tois EiXOpoZL T17 'J/e7-ipaT. Aeschin. 54, 21. Polyb. iv 5, i etc., iir. TLin T77 7roXLteclag, Trp' dpXi~L (L and S). Similarly efKet' Tafti T*q S'Soi (Hdt. ii 8o). For ai~lwpua, cf. Thuc. vi i 5 ~ 2, W'v d~:Lcb~aT, U'orh rw1' afo-rTv, and i i130 ~ i. Mr Kenyon prints lrapeX 'pouv a'ir6 L ai~kL'jLa-ri, 'gave place (or 'precedence') to it in rank' (or 'reputation'). The simple dat. may here be equivalent to ev-. The latter is found in M4agn. Maor. ii i, 1198 b 28, O 6 i To67oLs irapa~wpi~v EMrLLK75s, but I can find no exact parallel for the dative alone.' fErroXL~c'0E1qaV-av-KcmXCs] With the sub

Page  93 CH. 22, 1. 42-CH. 23, 1. 17. iTOAITEIA 9 93 Trev ora AGvso aX Kat KaTaroVTrov4? TOVV Katpow9. avvEI3,q fy p av'To~ 7urept TO P rOP TOv TO T TE te ~ T '7-0euo a icta-at lo 3 I 3' zv Xa3,e-ZV d'K OwvTciv AaKE~atpoviron. 77o-av &' 7T TaT~t TOV' Up/ov cara' TOV7TOV9~ miX Katpovq 'Apta-Teicfl9 O' Avo-t/pka'Xov Kcat OHE/.$WTOKX~7^9 S' N6oKcXE'ov~q, 0 /JEV Ta 7rOXE1LUKa\ 8OK0^V, 0'8E Ta 7T0XtTLKa va09EhCt, Kat ~LaOVf O t6 0a~o Stt(EptV 0 1 4 XP' Tco /~E O'~'-~79 TO \ 0EV/43,OV'X~. T \V /lEV O')TO TEXW PtK~/.?a-VKO ^ &?)/cK7o-av, KaLorep &af~OJLEVOt 7Tp9 9 Kal (ante,ec7-d') seci. K, K-W; retinent H-L (B), Coil. 33 ~ 3. 10 K (e&e) supra scripto rr ep i (B). Kac-r&' rlv Xp6vop 7-oO7Tov secl. K-W. 12 &KONTWaN (K, K-W, * B): E'K61'Twv J B Mayor (Class. Rev. v 1 i2 b), Gennadios; et'K6vi-wv Naber (H-L). 14 TT0,6AA1& (K, K-W, H-L): 7rOXIEFLK& Blass, Richards, Thompson; 7roXAua defendit K coil. Thuc. i i8 S 7rape6TK6VdcTav7o 74i iroVitta, et iv 8o IP 7 —OZS IOXEFLIoLS yey/EVicrOatt 04/oiat alpio-ToL 6bCK&N (retinent (K, K-W1): 3OKW~V Richards, Thompson, Kontos (H-L, K-W2, B); IIOKWVP cbvKEZ1 conicit K. 14 —15 1ToAE\MtK&,&C1eNOC per errorem, corr. K. 66LVlt Jt~IM < 8OKWI >- K, K-WI. sequent context, cf. Isocr. Ar-eop. 51r (of the Areopagus), 's 47rto-TcT060-77S Ot' &LKCOV oW i'yKX77/.LcLwv oilS' etcrc/opwv otlS 7rEvlcar obU& roX4juwv ' 7r6Xts1-yqe.te...iIapeLXov -yap o4/ctl au'-ou rToi5 Ae& `EXX-qo-&rtir~o06s, -roi~ US /3apI~dpots O/o/3epoilt i-out,AlI -ya'p aeaw~K6TES 'o01a1 K7-X., and ~~ 8o, 8,2. Panath. 1 51, i-rt -akrpd~ets T71 i'e TO 70 KaXcl' irOXure6eaoOau...152, irap& T-o 'EXX-jo-4v cil30KIA7-q a-ay. D~e Pace, 75-77, esp. 771 iroX&T-et cc T~S 7rap& iraToL 630SKIILLA00779. KcLI x.-raLF To1?IrOlS TO1S KcLLpOV'S] Ka11 is perhaps added because Athens had been well governed when the Areopagus was in power before, cf. ~ i, 7rdXv 'Lo-Xvo-eV (Newman). 'n V.rS 6cLXL7-qS TIYEFLOVCO.V K7TX.] Isocr. Paneg. 72 (after the Persian wars), oil roXXc~ 3' kTorpov Ti'7P d'pxhv T?71 OacXcTi-i7 M~afoo, 56vrw.v IA~v -resz' aXXwp 'EXXhVWVV, Okl a'uto-0?7To6vrwu' r&v i- OP vuvk77sc doatpeioOat p)1ToVvvrw', de Pace 30, 'nap' 4FK6"iwV i-dy 'EXXihvwP riP i-ye~soplap EiXcg3ogp~, Panath. 67, ol oailpuaXot i-'jy 7 iycjiovtcav ')/.U1 Ti7J Ka-raI OciXa-r-ap goocav. Thuc. i 96, irapcacqa0y-res ol 'AO. i-r',v re Tlavaraptou Aptoot. In Xen. Hell. vi ~ 34 a Spartan declares that the Athenians were chosen leaders at sea i-dr AaLK1E&aLL.0 -viwv' avA,43vXeuojF16vwJ. None of the above passages shews that the Lacedaemonians were really willing to surrender the supremacy; and in Thuc. i 96 the reference is not to the Lacedaemonians, but to the allies of Athens who smarted under the overbearing conduct of Pausanias. Hence e&Ke6v~wv should be retained. ~ 3. -nrpoo-r&rCu'roa 8 ijov] c. 2 ~ 2, and c. 28. Holm, Gr. Gesck. ii 43, 110. NIoKXEOVS] Plut. Them. i, N. ou' rw~v ai-yap lirupavcv 'AO'77P7i0-t. -r&~ 1r-oXePLKd' Pol. 1305 a 14, crt~iaep i-wi' iro'6eLKcwV, 1,285 b i8, i-yepuoyia i-rWv 7roXe6ucLKf'. Ind. Ar. On the other hand, i7roV/L0~S is rare in Ar. Cf. c. 3 1. 7. SML~cLo(TG-4] Plut. Arist. 3 fin., and 7, 61' &KaUo1'. 'n4 pilv ao-rpcI-nyy4, i-4 8i crvR~143o5X] Aristotle obviously refers to the rival claims of Themistocles and Aristides, in Pol. viii (v) 8, 1309 a 39, 9XIEL 6, cairoplay, b'Tai' /177 aoaupid' Iid rv (95~tlap irp6T Ti'v KaOeTr(doILa iro~ei-eay... Uvva/LIP /Ie-yU~i-iJV TwV t'p-yCw i-77 cipXi7-l... ap~eTr'7V Kal 6tcatoo-Ulv77v) irepi i-rlv av~rov, 711*3 Xp7 oieOLatC(a 777'v altpea-Wp... el' 0-TpLT7-7qyiq A4V (3d 3X9761LV) ElI 777'PESrlL /oaXXOP T771 cpeTi.. fiv8 q5V /JXcK?77 Kacd Ta/hlE~l TOU'vavrrov. On the other hand Isocr., Panath. 143, strangely maintains that the best o-iliqOov~os will also prove the best general (Class. Rev. v i6i a). ~ 4. TCLXCV cILVOLK0S64LigrL] Thuc. i 89 ~, T-V rz6Xcv dI'OLK050/hEC1' apeocevdPO1'To cal i-at r-etX77. Themistocles went as envoy to Sparta to gain time while the walls were being built (ib. 90), while Aristides was one of the ~vurgai-pl-/Ets who afterwards announced to Themistocles 9XecV LWa1'c3s ii i-EZXos (gi ~).Cf. Busolt, 11 32 1 -9.

Page  94 94 AOHNAIQN COL. C9, 1. 43-10, 1. 12. 4XX'7Xovs~ E7t 3 9 a o 7 a t T?7 '7O- l ICO Cov a770 Tip~ Tow Aa~ce~atpoviov a~vpaJasta 'Apto~-Tet3q, 73v 6' 7rpoTpr'a9, 7-fp?7O-aa,20 7Tov AdaKwvas~ 8tafl/3X'q~jzevovs- 8taITavo-aviaw. to' Ka't To9 5 00opovs' o0109, nv 6' Tai~l? TaEt9 vrXeotv Tov'9?rpw'Tovs~ &Et T~tTW [LeT(t 7Tqv Ev IaXac-t~vt vavji~aXtav) E~~ Ttlttoo-OEvov9 aipyovros', Kat 'olopKOV9~ dO tooev TOS0J)LLV f o c-r rov azX-ov EX 9pov evat Kat [Col. IC ktXov, E'Wb ois Ka't Tov\9 luiI.-pov9 E'v Tj C'yet KaOeroav. 24. JLLeTa 8E Tar'a Oappot'o-q "8y T179 7r-oecoq Ka&tX?1.aW i a1 vtas~ Kcat KaTa/3a1'v-a9 E'K TUW "ypw5V OLK6EU EV) Tq'v alWoTet TpOOfflql yap eo-Eo-Oat -,aot TOZ-o? fAZ)v oTTpaTevo/.Evot9?, 70L9 O povpofOt, 5T7tq 86 a 7 /COtVa\ 7Tpa'TTovoL, EtO OVT&) xKa~aayXi7c-et viv i77yEIoviav-. 7rELOOE6VTS 3& Tlav-Ta Kati Xado0vre9 7nv adp~qi To q [TeJ o-vHqzaXov 2 18 I2N&)N K(6,I)T(H N)T(O.)N) &KE~,-M'VX I6N:-a&ir6 7i-s-ovUicaXlas Blass, H-L, K-NV, K3. 21 r 6\eoi H-L. 23 W'/IL06E H-L, B. B XXIV 2 TT0oN/\ NH0po1CAAENWN: lroXXw~v 7'6potGo/dn'Wv H-L, B; dX'pot o)ihv ' 7r. K-WX. 5 rpcii-i-ovsro H-L. 6 Tro~ls E Tots B. cLrr6G-crcrLV TT-rV TrOV 'TIuvow] Thuc. i 6wroi a/r~oO (Pausanias) oiti-e 6'XXoL`EXX-JvEs I~ O V O Ka! 067( 77'K L~i-ir 0' `Iwv'si...p t% i-Es -re 7rpOSg oTs 'AO67i'vaivs 2)~lovv' aCWTov y;-e1.k6vcas o-95ws -y6si'0r at KCLT/L Tr\ f -Y-yev/S ea 1avocavi'a /' E7rLTp/7retv. Plut. Arist. 23. On the other hand Hdt. viii.3, 7rp6'oaatv r7-v Havoraview /`~ptv irpoxo-Xsgvot alrEiXOVTO 7rhv -q'YE~soi'iav 7-o/s AarE~aLAOv10v5. On Pausanias cf. Po/. 1307 a 2, 1 3.33 b 3 2. ~ ~i. ToU'S fripovs] 'tributes.' Thuc. i 96, E67L/clv /a1 7T6 E'6f 7rrP/XEWV 7-CV 70'XEWi Xp77f'IaTa 7rp6s T-O' iOcip/3apov Kalt as vays... KlaL /XXrnvor-agsir -r6rc irp/srov 'AO77vaiQLS KalTEo-TI) aipX7)7, ot &Elxov-ro i-rW 06popv ODTC3 -yap cb'o~do-0q TWJp Xprn'd-rwv ' (popu'. v 18 ~ 4, Trc't iro~ust (/)epoDo-a ro'v s6pop i-r/v iw' 'Apto-7ret~ov. Plut. Aist. '24. Schol. Aeschin. 3 ~ 258, 'Apto-rei6iq3 6 Trov' 4)/poUT i-a,,as -rod 'EXX'qGx. The 950pos wvas fixed in the first instance at 460 talents. 4w1r. TLqLorOi6vovS] B.C. 478/7. The commencement of the Athenian ascendancy is placed by Diodorus (xi 41) in the year of Adeimantus (477/6). This is tbe date accepted by Clinton. Ephorus appears to have placed the first payment o~f tribute in the spring Of 476 (Busolt, AN/zeisz. MlI/s. xxxvii 313), and accordingly this has been the date usually assigned to the formation of the Confederacy of Delos.. Dem., P/il. iii 23, makes the Athenian ascendancy last 73 years, and the Lacedaemonian 29. The 29 years are reckoned from the battle of Aegospotami (July 405) to the battle of Naxos (Sept. 376). As the first of these battles marked the end of the Athenian empire, it follows that Dem. reckoned the beginning of the Athenian empire from 478, the first year after the Persian wars. For further details, sde Clinton's Pasti, Appendix, c. 6; and Busolt, ii 345. TOU'S ipKOvUS ZhLocrev] Plot. Ar/ist. 25, 6 5, 'Apt0-7 ci5?7 W~pKtGwE j/i To/I "EXXip'as Katl WJLoOeJ' /wp rCov 'AG)vatiwv, Au)5povs EIL/3aXb'v e/iri 7rals cipils els r —Ov Oa'Xa-rrcu'. The same symbol of an irrevocable oath is recorded in Hdt. i i65, ol' (PWKcdSl E7rot 'aOal7To WGXVPa' KalTaipils ip U'roXet7rouvy EWVTrWZ i-Ovl 1T6Xov0 7rpo's 5/ ravT77Oa Kat 1jUv o ILqPEOV KcaTe~rovicoracW KUL cuuourcn Ail 7rph'V 1 elI 4nsaccds 77/SW, wrpiV 7') 7-/is A66pos TrOUTov dvo.Ii~7vlL, and in Horace, p7od. i 6, 25 X XJ V ~, s. 6appov'cr~ls] c. 22. ~ 3. KO.TCLPC'VTaS E'K TZV dYPCOV Ki-X. ] In contrast to Peisistratus who encouraged agriculture with a view to preventing his subjects from living in Athens (c. i6 ~ 3). 2. XCL436VTES Tn'j c&pxiv] The simple verb is similarly used in Isocr. 4 ~ 72;,~~ 6i; 7 ~ 7; 8 ~~ 30, 69, 74, 104 i6 ~ i03. He has 7ripa~ac~e~s T77v aipXq'v

Page  95 CH. 23, 1. I8-CH. 24, 1. II. TTOAITEIA 95 &6a7rorT7OKc E'Po EXpt0V7-o 7r\Xv X'ouV Kal Aeo3lwv Kcat Eaubio TOVTOVS 8;e (fvXaKaq elXOv Ts apXE7), e)v)eS Tas Te 7roXLTrla r7 rap, it * e.r a I 3 av'TolS calt apXetv w7v CTVXv apXovT7E. Ka7TEUT7ro'av E Kal Trol 7roXXoZS EV7roplav TPpo), c Or7rep AptTrr'E ErlCe'7Y?77cr-aT. avvE- 1o /3atvev yap adr 7ro TJ O 'opv Kca TV0 T7X\v C ca T ')v cUjL/.u Xwv7 8 <ra&> 7rap', Richards, K-W. 9 apxovres < avros e7r(Tpg7rovreS, Kal - -> 'dictum erat de cleruchis' K-W. 10 avve/3atve H-L. 10-22 'idoneam sententiam non praebent...certe ipsi auctori tribuenda non videntur' H-L. 11 )O po N: eitfoopowv Whibley (H-L). Kal riWv ovujuciXowv secl. K-W, B. in 4 ~ Ioo; 8 ~ IOI; Ka-Ta-XEv in 4 ~ 102, 8 ~ 126. SEcO'ro'rLKcTipcws] This comparative of the adverb is not in L and S. Pol. iv Io, 3, 7r eoen7orT1Kwx a&pxev. rXljv Xiov Ka AEcrPCLoV KiL SaXaCov] Thuc. i 19, (in the interval between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars) 'AOvrvaiob e (7roV's vmUdXovs 4'yovvTo) vavs re TrC 7roXewv rT' XpOvp rrapaXap6ovres, TrXhv Xiwv Kal Aeo-Atwv, Kal Xp7rjuaTa ros raat Tardlavres Oepetv. Even when (under Pericles) the confederacy of Delos was transformed into an empire on the part of Athens, with her former confederates degraded into tributary dependencies, Chios, Samos and Lesbos alone remained on their original footing of autonomous allies. It was after the revolt of Samos in 440 B.C. that that state was conquered by an armament under ten generals, including Pericles and Sophocles, and after a prolonged contest disarmed and dismantled (Thuc. i 115 — I7). Lesbos and Chios still remained in a privileged position (Thuc. iii io). Mitylene and the greater part of Lesbos revolted in 428 (ib. 2), one of the reasons being that the Mitylenceans 'had no security that Athens would not degrade them into the condition of subject-allies like the rest' (ib. Io fin.). The fortifications of Mitylene were razed, all her ships of war captured, and the greater [)art of the island allotted to Athenian settlers (ib. o5). In 425 Chios incurred the suspicion of Athens by building a new wall, which implied an intention to revolt (Thuc. iv 5I). The Athenians insisted on the destruction of the wall (52). Chios actually revolted in 412 and was much harassed by the Athenians (Thuc. viii 14-6i). It is to the result of these revolts that Aristotle refers in Pol. iii 13, 1284 a 39, where, after speaking of ostracism as a means of suppressing undue prominence, he adds: rO 6' avruo Kal rrepl ras Tr6Xets Kal r7a rOPl 7rotoi00oL o0 Kvcptot trjs vvPdIEWs, olov 'AOrlvaioi ez'v 7repi Za/iuovS Kal Xiovs Kai A-ef3lovg (ierei -yap Oarrov EyKpparis &aXov Tr7V Cpx7v, eTaTEreivUoav av1ro1vs rapa -ra avv0ruKas). But (as observed by Schlosser) the remark in the Politics is untrue of Lesbos, and barely true of Samos and Chios. The account in the text correctly describes the position of privilege at first enjoyed by these three islands. The passage in the Politics refers to a later time and is therefore not inconsistent with the text (cf. W. L. Newman, Class. Rev. v 162 b). WVTrEs] The two constructions of eav are here combined, (i) the acc., as in Pol. v 7, I307 b I6, KivPjaavras rb'v v6,uov edaEft 7rv TlXX?7\v 7roXreiav, and (2) the inf., as ib. 3, 1302 b 20, idaavra-s yeveoOat Lco-Oat vo-repov. Wv TrvXov apxovrEs] For Chian possessions on the mainland, cf. Hdt. i I60 (Wyse). On the relations of Athens to Chios, Lesbos and Samos, cf. Wilamowitz, Aus Aydathen, pp. I, 12. ~ 3. crirep 'ApL<rT-rEC8S Et'ry'craTo] 'If the policy of Aristides is placed in a less favourable light than we should expect, inasmuch as he is said to have converted a citizen-body largely consisting of peasants into an urban citizenbody subsisting on pay and exercising a despotic authority over the subject states, and thus to have contributed to the establishment of an extreme democracy, we remember that we are taught in the Politics (iv 6, 5, 1292 b 41 sqq.) to connect the establishment of a reXevrala 8oquoKparia with a large increase in the size of the city and with the provision of pay, and also that Theophrastus' opinion of Aristides was not an altogether favourable one (Plut. Arist. c. 25).' (W. L. Newaman in Class. Rev. v 162 b. ) T(OV 4<|6pov] See note on 23 ~ 5. Twrv TEX(V] 'taxes.' With the exception of the produce of plunder in war

Page  96 96 AOHNAIQN COL. IO, 1. I2-I6. qrXeLovs i &ioafLVplovs av.Spacs TpeteaLOa. tLKcacaTat,t v yap [cra]v etaKto-Xi Ltot, roTTat 8' E'aKcoatot, Cat Xta Ltot, ECa 7rpo'q rovTotS 14 OrrTreV XLXtOL t\ai 8cLaoa'otl, /3ovXj &e 7revTraKoo'tL, Kat (povpoh 12 AI K&CTAI: 6oTrXraL? van Leeuwen, Gennadios. --- and sale of prisoners, the 0opos was at this time the only source of revenue from foreigners. (The duty on merchandise passing to or from the Euxine was not levied until 409.) Hence the reference in reX\W is to taxes imposed by the Athenians and levied at home, whether (i) ordinary taxes, such as harbour-dues, market-dues, court-fees, and payments made by resident aliens, or (2) extraordinary taxes. The latter were levied for special purposes, viz. the propertytax (elraopi) which was practically a war-tax, and the Xyrovp-yic, or compulsory services. These last did not contribute towards the support of the citizens except by relieving them of expenses which might otherwise have fallen on the public chest. Lastly, there was the income derived from rents of public lands, and from the mines at Laurium. In Thuc. vi 9I, 6, Alcibiades enumerates some of these sources of revenue, viz. the mines, the public land and the law-courts and the tribute paid by the allies (rPs drio ropv T vtUdsXwv Trpoo680ov). There is a fuller enumeration in Aristoph. Vesp. 656, Kal 7rpwTroV 1v XoyiCLat I)aiXcs, OuL \tp'?ois, \XX' dr- Xetpos, rbv 0f6pov 77,Uzv d7rb rT 7r6X\ev vuX\\X7jp3v 7rOv rpoTt6vra' Ka&W TT ro6ra T \r 7tX7 Xwpis Kai TrSL 7roXX&s eKcaTroTrds, 7rpvTaveCa, /1eTaXX', ayops, tlJ'Lvas, tUioijOs6 KCaL 5t7f67rpaTa (making a total of nearly 2000 talents, of which the 6000 &KacTrai received 50o). As the o'6uAcIaXot contribute no payment except the 06pos, it is clear that the mention of them in the text is superfluous. ' The text, as it stands, appears to imply that the citizens of Athens derived maintenance from the allies over and above the 0p6poi and the TrX\ paid by them; cf. [Xen.] Rep. Ath. i I6-i8. Fees paid by the allies in lawsuits may be included in the reference, for these helped to maintain the dicasts (Gilbert, i 382, 4). There was also an i7rTLop6d (ib. 397). The visits of the citizens of the allied states to Athens would be another source of profit' (Newman). W7rkCovs!' SitcrvpCovs] The numbers actually specified amount to 15,750. If to this we add (with Mr Kenyon) '4000 men for the 20 guard-ships at the usual rate of 2oo men to each ship,' we obtain a total of 19,750, not including the orphans and other privileged persons mentioned at the end of the chapter. 8LKca-aLl] As these were not paid until the time of Pericles, this must be (as Mr Kenyon notices) an anticipation of the results of the policy initiated by Aristides.;CLKL-XCtXLOL] i.e. 600 for each tribe. This is apparently the number of the dicasts in the times of the democracy after Cleisthenes. The Heliastae were instituted by Solon; but their number in his days is unknown, though it was probably not very small. rTo6oTa] The context shews that citizens serving as bowmen are meant. The figures in the text are partly borrowed from Thuc. ii I3 ~ 7, where Pericles, on the outbreak of the Peloponnesian war, estimates the number of the roO6rat at 600o, and the i7rres at 1200 /6v irTroTo6Orais. In Thuc. vi 25 Nicias requires for the Sicilian expedition roorwTv rTv avr60ev Kaci K Kpr)T?7. Gilbert, Gr. St., i 305, quotes CIA i 79, ro6Orat oi dartKOi; i 45, (Kara) AvXas roX(o-6raT 6/)Ka; and i 55, 433, 446; ib. i 79, ol Tr6apXot. The 600o freeborn bowmen in the text must be distinguished from the 1200 Scythian bowmen of Andocides (de Pace, 7) and Aeschines (F. L. ~~ 173-4). The latter were a police force instituted in 480 B.C. when 300 were purchased for this purpose by the state (Andoc. 1. c. 5). inrrets] The same number is found in Thuc. ii. 13 ~ 7, and in Andocides and Aeschines (I. c.) In 490 Athens had no cavalry (Hdt. vi 112). The number gradually rose to Iooo, Arist. Eq. 225, Philochorus ev rerdprqS (B.C. 456-404) ap. Hesych. s. v.; and this number was maintained in the fourth century (Xen. Hipparch. 9, 3; Dem. 14 ~ 3). The number I200 in Thuc. includes the i7rroror6TaL. As the latter were Scythian slaves, it was a discredit to an Athenian citizen to serve in this force (Lys. I5 ~ 6). The fact that only Iooo, out of the total I200, are really citizens is apparently overlooked in the text. Gilbert, Gr. St., i 305, n. 5, quotes Philochorus, 1. c., Staipopa y&p v Irrrtwv 7rX\071 Kara& Xp6vov 'AOqvaiots, but holds

Page  97 CH. 24, 1. 12-16. TTOAITEIA 97 Pe(Op ov e7rEV7aKoaL, ia' 7rpol ITVTOL9 lT 7 IcTOL Opovpo 7TEv-r797- 's a pV Kov~ra) apXait8 6"V8,911t ke~p EtLF erratcoctovq av~paq, V'VEPOPIM 8' 15 Tr secl. K-W2, B. 16 M(EN) HCAN 6CC... that little credit can be given to any statements giving I200 as the total number of the lirnrels alone. 4povpol veopC(v] I cannot find any other passage in which these are expressly mentioned. In Thuc. ii 13 ~ 6 half the circuit of the Peiraeus and Munichia is described as ev UvXaK-?, and the total number of oTrXTrat rToy v rois fpovptOLs Kal rcv Trapp' TraXtLv is I6,ooo (ib. ~ 3). This number is the force employed on the outbreak of war. Iv Trj roAXEL 4cpovpol] The mention of the vebpta in the previous clause might at first sight suggest that these ppovpoi were concerned with the upper Or6XiL in contrast with the Peiraeus: but, if so, we should expect lv r c'dt-rrei as the normal term to express this contrast. It is therefore probable that r?, Tr6Xet refers to the Acropolis, and it is so translated by Th. Reinach. This view (as Mr Wyse suggests to me) is supported by an inscr. of the 5th cent. published in the Bulletin de Corr. Hellenique, I890, 177-180, and ascribed to 447 B.C. in CIA iv 3, 26 a, [ri]q 7r6X\v.. o.... [o]iKlo,[]oAjTa 6[7rs] av 3pa-rirqs Ai i[cri] An /w7de Xw7ro56r[?7s]' rauTOa 8 uvvpyp[ca]pai iv Ka\\XXKp[a]Ti-(v) 07rws dptora KaL[] EVTereXorrara OK[e]vd[o]atv[r]o, uLtaO~rra[L] 31 rois rrwX-rTas 6OTos ay' e'vrs c7[7[K]OV7rTa Jiepwv e7ricOK[e]uaG077, fvbXaKas & [de]vaL rpeis.lev Too6[r]as EK TrS uX7js TrIs [Tr]pvravevo6ars. M. Foucart understands the three Tro6rat who are to act as fvXaKes to be trois Scythes, on the ground that the police was not recruited from the citizens, but it will be observed that they belong to a vX-r7 and are therefore citizens. They are appointed to guard the approach to a particular part of the Acropolis and to prevent runaway slaves from seeking sanctuary in the temples. iro6Xs, or 1 7r6Xts, is regularly used of the Acropolis in the 5th century. Thuc. ii j5fin. (KaXeraL) 7 d&Kpo6roXts /tlXpt Tov0e g r V7tr' 'AOvaiwv -7r6os. Cf. c. 8 1. 24. 'Aristophanes always uses iv -r6Xet, els ro\Xtv (without the article) when he means the Acropolis. In prose writers, however, there are places where the MSS give the article: Xen. Anab. vii I, 27, bvrapx6OVrwv 7roXXowv XplprCrw a v iev T rorXet, Aeschin. I ~ 97, oiciav oLrSOeEv Tis roXeoWs, Antiph. 6 ~ 39, &-iXX-,Y7V 70ro6roLS iv rS. A. btrXet vavrlov!uaprvpwv, [Xen.] de Red. 5 ~ 12, wroXN& Xp /arTa els rTv rroXtv &dveveXOdvra, Phil. Per. 32, 67rws...ol d0e &Kaoral Triv IV/jov &i7r roov f3wCoO 0 ~povres ev Tr 7roXet Kpivo0ev. 4ei 7roXet is no doubt the normal form in CIA i' (Wyse). dpXal...v8.1ioL] The total number is large, and there is nothing to shew that the higher officers of state are excluded. Schomann (Ant. p. 147, E. T.) says: 'so far as our knowledge extends, the offices of government were unpaid.' Again, on p. 402, 'official functionaries,' as contrasted with subordinates, 'served without pay' (cf. ib. 436). But in c. 62 the archons receive for maintenance 4 obols a day each, and in c. 29 (under the constitution of 411) the archons and 7rpvravets are excepted from the rule that all offices should be without pay. virEpopLOL] In Po-. iii 14, I285 b 14, we have ra Kcaa 7r6bXv Kcat r&d ev8'r7a KaL r&a vrep6bpa avveXWs rpXov, and the term ivrepoptos occurs again in 1. t8. Cf. law quoted in Aeschin. c. Timarch. 47, u*se apx4^v dPpXrTo /T76Eietiav, uOrTe 9v8-Fjiov jfire vrep6ptov. Mr Kenyon's translation distinguishes between magistrates 'within the city' and 'those whose jurisdiction lay outside it'; Mr Poste (more satisfactorily) between 'home' and 'foreign' magistrates. The latter would naturally include the officials in the Athenian KX7qpovxiat. The first KX-?povxla was that settled near Chalkis in 51o B.c. The number of cleruchs sent out between 460 and 427 amounted to 9,450, not including those sent to Lemnos, Imbros and Aegina (Gilbert, Gr. St. i 421, note 4). The cleruchs were subject to military orders, and we sometimes hear of civil magistrates being sent out by Athens, e.g. apXovres sent to Lesbos (Antiphon, de Caede Her. ~ 47). Cf. the eir'rKoiroL ofAristoph. Av. I022, Io50 (see Wilamowitz, Aus Kydathen, p. 75), and the irL/eX-r/rai sent to Miletus (CIA iv I, 22a) and in later times to Delos, Haliartos and Paros (Boeckh, i 508 a, and n. 709 Frankel). The apxai vrepopdtop would also include the 5poupapxot, as at Erythrae, CIA i 9 (Ditt. no. 2), and ro. ppovpapxia is mentioned in Xen. Mem. iv 4, 17, and Sppoupapxot possibly in [Xen.] de Rep. 7

Page  98 98 AOHNAIQN COL. IO, 1. I6-24. elS eTrTaKtoLov' 70 rpo0 Se TOVTOl9, E7reC orvvea'rrja-ar ro TO 7r6T\e1LOv I, \ vcrepov, o7rrM at Lv &SIJi\tO Ka1a 7TrevTaKoO'ot, Vi~e e (f; povpLS~< 19 etIcocL, daiXa 8E ve? at Tro\ fpovpov dyov-aiL rov a7ro roT 17 fTraKoo'iovs e v. x6 male repetitum putant K-W (B). 'an <ra eis> rov wr6eMiov?' K-W; Karao-r7o-aav is rbv 7r6Xe/uov Richards. 19 4OpOYc K, et (lacuna post aiyovrat indicata) K-w: ppovpovs van Leeuwen et Blass, coll. 62 ~; f6povs 'vox aperte corrupta,' H-L; Muo7-Oo06povs? Herwerden. Ath. i i8, Tros EK7rXiovrTa 'AOrvaiwv eriMuwv av,6ovovs, TOiS re oaparryobs Kal rots qppovpapxovs (MSS rptipdpc'ovsp Kal rovs 'rpa'etLs (Wilamowitz, Aus Kydathen, pp. 73-76). Cf. inscr. ascribed to the beginning of the Peloponnesian war (CIA iv 3, 27 c), oi'tves 'A0r17va1iv apXovaOL ev rj direpopiq. orvvwo-riqo-vTo -rov irowdXov] The phrase ourro'aL or v-racr a 76X or ava a r6X or roXMreiav is found in the Politics and r& 7rpdayyuara ravviara~rac (of tragic poets) in the Poetics 6, p. I450 a 37. Again, in Thuc. i 15 ~ 2 we find Kara 'Lyiv 6e ro6XeAos... ovels vvPo-rTl, and Hdt. vi io8 has auvatrewras Botwrooi for 'engaged in conflict with' the B. Here, if ra els were to be inserted, it might mean ' organised,' as in Xen. Antab. vii 6 ~ 26 LTr'LKOrbv vvearT7K6s, cf. ro oTrpdreuvLa 'vvUe'ErlK6s, of 'a standing army,' in Dem. p. 93fin. 6OwrXMTa] The number 2,500 is difficult to reconcile with the figures mentioned elsewhere. The number of Athenians who fought at Marathon was 9,ooo (Pausan. x 20, 2) or o0,000 (Justin. ii 9); at Plataea, 8,ooo. In T-huc. ii 13 ~ 2, Pericles estimates the number of hoplites at i3,000 fit for service in the field, and I6,ooo (of the oldest and the youngest of the citizens) as fit to serve on garrison duty and to man the walls. In Thuc. ii 31 ~ 2, the Athenians march into Megara with a force of not less than Io,ooo hoplites who were citizens, and not less than 3,000 who were [arotcLK. Acharnae (the largest of the demes) could put into the field 3,000 hoplites. Possibly these numbers are exceptionally large and represent the maximum number of hoplites available on an emergency; but the number in the text professes to be that of the hoplites on the outbreak of war. The armament for the Sicilian expedition included not less than 4,000 hoplites (Thuc. vi 31, 2). In Thuc. vii 20 the hoplites EK KaraXoyou number I,200. It seems certain that these 2,500 hoplites (as partly implied in 7rp6s rov0ros) are in addition to such of the citizens who were available in time of war. Most of these have already been enumerated under previous headings. Thus, if we add to the 2,500 hoplites the 6,ooo dicasts and the 500 members of the povX,7, we obtain a total of 9,ooo, the exact number of Athenians who (according to Pausanias) fought at Marathon. Again, if we further add the 700 home officials, we get a total of 9,700, only 300 less than the Io,ooo Athenian hoplites who marched into Megara early in the Peloponnesian war. Blass understands by i7rX\rat qui contizno in praesidiis erant. viles-4povpCes] 'guard-ships.' In Thuc. iv 13 ~ 2 the Athenian fleet at Pylos includes r7v 9ppovpicov TrtVs rcv ec Nauv7racdou: the ships from Zacynthus are 5o in all; of these 35 were already at that island in c. 5, and 4 ships came from Chios, leaving eleven as the number of guard-ships from Naupactus, which had been an Athenian naval station ever since its capture in 455 B.C. (Thuc. i 103). The only other passages in which 'guardships' are mentioned are Xen. Hell. i 3, 17, where they form part of the Spartan fleet in the Hellespont, vaus at i-^av ev re 'EXXao'-6vrT Kara\eXeiXeuvat a Qpovpites, and CIA iv 22 a, at Miletus, [Cro]o-reXivrov [60o] q(povpi6e. Cf. Wilamowitz, Azus Kydathen, p. 73 f. The Athenian triremes were generally manned by about 2oo each (Boeckh iI xxii p. 376 Lamb; Gilbert, i 310). TovS —youvor-c] f)6povs raises a serious difficulty. It has hitherto been supposed that the 'tributaries' of Athens paid in the money themselves to the Council (Boeckh II vii, p. 177 Lewis; Gilbert, i 398). Pollux (viii 114) inaccurately says that the eXX\vora/clat collected the tribute, but this duty (when necessary) was (after 446?) performed by the eKXoyeZs. It was only the collection of arrears orfnes that was enforced by means of vjes dpyTvpoXX6oc (Thuc. iii 19; iv 50, 75) under the command of one or more orTpar-7yol (Gilbert, i 398, and Beicitrdge, p. 67). Further, unless we suppose a lacuna, rots tavpas cannot be construed. Hence the suggestion q5poupots, which follows naturally.0

Page  99 a CH. 24, 1. 7-CH. 25, 1.4. TTOAITEIA 99 KVa/Jov 8t0oXtiov~ adv~pa%~ e"t &6 7TpVTav)etov Kcat opoavot Kcai 86- '20 FUWOW)V 4pv'Xatce9 a`7aot ryap TOVT70(5 d~e) T(01V KOL1&)WV?77 ttK7 25. 7'7 /E1) 01)1 TpOOfr Tp ^ 8 'L 8ta\ TOV'TCO. 6'YL'YVETO. ETfl (3E E 8TLKa SKa /1aXtG-Ta PCTE~ \ T Mq~K' &EJtL'1)? 7TOXLTeLta 7wpoE0~(0(01 r3v'ApeowaytT-c"v, KcaLTep VWrO(/epo/J.vz KaTa /It1CPO1. ai'~avop~e'vov 86 TODi 7rX '9OVs, 7YEV6/LEVO9~ TOO) 87/JkV 7rpOu'TTdlqv 'EftaX- 4 20 'wrpv7'rVeLoS vix verum' K-W. 7-qo11s H-L. xxv 1 crnN (K-W). 21 a~raoutv B. 1101KHCIC &aaL.~ TESTIMIONIA. XXV 4 Heraclidis epitoma (Rose, Frag. 6ii): 'E95taiXrqs. after Opovp13cs and enables us to take ro~s d'Spas in apposition with it. In addition to the guard-ships stationed at places like Naupactus, there would be transports to take the Opovpol to the places where they were to be stationed. These Opovpot were appointed by lot by the demes. Even when changes were made in other appointments, the f&vicurat and the gOpovpol still continued to be thus appointed (c. 62 ~ i). lrrplrrcx~vEiov] i.e. the persons maintained in the Irylcnuicu, e~g. citizens who had done good service and wvere entertained at the public expense, either on a special occasion or for life. Among the latter were victors in the panhellenic games, distinguished generals or statesmen, and the representatives of Harmodius and Aristogeiton. The archons and other officials are not included in this list, as they have already been included in the aip~ai ti'&SqnXOL; and besides, in historic times, the archons probably dined in the ThtesmoIliesion and the prytanes and certain other officials in the Tholos (see Diet. Ant. s. v.). Cf. Hermann, Staatsalt. ~ 1,27, i17 f. dp~mvoll The sons of citizens who had fallen in war were maintained during their minority at the public expense. The regular phrase for this was 5-qpuoo-L'q -rpfO/,Et. Cf. Thuc. ii46, To's 7racla d177 roihe 3Sqgoortis 7i ir6XLS IE'XPL 7/)1Opl/eLG. Pol. ii 8, 1,268 a 8 (TOZI ircOla T(cS ES T woX4ouw TCTE6XCVT77K67&S 'K 6-UOoT'OV y-' veoO~aL T-qiS Tpoot,5)... go-TL & Ka IES 'AO75SILaLI ov-rog o v6puos v6S. Plat. AMenex. 248 E. The institution is said to have gone back as far as the time of Solon (Diog. Laert. i54). Cf. Schulthess, Vornmundsc/haft, pp. 13-26. '6'poavoi are mentioned in an inscr. said to be not later than 460 B. C. (Dittenberger, no. 384, 1. 120), but the latter part is much mutilated' (Wyse). SEOTLWTWV 4'XcLKEs] The Eleven had the management of the prison and had under them subordinates, such as jailers, executioners and torturers; but as these were S77/J.o0LoL, or public slaves, the reference may possibly be to the Eleven themselves, who are called &Eo-/0too6XaKES in the Schol. on Dem. Andr-ot. ~ 2,6, Timiocr. ~ 2 i0, and on Aristoph. Plitt. i io8 where the term is corrupted to Peo- /boV6XaKESs. SLOCKTncTLs] lit. ' administration.' Pol. iii i6, i1287 a 6, 7roLeLS tSIa K6pLOS T~S 61O1K'o0e&s, and i1331 b 9, ~rept -ypaoa's & KCILKa r7-q' IXX-qv Tips ToLa6UTIJS 6L01KI7O-LV. iv (vii) io, 1330 a 7 (it is not easy for all the citizens to pay their share in the 0v00-LTLILt) Katl SLoLK6FV T777S aXX-qV OlKatcL. The word is often used in the Politics, of management or administration. The primary meaning is 'to keep house,' as in Plato Meno 91I A, rI's TIE OLKLILI Kal Ta's w6Xets 6LOIKELS. SLOtKl7OLI means 'housekeeping' in Dem. Steph. 45 ~ 32, T7* KILO' -q17/_pIL &OLK-150EwS. In the text it includes maintenance (otT-qrIS) and payment of money. XXV. E~pklaltes. ~. T'qT~ 1EIT&c KOA, S&E' tLcLXLuO'rc.I From 478/7 B.C., the date of the Confederacy of Delos (,23 ~ 5), in the first year after the Persian wars, to 462/i, the archonship of Conon. -Trpo-i-cSrTWTW I 'rvApeoirc~yLr~v] See c. 2,3 ~ i, and Politics there quoted. Isocr. Ar-eop. 77 ' '7rLLTIaTO6O771S KTX. {srrocfepop.e'v71] c. 36 ~ i 'ELETq locfxwvSov] The father's name is given (Xoip-) in Aelian Var. Hist. 11 43; ii1i 17; xi 9 (wre~fOiaTros 'S). The last of these passages illustrates cl8cpoS65 -K'9-OS. He declined an offer of 10 talents from his friends, saying: TaOTci /III dSIa-y Ka'-E at5otjuvov i)/JIS Ka.TaXaLptfiOalOO 7TI TWDVS KaLICOS, uo-i IutSoV/LSoS & /.L77S XaLptI7-2

Page  100 e 100 AOHNAIQ2N COL. I0,1. 24-COL. II,1.3. 5 T?7V o ~o~wvt8ov, 11 Ka' 8OK'V a 1wpo(S7TO9 etvat Ka't &Kato,? [Col. iid wrpos~ 7T77V TO XLTEiav, erwCe r T17 /3vX. KaT yr'p 70v hEY avELXE Y 2 wroXXo?) '7co'v 'Apeowwyay trc'5, cayrwvac, wE'7rJ7 pwv 2T pb T1Y va~ E~7rEL~a 7139 /3OVh~7- e K ovwvo9 aPXOzTOq awTavra vrepLelXETO 5 EKaWl] OKWVD H-L, K-W2. K-W, K3, B; 7IrapeAiCO H-I.. 6 C'ELZXE H-L. 8 -rrcpie,\c: 7reptEXETo Richards, IL~vot 4 uly aXaptorop 364at. Cf. Plut. Ci;ne. io. On Ephialtes, see Duncker, C. d. A. viii; Holm, Gr. Gescih. ii 1-6 -7. SLKCLLOS Irpbs 'Tv 1roXLrEL'civ] The phrase reminds us of the Politics; v 9 ~ i, 1309 a 36, rpLTOy 3' 1pET7VP KCaI &IKatloQT6UV?7 ev EKCiOT-7 - 7roXLT7i5 T7v 7rps T7V 7 roXLtE tala (Class. 1ev. v i6o a). Aelian Var. Hist. xiii 39, 'E0. Trpar77-yoi 6ivet6aavros avuTwqJ TLYos IrEicav ro Ii E7epoY' eo-q '&tCI 7T 01) Ne-yELT, 67-L 6L'Kato' selgt; ~ 2. dy(Zvas 1rL4IE'pWv] Plut. Per. io ~ 6, 'E~pCiX7rr'... 1oo3Ep1'P 6/Ta 7T00o OX1YCIpXIKOLS Kati 7repi Tla EU6V CLl KILL &CI0ELl Ti/V TOy 8iLgOV d&K0l'PTCWfl raWIpalT77ToV. Ephialtes had made himself feared by his opposition to Cimon in particular; Cimon's party was in a minority, as may he inferred from his being ostracised, probably in the spring of 462 (Busolt, i 454 n).-Cf. Oncken, Staatslehlre, pp. 492-505, 'Ephialtes und die Gerichtsreform.' 4rrl. KO'vWvos] B.C. 462/i, Diod. xi 74. Hitherto the date of this attack on the Areopagus has not been accurately known. It has sometimes been assigned to B.C. 460 (Diodorus xi 77, followed e.g. in Peter's Zeittafeln) or about 458 (e.g. in Smith, Diet. Ant. s. v. Areopagus). Cf. Philippi, Areop. p. 256-9. wepLELXETO] In1f. ~ 4, 7repteXovro. See note on 7rpalpeto-at and 7rEptatpet-Oat in 27 ~ I. On the overthrow of the Areopagus by Ephialtes, cf. P0l. ii I2, 1274 a 7, Kal 7-771 ufEV El 'Apety iid'yw OovX/3QvA7E 'EfdXm CiKO6Xove Kaie HIEPLKX77I (Kai H. bracketed by Sauppe). It was not until a later (ate that Pericles deprived the Areopagus of some of its remaining privileges, c. 27 ~ i. The text implies that he was not the leader of the present attack. Philochorus (FHG i 407), TEo. /w1'ca KaITiXLtre 777 i~ 'Apeiov 7 Cl ov 0ovX-17 7r1 tar/p 7017 o-cL/sAmos. Theopompus is supposed to be the authority followed on this point by Plutarch: Pericles 7 (Eph.) KaTEOXUe -o' KpaT01 T771 i 'Apelov rcCy0U ov OovX1, r0XX77l' (Ka-ra 7TIv HIXd-rwva, Rep. 562 C, D) KUL' a0cppa Trov To7 l Ws 0\io 1 EXEcvEpIelv otl'X0WV, and ib. 9 (of the Areop.) (aTE 7 77v gdV dcatpe677vca 7-1's r-XEIoTI7a KpUTEI E 1 'E)E Lkrov-. Cimion 1o, (Cimon) 7rpo 'EpTciX77V b'IT7EPOV Xa'.PI Trou 675/OU KCaTa\6ov r 71' iS 'Apeiou ww Yov /3ovX 'P &7vqXX07, iS. i 5, 'EqL6Tarov 7rpoE1TC/Tco a/?5ELXoVO T77 e't 'Apelov ircyov g301177 Tia KPL(TEL1 wX7Y v OXLywv a'rcaOaaT, Kait 7TY &LKaIOT77pLWP KUPLOUS eavcToIs 7r0o7t TcrTe Et' CLKpCaToL 6750KPa/XTav eV/aXov 0 -Y T77 ro'Xw. Praec. Cer. Rezp. io ~ i5 (ii 8o5), 3ovX01 V TO/El E Ca X677 Kai SXLyapXLK 7P KOXOsLaaTWTEs, L*o-rep 'EcLdXrfl 'AO5v7r..., ~a/V3a/itv /iaua KaiL 66d av garXov, ib. 15 ~ iS, 9 IIHEPLKX77I...31 'E0L6aTov 77'V i' Apeiov ircYO /OVX77V E-YvELVWOE. Pausan. i 29, i, 'Eq5. 6Y Ta' voAL'Lu a rCaV 'Apeiwp 7rcyu' /sclXy TCa EXVp5hvaTo. Cf. Philippi, Der Areojag, pp. 256-271; Busolt, ii 460. In the Eunzenities (681-706) we have a well-known defence of the jurisdiction of the Areopagus in matters of homicide, the main point which was left untouched by the reforms of Ephialtes. The date of the play is fixed by the hypothesis to the Ag,-anmemznon as the archonship of Philocles, 01. So, 2= 459/8; and the list of VLKaL ALovv-traKaiL found on the Acropolis in i886 describes Aeschylus as exhibiting in that year, i.e. in March, 458: 'E0. 'ApX. i886, p. 2og, quoted in Haigh's Attic Theatre, p. 322, [hi 'IoXo]KXo0VS...Tpa-yw&V, ZayEVOKXi5 'AL6zvai[os] exop-i5[yet], AiXSXoI /o3 6aYKIEV. It was held by Meier, Boeckh and K. 0. Muller that even the cognisance of cases of homicide was taken away from the Areopagus by Ephialtes and not restored until after the expulsion of the Thirty. Muller (Dissertation on Eumn. ~ 36) went so far as to affirm that the motion of Ephialtes was carried after the representation of the Enmenides, whereas Diodorus places it two years earlier (460) and the text four years earlier. The fact that they retained their jurisdiction in cases of homicide is clearly stated by Philochorus (Idc.) and has been conclusively proved by Forchhammer (1828). The very privilege that the reformers left untouched is prominently brought forward by the poet.

Page  101 CII. 25, 1. 5-II. FTOAITEIA I0i T-a E7rtOeTa &' z' 'V ' 7~- W1 OXtTeCL cvXaKsI', Ica\ rT /I{[V T]ot9 L7V?, Ta' o\ To's, & ruo Iat T0-o1s 8Stca,07-?7p'tot a' '&OKEV. 1 3 paT~~e T3 rva o-vvatrOV 7YEV-'O/El-V eEFLLO-TOKXIEOV9, OS??7V /JEV 11 C7Tpb,-E?, fiz-pcte B, eirpa-rre K etc. -EN: -ytv- Richards, -yqyv- H-L. 11 *JIsocr Areopagitici argumentumn (ed. Benseler, p. lviii; Schol. in Aeschin. etc. Dind. p. i i i; Orat. Att. ed. Turicensis, ii p. 6): 'E4)taXT-qs Trig Kal OeAWtTrOKX~T/ XPIECLa7oOUvTes - rpz6Xet Xp~' ara Keal eil&6r-es STL, la'V &3Kao6(~wctps (3LKdIXT&aLv Bens.) ol 'ApEo7ra-yFTaL, ircivrws cii0o60-oVO-L, Ka-raXiOOrcL a~-rov's a7reia I' v 7r6XM, obTCLII o~irws rtvoE ~dX~vroEKpii~vc. " yp 'Ap. XVy11 'v r -oX. 7rn') 'AO. b'rt Ka' L 06/eE OTTOK'X~ rd'ros iriv7cl (wcdivuws cod. Mustoxydis) 3LKd~fW ro6s 'Apeon-raytras" (Rose, Frag. 3662, 404' 36e /i, cb &' ahJT-oi's 7roi-o 7rOoUPTeS, -r6' 3' ciXaj~& OT 7rrii'a Ka~l-aoKIEUsovrEs. Jtra ol' 'AOrn'aoi O~L a'0__WS aLK06OLITarEs )73 TOLal7-T73 TA r4OVX~jS Ka2-e~Xvo-ru av'roor. Cf. Philippi, Areo. pp. 264, 290, and Grote, C. 46 (iv 112 n). Trd E-7r(9EcLr] These 'additional privileges' include almost everything except the ancient prerogatives of the Areopagus in connexion with trials for homicide. The legend of Orestes and the history of the first Messenian war (n-c. 743) alike imply that it had jurisdiction in such cases ' from of old, Pausan. iv 5 ~ 2 Ka 74S 95oVI'Ka'S... 3LKaLFLP CK 7raXrtiou. Cf. TMeier and Schbmann, Alt. Pr-ocess, ed. Lipsius, p. i i. Harpocr. s. v. EJrI6tOf')o Joprdil defines them as 7-a's /.' ura7-piov5 (cf. c. 3, i6-t8), and adds: ~V-yEr-o 6E' 7rap' av'7OZS Klt' liXXa E7riOE~d. -%va, 6u-6aa Ailj ra',ptil Oi'Tail 77 'ApEi'ov lriiyov &3vXi? C'&iKa~ev, ceIs o-0c1 7roctEZ olfa KTX (Cf. Philippi, Arecop. 1 57).The reference to Lysias shews that the ~7riOcu-a meant hy Harpocr. are after the time of the Thirty and are not the same as those meant in the text. ~1JXC.K1 c. 4 ~ 4 i\~ and 8 ~ 4, c7r10-Kovrog- Schbmann's AntI. pp. 33,2 and 493, E. T. Among the privileges now taken away from the Areopagus would he the general superintendence of education and of public morals, e.g. the enforcing of the ancient v6Aros.p-yias. Grote, C. 46, iv I 12; Schdmann, P. 498; Philippi, Aep.pp. i62-I70, 2,68-272. 'rii Sjp)] Cic. (le Rep. I4, 'Athenienses quibusdam temporibus sublato Areopago, nihil nisi populi scitis ac decretis agebant.' TotS BLKc-'9tpL'oLs] Thus, the jurisdiction in cases of doan'jEta seems in general to have been transferred to the lawcourts; hut certain forms of doll~eta continued to he tried by the Areopagus, esp. the offence of doing damage to the sacred olive-trees (Lys. Or. 7). Schbmann, p. 498. On the general question, cf. Philippi, Areo~p. pp. 272-289. ~. r1JvoL'TCv yEvo[%fEVoV OEjeJLOTOrKXE' o1us] Hitherto, the attack on the Areopagus has been generally attributed to Ephialtes and Pericles (Pol. 12 74 a 7); the present passage assigns a prominent part to Themistocles. The only other authority for associating Themistocles with Ephialtes on this occasion is to be found in the argument to the Areopagiiticus of Isocrates (see Testinmonia). probably due to a Christian writer in the sixth century (Rose, A. P., P. 423). Duncker, G. d. A. viii 258-2 6o, discusses the account just mentioned. He attributes the attack on the part of Themistocles to a change of policy in the Areopagus due to its now containing a large number of ex-archons who had been merely appointed by lot and not by open election. The text implies that Themnistocles was still at Athens in 462 B.C., whereas, according to the current view, he was ostracised in 47I B.C. (Diod. xi 54) and fled to Persia about 466 B.C. In his flight he passed through the Athenian fleet which was besieging Naxos (Thuc. 137 ~ 2, and Plut. Thenz. 25 ~ i). The reduction of Naxos took place before the battles at the Eurymedon (Thuc. i 00 ~i), which are assigned to 466. Xerxes died in 465 and, according to Thuc. i t37 ~ 3, Themnistocles on his arrival at the Persian court found Artaxerxes i)eo-iOi f~ao-AEV'ovu-ca. Besides Thucydides, Charon of Lamipsacus, one of the Xo-ywypdioot prior to Herodotus, is quoted by Plutarch, Thzem.l 27 ~ i, as making Themistocles reach the court after the death of Xerxes. The authorities there quoted, as makingc him arrive before the king's (death, are Ephorus, Demron, Cleitarchus and Heracleides; but the account of Thuc. is accepted as 'agreeing better with the dates, although these again have not been firmly settled beyond dispute.'

Page  102 102 AOHNAIQN COL. II, 1. 3-6. 12 TN3V 'Apeowrayt~v~v, `teXXe 8i~ cpiv6erat pn7-Lao*/oV. /3ovXO/4evoO 8E If the narrative in the text is accepted, Themistocles was at Athens in 462, awaiting his trial on the charge of Medism. This must be the first accusation, prior to his ostracism, and on this charge (according to Diod. xi 54) he was acquitted (Grote, c. 44, iv 36, 37). The second accusation, which is the only one mentioned by Thuc. (i I35 ~ t), and Plut. (Them. 23), was not brought forward until after his banishment. We should then be compelled to place his ostracism not earlier than 461, and his flight to Persia about 460, when Artaxerxes had been on the throne for about five years. To reconcile this with vewo-ri in Thuc., Mr Kenyon suggests that 'the fifth year of a king who ruled for forty might well be spoken of as in the beginning of his reign.' But the incident connected with the siege of Naxos makes it impossible to make the narrative in the text agree with the account in Thuc. Mr Kenyon proposes two alternatives: either (i), the story of the flight of Them. should be connected with some operations about 460 B. C. and not with the siege of Naxos; or (2), there were two inconsistent accounts of the latter years of Them., that adopted 'by Thuc. and that in the present text. We can hardly hesitate in choosing the second alternative, and in following the authority of Thucydides. Cf. Abbott, Hist. Gr. ii 386-8. The chronology of this period has been investigated anew by Bauer, who implicitly accepts the statement in the text, and accordingly alters the date of the siege of Naxos. His dates as compared with those of Clinton are as follows: Clinton Bauer Siege of Naxos 466 460 (spring) battle of Eurymedon,, (autumn) revolt of Thasos 465 459 (spring) third Messenian war 464,, (summer?) defeat at Drabescus 465,, (autumn) Thasos subdued by Cimon 463 457 (spring) expedition to Egypt 460 456 (spring) ostracism of Cimon 461 455 (spring) recall of Cimon 456 452 (winter) end of Egyptian war 455 450 (spring) death of Cimon 449 448 These dates involve setting aside the text of Thuc. iv o02 in two points: in ~ I we are told that the defeat at Drabescus was 32 years after the failure of Aristagoras to establish himself on the Strymon, and (ib. ~ 2) 28 years before the founding of Amphipolis (in 437 B.C.), Schol. Aeschines ii 3. It is more in accordance with the narrative in Hdt. v 126 to place the failure of Aristagoras in B.C. 497 than in 49I. Again, the alliance with Argos is placed late in 457, whereas the Ezumenides of Aeschylus, which contains a clear reference to this alliance (1. 290, 757-766), was performed in March, 458, more than a year earlier (Atzenaezum, 189, p. 317). See also Mr E. M. Walker in Class. Rev. vi 95-99. It is remarkable that in Plutarch's Life of Themistocles not a word is said as to his having taken any part in the attack on the Areopagus. In this connexion Plutarch mentions Ephialtes and Pericles alone (note on ~ 2, repteiXero). We must infer either (I), that Plutarch had no firsthand acquaintance with this treatise; or (2), that he carelessly omitted to notice this narrative; or (3), that he had no such narrative in his copy. Against (i) we may set the fact that in to ~ 3 Plutarch quotes Aristotle as his authority for a statement found in c. 23 ~ I, and also for the murder of Ephialtes mentioned at the end of this very chapter. But this makes Plutarch's silence on Themistocles all the more singular. (Cf. Abbott, Hist. Gr. ii 5I8.) Against (2) it may be remarked that the story would have admirably illustrated the duplicity of Themistocles, and as such would naturally have been welcomed by the biographer. Mr Kenyon suggests that the omission ' can hardly be explained except on the theory that in actually writing his lives he used the notes and extracts he had previously made without having the complete work before him'; but this puts the difficulty only one stage further back, and compels us to ask how Plutarch came to omit to make any note of this narrative. He accepts the statement in Thucydides that Themistocles reached the Persian court after the death of Xerxes as in better agreement with the dates. This implies that the biographer had paid some attention to the chronology of the time. It seems possible therefore that he rejected the narrative on theground that it did not fit in with the date of the siege of Naxos, which Plutarch, following Thucydides, mentions in connexion with the flight of Themistocles. But even supposing he deliberately rejected the narrative, it is strange that he says nothing about it. His treatment of his authorities is, however, by no means systematic and uniform. In his Life of Themistocles, he quotes no less than 30 different authorities of very various degrees of importance. Even Thucydides does not command his

Page  103 CH. 25, 1. I2-I8. nOAITEIA Io3 /caTaXvO7jvat Trjv /3ovX\v 6 OetEurTo/cXi) prpoQ? uev To'v 'EtadXTr1v 'Xe7yev or, o'vvap7rdaet avrov 7 30ovXrj UeXXet, 7rpof 8e Tro' 'Apeo7raTyiras ot el et TtvaC 'vvL7Ta/au evov? e7ri /caTaXvo'eL v77 7roTX- 15 Treta. dcyaycv 8e T7ro alpe0evraS T?7 /30ovX OV SETrptL/3V 'EtaeXrT77,,'va etry v [ov)]9 aOporoLe&vov9, LeX7eTro /LkETa a'rov8S9 4 av'ro?. o 8' 'EbL^aXTr? co eLZev /ca'ra7rXayer? KaOatIeEt 1UovoXVOIT 16 &4AlpEOeNTAC (K): alpeOivras? K (K-W, B); alpeO&Tras Vnro Richards; IeatpeOevras H-L, coll. Thuc. iv 38; et- Poland. oy: ot H-L. undivided allegiance. With regard to the adventures of Themistocles in Asia, while respecting the chronology of Thucydides, Plutarch disdains to reproduce the historian's account of those adventures, following by preference the untrustworthy romance of Phanias of Eresos (Holden's Introd. ~~ 17, 22). Such a fact detracts considerably from his authority as a judicious critic of the materials which he had before him. As to (3), Prof. Tyrrell in the Quarterly Review, 1891, p. 344, infers from the silence of Plutarch that he 'never read the work before us. But he had certainly read some other treatise ascribed to Aristotle on the Athenian Constitution; therefore there must have been other editions of the Athenian Constitution circulating under the name of Aristotle.' Yet both the passages, which Plutarch in his Themistocles quotes as from this treatise, are to be found in the edition which we possess. Prof. Tyrrell regards the description of this attack on the Areopagus as 'very bald and feeble.' Such a consideration might point to its not being by the same hand as the main bulk of the treatise; and suggest that, without our assuming that it was absent in Plutarch's copy, it might on this ground alone be regarded as an interpolation. But the style of the narrative does not appear to me to differ materially from that of the context, and I should therefore prefer to attribute it to the same author as the rest of the treatise. But, while the narrative may be genuine, we can hardly regard it as authentic. The celebrated story of the proposal of Themistocles to burn the Hellenic fleet at Pagasae is described by Grote (v 27, note 2) as 'probably the invention of some Greek of the Platonic age'; and the present narrative has probably no earlier origin. iTv TCv 'ApEor/cL'yTrcv] He owed this position to the fact that he had been archon in 482/I; see note on c. 22 ~ 7. rvvap;rcLetv] The object of Themisto cles perhaps was to inveigle the Areopagus into exposing itself to a charge of attempting to 'pounce upon' an influential citizen. It was one of the things remembered against the Thirty that they 'pounced on' citizens in this way, Lys. 12 ~ 96 (Newman). TOVS aULp~EVTCLS] TO1S d faLpeOevTas, if retained, means not 'the persons despatched by the Areopagus,' but 'members of the Council of the Areopagus selected and set apart for the purpose.' Hist. An. 6, 22, 576 b 23, WCpa C ' OVK 4&arpetrar ovsoe/ua CaiwpLffiL77 (Class. Rev. v I64 a)..pqatpeZiaOat, however, is very rarely used in this sense. 'In Lys. 13 ~ 23 the Codex Palatinus has ol &atpeOpvTres rTWV ( poXevUnv, where Reiske's correction ol alpeivrTes has been generally accepted; Weidner, however, proposes oi oiKca alpeOdvres' (Wyse). ov S8LiTpLrpv] usually understood as 'the house of' Ephialtes. In c. I6 we have Ev T- aorets &caTrpfl3wrLv. It need not imply anything so definite as a 'house': it may refer to any public place, such as the precincts of a temple. Ephialtes, on receiving the hint that the Council was intending to arrest him, may well have taken the precaution of being not only in the company of his friends but also within reach of sanctuary in the neighbourhood of a (/wU6s. ~ 4. KtC0tcL ---iri tOV pOPL6V] On altars as places of refuge, cf. Eur. Ion, 1257 -I260, iroi /fJyCW 7)7T';...7To? 5' av \\Xo0', 7 'Ti 3wJ6bv;,iovoxCTov] 'wearing his tunic only,' instead of the i1,Ldrov as well. Such a guise would be appropriate to his position as a suppliant. The word is formed on the analogy of!xov6brelrXos 'wearing but one robe,' 'wearing the tunic only,' Fur. Hec. 933 = rerXos, 'without the upper garment'; Pind. N. i 74. But, hitherto, it has not been found earlier than Polybius (fragm. xiv It, 2). It was also quoted from Pythaenetus, ap. At hen. 589 F, MeXtoaaa avaua7riXovor KaI /ovoXlr wv rv. Trv pwod.ov] The article is

Page  104 I04 AOHNAIQN COL. II) 1. 6-1I3. 677rt TOV 8&taOv. Oav~LaaavTCOw & 7r-avTeOV TO 1yeyov[09] Kai It 120 TraV7a cvv~a0pOtoTGeUtflr9 7TS /30'X2'7q T65W 77-EVTaKO(7Lw)V KaT7r/opOVV a'fl 'ApeowraytTv 0'V O -' 'EfmU X'nq Kai <0o> eE/.LLOTOK X?), at 7TcLXLtV C'l 8 /1kO) TOv aV7TV TPQ~OV,6(09? 77-EptetoVro avmw5 T77?V Ulva/.tv. Kca < 0 /L\V OEFLWGTOKX?79'( - > aZp O 'I 8e\ Ka\ o 6 'Efe 7r 3oXo0Ol070OEL9 YETi- Oi" wroXiv\ Xpovov V' 'Aptar-o3l'Kov [-r]ofi Tavaypaiov. 26. y' puev oi'v Tciw 'ApEowcaytTi_0 30v-X\) TO0V'JTV T'V Tp6'nrov a7reO-T1Ep?7Ofl Tn_79 e7T1LeXe1aq. 1keTa\ &e Ta-aTa o-vl)e/3atvev Jval4EtOat /I X 17 rV 7rQXtTE'aV 8t' TOtVq 7Tpo0v'LoJ9 &?7/.LEaycoyol-J. KeTa yap TOVq KatpoV9 TOVTOV9? (TVV7TEOE /48, l7y7e/ova 6XELZI T0V9 E77LEt~ KET~pO9 XX' aV'-&')V 77rpoCor-avat K4.tcova 7-ov MATtru80U, tVECOTE21 -<6>1 06u K-W, H-L, B. 22 TTEPCIho Nr0: 7repLEihovTo K, K-W, B; 7-apElXov~ro H-L. 23 Kai -< O'~ OEIV 0,b0TOKX$~ > d'Vjpq &q & t -. Kdom. J B Mayor, Blass, (H-L).a el 'KXKW K' XXVI 4 Post /-yeli6va adiectivum. (velut ffL.l-etpov) desiderat Richards, a~-7ovk3cotv Gennadios; an /jyecs6va gXetv i'Kau'61? 5 le'E(7ep01/: vwOpo'-epov? Kontos, YK-w; idem mavult Herwerden qui dvo&Trepov coniecerat; 'fort. vW~pOz" B; Pw6oreoepov vel e1/e1w$Epo1/ Weil (Journal des Savants, Avril, i189i); aliquid eiusmodi desiderabat Wyse; quondam d/3i-repov conieci; cr-rpca-rtWTLKwT-epov (coll. Polyb. '23, 10, 4 o-7Ta7/JITWtIKWCTePOI 'O 170XLTLKWdTEpol) vel ~roX6,UK(&-epoP Richards, cf. Plut. Praec. Ger. keip. c. i6 ~ 22 -1 ~ sv(HIcpLX~S) 7rp's 7roXrreL'ia, 6 &' (Ki'uwv) wp&s w Xeuov EvOV&T1/p01. TESTIMONIA. XXV 23, 24 * Plut. Per. io (infra exscriptum). peculiar. If the 'house' of Eph. is meant, it implies 'the family altar.' Otherwise, some notable altar may he intended, such as the 'altar of the twelve gods' (so Milchhbfer in Curtius, Stadtg-esckizicte, p. cxxi), or that of Ze's d-yopa~os. The latter was near the crroa& /3caoicos where meetings of the Areopagus were sometimes held (Dem. 25 ~ 23). f Ls 13 ~ 4 Ka6L~ov011p &lrt -r1'p ~w3o'6 MouvtXtcaTlV and ~ 54,' lrd 7o6 /3wgoO E'Ka9770. -r6V -JTEV-ro.K0O-cA)v] added to contrast the /3ovXvi of the Five Hundred with that of the Areopagus mentioned in the context. &v1 WTI1 Plut. Per. io acdfin. E(PciXi-77v. EvrL/301X6o-a1/Tes ot' E'X~po 3t' Aptor7oU3KOV,roO Tavaypucoli (v. '. -aciOU) Kpuq5ahwc dveFou', Ws ' p rol u c Ef7K Y In the sam e chapter Plutarch quotes and rejects the account of IdomeneUS, Ka1T?)rOPOUV7TL 7-0l IIfPLKXIO1JI, W's 7r0v (3-qa-ycy0' 'E95LaiXT77v OtA~op -yev6/Iu1/01 Kcd KOLVIWVOZ 63IvT1a T771 EVp T7 -7rOXITL7II lrpoallpE'o-ews (oXo~povp5caPTo1 &!-q77-0vriaV KIlL 000vov 7r~ (66~77. Diod. xi 77, 6, 7771 VVKT6JI d 'atpeOeti U687Xo1 go-Xe Ar'v TrO) oiov1 reX6UT? 'P. [Plat.] Ax/och/. 368 D, wroO V'E95taXrqs (,r1EOV77KE); Antiph. 5 ~ 68, o6U3'ww 1/1)v E0'p?7v71 aT~ old aII KroK elpaV-es. XXVI. C/mlon. ~ i. ciLvLc~rOa.L-1roXLTEL'ctv] The metaphorical use of diviecrOat is common in Ar. e~g. Rhet. i 4, i1360 a '24, 7roXLt7eLIa Kall avt~lE1/cll Ka' e'rtTelI6/Ie1/cl 00eip v a (with Cope's note), Pol. v i, 1301 bi 17, 6 'l I ~ I I W 1 ' 7 7 I l E W l ' I l l o 1 e ~ l vi (iv) 3, 1,290 a 28, roXlre~at dv1eI/pE'vaI Kat /J.aXIaKIa (opp. to ouvp-opZ'drepLl), iv (Vii) 4, 1326 a 28, lroXtTela aivetb/d10 rrpo' -ro' 7rX~tog. The origin of the metaphor (from the strings of a musical instrument) may he seen in Poi. v (viii) 7, 134-2 b 2,2, 6pp 'ata i YetILI1at op p. to 01 1' O1 0. For the facts, cf. Plut. Cnion i ~,W' U3 lraiXti J771 orTpal7eilav IE'l,~rXEUo0E, TeXe'Ws a1/E0lel'T1E 01 7rQXXoi Kall OvyXf'o17Te3 701'V KaIOeoTTC3I- T7)l roXIT7E(Ia K60[lAOV r11 T67rI 7(1111 1)6/U/Ll, oil IXpCOZJTo 7rp6-repov, E/aCIX-rou rpoEo-TWT70 dqg5eiXov-ro 2771 E' 'Apelou irciyou /3OVX~S 7a11 KPL'OEII 7rX?'V l'Xi-ywv u'raicbas, Kall 7-WV (LKao-T77(1pLO1P KV/JLOV5 E'av)o0'1 7r005 011avTcl E11 6KpaLrov 377,oKpaTiav c1E'/3CIaXo1 A7 LPw6 u, /&3q K al ItI' O V va l o Kall 71a TUEj 7roXXWEv Sbpovo0l)'os. The time to which Plutarch refers is later than Cimon's suhjugation of Thasos (463 Clinton; 457 Bauer). He is following those who place the beginning of the influence of Pericles at an earlier date than that assumed in the present treatise. ToiIS-8TJJLCL-ycYov-0VTCL] Pci. 1274 a 14, (377palywyov's fMafe oa6'Xov1. VEWTEPOV] possibly means 'rather young'

Page  105 CH.25, 1. I9-CH.26, i. I. OAITEIA I05 pov Ov-ra Kat 77Wpol? 7-?7V 7rOXw V 04r\ 7Tp00eXOO'vra, 7rp' 8,E TO1TOtL F I M ~~8O~p~at 7-ot -7rrOXLhOi Ka7-a 7rOXE/iU0l/ T7jj yap arparcta9 ryLP/V0 -/hEV?)' El) TOL' 'OTe XPOVOLt EKc KaTaXo you, Kat o-TpaT'qljycv C4taf-r]a/.LkOV Ca7rEitpOW / CV TOy 7TOXCE/t d M &\ 8t\ T' V v Cp C a aq 7rarptK a rl / 80~,,aEt\ crvve/3atvEv Tc'o EUwto',VT ava' &0G-XtVtovr 'q TpLtXt LOVs? 1o awdXXvoOat, []oG-TE 'va-XtKECoGat TOV9 E77t~EL~tKE Kat TOV &7/.LOV Kct 7 FIN (K-w). 10.IeI (K, K-W). to be the leader of a great political party. But, as Cimon had fought at Salamis 18 years before (Plut. Cim. 5), he could hardly have been less than 36 in B.C. 462; and was probably more than 40, if we place his birth in 504 (the date given on p. 39 of Ekker's ed. of Plut. Cim.). His birth should probably be placed earlier, as he was orTpcrTrnyo6 (and therefore over 30) at Eion in 476 (Thuc. i 98). Again, Pericles, who was probably born in B.C. 493, is described as a young man (vos W'v, 27 ~ i), when he made his reputation by accusing Cimon, presumably after the expedition to Thasos, 463. How then can Cimon, who was obviously older than Pericles, and who had won the battle of Eurymedon three years before, be described as 'rather young' shortly after B.c. 462? vewLrpovhas therefore been generally regarded as corrupt, and various emendations have been suggested, expressive of Cimon's inadequacy for the position of a political leader. The fact that his intellectual development was somewhat tardy is implied in the story preserved by Aristides, ii 203 Dind., according to which his guardians did not allow him to manage his own property until some time after he had come of age (tgXpt ro6ppwo rOs 4j7XKit/a), while in Plut. CiM. 4 he is said to have resembled his father in evrtBOeLa. (Cf. Wyse in Class. Rev. v 274 b.) The combination of vewrepov and 6Pe 7rpoaeX06vrTa is in itself open to suspicion. VWOpOrepov (which has been suggested) is found in Ameipsias, frag. I6, Pollux ix 138; cf. the description of Chares in Theopompus, frag. 288, vwOpoO T' ovTro c Kati pa5los. See also Schol. to Aristides in iii 515, 8-Io and 517, 28-30 Dind. vewrepov is, however, retained by Bauer (p. IOI), who suggests that, under the influence of the Areopagus, the leaders of the political parties had generally been elderly men. Mr E. M. Walker (Class. Rev. vi 98) holds that the epithet is consistent with c. 25 which implies that Themistocles was at Athens in 462: 'it is only when we recognise that the author...put the battle of Eurymedon some eight years too late, and that the interval between Tanagra and the five years' truce found no place in his historical retrospect, that we can understand how he came to apply to Cimon in the year 462 those much discussed words vecLWrpov OVTra Kai 7rpbs ri7v 7r6oXv 6Oe 7rpoo'eX\6vra.' trpos T-r v Ir6XLv d8q rpoo'EXovTa] 'having been rather late in entering on public life.' I am not aware of any exact parallel to this phrase; but we have something like it in c. 2 7 ~ r, 7rpbs rTO 3r/ia-ywoyerv EXO6vror. iK KCTaXoyo'O] 'from the roll of hoplites,' as contrasted with the mercenary troops that came into vogue at a later date. rawrpTLKcs] here' ancestral.' See c. 28 ~ 5. dvd. 8Lo'xLXovs-dwodXxvo-9a] Isocr. De Pace ~ 87 (of the losses sustained by Athens in her pursuit of supremacy at sea), Tro7 KaTde XtMOVS Kat itroXtXiovs &rroOv7cKovras riS cv ap ptOL7joeev; 'Pol. viii (v) 3, 1303 a 9, Kal ev 'AOivais aTrvXO6vrwv Trerj ol TYVvptL.OL XrTrovUS iy/vovro Stsa TO EK KaTcaX6yov aTpaTre6eoOatL Vrob TOV AaLKWVLKOV b7rXeOov. drro'XXv-ur0aL] Between 462 and 457 B.C. the Athenians were defeated by the Corinthians at Halieis (458; Thuc. i o05, i), and by the Lacedaemonians at Tanagra (457; ib. o18, i). The operations in Egypt, which had been begun in 460, came to an unsuccessful conclusion in 455 (ib. o11, i). On the other hand, they were victorious over the Peloponnesians on the sea at Kekryphaleia, and over the Aeginetans in a naval engagement in 458 (Thuc. i Io5, I-2). During the absence of the main body of the Athenian soldiers in Egypt and Aegina, Myronides defeated the Corinthians in the territory of Megara (458, i 105, 4). In 456 the Athenians defeated the Boeotians at Oenophyta, and in the same year Aegina yielded to Athens.

Page  106 io6 AOHNAIQN COL. II, 1. 13-20. 'z6w E~ opeov. Ta' ptev ov3 aXXa 7rca'vra &t5)'Kovv ot3 /sX w a 7TpO'TEPOV T0L9 VOIIOt9 77.p00-EX0V7rEq, T\7 8e Twv evvEa ap~o'ii-&.w at'pectuv OVK, SEKIvovv, aXX' EICT(1 ei- EtETa Top' 'EcfLelov Oadvarov 25 evcoa-av Kat EK ~evytTWOV 7rp0Kpi'ea-at ToV\9 KkflpWO-0/.tEVQV9~ Tn' evve'a a p X o n' m n', K a T O O? p E a '-co w MLt 6 1 0 & 7rpO Tovrov 7raVTE9 E4 t7r'WEWV Kat 7revTaK0O-tO/IESL/.tl'&?,70-a, 01 <&> ~evy'trat 7a, e1yKVKXiwv9 q'xv et~ r7t 7rapewopa'r0 Twv ev 70otq V0Allt9. ET-et &,E yr47rTw /ie aravra et-~ Avo-t~cPa'Tv( apXo"- 3,2o 'ro0 01,rptaKOVTa &Kao-Tai KaTe0-Tio-av '7ra'XtV 01 KaXoVII1EVOL ca'ra c8y11tou'r KaL& TpitO) /te-a r0ov7o7 er 'Av~troe%-v 8ta To 'nTX_00o~ T'rc 4 7rroXLTcov, II16ptK'XEO0V9 EI7ro0VTO, ey7vccav /lk?7 /1ETEXEtV T71 7 OXkew9 09k av P7 dp a a r t 9 7 E vc 9 12 ouVX quondam delebat Wyse. 14 adXX '\i Blass (H-L). (edd.). post 7rapEcWp6.o deletum?&7r' TGov 3?'Awv retinent H-L. TON ante corr. (K1, H-L, B); se~a' roiorop post corr. (K-w, K2). 18 Si' add. K 21 MET&Y23 H N: corr. K. ~ 2. 01X oIRo(WS-.rPo-e'XoVTfs] The main change was the reduction of the power of the Areopagus. But while, in this and other respects, Athens departed from her previous constitutional arrangements, she retained the limitations under which the archons were appointed from among the first and second classes of citizens. It was not until -45 that the archonship was thrown open to members of the third class. 9K-rw 9.reL] It was in 46,2 B.C. that Ephialtes overthrew the Areopagus; and 457 is the date of the change in the archonship immediately before the archonship of Mnesitheides. The latter event is 5 years (or in the sixth year) after the former. The change in the archionship is here described as happen. ing in the sixth year ' after the death of ZEphialtes.' It follows (as observed by Mr Kenyon) that Ephialtes was put to death in the year in which he overthrew the Areopagus. EK tFcv-YLTrV] Originally the office of archon was open to members of the first class only (cf. c. 7 ~ 3 and Plut. Arist. i). In course of time it became open to the second class, possibly after the Persian wars, when, according to Plut. Arist. 2,2, the archonship was made accessible to 'all the Athenians,' on the motion of Aristides, who (after the battle at Plataea) -ypcu/ket /O, 5LO/La KOLVhqV elvat T'v iro0rL7lav Kc~ os d ~vat To 'A077vah v iraz'V7Wz caipec-Oat. Lastly, in 457 we here have the office open to the third class. It was never legally open to the fourth class (c. 7adfin.. Cf. Abbott, Hist. Gr. ii 385-6. lrpOKp(Vf0O0CLL] 8 ~ I; '22 ~ 5. KX2qp(A)oj.LE'V0lS 'rwv elvveO. d~pXOVTCIv] sc. dpX-r~v. Lysias 6 ~ 4, E~LV 9XOp KX-1pW0 /SevoQt TW~v E'vve' dpX6'vTWV Kati Xr'&XZ, /3aTLXe6t, and ib. '24 ~ 13, ri/S KWX6EL KXJpoO. TaLm TWV Evve'a adpX6vTrWV MVTqO-LOrE(68S] B.C. 457/6. TO.~s '&YK1KX(o1)] SC. cdpXcS, ' the ordinary (i.e. inferior) offices.' Pol. i 7, 2,255 b,25, T&' I-YK6KXta &aK0V77fjua~a, 11 5, 2,263 a,2t, T&L 3LaKovI'as Tat e-yKVKXLO'ou, ii 9, 2,269 b 35, Xpf7l-',/ov 5' 060172s T-q Opao-6T17Tro -rpo't 'VTW/V EyKUKXLWP c2XX' Et'rep lrp't T6V ir6Xejuov. The term had already been similarly used by Isocr. 3 ~ 2,2, Iv i-o~t &yKVKX0LOL Kal TOZt KaO' ~17/S'pcpLI' KciOT772V -yvyvojAl olt, and de Pace 87. lIzf c. 43, 1.3. eLt jpj 'rL 7ra~pewpciro] 'assuming the laws were strictly observed'; in other words, the members of the third class were, strictly speaking, eligible for the ordinary offices alone; but occasionally by an oversight they were elected to the office of archon. Similarly, in later times even members of the fourth class became archons, although not legally qualified. ~3. ehrl AvorpC'rovS] B.C. 45 3/2. oL.rp(CoKov~rc] i6 ~ 5. ~4. ' IrVAvirLS'oov] B.C. 4.5t/0. flEpLKMOUS E1L~r'vTros-yeyovcI)S] Pol. 115, 1278 a 34, TAos 51 /u6vov To~t E~ LiLLootv do-TWov lroXiTra roto~o-v. Plut. Pericl s 37 dK/56 -WP 0 IICpL X ~t EL T-' 77 roX tTe&iL -irp6 7ru'pv 7roXM0ev XPO'VWV Kal 7rcLZksr gxwv

Page  107 CH. 26, 1. I2-CH. 27, 1.5. TTOAITEIA10 I07 27. ~UETt &e 7raD'-Ta 7rpo' 7-0 8fl/ayw7E'v E'XOO'VToq fl16ptXE'ov9?, Ka~ 7rp6V7-ov EVo~ qaav7-o4? cTE Ka'rn'yoprnETe a9 EV'Ov'va9 KI~Uwvoq o~pa7-rqryo~vvor eo VEOS-V, 897iUorTicOr'pav. &~t 0vvE/3l ryeve'oOat T\V 7roXvr'Eiav- Kait 7ac'p 7~-w-v 'Apeowraytr-iv e'vta 7rapEiXETo, Kat /.AXto-ra 7n-poi3'pE*ez. 72)v 7r6'Xtv '7rt\?\v vavTLtct7v UvaFptv, 6E~ y9 CTVVEcIn 5 XXVII 2 TTpCdTOY: irpb' TOO Jackson, van Leeuwen; 7rp~arov Blass, alii (K-W, H-L, K3). rrmpe[AETo (K, H-L, B): I-epteLXeTo K,-w, cf. 25 vv. 8, 2,2. 5 7rpo6 -Tpelt'e H-L. 4YV?7aOVT, V6,uop 9-ypca4.ea~6ovou 'AObqvai'OVS icup -ro6I EK 36ue 'AOqPa'cuWv -eyyOv6Tas. Aelian Var. Hist. vi so, xiii '24, frag. 68. Cf. Isaeus 8 ~ I9; 1,2 ~ 9; Aeschin. i ~9. Philippi, Bzirgerrecht, p. 69 seq. The text places this event early in the public career of Pericles: Plutarch places it later. It has been argued that no such law could have been proposed by Pericles (see Buermann,.7ahrb. f. cl. P/ill. Suppl. Bd ix 624-, 1878; Gilbert, Cr. St. i 179; Schenkl, WienerS/udien, ii 1 7 t; Duncker, Bericht d. Bern. Akad., 1883, p. 935; Busolt in MUller's Zfandbuch iv 1, 141). According to these, the 'law of Pericles' was really a revision of the list of citizens in 445/4 (Athenaeum, 1891, 435 C). See also Westermann's Introduction to Dem. Ezibilides. XXVII. Pericles. ~. KarqyO'pi1a-e-KC1iwvos vios liv] Plutarch, Cim.z 14, states that Cimon was put on his trial on his return from the reduction of Thasos on the ground that he had been bribed not to follow up his success by an invasion of Macedonia: 3L'K-qv eq/vrye (90ev-ye? cf. Plot. Per. io, Li-re-&'K-7V 90ev-ye) 7rc~v EiOpc~ ov oV7OipTwv E7 au-s-os. 1-e also quotes from Cimon's contemporary, Stesimbrotus, the stoly of Cimon's sister Elpinice appealing to Pericles (OirOS -YAP 'V 7TCOP K7-7I-yoipwi 6 o-Oo3po'7-arTos) in favour of her brother. The result was that Pericles 9P -ye -r-7 1K-q 7rpq1O-,ra~rop' -yeVPOat -rc KL'AVLu Kai 7rpbis T'77v KCLTIyyoptLv idra~ dvao-r~vat Aslvov, co-lrep d~ooatot4'Evov. In Plut. Pericles io, he is described as cis TWY~ Ka7-yl'opWl'...sr6 T7t' 3sijov 7rpq 3e7vqju9Yos, and as having done less than the rest of -the prosecutors to damage the cause of Cimon. Cimon's expedition to Thasos has generally been placed in B.C. 4.65-3. The date suggested by Bauer for the revolt of Thasos is 459, and for its reduction (-srpurTp 9ret, Thuc. i ioi) 457. E~1 OV. 9~2, O —paT77-yo~s eb06vaT. 'rWV AptowwxyL-rov 1VvCi 'JMcpECXEro] Plutarch, Pericles 9, describes Pericles as attacking the Areopagus after he had instituted pay for the law courts at the instance of ' Damonides.' He also states that it was by the aid of Ephialtes that he deprived the Areopagus of the greatest part of its jurisdiction. In the text, which Plutarch professes to follow, by quoting Aristotle as his authority for 'Damonides,' the present attack on the Areopagus is placed before the account of the payment of the law courts; and Ephialtes is no longer alive (c. '25 ~ 4). TrapatpeLaOacl, in mid., is used of 'disfranchising persons' in Pal. iii 5, 1,278 a 32,eshopuv~E ~ OXOV KaraE fLpby rsapatpOJvTraL -rol~ EK 6otiXov 7rpWTrov ~ oX14, 1,285 b x6, TWZ'v 6X~"-s 7rapatpovucvwv (of the withdrawal of royal privileges on the part of the people), viii (v) 10o, 1311 b 6, -yvvaUKa i7rapeX&O~at, to seduce. In Hdt. ii 109, 7r. T1 TWVOS is used in the general sense of 'taking away fromn,' 'stealing away from.' In c. 15 ~~ 3, 4, -and twice in 3 7 ~ 2, it is applied to 057w~a. 7rep~atpeto-Oat is similarly used of 'stripping off' and 'taking away,' e.g. Dem. p. '246, 23, aE7rd'vTCOv... AevtOcptfav 7rpEPLXETco, Pal. vii (vi) 2, 131i8 a z, (7-a ota7-ra 3,qluoEa')... il' &P 711TL KaETaXE(/7 c~ a tca /1eT1rJ30X77, ro'TE 71epLalpeL-OaL riis 56 -atv a/w EIT7 KalE' alpEW~V KX77pWTOV'S 7rowtes. Both words are equally defensible and the ms reading may therefore be retained. We have 7cptaypeZo-6at Ta& iI-E7T'Oc7 in 25 2, and T7V 66vaALP in '25 ~ 4; we also have rfpLatpclo-Oat o-7cav'os in c. 57 ~ 4. VCOUTLK1V SvVctJLLV] Pal. vii (vi) 7, 1321 a 14, i) & /t/1? 36vl'a/SL Katd PVIITLK7 6I17/.OTLK7'7 ra'AlraV. viii (v) 4, 1304 a 22 (immediately after mention of the influence of the Areopagus), Kall ralXuv 4 av-rUTK63 6xXos -yEV6/LEVos atTcos 7771 Iepli ~2aXaAZtva VL'K-JE Kati && T7IaiTI7E (TITV coni. Susemihl) 7fjE 77ye6/lOVas && T77V Ka1TaI OaLXarTTaII UvaIIiv rJv S77/IOKParLTaV 1O-XVPOTrlpp 6' 1r0o77-ev. The inhabitants of the Peiraeus, consisting mainly of ~he aVI1TLKOEs 6Xowere distinctively democratical.

Page  108 Io8 AOHNAIQN COL. II I 1. 20-26. Oapp?7e'a-avra? lro~v? woXXov" a"7raa-al' 'r?)v 7ToXL'rciav p4a'XXov alyetv et~aVrw~v. /.LeTA,E' -rv E'v YaXap-tv vav.LXavek& 7ETI2 K007Y ETE ~ iv61o 6p[ov] alpXo VTro 9 o 7rp 09 H X W V1OL V EVEG(777 7rOXe[L09~, El' f(e) Ka (a/cX yO4 E 0 &7J O El' 70 aoTEL1 KaL 07vvlo E&tOOE1S ~ eV' Talt~ O-Tparetatq /twOo 00o vTa r 1,tte 'EK&Jl' Ta\ &e a"Keol WpOppELTO T77Vl WOXtTE'aV &SOLKEtv' aVT'iO'. E7T0llO7 Ka L aO opa 3 a' Stcao-T?7pta llEPuXJ9~ 7rpC-OTs, 'Vrt8nFpaycoy~'v 7rpo\'~ '5v Kiuwovos' IEV7optav. 6 yap KtIbul, aTE TVpCtl'ltK77l' eXCO ov%-lav, 7'rpT0'rl 116V T ras KCOtl'as X y'rov yras e' yr CYEL XeLaU 7TpW9, 6" ~tTaL Trw 6 TrAC&N: iraoca B, airrzo'a ceteri. 7 Lei (H-L., B): &Zv J E B Mayor, K-XV, K3. 9 ENECTH: T-VP&Tar3 H-L.: confert K C. 5 vv. 11, 22; 17 v. 15; 41 V. 2, quibus omnibus in locis H-L o-vveo-7-7 malunt. -KAI1COEIC: -KXCLOOE63s K, Cf. 19, 32; -K 70Ir64L K-W, H-L, B. 1 ~? T 6 C TESTIMONIA. 14-18 Heraclidis epitoma (Rose, Ar. Frag. 6i i, 53): rov's 131OuS wypov's 6rwpt'~Etv 7rapeZXE roZs /3ovXo~kevots, E'4 die iroXXov's C'ebve~E. * Pint. Cim;. io (infra exscriptum). A OcLp p jcrcLv'rcLs] c. 2,2 and '24 ~ I.~ 2. & EWv] c. i9 end. E1nL llveo&w'pov] B.C. 432/1, 48 years after 480/79. Thuc. jii2, ~ fixes the date of the beginning of the war as the Spring Of 43 1, IjV606LLdpoV 97L 660 /.~VaS &pXOVTOS. EVETT'rq] ouvv6orT has been proposed, on the ground that &E'o-T-qj refers to a bellztmn instans, and o-vv1dGT-q to a bellum artumi. Thuc. i 35 ~ 2, McT&l -y jl 66 71 Xe/luog... MPeis ~v16crT37. It is true that in Jsocr. p. 8,2 B 761 w6Xepov TOYp fVo-Tn'PTa...T?7q V6Xet refers to an imminent war, but it is equally true that in Denm. 2 55, 1 0 (cf. '274, 6) the beginning of a war is expressed by 6' TOTE P0'ars 7r6Xelkos. Cf. Aeschin. F. L. 58, 6rtTOO1 7T0XfE/IOU...ElEL-TT7KOTOS. The latter phrase is contrasted, in the Rhel. ad Alex. 3, 1425 a.36, with -yiyveo-Oat 4eXXLw. Ar. Elhet. i. 9, 1366 lb 23, Ka.T& T6Y Es'EO-TLV0Ta KcLtp6Z. 'VOLK7J 'AKp6ao0ss, iv 13,,2,22 b 3 4, 6 p 1 1 Ey-yPs TOO) 'EEo-T~Tos Kc~rO.KX-flO0E~s-dO'aTeL] Thuc. ii 13 ~ 2, (Pericles) wapl'vet r'-hs w6'Xt c1reX661'Tass OwXacororEtv, ib. 14-37. ~3. 0ro1jrE-jLLOr8o~fOpcL 'rdL SLKaUT-.nj'p icaj P al. ii 12, T &' &6 &Kao T7?5p15a /1 1060-o jJ6pca KaLTIT77WE HEpLKX7JS. Plut. Per. 9. Aristides, i i192 Dind. Boeckh, II xv; Grote, c. 46, v i303 Gilbert, Cr. St. i3,25..-rvpcLvvLK't1V-OVGcTCcV] Cimon, son of Miltiades, was (on the side of his mother, Hegesipyle) grandson of the Thracian king Olorus (Plut. Cmi.z 4). The fine of,~o talents inflicted on M.Niltiades was paid by Cimon. Xiro'UP'y'CaS 'X'9Tr'p'Y(L] X-qTovp-ydv and X'qTovpy'ys are quoted as Attic forms by ancient grammarians (Ammonius 89; Moeris 202; Bekker's Aneed. 277, Oi r1aXatot' 'ATTIKOL' 6&A TOO) 77 9XE'YOP Xq77Ttp'yew); and the forms in X-,q- are found in inscriptions of the fourth century. In 386 B.C. we have [X]-qLTovp-yt~v, CIA ii add. 554 b 14; in the time of Demosthenes and Aristotle, Ta'[s d]XXas X7-qt [-rovpy]tca3 KIaXWS X-qtTov[p-y]ei..., ib. ~557, 5; in 340-332, X-qroVP[p-y]qo-av, lb. 172, 4. M\eisterhans, Granmmatikd. Attiscizen Znschri/ten, ed. i888, p. 29, note I374 (Introd. to Demn. Le'pt. p. iii). 'rwov Srnjo'rSLW '&p4~E rrooi'S KTX] Plnt. cim. I, Tto1 Te -yap 5'-ypwi' ToUPs Pppey/tOu' ab'etX6V, WEE KaEl TOF9telL Kat Lop)5 7roXtTW1 ToZ9 6eo/u'pots ai6ecW5 '75-pX?7 a0133 E 1 TJ OVwdpaS, Katl &Thrvov otKot lrap' aLPT~p XLTO' /L4E', apKO0Pl 6' 7r0XXoL5, E'roL?TO KILO' 77/uC' pILL, 54)' 6 TO~l 7rEp 35TL01 6' [3ovXoup~os ELO-7 EL KIa &LITpO(/fl C' E P~E 1171P ly 0I 10101o1 TOLL &quo00o-Lot o-XoX14W. cds 6' 'APLO-TOTeXq3J /n0-LPnv, Ov'X ahras'Tw1 'A077 -1Il3Wp, a3XXa1 rTI/ 677/10TW1p cavro AIL~ua&we VapLEOJKEUAIE70T /3o1JXo/1ivq T6' Werpov. Pericl. 9, cp apXv VwP S T171 K1/4woos &'~ap aPTtTaLTT6O.4elos v7reIIotetTo To1 677/L01V E'XIT — TOU/LeIOs 66 7rXO6TYp KIl Xp'/_taoL1, di(/' dv &KEVO3 diveXa/s/~ape Tov's lrlvljTs 6eMrpvb T6 KILO' 7h/s"pav TIE 6eou4vpy rape~wp 'A077 -Va!WP/ KILL TOV'S lrpEO/3UTepOIJ ap4)5LEvP6WV, TW1p Te Xwphop rou's 4bpa-y/oso a~iLapcpw, O'WwS 6rWPL -wLp 03 31X/L 11 T~ToL 6 H16pLKX'qS KaETa6S77/aIyw-yoL4LeCos Tpi7IETIL 7rpos TI) TWvP 637/LuooLL'w 6L1L1o/1 v. The

Page  109 CHi. 27, 1. 6-19. OATA10 UOAITEIA I09 7J~V ETpec0E 77-0XXol"9- 6'i7'V ryep To /3ovXo/JE'vco AaKta&2V Ka8' '5; eKaaT-77V T'7V?'7aEpav AX9Virt 7Trap aVTOVv eXEtV Ta PTaErTL E xwpa 'n-Ta dqpaK'ra?7v, b'wo e T CD flvoEv 6i wcopa,~ KcX7'1 Trj oi'rtea, eTU/JJ8ovX6vO-v7 a aT ' Aalrwvt'8oV TOi OIJV (O' 15 TOYCTroAAoyc, deleto TOYC. 17 CIHN: i4i(K-W, H-L, K3, B). 18 errAcirr airoXetiro~s'gvos Richards (H-L). 19 < Acilwvos > AapLwvt~ov 'OaOev Wyse (C'lass. Rev. v 2,27), cf. Wilamowitz, Hermnes xiv 3'20. 01~0ev H-L, K3 (Meisterhans, 452); Ot-IJOey K-W, B. 19 * Plut. Per. 9 (Ar. Frag. 3652, 4033), infra exscriptumn. story of Cimon's generosity appears in an exaggerated form in Theopompus, Philip pica x (FHG ii 293, ap. Athen. 533 A), K 6uvO 'AO6qvaZos v -rots adypOZ Kal 7rots Ki5rotg oihlivra 7-0o KaplrOU KarloO-ra /OAaLKU, 07rWs 01 govXOLEJ'oL i-rcV 7ro~oTwvP eI0oLoVTES 07rwpl~wvTaL, Katd \aAO/3cPtoot et' i-w~os 6/~tv7o TW6y SS Tro~s Xwpl'om~ girElTaZ Ajv' 01KLIWa 7rapfXe KOLV'P 7ra t Kal 3E7ro a151 EUTEX6'S 7apacrKEvCi~eorOaL 7ro\Xoir d'vO6pcOrS, Kad 7-0~S abropovs irpoo'sovrar rwv '.AO6vaiwv 6io-soVMcS 6evrvdvp. This exaggerated account is recorded by Plutarch to be corrected on the authority of the present passage. Aristotle's pupil, Theophrastus, was no less careful in adhering to the truth, Cic. de Off. ii 64, ' Theophrastus scribit Cimnonem Athenis etiamn in suos curiales Laciadas hospitalem fuisse: ita enim instituisse et vilicis imperavisse, ut ominia praeberentur, quicumque Laciades in villain suam devertisset.' The excerpts ascribed to Heracleides tell the same story of Ephialtes: 'E0. r-obs i6ious diypozis 6'rwpI~et irapJeF~ TO~T fgouXo0dvos, ik d' 7roXXo~s S'6siirva~e. The text is apparently the authority followed by the Schol. on Aristides, iii 5i7 1. 30 Dind., Tolls -yap O/pa-y/osoi urave'E'Y7vu To~s gov~ops'vots 0'rwp1~eo-Oat i-wi' cui7ro KIUl TiJV OLiaL c plto-o-v Oa' petorOaL (?), and ib. P. 446 1. i8. Cf. Nepos, Cion'1 4 ~ I. The various forms which the story of the generosity of Cimon assumed have been examined in Mnemosyne, ix 58. AcLKLILBCSv] The 36q 'Tat of Cimon, Plot. Gins.- 4. The demne itself was also called AaLKlai6aU. TMc LE"TPLCL] 'moderate provision,' Xen. Lac. i 3, aFToS sci-eptdirai-os, Afemi. ii 6, -22, i-ra A. KCKT?7(OaL, Cyr. v 2, 17, Le1-rpt6T-7S i-wi' au-Twv. Sitpra i6 ~ 3. 07~rows gjj] This implies that Cimion caused his fences to be pulled down in order to allow his fellow demesmen to enter his orchards. This constr. is sup ported by b'irws 6irwP'NcPzrauin Theopompus and b'rcas o6wpirwcrw in Plut. Per. 9. 67rws i4i~i would be quite out of place here (Goodwin, Mfoods and Tenses, ~ 3332). ~4. '7rLXELwrtLevos] iwu~ebweoatc in pass. c. gen., 'to fall short of,'is found in [Plat.] E 4j inomis 978 A. 'irAE'retsp is far more frequently used in act. in the sense of 'to fail.' In Ar. we have Et/h. iv 3, 11i21i a 3 4, 1 7, TaX0' 6'rAeil'sut aii-rour i-r iu7raip~ovrc, and there are several exx. of its intransitive use. diroXetr6,sEpos does not appear to be supported by the usage of Aristotle, as shewn in the Index Aristote/icus. More probable than either is llwoXetz-6~isvos. Cf. Pol. iv (vii) i 6, 13.34 1' 39' 6e? oVl-S Xtcav Ubr0\Sirea-Oat 1-ra51 -'7Xtiats T& T~fKva 7-(~v ira7rpwv o67-re iau' 7raipS'fl'VS ellvat, and i.5, 1254 b 35, el' roa-oOrotv,yevotwro 3ta'/1opot h a-b oWlua 6'a-ov al TWZV OedvP SLKves, -rolls 'roXeh~roadiovs (inferiores) 7racb'res /la~v aii' ai~iovs eivct Acqi~cov(Sov] Damionides is mentioned in Plut. Per. 9, TpierSTaL 7-po's T-i P rlliv 3-qLooriwi' &tvI'vO 7o-vus/ovXe6o-avr-os alli-43 Aarqswviov -roll Oil7Ov ('Oa~ev Sintenis, collato Steph. Byz. s. v. 'Oa: ArnsAwvi6ou -ro0l Oa~ev vulg.), dis 'Ap~roi-oe'X-s icr-rbp-qK6. Damon, ib. 4, 6 6/ A'aiA&wv. -..rc, Ilep1KXe,YVi'77 Ka~aliirep ad6X,-T7- i-dis 7-oXu-uKwVP a'Xeiwi-r?7 Kai' &UCTr~a~os... aXX, W's ge-yaX6-_ qOPWv Kati /uAOTlpavivos S'~Oarpa1K'CTOi, ib. 14, N/c. 6, and ArisI. i. Plat. A/c.i ii8 c, Lach. i8o D, Rep. 400 B, 424 C. Duncker, C. d. A., ix c. 8; Busolt, ii Acdgcwv and Aauwvt&iqs appear to he two forms of name belonging to one person (cf. Duncker, Gesch. des A/I. ix p. 1,2, n. x). As other exx. of double names we have KXcavpipt6-is and KXicuSpos, 'Iip1a0LK)d-Si6~ and 4)paCruKX-S, EO/3ovXi'&js and E~l/ovXog, Tev~rap~i6-s and Te66Tap~os, ~2LLS4Xil-l7s and ft'AtXos, Matai'Spi&qs and Maiav~pos, 0o-ra6 —acbis and OWart-os (Hemsterhuys on

Page  110 110 AOHNAIQN 110 GH NIQN COL. II1,1. 26-36. 20 EOKet Tiov 7roXXWOv Eef~fT 7vaUJt 79) ITepLKXJ t O' Ka't (')OTPa'Ktra-av aVTO VO-T'Epov) WE7M Tot(; L&'otsq 77r~'ro, &8o'v'at Tot',? 7oXXos' ra aVT&WV, KaTCa-KevaOE /.I-OkcflO par' T0FI9 &KaO-Talt9 d/' Woy ab'twtcoP- 5 Tat TLVEI~ XELPOV9~ ryev'eoOat, ikqfpovLe'VOwv 6E7rtU1CX&' 51 d,Et PXXOV' T(OW TVXOZVTJ)V Taw(02 E7TEtKowr dr'Opo57rC0'. '?jp a' ~.Ea rv'r ba,25 To 8eca~',Etv-, 7Tp&JTOV KaTaC3elavrTo9 'AVt5TOV /J.kETa T7rV E'r IllvX6, 20 TT0AAWN (K-W, K3, B): 1TOAEMLON (K'), lroXtrLKCVP Wyse (H-L). 22 &tKao-rTwpo~s Blass, Richards (H-L), propter XEipw) in versu proximo positum. ciq' oi Richards (H-L). 23 XEIP0) (K, H-L): XELpovs Newman, Hude, K-w; T& 7pd-y/sTar Ta KaT&' ri'q 7roXtTelav, vel TijP 7r6Xtp, excidisse putant J B Mayor et Rutherford; r&' KaIT& T& &Kao-r'pia desiderat Bury. 25 'Av6Tov: &YTOY corr. K,. 25 * Harp. SEKai~wY:...'Ap. 5' Eiv 'AO. iroX. 'Apvr6,v /no-lq KaTa&ZELaa 76' &Kd~EGP r&' 8&Kacr- Tpa. Bekk. An. p. '211, 31 'Apvuro: oi6)7o0 7rpdrOS 3IKa aT7r oP < &KaciGP w> KareaEl4eP. Schol. Aeschin. i 87 6i5IK,Ep VP o a L60O6LpfP adp-yuphp 706 &Kaards-cE 77p~a-ro 51 TOi 7-oc06Tou 7rp~orog "Az'vroy. Bekk. An. p. 236, 6 (= Etym. M. p. '254, 31i) 7rpWT-oE E'36KE &Kdorat MlX-qs (leg. 'Axvuos) Till evlO6vas 515oi's T~ Ei 1I6XY 1-Tpa'q-yL'as 77P KaLKW1 &Trpa-r?5-y'icev. Cf. Rose, 371I2, 409 3. Lucian, Tinmon, P. 157), KcaXItri65- and KalXXtwrror, 'A-yvJWvJ4-s and Agnon, 'E~77 -KEITW77I and 'E5~)KEO-TOg, Eilopov16-Is and Eilop&vtos, ME-yaKXsL5&,q and Me-yaKXl~r, MzvoqaapXia-qs and Mtl'orapXos, ZavGI~rlrichqs and ~~dvOurrros (0. Crusius in N. 7ahrb., 1891, pp. 385-394,' Die Anwendung von Volinamen und Kurznamen hei derseihen Person '). Plutarch, Per.- 4 init., tells us that certain persons said that the first syllahle of Aaiswv was pronounced short. Mr Kenyon suggests that Plutarch confused two persons, the musician Damon, son of Damonides of40a, and the politician Damonides of 0f'-, and transferred to the former some of the attributes of the latter. The demonymic of the former would he "0aOEv; of the latter, ObNOsv. This has also heen suggested hy Gomperz, Dezitsche Rutndschau, May 1 891i, p. 2 32, and is probahly the hest solution of the discrepancy. I 'sjJ] apparently not found in Ar. Thuc. viii 48, TOOls KaXoIIS KaycaOolil 7ropto-Ta' OPVTaL Kaid e10cT7Jy-7Ta' T~j KK6 in- 'Ayu. Pot. ii 8, 1,268 b 30, eIon-qyELITGIaI (advise, propose) v6,uwv Mawrt, and vi (iv) I, 1289a i, ToLa6T77V dohT7?YELOatl Td1~tI, and several times in [Ar.] Rhet. adAlex. Thuc. iv 76, 6io-q7yovepiov (Twv6s), 'on his proposal.' SL80oVcLL rOtS IroXWoS Td. a.rrV'TV] 'to offer the people what was their own' -an easy piece of liherality. In epigrammatic point this phrase is somewhat of an exception to the ordinary style of the treatise and reminds one of Aristotle's manner; hut the epigram is ascrihed to Damon and the writer does not necessarily claim it as his own. 'The dry way in which the sarcastic counsel of Damnonides of Oea, the Ahithophel of his time, is repeated is not unlike Aristotle' (WV. L. Newman, Class. Rev. v i 59 b). XEFCPOVS -yEVE'COOLL] The writer is possihly referring to Plato's Gorgias 515 E, TavT1 -yap lPYWYE aIKO6W, IIIEpLKXe'a lr7rroo7K&LJ~I 'AOlj~sa'ovs ap-y6 Ka'l &IXAOhi Ka'l XdXOVS Ka'l 0c1Xcp-yV'povs, d's /iLLTGOqopopc'a IrpjT0JV KaraIrlO-TIuaTI. Aristotle often refers to Plato in the Politics as TLvEs, e~g. in iv (vii 7, 2~, 1327 b 38 (XW. L. Newman in Class. Rev. v i 6ob). ~ 5. &K~itIELV] Lys. '29 ~ 12, 3S686ao — /1.kevo, Isocr. 8 ~.5o, Oavailrov TIs ~7J/ICla 6r1 KEL/U1V'qT, EdlS TLS lIXp 6EKai~WV, Aeschin. i ~ 87, gsaprvpewv Trlv /1E'v 10 E'&a~,E TO'P 51 WE 15EK'IETO. Cf. note on Dem. 46 ~ 26, E~ I. OV66KII~? 7321 -)Xtclav in Select Private Orations, ii 139, ed. i886. Plut. Pericl. 9 ~ 3, TUE'S1EKIo-al TOS 7120601. 'Avai-rOif In 409 B.C. Pylos, which had remained an Athenian post since 4'25, was retaken hy the Lacedaemonians. The Athenians had sent to its relief 30 triremnes, under Anytus, who however came hack without even reaching the place. On his return he was put on his trial for having hetrayed the trust confided to him. Diodorus xiii 64. Plut. LCoriolanus 14, 'AO'15v32oI Si VIyeTrat 7rpW~Tos cp-yilpotoi &o~/at &lKao-TraE `AvUToE 6 'Av~e/5yoso 7rpoaoo-ias 7repi HI'X0VKpLv6/LIYos (Grote c. 63, v 465). He is mentioned in c. 34 ~ 3 as one of the leaders of the moderate section of the oligarchical party. He was afterwards notorious as one of the prosecutors of Socrates (Anyti r-eus).

Page  111 CI. 27, 1. 20-CH. 28, 1.1i5. FJOAITEIAII I I I o-Tpa-rflyiav. KptvO/IUVO' Fyap V70Tr t~'V &a 70 av o3ae VHtXv &Kaiaa9 r'O 8tUcao —r ptov d7Te'ovyev. 28. &01 1p4v oi& H11EpuXiq 7TPOELOT'7KEL Troi S27'oV 813EX~o -a' KaTa r?7v 7roXtTelav 7'7v, 'TEXEVT70-q'avroq & HE pLKXEOv9 '7oXlv' xetPWo. 7rpoiTov yap 'ToTE 77pOO-'TaT7-fV EXa,3EV 0' &?7/L, ov'K Ev8oKq.LVZ'T wp~ TOV9 EWLEL.KEOLV E. 86 'TOV 7Tpo7-EpOV Xpovots- a&~Et TXV'o 2 ETTLtEtKEcS' &/LaywE)yoVv'TE9. E~ aiPXi'79 P' yap Ka~t 7TpLO'T09 &EEVE'TO 5 apO 'T~T7 T 737/~O EVW, 1TEPO9 8E, HlEtO-X7'pa'T09, 'TcV EiryeVWV Kat rYvwoPtPui ca'TaX u9OE Lo1 & ri\ T'7 TVavparn4os KXEto-6E'Vq,, 'TO l)y'ov 6hV ' (VV 'AXOcV E Vt Kat TzoiST- P V OvI8E aVTI 0'To-&J''q c~ EE7~c7v 1 7~p 'TW Ioaeyopav.,LE'Ta &e Tav'Ta 'TO' ETTEITa 0E/U.L-TOKX?79 Ka\ 'Apto-Telaq LE'Ta\ 8E TOV'TO Vq 8'rol toy, K ' av O' MtX~t '8o cV E60V 7r0pwlJ- EtTa /16V 'TO?) 8S57/OV, EO0VKV&&I,';q &6 TOW e'T'PO)V, KE(67'T~ (v Kipcovoq. 3 IJEpUCXE'OVV 8& TEXEVT27'aaV'TOS~ TW?)V ALEV E~rtoavOWJ 7TPOELCTT?7KEt NtKas- 0tl ~K a TEP7~oc, ol 3ov KX''ov ' KXEat- 15 XXVIII 6-7 TW~v fv137E1'WV Kal -yvwptkwV SeCi. K-W; 7TW' E6-YEVV < 'V >- KTX Richards (H-L., B). TESTITMONIA. XXVIII 15-18 * Schol. in Luciani Timonem 30 (i P. ioo ed. Bipontinae, p. 47 Jacobitz): 6' 5 KXgwv 3S ja-yy6s ~' 'AO-qiawiwl 7rpocTATi auh-(z' IE'rra& XXVIII. The successors of Pericles. ~ 1. 1fELKiXijS wpfrp0EL T'KEL -roD 8 ij~ov] From about B.C. 450 (c. 28 ~ i) till his death in the surm-e-fOf 429. The writer's praise of the policy of Pericles is so briefly expressed, that it hardly arrests our attention, The text implies that the excellence of that policy was not absolute, but relative:-/3eXtfw, as contrasted with that of his successors, which was XeI pw. The merits of Pericles are here recognised with far less generosity than in the pages of Thucydides. In the text, Pericles is the last leader of the popular party who, owing to his high birth, was acceptable even to his opponents: the decadence begins with his successor, Cleon, who had no such advantages. lirpc.Yrov-Ovk EVS30KLfLO~vVra] Pal. 1274 a 13-15, 6 3$Aos... 3q-ayceyous Xaf3e,/XaXovJs vrurorXLT7o/.VOVwP TCsp E0rLELKW~P. oL E-IrLeLKd9 SY1BcLyco-ariv'res] Schol. Arist. Pax 68i, srpO7Epov a-q~eayWos'rcOn'V TWPv 7rapU Xau.srpc~ 7ro\LTwPv. ~ 2. wrpoo-CI'r1S -roii &tjp~Lov] a purely unofficial title, applied to the leader of the popular party. Cf. 2 ~ 2, and see Whibley's Political Parties, p. 5'i. T(O)V d-Y1EVC0V KOLI YVWP4P~WV] We must either insert W' after su-yvwv~, or understand the words to refer to Solon and Peisistratus, or remove them from the text. In any case Peisistratus, who is described as b7/J.ZoTLK('TaToT in 13 ~ 4 and 14 ~ 1, is to be regarded as a mrpoorTas-qSj TOOJ &5' ov and not as a rpoorcb-sjr rTiv EWYEsvwv Ka~i -yvcwpi/c.wv. Below, rcWV -jswplicwp is contrasted with i-oO 37,5gou. dvTrLcr-cLa(OL'"1s] Hdt. i 9,2, iv 164, v 69. Not found in Ar. SEJLao-r0KX~S KOUt 'ApLocrT(E'S~] joint leaders of the popular party, c. 23 ~ 3. 00-UKV8 (871] son of Melesias, of Alopeke, mentioned below (~ 5) with Nicias and Theramenes. He was ostracised in 444 B.C., and it has been considered worthy of note that the writer says nothing of this fact (Rhein. AMus. xlvi 455), but to mention it here would only impede the natural course of the narrative. -rcov E&,ipwv] 'the opposite party,' used here, and below, to avoid the too frequent repetition of rciv -yvcpl~iwwv, -zdv E67r6pwp, or i-&V E'7rtc/Jav'v. 3. NLKUcS-T(1EXUTo-cs~] Thuc. vii 86 ~ KXiwv] Gilbert, Beitrag-e, pp. 127 -I46.

Page  112 112 AOHNAIQN COL. II, I. 36-39. vETOV, 81 8OKEL /IA7Ta 8taoiEtpat T' 7 87V Si7ov Tav 6polLaV9, Kat wrp(7O9 E7rt Toi3 /3 7a'ro 9 xvEKpayE /at EhotLop17j a7o Kat 7rrpt~t)a 6Evo c OrnL17yoP17OE, To) aXXOV(W ECV KOOjr9 XE'yOVTOWV. Etra /.tETa ro-ovs- TOV,U~V iTerpo w 8lpa/Evr)sp 6E"A yvwvo9, r3 & c~iov KXEo22 4owV o Xvporrotok, Ok Kat' T7V &W/3EXiav Ew0optoe 77TP(WTO1 9 Cat 16 OpM&d, eCKciar707- XaPt1o1e'Os vel aliquid eiusmodi desiderat J B Mayor. Scribendum fortasse &avo/alta, coil. Plut. Arist. 24 (de demagogis post Periclem) 0i'V 3luov eliS &aivolca' lrpoa-yay6vEre, Per. 9 io-Oaov 6tavocia's, Aeschin. F. L. 76 KXEo0W' 61e~OapKwr vo/Ifl XP37U7/-"X"y ' T 7- 5juOV, Eth. 1130 1) 31 ilV Tali &aCVOuaLai rTA071 a XP 'acirwv, i131 I 30 0 Xp77/.iTwv Ko1vWV eaU' -yvyP7Tal 17 &Lavo/O5, I 131 a 25. 20 AIwBoAIaN. e77l, 6S lrPwT07 0 778L-q?7y0p0V iV'VKpCayE Ev7rL TOr f3ro /SEAToS KCal 6XOiIOP-'o-a70... e7rIa-T7 I- K ri 717 rp6s AaKe~atgotlovo E'ipl vt, C's 4)AIXopoS Kai 'ApoT70oC/xvi s ('Apso70 --/X-s Hemsterhuis quem sequitur Rose, Frag. 368, 4O6W), rpooOeis a@pXov-ra Ef6vvov'A~tpLcro~re'X-qs & Kai 7rEpt~w1T6/1evov av',tJ1 Xe'yE 61qju-77 fyopcraL, eis '7tV Opaao-6T7Tc curoU 'ro0c-KrWrt ---v. Schol. Aeschin. i 2; "iv T7r C1yop/ T7r ca /sLv ww CiVCIKE 1TCI1 o 146Xwv El'T0I TJv X0P' eXWV"': ' aeTEO770: ~6Xwvos EiK 'JW 011K 6iri T7^ E& KElT/sW XV-YELV, Ws1 0Y)7O1p AitX v77I, lXX' E'-7rEt5j OibTW r' 'XEYE-Ca cbr-77YY s1XE. A?71,aooa l7Y7 ILh'rt0 (Or. 19 ~ 251) 'EWTTL' 0-171 7rpl 7rEPT'TKopTI ETWV iCITEa E ZcT-OaCL TraI7V T7)V ELKVci. XV 'yesal & KXcwv & )qalaywyol Irlapacl/3c1 ro 4 90ovs oX-X/IC rept5wadci/oEoo1 817/z7yqyopal.r. 16 Heraclidis epitoma, ix i, 6, KX~cv 7rapapacXc 3Lt4)ELpe TO woXlrevgsLa. 20-23 Locum de pecunia theorica ad iudicum mercedem male transtulerunt interpretes antiqui. *Schol. Arist. Vesp. 684 TOL" T ELp o/3oXo~r: -rv 4)lpov X-yet,,rats 6pp.ais] hardly 'his wild undertakings' (Kenyon),or even 'his incitations' (Poste), though the latter rendering may be preferred. Better ses emnportements (Reinach), 'his impulsive ways.' Plut. 101,2, wrpqbrepos KaE TraFi 6pC saas 9)56ae MaclXaKw'repos, Them. 2, e'v rais 7rpdrats 7qS C'E6T'q7-os 6p/saas. The pl. is found in Ar. Eth. i 13, 1102 b 21, E'7l Tr'aVTla ai Oip/sal rc0v dKparciv, Magn. Mar. i 35, 1197 b 39, dperat 4waVo-ec o0op Op/Jal TILVEs eV EKcirTcp. In contrast to Cleon, we read of Pericles (Plut. Per. 20) ovi ovvsXjp1p 7TiUr O~p/aiTs Ti'v rWoXIT-. But the use of the word in the text is curious, and it is perhaps better to propose &cavou'aZs which would obviously refer to Cleon's raising the aLlu-s &EKa0-7tK0i to three obols. iwrrl 'ro; pj a0ros dVEKpCLyE] Neither Piya nor aivaKpdi1e is found in the Index Ar. The Pnyx was first identified by Chandler in i765 (Travels in Greece, ii 84, ed. 8225) as 'a large semicircular area or terrace, supported by stones of vast size cut into squares, nearly opposite the rock of the Areopagus,' from the centre of which it is distant about a quarter of a mile to the S.W. The excavations directed by Lord Aberdeen in 1822 disclosed a projecting cubic block, hewn out of the rock, and approached on each side by steps. This was identified as the pTjpca of the Athenian orators. It has, however, been maintained by Ulrichs (1842), Welcker (85,2), E. Curtius (1862, i868), that this block is an altar, and the semicircular area a T4IEvO5 of Z6EF iV7`Ytaos. The site of the P3iia is placed by Curtius on the slopes of the 'Museum' bill, due S.ofthe Areopagus. SeehisAtt.S/netlen, i 23-, and S/ad/geschich/e, pp. 30 and 6i. See also Prof. Crow and Mr Clarke in Papers of A4mer. Schaol, iv 205 —277. MvEKpaye] Arist. Vesp. 596, KX0wv I KEKpaILMLpiL5d, Eq. 137, KVKXO36pov tWVhv 9X10V. 7repLt(rc14LEvos] 'with his cloak girt up short about him' (Kenyon), 'with his robes fastened or tucked up, as if he were engaged in some manual labour' (Poste, n). Cf. Plut. Nic. 9, 7rEpt-ci7raS T6 L/11iT1lov (with Holden's n), and contrast Aloar. ii 8oo (of Pericles), T-i)v XEtpa avvPXEtv Ep'T6s Ti7s 7rEP1pOXls. S, p9oapivxs] inf ~ s. KXEo+v 6 Xvpo-rroLos] He is so styled by Andoc. de Myst. ~ 146; Aesch. F. L. ~ 76; and the Scholiast on Aristoph. Thesm. 8o5, Ran. 68i (as restored by Taylor). Cf. Suidas, s. V. 0L1Xo-TlL6'Tepa KXeoq)cvzTos. Aelian, Var. Hist. xii 43, says that his father's name was unknown (Mayor). Cf. Lysias 13 ~~ 8, 9, 12; 30 ~~ 11-1i3; and inf. 34 ~ i. For further details see Holden's Onamas/con to Aristophanes. rlq'v SLW)EXCcLV] Pal. ii 7, 1267; 1,

Page  113 CH. 28, 1. 16-22. TTOAITEIA 'I3 XPOvo rtEV TvLla &E&(SQTO, /JETCL 8'raVwra KaTEXvae KaXX)twpa+T7( llaLavtEv9 ~rr 7r TCO o9 V'7T00 X01. E7TrLOE70EtV 7 OrpOq TO) 8SOL)) 3o/3oxo 22 21 hIJEI1o Y (B): 5te~i5ro Wyse, Richards, K-W, H-L (K3). Ka7-7r-6-q0-e Whibley. 22 rIp6vrov van Leeuwen. K&tENYCe edd.: dIq' Wv 'i6L&&o Tr6 rpt3oXoV. v oiro & cdXXore dXXP ei E' oro, T-ZY 5-qga'byOY v 7-a. 7X667h7 KoXaKev6,vrwv, cWes ~Oiav 'Ap. Ev lroXtTeicsla (adde Schol. Vesp. 300o, 72 /L~V Yap c07-aTOv 76 70r 1AICO00h 7ra0r -ya'p tw/36Xov 7'1v, &ylVero SC 'ri KXewvos Tptd4IOXOv, Vesp. 88 C.&&oro Xp6vov mWv rwva 56o 63oXoi, b'cTepov & KRXew c7-paTr- yho-a Tptcb/OXOV Elroa — epv aciCOVTVrOS TOO ir-oXeuov 7ro rrp6T AaKE6cLL.opdovs). Cf. Rose, 42I, 461. Ceterum Kenyon noster arbitratur schol. ad Arist. Vesp. 684 referre partim ad c. 62 ~ i (Ta 6t&ao-tr'Pca TpeZs 6'oXo6s), partim fortasse ad locum tractatus nostri e fine deperditur ubi de iudiciis agitur. 21 *Zenob. vi 29 (Athous iii i5' apud K-w laudatus) V're'p r& KaXXtKpai-rous infra exscriptus =* Photius et Suidas, s.v.; fere eadem habet Pseudo-Plut. Proverbia, iii. Cf. Boeckh II xv p. 299 Frdnkel; Meineke, Comn. Gr. iv p. 7oo. Macarius iv 68... 67ri 7TWV KaO' V'rEp[30X?7V 71 IIOtOVVTWV, r1 iIL 7 WV TO&S 7rPW7rE66OVTUC 9V 71TO b'repCup6bvWv. 77 7rov-p'a T5V VOp rWv CirTX?7qCrOV, KaL' T6 irpw7OP /.LAV LKEavOv 83wfoXia 1W&vov, brav 6' 76 ToOT' 77r 7RaTpcov, del 6UOvTal i~a 677 7.7 2 T7o 7rXelvOs, iEws Eti csareipoV f6WO-Lv. This must refer to the ikeoricon, the fund for paying the price of admission to the theatre at the rate of 2 obols for each of the ordinary seats (Dem. de CMr. p. 234, 24, Cri 6uoov 3vo& 0'oXo&V). The payment of the theoricon out of the treasury of the State is attributed to Pericles in Plutarch, Perici. 9, V7r' EKEiCVOV /Wl 7rb' 3iBAov eiri KX77PoUXklV Kal OEWPLKAc KaL A.ta&Wv Savoa'ca srpoaXO7j'aL, and Ulpian on Dem. 01. i mnit. r&. Xphua-ara Tara UTI &Iq~6o-a OEcpLKc a' i77rroi CV 9 a PX77 6 flepuKX 711,...Ioo0AocEVO p dcplOac TqJ 87)1.1(6 Kil ToLs r7rv77ocv. Cf. Gilbert, i 324. It cannot refer to the ictaOr6 &cKaoTLKOIs, for it was long before the time of Cleophon that Cleon (about 428 B.c.) raised the dicast's fee to three obols: Schol. on Ar. Plut. 330; Vesp. 8o, 300; Eq. 51, 255 (425 B.C.); Vesp. 607, 682, 688, 797, Iii6 (423 B.c.); Aves 1540 (415 B.C.). Boeckh, II xv p. 326 Lamb. Probably it was originally one obol and never two. Again, it cannot be the /.1uOIB EKKX77oLaaTLK6s as this was introduced by Agyrrhius at the rate of one obol, increased by Heracleides to two obols, and again by Agyrrhius to three (c. 41 end). SL&S6%o'o] '(the fee) continued to be Paid.' KcI'dX1JO] either (i) 'overthrew him,' 'ousted him' (K.), 'outbid him' (Reinach); or (2) 'abolished it' (Kaibel and Kiessling, Poland and Haussoullier). (2) is probably right; but we should have expected some notice of the subsequent restoration of the theoricon. This omission may, however, be only S. A. accidental. Philochorus, ap. Harp. s. v. 6eWPtK6v, says that it was restored by Agyrrhius; but this is doubtful. Agyrrhius was certainly concerned with the /UcO-0b6 'KKX-qotao-rLKoS (c. 42 end). KcLXXLKpCLns] In Zenobius vi 29, and elsewhere (Boeckh, 1I xv p. 327 Lamb), we read of a proverbial phrase iorlp a'. KIlXXLKpcLTrVo applied to excessive wealth by the inhabitants of Carystus in Euboea. This explanation of the proverb is quoted from Clearchus. Then follows an inaccurate reminiscence of the present passage in the following form: 'Apio-7oTCOX-qs 6& qo- l' Tq77 'AO77vatcov 7roXu7ele KaXXLKpalT7-7V rtLv -7rpWiTO TWZy &KKaaCDOTV r0o6 Aktrobs ets:rrep/oX7v a6'7Uaac, 66e6v Kc 771'7v 7rapoL~uaz' elpiorOat. Possibly the last clause, Soev-eipiir0at, has got displaced and should be placed at the end of the previous sentence, immediately after the mention of the proverb. The first part of the explanation will then run as follows: q5qrai KIiapXos bro. KaXXLKPCLT77IS TL EyIVET ocV Kapborrw WXovoL-L6ra7ITo e 707E oiyv iMaccaS6pv T'va ot Kap6o-TLroc C'rlXo6 -Tqa, V7rep3&LKWIT l9e-YOV, '7rgp r& KaXXtKpdTovs - 66ev Kail T7qv rIapocliccV Elp77CrOaL. In any case it is not absolutely necessary to suppose that the proverb was ever quoted in this treatise. Zenobius misunderstood the passage as referring to the pay of the dicasts, which had been increased to 3 obols about 428 B.c., whereas Cleophon, and a for/ion Callicrates, belongs to a much later date. {orrocrvoojvos-,2Xovv 6joXdv] If the grant of the fee of two obols a head out of the theoric fund was sufficient to enable all the poorer citizens to attend the theatre, it is not easy to see what object 8

Page  114 "I4 AE)H NAIQN COL. Ii 1). 39-47. & 8~v /oXov. vOLra / apO 4OEp(O ava-rov KaTEyVwo-aii V97TEPO W' EIW 9EJ ya p, Ka ~ aTnO t, T \ 7TX i- 6o 9, v T ~ ~ v / L '25 TrOt 'rTt 7rpoa-layV-a'; 7rotetv av~rovq TCv fL?7 icaXw'q e'ov~v a7r7o 8E KXcoobaVTro'; "&q1 8LE8E'XOVTO OrVVEXCO' TI7V 8,q y wyla v 01L,u{XLUTa /3ovX6'pEvot Opa(7vvmcrOat Kct ap',aat TOZ'; 7rOXXOt'; 7TpoV? To lrapav7-ica /3XEf7rOVTe';. 0SOKVc0-t 6\ 83ETctaTOt 'y&YOVevat 5 (A'~ 'A O?7V17ot 'noXr o- 6V60V /J.Ta TOy'; ap~a tol' NIKa'; iat 30 eovKv818in Ka~ Efl,Jqpa(E'Vfl* Kat?rEpt IEv NLKiov Kcat E~OVKV~tSeOV 77WTE9' O1XE8O~v O/uoXoyoVca-tv av~pa'; ryeyovEvat oiv' uovov KaXov'; Icaiya~ov\ q a'XXa Ka&t 'ITOXtTLKOV9q Kai T,^ 7TOXEL 7tar 77-aTpt/e)' Xpa"24~ EtWe H-L. Kb'p: e~'d' H-L. 25 7rpo. &fr&rONT&C. 28 T6O Kontos, Gennadios (H-L, B qui 7-o etiam. in papyro invenit): 7r& K, K-XV. le ex ~leO corr. I307-toroL: praestat fortasse /3irLOrTa, coll. 2 8, 4-ct 32, 1 0. 29 6OHNHICI, in titUliS semel tantum. apparet anno.302 A.C. (Meisterhans, p. 114 2). 32 uTTTpiKWC. 28-30 * Plot. Nic. 2 (infra exscriptum). there was in increasing it. But the thieoricon was not confined to the Dionysia, it was also paid at the Panathenaea and at all the great festivals (Boeckh, ii xiii p. 305 Lamb). Harpocr. s. v. OEWpLKA XPj5 /ItaTa-...dXXoTre /.LIVTot /XXws W~pioO67 r6 &8i61-evov ets -re T-as 0as Kai et's Ta's 0Ovala Kat a'p ipds, (OS IOTL 8~XOV 4K ToO a' -IXLvr7rLKWY Aql~oui0bvos (i~e. 01. i). 9cdvarov] We know nothing of the death of Callicrates. That of Cleophon is well attested. In 404 B.c., not long before the establishment of the Thirty, he was condemned and put to death on the plea of having neglected his military duty; Lys. i3 ~ i2, wrp695aov jidv OTL OU 'X06P cis Ta& 6wXa dvairava6puevor, 76 5' adX-qO/ IiTt aiVTEL7rP iuirlp LLWVj L/i7 Ka0a~peZv Tra Tretx'. The Council, whose temper and proceedings he had denounced, illegally constituted itself part of the tribunal that tried him (ib. 30 ~~ 10-14). According to Xenophon, Hell. i 7 ~ 35, Callixenus and others, who had prompted the people to put to death the generals who had neglected their duty at Arginusae, made their escape before they could be put on their trial, a-TaOew's Twos -yevogv&-s, iv j KXco/&vp 'hr69avsu (Grote, c. 65, v 55,2). jJ.LEtv] Ar. Rhet. ii 4. Similarly in Xen. Hell. i 7 ~ 35 Callixenus, the proposer of the motion against the generals who fought at Arginusae, who is there included among those who T6v/ 5$iov f qrcarqoav, returned on the restoration of the democracy, and ta ro 6uge vos lV7rb 7rcdTrwy Xtb&J d~reOavsv. Mr W. L. Newman suspects a tacit reference to the death of Socrates, cf. Diod. xiv 37, and Diog. Laert. ii 43. ~ 4. cdwo Si KX\eo~Zv'ros KTX.] Isocr. Panath. 13,2 sq., SLeSiXovTo.njv 8vqj.&cywy~cav] Schol. Arist. Pax 68i, o6-ros ('T~rlp/oXos) IIe7-a T-p -Ol KX/covos 6V~ao7T'av 6te6i~aro T'bp 6-q~a-yw-ytiav (Wyse). lrracLpalrCKCL] Hitherto found only in spurious writings of Ar., esp. in the De Plan/is and in the Rhet. ad Alexandr-um (Eucken, Sjprac/hgebrauc/h des Ar., Prac-,positionen, p. 6,2,. quoted in Class. Rev. v i6o a). It occurs (without the article) in Thuc. viii 48, 3 and iv 76, ~ ~ ~.SoKofkrL-f3XrLo.r~oL ye-yovivcL 'rc~v...wroXLreo-ucrai.(vwv] This is somewhat carelessly paraphrased in Plut. Nic. '2, 9PVEOTL 0i5v 7rspi NLKL'OU 7rpwT0V EtirEW 6 7&ypa~bsv 'Apto-ro-rfXqTr, 07t TrpELI -yevoYTro /3/X7tLoTot TW~ ~roXt-r(b' Kat 7raTptK'qv 9XOYTEs suvoiaV Kal ObtXlav lrpbs TOYv 65,ov, INLKdaS 6 NLKc-q PaTOV) Kal OouK~a&6-qS 6' M1EX7Joiou Kai' 077 -pal-6vfls 6' 'A'yz'wzov. The text describes the three as re.puted to be the best politicians: Plutarch describes them as actually being the best citizens. The text describes Nicias and Thucydides as ruling the State in a paternal spirit; Plutarch ascribes to them a hereditary affection for it. /3IXTo-Tot here has a political sense; cf. ol eI7r&ELKEZS in ~ i, and KaWoui Ka'-ya~OO~ in ~ 5; and see Holm, Cr. Gesch. ii 583. -7rcL~rpLKi*oS] 'paternally'; not 'they acted in all their public life in a manner worthy of their ancestry' (Kenyon), buit

Page  115 CH. 28, 1. 23-CH. 29,1.4. TTOAITEIA 'Is /JEVOVS?, 7rEp't 86' Eh~paALE'vovg 8ta' To o-VIL43nvat KaT, aVTrOV TiapaX8,etg < Jvat> Ta"? 7roXLMf'rE a t/-32?770?7cL T717S KPUcTAco E-TL. 83OKEE P6I<7T0t> TOE, Fp1 7rapep7yan a7rofoatv~o/.VOt9~ OVX 07p 35 a Tov~ &ta/3c'XXovo-t 77-ao-aq Ta" woXtTrEIar Ka'raXi'etv, X rcos 7rp~a~yetV 6'cosq 1wq&v 7r-apavoptoEev, W4 8VVaFluevo9 7rO'XtT6v'ea-Oa ea-ia' 7raco-a9, 07Wep eo-T'V aJya~oi- 7roXi ov "pryov, '7rapavop~ov'oaat &eo a7v'co~p v aXX a~re iopievoqx 2 9. gp 6 ov~v lao6ppo'n-a Ta 7rpayjpaTa Karca TO7 'iroepov i7V, 8tEcJ{LXarTToV] T'V 8fl/Jko~cpaTi'aV. re7tE &6 p1Ta' Tn7V eL) IKEX'a 7yEvl)G/LEVfZ o-vpxfopav icrXVP0TEpa Ta~ T)V AaK'ce8atpovt'wdv CEyEVETO ta' T77 7rpo' /3acrtLXe'a o-vpqpaxiav, 97va71tao-OflcraV K[tV o-a]VTE9~ 34 < elVat >T-&s 7roXrTeicla K-W: -ras 7roX17elas1 < elVaIU> Richards (H-L). 35 M(CN)TOICMH: A&vrot TOESU~ti K (H-L); /dlTot I/A' K-W; 36' roZ~ /d7 B. 38 fortasse aut ~p-yov secludendum aut ep-yop d-yaOo3 7roXlf-ro scribendum putat B. XXIX 1 7rpd'ygca-rc secl. 1I-L. 3 &(I&)4o0p&N: o-vuAfopd'P Richards, K-W (e Schol. Ar. Lys. 421I), H-L (K3, B). ICXYPOTT6T (K): iaXvp6TepcL J B Mayor, Blass, K-W, H-L. 4 lie[TT-rao-rcla]vreS K; Ae[,ra~3cX6],vres Hultsch (H-L); KL[V75oca]xves K-w et B, qui in papyro recte legunt KE....NTEC (= KIELP'ocau7Tes). TESTIMONIA. XXIX 3 v. notam. proximam. 'they ruled the state as a father rules his household' (Poste).- Pol. viii (v) i i, 1 31i5 a 2 1, (S8t) Tr&S KOXdiLOet 7rcTpLw(lJ oacLiveoOatL Similarly Aristides ii i6i Dind. (quoted by Mr Wyse, C'lass. Rev. v 275 a) describes Pericles as, in certain respects, Iv 7rarpbs 3p -rdi~et TqI S?5/Lp. Cf. Pol. iii 14, 1,285 a 19 (fOao-XedaL) Kcd KaZ-ra v6)uoP Kal 7rcLtpKatf. i 2, 1,253 b 10 anid 1,2, 1,259 a1 38, (oiKovolila) 7rarp&K?5. SolcEt VT0rL-dLrreX0cLv6pevos] This eulogy of Theramenes is all the more welcome as the traditional opinion respecting him is that he was not much better than an Opportunist. His nickname, 6 K600oppos, is notorious. He is one of those who have been suggested as the politician referred to in Pot. vi (iv) i i, 1,296 a 38, els -yap dt1'ip avvrcloVEOrEg677p~os 7riZv wp6Trepov IEi'o7')yeIkovil1 -yevo~LVwP Tra6 -T a7 ' IrSOZc dv ccu (sc. -r,) uglo-' 7roXcrelaxi). See Newman's Politics,i p. 470. But it seems more probable that Solon is meant (cf. Susemihl2 note 1303). p~~q ircpipyws] Pot. (vii) i i, 1 3 306 i i, 'ErLg/XdPXE raVuos 9Xeu' /53 lralpepyw. dwio(f~cLLoJe'vOLs] Pot. i ad fin. rpc3rov lirLOKEV./c~LeOa 7repl TWV~ adwof7/fla/SevWP 7repl' T*7 CdplaTITt 7rOLTIEhla. vi (iv) i, 1 288 b 35, ol 7rX66c7-ot reTWI' CLroq5aCoUPO/L&S 7repl roXtrelas. (vii 14, 1.333 b 1,2, airlek~iav7-o r77v aivrrzp 36-az. Flhet. ii 21, 1395 a galIws a' ToI/alVoVTa1. S8am3cXXovo-L] Critias is one of those referred to, Xen. Hell. ii 3, 30. Cf. Lys. 1,2 ~ 78 (Newman). -rpcvopLoi'a-ci~s oi~ a-v-yXwop~v] See Meineke's notes in Frog. Gorn. Cr. ii 867 and ri65, where he quotes Hesych. T-Co' rpv~Dv 9p: O37paju9P-qs i'/i95Laro rpe~l Tq/swpclag Ka7-T& TWZp 7rrpdiJ'o/56V TI c3pc5PvrwP. The text dwells on the kindly feeling of Theramenes towards the whole city: we may contrast with this Lys. 1 3 ~ io (Newman). XXIX-XXXIII. The Revolution of the Four Hundred. XXIX ~ i. tco~ppowrc] Compare Eth. 9, i, i i 64 1 4, 7TI/177 T lo-6ppo~ros 06K aV yIVoLt7o, De Part. Anirn. iv 1,2, 695 a 1,2, t'oopp6wov &7ros Toll 1~ipovs. Thuc. i io5, 6, WuiX37I -yEVO/dV7)1q lo-opp67rou. FLETO. T~V EV ILKfXCq-crvL4)opciv] Thuc. viii '24, 5, 4e-ra' 7r371 ~2;K6XLK?'7P ~vAse~opaiP (ib. vii 85-87). Dem. Lept. 42, Isocr i6 ~ '5. puc%-LVu] After the Persian wars fla0-IXedI, without the article, is the ordinary designation of the king of Persia (e.g. Hdt. vii 174, Thuc. viii 36). 6' 3co-AX6T is found in this sense in Hdt. 1 i32, 13 7 (L and 5). O-vpjlLcLXCcLv] in allusion to the successive treaties with Tissaphernes on behalf 8-2

Page  116 ii6 AOHNAIQ~N COL.IJ,147-COL.12,1-7. 5 rl 17~~ a-av Ka-rao-'np-at '-i~lv e77rt -r v -re7-paKoo-t v wor rtrav, ELt[V/7o]9 T-/V pe"v?rp \ '-roD ova X~yov Mi7-XOflioV, 74V 86' ey'/tJ y a a vroS- llH & pv 'ro[i 'E wr]~[ flXov, /LA tc-ra 86\ O-V/tL7rtEUOE'V7W(V OWV WrOXXCOJ) ta\ ro\ vJo/.t'~etv/ /3aatXe'a [paiXXo]v, EaVTOv? ovpLWoXep/raew eav' &t o~xtyoV WO-7TW)VTat T737V 7rOXtTEtaV.1 io iV SE\ TO\ #37OtaFpa TOV HV008&')p0V M ' TOV(E' 'V (S'j10V EXE'~at 2 [Col-i 7 [HoXv~hX]ov Poland coil. Diog. Laert. ix 8, 5 Hu063wpos HoXv~hXov, ets7-~D TerpcaK0o-1wv (H-L, K3); ['Ewt]~hXov K-W (B) coil. At/zen. Mzflt/zei. xiv 398: spatium septem octove litterarum capax, ut nomen utrumque scribi potuerit To[y rrOXy Err1]ZHA\0y. 8 At&XXov J B Mayor (K-W, K3, B) quod confirmat Thiuc. viii 48, 1; O6&rroP H-L; /dXXEtp Marchant. [dtiAtevo]v K1, vel propter hiatum suspecturn, etiam papyri scripturae evanidae minus congruere confitetur K. 10-14 Schol. Arist. Lys. 421: 7irpofgovXot 8U 7rp6's Tro~s 53a (ro~o-8e Schol., Troll oiot, Suid., correxit Schoell) -.pe1O7crrP ciXXOL K', elo ---y-qo-6)uevot. 7&a SOKoOvraTt /3eXr-t a (om. Puteanus) i-r- roXcreU'I (,r-^ r6X11 Puteanus) te-ra& rnv e~v r-^2;LKEXi jL o-popd (Cf. V. 3). of Persia. For the first of these, see Thuc. viii i8: for the second, ib. 37; for the third, ib. 58 (Grote c. 62, v pp. 330, 346, 373). See also Andoc. '2 ~ 11-17. 'rijV (7rl T'FV TETpCLKoO~wv WroXLTECO.V] Thuc. viii 54-97, esp. 67..rrp6] either 'in favour of' (Reinach), like in rip; or 'previous to' (Kenyon). Poste vaguely renders: 'the orator who prepared the public mind for the change.' But, unless sufficient authority can be found for either use of 7rp5'. in such a context, it may be safer to accept wepi, proposed by Mr Wyse. MrjXopCov] almost certainly identical with the Melobius who was afterwards one of the Thirty and who joined in the attack on Lysias and his brother Polemarchus, Lysias 12 ~ i12. flv~o~capov] Pythodorus is the name of the archon in whose year of office the Peloponnesian war began (Thuc. ii 2, 1). It is also the name of a o-7rpar-qyo's (a son of Isolochus) in B.C. 4,26/5 etc, Thuc. iii I15, 1, 3; iv 2, i, and 65, 3' who is described in Plat. Farm. i126-13o as entertaining Parmenides and Zeno (A/c.i 11i9 A): this Pythodorus had among his friends one Aristoteles rbv i-rcv Tpta'KOVTca -YeV0,6eVo (Farm. 127 D): it was hence inferred by Bergk (Comment. de r-et. Com. ant., p. ioo) that he was identical with the archon of B.C. 404-3. The name of Pythodorus was also borne by a representative of Athens in the treaty of B.C. 421 (Thuc. v ig and '24). A T1uO6 -6wopos 'AXateb was first raAlas -r~s OeoO in B.C. 418/7 (CIA i 157). The date of the Pythodorus of Thuc. vi 105 (B.C. 414/3) makes it likely that he was identical with the Pythodorus who is mentioned in the text. This Pythodorus, the archon of B.C. 404/3, is identified as the prosecutor of Protagoras, Hvb63wpos IloXvN5 -Xov, ells 7TWv rE~paLK00zi-IW (Diog. Laert. ix 8, 54). But the name of his father was not HoXS~3JXos but 'E-rtij-qos. In an inscription ascribed to the early part of the fourth century llv063opol 'EwrtN-)Xov eXop~-yet (CIA ii 1250); and a pre-Euclidean inscr. at Eleusis bears the name of a 'lwrapXos who was son of 'Erli-Xos. The confusion between 'E-rl~-ijXos and lloV6,qXos is paralleled by the corruption of the 'Eris`Xoe of Hldt. vi i i7 into the floV6~-q Xos of Diog. Laert.i 2, 56 and elsewhere. Cf. At/zen. Mittizeil. xiv 398. O-v,)rJrTLaTOc'vlh)V-Wfo,\vre~v] In Thuc. viii 48, 1, Alcibiades assures the Athenian officers who had crossed over to the mainland from Samos, T~o-acu~pzopvplvp rpcTnov, g~retra & Katd fao-tX~a 0Aiov urou'LTELP, el A') 637fLoKpa7TLVTO (oiico -yap ap rt-o-reiio-atL A6XXov j8aurt~a). lb. 53 ~ 2, Peisauder asks each of his opponents at Athens et -u'ta CiXwiaa 9XeL o-CLT?7piacl. -El,u rts retfoet /3cunea /Leraorqvat 7rapai. o-/as. On their replying in the negative he says plainly (~ 3) that they cannot hope for any deliverance ei A') 7oXtre6 -7O/.Ltil' 7re ocx/poviTrEPOv Katl C' 6Xi'-Yovs /h&aXXop 7ras apXdl -7i-ooaolev, 'iva -to-,re6-,q -7/ezV b8aa-IAet~. P0t'. viii (v 4, 13045 1 2, (of the 400) T-6' &i~AoP e'~,prac7r77oav (/)cLOKOI7r6XE/btOP KT-X.

Page  117 CH. 29,1. 5-i8. U OAITEIA I 17 gtera Tcv '7rpov apXov'rcov SeI~a 7rpoI8ovXawv dXXov9 EtKOO-t EK 'rcOii i7rep Tre'r'apccov'ra m7 ye7ovom~,v, om'rveq, 3it~oavTeq i7147 o'yp*etv ` 6~ ',y vTat /3E'Xrurra d'vat 79 WO'XEt, o-vyypca'4ovo-t 7TEp~t -ri7 o(A)Tflptaqr e'~tvat &6 Kacd mcv atXXw~v 7() /3oVXoA6V( 3 7pcs tVv' e' a arcmvv atpowTa& To apto-rov. KXetToOfX3v 8e a 1uev dXXa KaOa'nrep IT 0'8wpoq eZrv 7roCv~,pioa & rVT aipe~vra'; ~ya~eV Ka~b Tov; 'na'rpiovq volzov; ovq KXew-Oe'vqT EMflICEZ O'TE KaOLWGTfl v \ V 77PKpaTtav, b'7rw~ <a'v> daK~voa~vTfq Kca& 13 aovy-ypd4,tovot: o-v/.qgouXe6oovaL Rutherford (H-L). 17 kypaq/ie H-L. 18 orrwc —BoyAEYCWNT&1 (K): 67rw1s-,ouXe6ro-ovrat H-L; 0'rws av-jpovXe6oTwlJat K-W, B. Cf. v. '24, C. 30, 20, et Meisterhans, p. 2 122. ~ 2. T6~V —8iKUL wpop~oiXv] Thuc. Viii I~ 3, (C'86Me) dpXhp~ 711a 7rpeo-g3U-r~pcw dvp~piv C'XgoOat, otrtwes 7repi m' 7rcop ravprwv WS 11 KaLpbs 'i rpo~ovAe6cTovo-L. Cf. Grote, c. 6t, v 3i18-9. This passage confirms Grote's observation that this 'Board was doubtless merged in the Oligarchy of Four Hundred.' Hermann, Staatsalt. ~ 165, 10 and ri; Curtius, ii 6906 n. 16,2 (Germ. ed.). Hagnon, the adoptive father of Thera. menes, is described as one of the irp6j#ovXot in Lysias 22 ~ 65, and, as joining Theramenes in favouring the establishment of the 400. It is implied in Ar. Rhet. iii i 8, 2 that all of the irp6/3ouXot lent their countenance to the change in the constitutional government of Athens (Grote c. 6,2, v 379 n). Cf. Isocr. Areoj5. 5 8; Pol. 1,299 b 30-38. The ten 7rp6f&VXoL of the present passage are identical with the ten ~-y-ypaoeZs of Thuc. viii 67, -rbp ftgop ~uXV~az'rEs ITrOP' 'I'd)/L77P SUKIZ &5pcs C'Xgo-Oat ~try-ypa41b~cL a6,rokpda-opca, -orouov U ~tiyypci+)/A~pap /07727 KaLO' 5 rT d'pLo-TC ) 7r6Xts In Bekker's Anecd. p. 301, 13, no number is given, but Harpocration, s. v. v —yypaqpeiTs, describes that body as numbering 30, and Suidas, s.v. 7rp6/3ovXot, speaks of 20 being elected in addition to the 0o rp6pouXOL to form a body Of 30 rv-y-ypazepeZ. Hence in the above passage of Thuc. it has been suggested by C. F. Hermann, S/aatsalt- 1 65, i i, to alter 6Slcc into 7'pLdlK0VTr. The historian's account is correct so far as it goes, but is less minute than that in the text, which has been followed by Harpocration and Suidas. Cf. Schol. on Aristoph. Lysistr. 421, 7rp6/30Xot 5& 7rp'3 7-01 U~K1 (Tro?6oe schol., 7011s 0ov'o Suidas; correxit Schoell) "pI6277-a ' cXXXOL K', eL yrn-qo661evot ra& 80KOPP7'aC The account in the text is in accordance with the statement of Androtion (probably written before it) and of Philochorus (certainly written after it), as recorded by Harpocration s.v. cru-y-ypaq4?EZ.: 'o-ap 5 ol /LA& 7drcl'es oTv-y-ypa4/etl 7TptdKol'Tc 01 T6STe a peO&7ref, Ka~d.c 0-no-tv 'Av~pondw~ 716 Ka'L 41LUXXopos, 'KdTepos i'p TJ- 'Ar0i&- S eoKa&7 711 L 1 IEO /11alJTZ 7lP0&o6XcWl' Cf. (with Wyse) Schol. Lysistr. 6o9, T0ois K' 7Tos eK 7771S crvl'pXiaLI, and Harpocr. s. v. 'A7MX77Ll els TWi' -v-yypca/ecwp 61 HXdmn'P KW/1106EZ El'00 oTIraZs (where Cobet inserts t' after mu'v, following Thuc. 1. C.). ~ 3. K&,ro~b~v] mentioned with Theramenes as a ' pupil' of Euripides, in Arist. Ran. 967, o06/1o1 5 (AtaO777al do-tl') KXet7ro0(') re Kail 827pa1Av77s Li Ko/A//6s. Identified by Holden ( Onornasticon Arist.) with Cleitophon, son of Aristonymus, who gives the title to one of Plato's dialogues and is mentioned with Thrasymachus in Rep. 3-28 B (where Stallbaum does not identify them). He is named, with Cleon, as qcD/Xos in Plut. Mor. 8o5, but this is probably a mistake for Cleophon..r&L p.v &'XXcL Kc0d~rp....Ei-r... Sik] This is the regular formula for introducing an amendment to a proposed decree. As examples before the archonship of Eucleides we have CIA i (1L 28), i8,.38, 41, 521, 54, 55, 85, 95, 119, 131, i35 (?), 138, 146, i63, i86 (Hartel, Studien ziber At. tisches Staatsrecht, p. 2,21). Swoboda, Cr. Vo//ksbescidjisse, p. 14, shews that amendments are not often found except in Athenian inscriptions. Plato refers to the customary formula in Gorg. 451 B, et'ltoL/L a01 W07irep 01' Tq7J f25119 a-v'yypaL(/6/Lepot, 07TI 7t& /e'V MaXI KILCZ7ep ' ciptO/1flTLK) 27 Xo-ytoT-K 9XCL. KXFELa-04vrjs] cc. 21i, 2,2.

Page  118 II8 AOHNAIQN I i A0NAI~NCOL. I12, 1. 7- I9. 'IoVT(i)V /3ovXEvocrwvrat To azpto-rov, co? oi 7YO tl-~c?)v aaXrwapa-,2o 'rX'qari'av oi'a-av r'nv KXE~-etavovi? 7ToXLtErlav T oXwvo09. 01 S' 4 atpe6E'V'J-E 7rpcO'rov /.EV eypa~av E6ra'vayKeSg EWlvt rovg '7TpVravetS awravra Ta\ Xelyop~Eva 7Tept -r-q oa(r7plas e7rt*fl0t~'etv, e7retra 'ra9 'rcov vrapavouotov rypaqag Kat Tag ewAayye~ta' xa\t Ta9 7rpOO'KX?7cTetq dE~xov, oa'wga~ v 'olW'XoZ7rE9 'A9qvaia Ov o-1,,ovXeV(C00t 76tTE W -V '2 -7rpoKCEtPLEZ'oVw &eaV 8' It rotv'z-ov Xa'ptv q' ~Tryito-?~w~aX ',rat? 23 rrpoKAHMCe: corr. Wyse, Blass (K-w, H-L, K3). corr. K. 25-26 HECIC6HIH6IC: Zsoi4-Yd~vos. Isocr., Areo~p. ~ i 6, implies (like Cleitophon) that the constitution of Cleisthenes was identical with, or closely similar to, that of Solon. The text, while correcting the view of Cleitophon, is also a tacit correction of that of Isocr. (Class. Rev. v i6i a). For W's C. acc. of the participle, cf. c. 7 ~ 4WS o —q/ua1Yvovacv. For the view that the constitution of Cleisthenes was not democratic, cf. Plut. Cim. 15, roi3 Kl~k'os... reywpulpovo a'vw TOS 5LKcL ai'aKaXe~oTOaU Kacd 7r70 iu KXewoO&lVoS &YELPELV aipLcT7oKpca7tcav. ~4. ivI1TL*L-t9CQir(TOV IL ycLcV-LcocrcLL. We here find stated in full detail what is briefly summarised in Thuc. viii 67, 'ah~VE-yKaL 01 Uyyprac/?s I Xo ju~v o636', cu~r6 5U TOUTo, 4,eWOaL IA&v aiLutov ei21-EL (so Clas. sen, following Wilamnowitz in Hermes, xii 336 n. 17: 'AO'qvaL'wv d'VLrfVE7- or d~Lpat1. 761E, M55; 'AO-qpaclois Suidas; 'A6,1vaiq av~pt' et71-EL Stahl ed. 1874: ivarTel 117reL ed. i883, following Sauppe. The text is in favour of the restoration of 'AOhqvaiwv or some similar word, instead of accepting the conjecture of Wilamowitz. Ao~vahtwi To-07 iMiXovo-v eIbreLV would make good sense, but would involve too great a departure from the mss) -yPd6cA77 7)v O, -rts (3o6X'qrao' ~z' Uirts -rnv eir6vnL ) -ypacbfrtat rcpavcw6,Pu a cXXy )r TCrpirrcp jSMdi/' tasar~7/iL TOV~S -rpvTCLV1ELS-~1rLa+rqjcj(teLv] c. 43. The members of the tribe presiding for the time being were thus compelled to put every proposition to the vote, undeterred by any risk of penalties falling on the proposer or themselves. jc~s — rrv wrcpcv6ow' yp s] The,ypa~oq 7rcpav6,uciv having become recognised as one of the safeguards of the democratic constitution, it was necessary to repeal it before any revolutionary changes could be introduced. Dem. Timocr. '24 ~ I54, adKo6Wo...Kara~~iv"aL Tr'v 8?)sokparlav, 7rapav6Fuwv 7rpi-rozv -ypaq56VKarXV0LTCV Ka TWV &KaaiYT?7p1wv iKtipwY -yevopi~vw. Aeschin. 3 ~ 1,21, T'q0VLKa07-ac 0 6?yL0I Ka17-cX6077, 71576L rtVEs Tras ypactafi rcTIO rapav'6luwt dve7Xop (All. Process, p. 4,28-437 Lipsius; Hager in Smith's Diet. Ant. s. v.). eto-cayyeX(cas] various forms of denunciation, applied to three kinds of legal causes: (I) KarT& Katv'wV KaLi adpdowtv d6LKq~7ycopw (Caecilius, in Lex. Rhet. Cant. p. 667, possibly referring to the times before Eucleides, see 8 ~ 4); (,2) wrongs done to orphans, heiresses and widows; (3) complaints against &taLtr-clir (c. 53 ~ 6). See Hager in Diet. Ant. s. v.; Att. Proc. 31i2 f. Lips. 7rrpooKXkjoWELS] ilf. 7rpoolcaXfra. Legal forms of summons to the defendant. Att. Process, p. 770-2. In the MS rpoKX?50ELS ('challenges') is a mistake for 7rpoo-KX 750111. Similarly in Plat. Leg. 936 E, and Dem. e. Aphob. iii ~ 20, 7rpOKaX ILa~t&L has been wrongly suggested instead of -rpoa- (Att. Process, p. 884). oL O'Xow-es] 'Notetur usus verbi W0 -Xetp pro gou~eo-OaL, qui per haec decreta (etiam c. 3o) obtinet, ad imitationem veteris linguae, qua vel Solo (c. 35 ~ 2; Dem. 46 ~ 14) vel Clisthenes usus erat' (Blass). -rov5-rwv Xcdpw] i.e. for making any proposal which he thought fit. tM1FLLot....rpoo-Ka,\ircLL... ELa-a'yfl KT-X.] In all three cases the present here has a tentative sense. tq~iJLo implies an attempt to get the speaker. fined either by means of a -ypao' mrcpav6l~cv, or an eiora-y-ye~a. 7-rpOO-KOLXjIraL refers to the abovementioned mrpoo-KX25o-EGr Efcrdyfl KTrX. to the fact that, under the first of the three varieties of eilra-y-yeXial, the f~ovXi~ might hand the defendant over for trial by a court, instead of fining him. Cf. Att. Proc. p. 45 Lips.

Page  119 CH. 29, 1. I9-36. TTOAITEIA I19 ebOY3yp Ek (3tKaa-ryptov, ev(3etyiv av' rov' Elvat Kcatl a7rawywo p 7rpoq Toy- orpaTr1y0or,?, rOVX (3e aYTparylyov9 vrapa(oi3vat 7roi- &v(3exa 5 OavaC'Ta) p ~tt~o'aa. iEra' Se' Tra i3a T 7roXtT1Et'aV &'Tra4aV T'V86e <TOy> TpO7rroV' Ta pev Xpi'paaa <Ta> 7rpo-to'VTa pL fl e'etvat aXXoo-,e &tav 7Uat?7 Et- TO'V 7r0XE'tLOV, Ta'q (3 afJ pXa' a/.jttOOV9 30 apX tL' a'r a s- e' a'v 5 r Xe/ios- 1, 'rX q'v T 'v Jvve a 4ox 'V T V Ka t CO"v 7TVTaVEWoV Ot av COO-W' TOVTOV s- & G TEpetv `pVe? 0IoXoi, eKaO~-OV T-js- 77V)/pa~. T7v 8' a3' XXqv 7roXLTEL'av ErtrpET4rat 'nraoav 'AOvtwq v a rOV s TO vva 8vTO7aTd; rosat Tots o a'tao-tv Kca& TOVs Xppuaa-tv X"XaTTOv 77 7TEVTaKtLoXtXiots-, e av 6 7rQXE/.LO9 p' 35 KVpt1Vs (' elvat TOV'ToVs- Kat O'vvA7Klca- O-vvTi9O9at 7rpO ois av 26 1S 7i-o H-L. Richards (H-L). 29 -CT v> cf. C. 7 v. 8. <-r&> add. K (K-w): Xph/a-ra del. 33 TT&CIN (K): wrorca J B Mayor, Newman, K-W, H-L, B. La)N 34 o%5,uacT- Xp-4 aot H-L. 35 HTT6NT&KICX1AIO. C. Corrector aut ' non viderat aut delere neglexerat; illud existimat K (7) IrEvTcaKLOrXIVoLT, H-L et B), hoc K-W (evPraKLUXLXLWV). 8lWUa r'jpLov] articulo 'non opus in sententia condicionali' (Blass). 'vLg.v...cvcvywy'jv] In neither of these forms of procedure was there any summons: hence they were suited to the present emergency, in which rpOdrKX?5c' had been abolished. dra7rcywy?) was a summary process, resorted to in certain cases of theft, but also applicable to murderers and adulterers, and to robbers of temples. gv&t~ts was a charge in writing handed over by the prosecutor to the proper authority, who was bound to arrest or hold to bail the person criminated. It was directed against state-debtors, and others who exercised rights while labouring under a disqualification (Dict. Adt. s. v.). The text shews that, under the Four Hundred, these forms of procedure were arbitrarily extended to the case of those who attempted to resort to the ordinary legal remedies at a time when they were in abeyance. Cf. Att. Proc. pp. 270-,280 Lips. wpos rov's arpcL"ryoos] In normal cases of ci7ra-ywy- the delinquent was immediately brought hefore the Elevenz; in those of 9G0EtrLs, generally before the Thesmnothetae. The Four Hundred departed from those principles in providing that the offender should appear before the orpar77yoi, whose jurisdiction was usually limited to military matters. Such a provision may be illustrated by our modern declaration of martial law in cases of emergency. ~. TM PiV X'vqxPAFLcL KTX.] Thuc. viii 6., 3, X6yos 7e TOK ro / OapEpOL rpooOcipycorro aLUTotEs Ws 67-E JitO-optir/Ov Ei 77 cixXovs ~ 7-rot a7-paTevo/epovts, 067E- LEAOEK7eop T-V 7rpY7/aCiTWi' 7rXEIOOL P 7reTpaKL7 -XAL'OLS, Kai ot67TOt ol V aPC iXLoCrL ro0s 7T Xp?Aa(74 KaL TOLL a0#LcaaOv d4EXEZ ciot 7T cWOv', and 67, 3, 'v-radO 8' XaLrpcos iEXXYET )0?3qf /1v7 TI a/7pX' CaPXELLP )Emq/4lCa 9TL EK ToO) airoO K60/IOU FO)TE,ue~Oooopei', 7rpoe6povs rE XCLTOaL 7rT civsPaS, ro6-rovs CXloOat EKaTo'V dvppaS, Kai 7TWP iKCLT6K 9Kao-rov prp/J( EavrIO 7-peILL EXO6VTcaL 6auli robs 7TLpaKOOIovL 5&ras es rb /ovXevr75pboP aPXfLV 6'7r l at, pCo.Ta 'LVt WOK)O-LP auTOKPciTopaS. Kal 7TOUs revraKtLXLXL'OV S& ~vXXe'yeiv o'r6Tav cu'roZ't 30Ky. Lys. 20 ~~ 13, 16; 30 ~ 8. 'rois Svvwrd'rciOLS KTX.] The language is almost technical. Cf. (hesides Thuc. viii 47, 48, 01 6vvda3)TdToL, 63, 6vpcLTovU and 65, already quoted) Xen. Hipzpa rch. i ~ 9, roiLb /J&V 7roiivp iLrfreas....KaOLO'Tca'L &Z KaIrT 7-Ov V6AkoV 7TogJ &Trwrar-OVS Kat Xph. /14a0 Kali ac 0luav. Also CIG 1845, 44 (inscr. from Corcyra), JXe-OaLU 7& TY f3ovXa' 7-ObT XTLPLfoGpras to dpypirfov dz'pas Tp-iLL (Gilbert ii 320), and the phrase caihevile xp'6,AaoiL (Wyse). O'WLcLcLGLV..AXf'rovpyetv] Dem. c. Mid. i65, X. -roZL a)aatTL.

Page  120 I20 AOHNAIQN 120 AONAIQN COL. 12, 1. 19-28. 37 e'~w-v Xe'oat.' (3 c/c '19 fV~ip &cKdo0-T7q (SE/c -Ea dv(3pa9 V7TE'p TETTapa/coVTa Er) yjEyovO7-a,?, oLtW-e'; /caTaXe'~0Vc-t TrOVS4 7TEVTa/ct0 -XA'v 0/w6,aVTE9? /caOf 1'EpWl TE6XELLWV. 30. oll Ev oi'v at'peXVT6~ TaVTa oivveypal~av. /cVpWOE'VTftW (S' T0TWEXOVTO o-b63v ai'Tw ol 7r' act-XXot po~c apdrwa TNV?)v7TXtT6t'av E/ca7-QV v (paq. ot' '3 at'pE06e7T1ES a'vE'ypa/'av Ica't E~r~v~y/av r86. /3ovXEVEtV /Ev /aT' E'vtaVTOi' TOVSq V'7rE~p Tpta/colva S ET?7 Iycyovoraq avev /.to0600/0pa9l7?- TO'TOV (3 etvat TOV'( O7TpaTfl7O1~ 37 be' Kal K~, K-W: 6' Eic (confusis a librario K et K') H-L, B. GXEOICLL... ljS (1JXT~S f1KdtoTr)s 84KCL KTX.] These were the KcaTaXo-yetl appointed to enroll the 6,ooo persons to whom the franchise was conceded by the Four Hundred. One of them was Polystratus who is defended in a speech ascribed to Lysias, Or. 20, on the ' charge of seeking to abolish the Democracy.' He claims credit for having placed as many as 9,000 on the roll: ~ i3, V'/4Lws q1,qqptcraaP.~vw?re~v7aKLtTXLX10LS 7rcapa&DOvac T& irpdty/.OaTa Ka~T aXoy e is Wi' EVPaKL0TXLXMoUI KcaTeXCIEV. He served for eight days only, shortly before the overthrow of the Four Hundred (~ 14), who in the last resort found themselves compelled to take steps towards enrolling the 5,ooo. In ~ 2 it is said of Polystratus: -qpeOi7 bi'Th- JV ObVXEi~vP. This is explained by the text, in which ten Ka-raXo-ye~s are described as elected by each of the tribes. It was supposed by Grote c. 62, v 41.3, that Polystratus had the sole responsibility of drawing up the list. It is now clear that he was one of a hundred persons charged with this duty. 6pdoCwrOLS KaOe' VEpzv 'rexaE~v] cf. Thuc. v 47, 10, hi'o'6vrwv & ri'P e7rLXd'PLOI 6pK0l' ftcaaOcT (the Athenians on the one part, and the Argives, Mantineans, Eleans and their allies on the other part) T-i'V Ad-YLCOPo KaT-& LIEpwv1 TEXeicLP. Mifller, Handbuck, v 3, 104. szilra c. i. XXX ~ I.- KVPQa)04VTQ)V] Cf. 32 1. '2, EfrLKvpwlP7-uu'W. The use of the two words in connexion with 4lopq01auaa is discussed by Hartel, Stud/len, p. 207 if., and Swoboda, Cr. Vo/ksbeschliisse, p. i8 if. The latter has collected a large number of examples from inscriptions (WNyse). EX~ovTo ar4)(v 0wrTwV ME 'IFEVTCLKLO-XL'XLOL Tro'S VCLvaypci+oVTaS] Here, and in c. 3,2 ~ i, the existence of the 5,000 is assumed; whereas in 3,2 ~ we are told that the 5,000oX67y A6iovil j-qav. The latter statement is in accordance with Thuc. viii 92, 1 I, ol TerpaKbastot...o0'K ~tleXov Tois 7revTaKtO-XLX'0US 0`76- elVaLL oil-c,u~ 6vras 8-,Xovs elxat. In c. 67 at/fin, it had been proposed by Peisander roi's 7rePTcaKLO-XIXL'VS ~uXXEiyet' oirorav avrots aoKj-, and this proposal was ratified by the f'KKXTIOTL'a in 69 ~ i. Mr Kenyon suggests that 'all who could bear arms were provisionally entitled the Five Thousand untilI a body of that exact number had been drawn up by the board of ioo which was to be appointed for that purpose.' On the fall of the Four Hundred, the government was transferred to a body called the Five Thousand, consisting of all who could furnish arms (Thuc. viii 9 7, i). Like the present, this would really be a body of indefinite number; whereas the body of 5,ooo contemplated by the oligarchical revolution, though it never came into actual existence, was limited and definite in numher. The envoys from the Four Hundred (as observed by Mr Kenyon) assure the army at Samos ' that they will all be members of the Five Thousand in turn' (Twi'p 7rE/TCLKtCXLXIWI 7r'vTIES ESV T~ /JafpE /J60e~lOVOLV, Thuc. viii 86, 3). ~ 2. TrPLdLKov-rq g~ij] This was the age at which an Athenian citizen became capable of belonging to the Council under the regular constitution, Xen. Alem. i 2, 35. a~VEV jJ.LcT90o~pOs] characteristic of an oligarchy. On the other hand, it is characteristic of a democracy /u~o-Gor/opELP, /LcXLCTTa /-tv irdiv'Tas, iKKX-qlT~av 6&KaUy-r'i7pLa af~rs a' Ak' IT' -iS dpX &S Kai -T& aLKCaCTTpIC Kal <rip > /3oviP' Kal 7-ats eiKKXflc1asriaS-is KI'pitas (Pol. vii (vi) 2, 1317 b 35). Similarly in the case of the law courts, Pol. vi (iv) 8, 1294 a 38; 13, 1297 a 37; 14, 1 298 1' i 8; and of the assembly,.1293 a.~-io. One of the causes that led to the fall of democracy in Rhodes was the fact that A.uo-o~opa'P oll 86ija-yw-yoL' h~pro'P (1.304 b '27).

Page  121 CH. 29, 1.37-CH. 30, 1. 9. TTOAITEIA 121 /cal TOVS eI/va apxov7Taq cal Tov lepop'v7taova Kca ToWs ratatipyovs cat i7r7rrpXovv Kcal fvXdpXovX a caL pXovTav etk rTa fpodpta Kat Tapia? TrWV lepo)v Xpr/7jUTW0V T'[ 0[E ] Kaa T roS a\\XXotL OeotS 8ecKa [Kacal erXvoTapLal Ka ca T rcv a\XXov oalowv Xpri7aTrv aoravcov 9 XXX 9 eXX\yvoraias-&aXaXepco0rtv mutila censent K-W. eXX\\voraflsas mutat in ra/iaas Richards, omisso (ut videtur) Kao quod subsequitur; KaL AXXVorralaci a et ot 8taXELptoLvaLv, utpote e v. I3-14 exorta, secludere malui. Kal et ol' &aXELtptov'tv iure secludit Thompson, sed idem eXXPvora/tlas retinet (Class. Rev. v 277 a). ~roUTrv 8' eLvaL KrX.] Here follows a list of official members of the new SovvXi. They are elected out of the doveX for the time being. Mr T. Nicklin (Class. Rev. v 228 b) suggests that ro6rwv refers to Tro01 VTr'p -rptdKOvra T 7 yeyoV6Tras, and that these are the body from which the four councils of 400 each, and the generals &c must come; also that the eXXrvoraclat must not at the same time be in the council for the year. This interpretation appears improbable; Mr Kenyon has already pointed out that it involves the insertion of Kal before Tros. (rTparn-yobs] c. 6i ~~ I, 2. apXovTas] c. 55. lEpoLvtLova] a recorder or notary. Pol. vii (vi) 8, 132I a 34-40, Trdpa 3' dpXi 7rpbs 'jv avaypadEo'Oat ei rd re i'&tCa 0avq6Xata Kai ras' KPlt6es {K TrWv 8&KaCT7?1ptlv...KaXoOUvTa 8U l epo /Lvi/u o v Kal etrLardrTa Kal fJvLgUoves KTX. Hermann-Thumser, Staatsalt. p. 99; Gilbert, ii 413. rarcLdpXovs] c. 6r ~ 3. lrrCrdpXovs] c. 6i ~ 4. cvXcdpxovs] c. 61 ~ 5. dpxovT ls Eis 4cd 4povpta] = qpoi6papXot, the commanders of Athenian garrisons. c. 24 ~ 3. Gilbert, Gr. St. i 400. TalCas TWv itpwav XpT1LJdCTV Tfl e0( Kal Tots ciXXKOs OEotl SKac] At Athens the treasures of the various temples were under the charge of officials called rallat 7 rw lepwv Xprldati7wv (cf. Ar. Pol. vii (vi) 8, 1322 b 25). The most important of these treasures was that of Athene on the Acropolis. The officials in charge of this were called ralutat rTi Oeov or rnZv rjs OeoO, ralJiaC T7WV lepwv XprUi aTrwv T7rs 'AOrvaias, ral/la TWrV lepwvp Xpq/xdrcv T*js 0eou. They are first mentioned in Hdt. viii 51 at the time of the battle of Salamis, - raltas rV L epov; also in documents relating to the transfer of the treasure from one body of officials to their successors, from the date of the consecration of the Parthenon to 406 B.c.; in public accounts previous to Euclides; in Dem. Macart. p. 1075, 2, and Aeschin. Timarch. p. 127 ~ I IO; lastly in inscriptions belong ing to B.C. 385, 325 and 300. Similarly, every temple had its special treasurers who, together with its superintendents (ert-rdaat) and sacrificers (ieporotoi), had the money of the same under their care. In 435-4 B.C. (CIA i 32) these several treasurers of the temples, with the exception of those of the temple of Athene, were all united into a single board called ra/iu a r-v Oewv or rwv &\XXwv Oewv. From this date all the sacred moneys were kept in the Acropolis, but the treasures of Athene and those of the other divinities were generally under separate officials. Dem. Timocr. p. 743, i, ot raalUat ep' wv '07oTla068oos i'evrp7'ff07, Kal ol rcv TjS Oeo Kal ol TWv a\XXv OevZ. Nevertheless we find that both were united for a time as one board of officers, as in the text, and in a decree quoted in Andocides ('e Myst. p. 36, Tro0s Tralas Trjs Oeo Kal r&v aXXwv 6ewvu. In inscriptions ascribed to B.C. 401, 400, 399-397 they are called raciat rTWv lepWV Xp-l/aTrwv rjis AOl6vas Kat wv d\XXwv OeWv, and are (as here) in 411 B.C. ten in number. In 385 the treasurers of the goddess again became a separate board of Ten, who were independent of the treasurers of the other deities (see Boeckh II v, 217-220 Lamb, and Gilbert, Gr. St. i 234-5). The rajtlua have been mentioned in c. 4 ~2, c. 7 ~ 3, c. 8 ~ i. They are called ol rauiaiL r7 'AO6rvas in c. 47 ~ I, and simply oi Ta/dia in c. 60 ~ 3. iXX'voTaCL(as] obviously corrupt. These officials are immediately afterwards described as excluded from the Council and they could not possibly be here enumerated among its official members. That portion of the treasures on the Acropolis which, in contrast to the lepa Xpjkiara, was known as 0o0'a Xpo7 uaTa, was according to Suidas (s. v. ra/liat, art. i) entrusted to 'the treasurers chosen by lot who had the care of the statue of Athene.' Thus the public money was ordinarily kept by the Tra/uia Trs OeoO, who were often called raitati alone (Boeckh

Page  122 122 AOHNAIK.N COL. 12, 1. 28-38. 1o et'Coac[v ot S aXetptoVo-tvJ] cat epTrootoV Kcal e7rrtLe\XTaS 8seKa eKarepovsr alpetoa9L Be 7rvravs TOVTOVS EK TpOrpotcpi, eK TWrY ael /3ovX~Bv'orv rXeIovs0 7rpo0pivovvraq, Ta? 8' 'adas a'pXa ' a'rrai a KX\rpco7Ta\ etvat Kcal /t.I etc T- /3ovXi\' TroV e e\XXTvorTafaS ot av 8taXetpipiwTo a' Xa prara pr a-vu/3ovXevetiv. /3ovXas &e 7rotoijaa 3 10 8taXeLPLOUat H-L. 13 CAN. TESTIMONIA. 13-14 *Harp. eXX\vorauLa:... 6rT apX5 TLs qv ol eXXvqvoratial, ot S&eXEipLtov ra Xph/uara, Kal 'Ap. S71XoZ ev Tr 'AO. rTO\. /. c. p. 221-2). In the text, with a view to multiplying the official members of the 400, a separate board of 20 is mentioned. Mr Kenyon infers from the present passage that separate Tracuiat rTv oiwJv XpfqdTrwv formed part of the ordinary Athenian constitution; in the absence of evidence it is perhaps better to regard them as a special body created by the oligarchical revolution. lepowroovs] c. 64 ~ 6. Gilbert, Gr. St. i 249. Pol. vii (vi) 8, I322 b 22-25, cavufalveL Trv irqeL\Xetav ra6bTqv (riv 7rept rovs OeoLs) evtaXoO IA&V elvat rulav....eviaXoO 8} 7roXXad Kal KeXWPLTUCLdvas Tr iepwaSv77s, o0ov iepo ro o i Kal vao0\XaKas Kal 7railas 7rT lepwv Xp?7/daTwv. eirLpEXirds] Pol. vii (vi) 8, 1322 b I9, aXXo 6' eT0os e7rLtueXelas C7 rept ro76 Oeo6s, olov iepels Te Kal ErL/eA77Xral rTv 7repl ra iepa Troo 'eoa~Oai re T7 & vrdpXovrTa Kal avopouoaati r& TirrovTa rTSv OlKOSO/7)y/.trWV Kal TV 7v XXwv\V oa T-raKrai Trpbs Tros 0eo1s. The ieporotoi, the vaof6XaKes and the Trajuat - rTV epwv XprxdUirwv are in Pol. 1. c. separate officials entrusted with this rtt/deXeLa. The term 'rt/ueXXlr's is vague, but the context implies that the official here meant was connected with matters of public ritual. atpEto-akcLL-K rrpoKpC'(ov] 'and that they (the Council, c. 3 I, 5) should appoint all these officials out of a number of selected candidates, choosing a larger number (than those actually required) out of the members of the Council for the time being.' All the officials enumerated were to be members of the Council of 400, and the Council itself was (i) to nominate candidates out of its own body to succeed these officials and (2) to choose such successors out of the number so nominated. 4XXrlvoraCtas] it is probably this passage, and not the corrupt passage a few lines earlier, that is the source of Harpocration's notice s. v. Mr Kenyon leaves both passages as they stand in the Ms; he points out the inconsistency between them in his commentary and endeavours to remove it in the notes to his Translation:-"If this is not to be taken as directly contradicting the statement made just above, it must be supposed that the actual handling of the money was confined to a few of the Hellenotamiae (probably in rotation), the duties of the rest being to advise and superintend." The Hellenotamiae, or special board for the management of the tributes, existed from the time of the formation of the confederacy of Delos and lasted to the end of the Peloponnesian war. They are frequently mentioned in inscriptions down to the time of the anarchy. On the restoration of the democracy, the office was not revived, as the ^yeftovia of Athens, and the duty of paying tribute on the part of her allies, had come to an end. In 410/9 we know of eleven Hellenotamiae, three of them from one tribe alone, and two others from another tribe. Two of the tribe Acamantis were Hellenotamiae in the same prytaneia, and the two of the tribe Aeantis were similarly holding office at the same time. Boeckh supposes that in their appointment no regard was paid to the tribes (11 vii p. 243 Lamb). Cf. Gilbert, Gr. St. i 236. ~ 3. povXAs-T-rrTQpas] i.e. four Councils of 400 each, each of the four holding office for one year (els eviavUov inf.). The order in which they were to hold office was to be decided by lot (cf. rb XaXov /pos). The one hundred who had drawn up the constitution were to distribute themselves and 'the rest,' i.e. the rest of the 5,ooo above the age of thirty, into four divisions of 400 each. At the end of c. 31 provision is made for the future 'in order that the 400 may be distributed over the four divisions (els Tra rTrrapacs X7\fes),' one hundred being assigned by lot to each of the four divisions of 400. The total number of the officials above

Page  123 CH. 30, 1, IO-24. TTOAITEIA 123 r 'ETrapa9 EK Trlq 4X; a9 Xit rq ELl/hpqLpv ejq GT TOVRrov Xpovov, Kai 15 v \ Xax \v 14poc 3ovXdE Lv, veL/.at 8at 70Ka atXTO ov\ 7TX TO TWV To 0EO t v at 7re X'jy e~a'0-T?7V. TO 70q S' 6lrKaCo'V av~paq 8tave- atL aodiq Te av~0ro xtai rU ahOvC 'e7PT'apa /.pLpf cog i7a1rTa7 KCa w-at, g K 'a& et9 E~vtaVT\V /3ovieetv- </3ovXeveu-0at> &\ 6 8v oKj" ai'TOkai eV Kai ev? 6 eovso apta-i-a ef~ELv 7rr~pI iC iWV X~l~7Y OrWW9 LWV a-w2 'ca ECL9 TO~ 7~ EV to I I, aevaXiktoclOc, ica8'V fiejA t3V 'LICW avT 8vnvwat n pto-'rw eav 'rt'9eX~ow /ovXevuaaoeat /Le~ra irhetd~vv, EitELo~cTaXitV ~Kc-i-r J aE V eX T C 'ip Tiai-; hXCa9 9rt 8 3 ~6paq 7roLetV 7T I? OV'X^I 'cara a7EvOt/jiep0V CPv eav ) p S C rat v7TXuov 16 Aoy/eyet1N. 19 JovXELetv. </ovXd~etv> 86 K; foUXe6etp <,roi0 XaX6vrast 7rpCdTrTEtv> 59 K-W; &OuXeaCu'e-0 aj ci' 80K? KTX Richards (H-L). malui fovXEcetw. <9ovXe6a0Oac> 6& scribere. f3OVXEw L<V <rov' XaCX6vr- a 3OUX 6eaoOat> 3 Blass. 20 cw&; et o-ios et o-Cos in titulis Atticis exstant (Meisterhans, pp. 522, I172): o42a K-W. 21-22 C&NTI Kav 7rt K; e'&t < 5k> rt J B Mayor, K-W, H-L, B. 22 i8fhXwor H-L..K. 23 erTrEIC6KAHT0N corr. K. 24 TTENOHMIMEpON corr. K. 23-224 Hesych. E8pac fovXt'jt: at JyivovPro Ka7d 7rewra75/Jepov. enumerated is as follows, if we assume that the numbers were in every case the same as usual: -7panT77tyot (io), iiPXOVTEI (9), itpoAkv?51WV (i), -ra~iapXot (io), r7rapXot (2, I in 31,14), b6Xapxot (io), apXovres eis -r& 95po6pta (?), Tra/diat rTW iepwv Xp7/Adcirwc (io), -ra4iat Oijy 0WV XP. (20), ieporotoi (io), f7-t/LEXJral (io), making 92 out of a total of perhaps ioo. The a'pXoy7Ee Eci T& opo6pta were possibly eight in number, in which case they may have represented the 8 tribes not represented by the 2 t7rirapXot. Thus 71 may have dropped out after Opo'pta (1. 7). But it is more probable that there was only one tir7rapXos under this constitution and therefore 9 dp(OVTre Etc r& k po6pCa, in which. case 0 may be the missing number. This is confirmed by the fact that the number of Attic epotpta known to us is exactly nine, Eleusis, Anaphlystus, Sunium, Thoricus, Panactum, CEnoe, Phyle, Aphidna and Rhamnus (Boeckh, 21 x; the evidence for the last two belongs to the times of Philip). El srrjv Xolwo'v Xpovov] = elsr7-v jpiXXoVra Xpbpvo c. 31 ~ t. 'roas dMXXoU] probably, not the 300 co-opted by the ioo (Thuc. viii 67, 3), but the rest of the S,ooo. 84c.VEitpA%...kTcOp4a dptipj] c. 2i ~ 4, Wtdvetue... -ptdKov7a Cpq7. 'us LrQ'Crrca] Plat. Leg. 744 c. 8La* KX.qpCa0a.L, to 'assign them by lot,' Thuc. viii 30r,r,&3aKX77PWo6`LEVo, 'having drawn lots,' vi 42, 7rpia glp'q ve/LavTEt s ' tKcbTKq CKX7jpwoav. ~ 4. a-rCo] The evidence of inscriptions shews that a-Coos and o-C4t were alike in use (Meisterhans, Gr. p. ii7 ed. i888). Cf. Dem. Lept. ~ 242 note. The codex I of Dem. has nom. masc. crcs in Mid. 126, Aris/ocr. 131; neut. aCrcp Lept. 142; acc. pl. a'it in Pac. 17, Chers. is; gen. sing. a-c6as F.L. 78; pl. 0(QoL in F.L. 57, 153, 326; acc. sing. owitav Mid. 177; plnom. cr~LOL Cor. 49, Phild. iii 7o0, Tivilocr. io6 (Voemel, Proleg. Gramm. in Demn. Cont. ~ 33). Ids T'r 8iov dctvXItol'q'rLL] Aristoph. Nub. 859, Eis rb 9ov ci7rW'XEcoC, Dem. 0/. 3, 28, dv-qXu'Kaaev eit o6vb3 6/ov, Plut. Per. 23. brELocKCLXdEV (to co-opt) and brre(oKX7qTOV are only found in this passage. VSPcLS] c. 4 ~ 3. It is the technical term. CIA i 31, 7; 59, 41; ii 8oo b ri cet. (Mayor). KcL-rd -revO1%epov] not 'for five days at a time'; but 'once every five days'; cf. Ka7-'1vtavUT6v ('year by year'), Ka-r& p4va, KaG' iuepav ('daily,' Thuc. vii 8 ~ r and 50 ~ 3). Mr Poste extracts both senses out of the passage: 'the sessions of the council shall be for five days at a time with intervals of five days.' Under the democracy the 8ovXi met daily except on public holidays (43 ~ 3). 'rrXeL'vwv, sc. e'3pcj.

Page  124 124 AOHNAIQN COL. 12,1.38-COL. 13,1.28. 25 KX\r7poV V e 7Tv I3ovXrv T70o, evvea apXovTa9, Tar ~e XeLpoTovia 1KpivELv 7TEVTE TOV9 XaXovTa EKc T79 /3OVXS;, Kal EK TOVTCWV eva KcX\poovoOatL ca0' eBKacT7'7 <rV > pUjpav 7ov Ed7rt-r(t;oivTa. KXfI- 5 poiv '6 TOVs Xayovrat 7rreTE 7roV0 0EXov7ra 7rpoa-eXOelv evavTrov ' /30VX\% 7rpOT0V E\ tEpOV, e8EVTEpOV 8\E KtpVlV, T7TOV TpE(TrO) /3ov\)V, p ov V POV, eev ep epo v 6 pvLv, ~p/ov 7rpea30 /3elatL, TE7Tapov rCw adXXwv ra T e o 70 7ro\XE/.ov oTav 8e d~KX\lpw)T rrpoo-ayayovTa. To0V oCTpaTr?7yov Xp7/aaTieo'0al. TOv 8e /uV tLovra 6 e69 70 /3ov\eVTrpLov T7WV /3ovUXEv6vrov 7 T1V pav rrv 7rpoppt70elrav Oc(ELXELtV SpaXujV 77V T9 S 7JLepa9 eeKaTo-Tn, e'v fIr evpo6.evo0 aceoLv T77 I30VoXi9 d7rj. [1 25 'an irXjpovv?' K-w. 27 Triv addidit B. 29 npecBemal: 7rpeo-fctats Wyse, K-W, H-L, K3, B. 33 evlp6Aevos Tyrrell et Richards (H-L, B); CylICKOMENOC (K, K-W). KX\lpoUV.. Tnv ovXfiv Trois VVECL capXovTas] This means either (i) that the Council is to appoint the archons by lot, or (2) the archons are to superintend the sortition of the Council. (I) is followed by Kaibel and Kiessling, and also by Poland; (2) by Mr Poste and Mr Kenyon. In (i) the order is verb, subject, object, just as in ~ 5 K\XqpoUV T70S XaX'6vras rTVTre rov' eOeXovrTas; and this is supported by the context. We are first told how the Council is constituted, and next what it has to do. But this view is open to a fatal objection. The Council cannot appoint the archons by lot, because under the present constitution the archons are chosen out of a select list (~ 2, 1. II). W\e must therefore suppose that the archons were to superintend the sortition of the Council. Those of the 5,ooo, who were over 30 years of age, have already been divided into four groups determined by lot (~ 3). The archons in each year have to draw lots for appointing 400 out of each of these groups to serve on one of the four successive Councils. M. Th. Reinach regards this sentence as an interpolation. For 7r\X-poi)v, which has been proposed in place of KX\rpovv, cf. &tKaor-TptLa 7r\Xpovv in Dem. 24 ~ 92, 21 ~ 209, and Isaeus 6 ~ 37; also Arist. Eccl. 89, 7rX\povu6v-rs eKKX\7TiaaS. XiLpo0TovCa KpCveLv] 'decide divisions taken by show of hands.' The five functionaries act as 'tellers.' One of them is appointed by lot for each of the five days during which the Council sits, 'to put questions to the vote,' i.e. to act as president or chairman. ~ 5. KX\povv —3Bo0v1s] These five persons were to determine by lot the order of precedence among those who wished to appear before the Council. LEpWV... KPVtV... rKrperope... C' V X\Xov] The two alternative constructions are arranged in the order of a chiasmus or introverted parallelism, the two nearest and the two furthest terms corresponding in construction. Apart from love of variety there is no apparent reason for this change. Exactly the same order and the same variety of expression is found in the statement of the proceedings in the CKKX\7ria in c. 43 ~ 6, iepcv...K7)pvtvw KaI wrpeaeLiats... 6criwv. Cf. also Aeschin. Timarch. 23, 7rpoXetpo0oveEv KeXe6eL 706o 7rpoe3povs 7rept ilep(v rTw TraTpiwv KaI 6Liwv Kat K?)pUVt KCai 7rpea'eiats. ~ 6. 'rijv Ipav] not 'the hour,' but 'the time'; the use of adpa for 'hour' is not earlier than the Alexandrine age. o'ECXeLv 8paXcLXv] the infliction of a fine for non-attendance is characteristic of an oligarchy. Pol0 vi (iv) 9, 1294 a 38, (of law courts) iv AL4v y&p TaZs 6XtryapXiats TOZi e~7r6pois 'ytliav' TrTTOUVrro, Lav lt t&KCiwfflt, roS 5' a7r6pots otudeva Ct fo06v, cf. 1298 b 1 7. It is one of the devices of aristocracies mentioned ib. 13, 1297 a 17, i7uliav ferLKeiaOt TOFS ev7ropots, eav jL'L f'KKXf0L'fiaSW0%v. Fines for non-attendance at the Covx7 in particular are apparently not mentioned in the Politics. eVptLrK6buJvos, 'in the enjoyment of leave of absence,' is less likely to be right than evpoSvos, 'having obtained for himself leave of absence.' ci'E~Lv] not found in this sense in Ar. The corresponding adj. tdo'ltuos occurs in c. 43 ~ 3.

Page  125 CH. 30, 1. 25-CH. 31, 1. I7. FIOAITEIA12 I25 [Col. 3.] 31. Tav7'T)v uc'v oi'v el9~ TO'V /IEXXOVra Xp~oio aVE'pa'4aV T?'7 7TXLEa, el (3 ( -)7apoPVrt Katp(0)7?PE l VEVL /~EP TeTpaKOG-tOV)9 KaTa ra 7raTptdt, TETrapaKozrr el eeao-'J779 <TI-t3> fXEK 7rpQKpLT&)P [O]P- 46 eAWVTait 01' qwXE'Tat TO^) V"7rE~p TptaKOVra ET'q 7E1YO P07(A). TrOVTOVS- 7(19a TE ap~aq KaL7(L0T170t Kat 7rEpt 701) 5 'p OV PtvaL Xp?7 otocrat '*cat, <Ka\tl> 7wEpt\ Tmv PVdL wP Ka\ iw OEKOV[PW Ka aryt1Xo pa 7E O?% y~ra avL t~'pP T70) P0A40t9 ovot aVP T-COW(00LP 77Ept T-WV 7TOXL~tKoWP Xpr ^a-Oat, Ka't /.?7 E4ELPCat 2 /JELCLKtPELP /119 E'TE'pOVS E06-Oat. i-WP 86\ 0-Tpai-nr/WP T0 PUP ElatU T7?V XtpE0L E'7raPwPWtE OOliiV WE7(LKUXLXLWP TP E /3OVX, 10 f7rIEgaPv Kai-aO-Ty?, 77otja-ao-av E E7actP <E'P> 0W7Xotq, EXVaOat 8EKaX avt3paq Kait ypa/J4LuaTEa TO)T0(9, T0V9 86\ atpEOE'V~aq apyELP TOP, EITLOPTa EPLtLVTOP av-oKpai-opal?, KaIV TI t3eWP~at 0v//3oUXEV'eaYOat I 7~L-)9 I~Xq~ E'Vo'Oa t3 t'a t~mapXov eva Kat 0vXa'pyov9 t3EKa' 70\ SE' XQL7rOPV T7\7P atlPEO-LP 7TOtlEUTOaL TOV'TCi) 77P /30VX\7P KaTa\ i5 3Tia yeypa/L,.EPa. TO)P 8' aX vaXP ir yp 173 3vX79 a i 0-TpaT717YP [1V U LVL /177 VT0V70t /L'77re aXX /L1tP 7OPi XXXI 3 ~-irT addidit B. 6 < KaL >- K, K-W, H-L, B. 8 6AN -reroo- H-L. 11 K6.TtACTHCHI corr. Wyse, Blass, etc. OTThOIC: -<E'P> 05rXots Wyse, Blass, K-W, H-L; 0'irXwv K. 13 kt6vra H-L. KatL ao' K, K-W, B; Kall Miv H-L. CYNBoyXEYC~iw. 17 TTAGION (K-w, B): 7rVov H-L, K-3, Cf. Meisterhans, p. 1202, nI. i090. XXXI ~ i. XPOdVOV...KCLLpc] Ar. Anal. Pr. i 36 ~ 6, 6 Kcap6s sort Xpo'vos Movu. 0dveYpcL~cLv] 'drew up,' c. 2 ~ 4. KC'rO. 'ri rrcirpLcL] in allusion to the Council Of 400 under the Solonian constitution, c. 8 ~ 4. The phrase is inserted to propitiate those who regarded Solon as the founder of the Athenian democracy. EK IrpOKpC'rwv oi's dv g'AWVTcL OL 01 VXMcLL] According to this, the ten tribes were to make a preliminary selection of more than the requisite number; but we are * not told how the final choice was made out of those nominated by the tribes. According to Thuc. viii 67, 3, the pro. posal carried at the f'KKX-qoL'a held at Colonus was to choose five irpo'epot; and for these to elect ioo in all, and for each of these ioo to co-opt three others. The historian's account supplies an omission in the text by describing the process by which the requisite number was arrived at. The two accounts may be partly reconciled by supposing that the i oo were limited in their choice to selecting the additional 300 out of those preliminarily selected by the tribes. As regards the method by which the original hundred were appointed, the precise account in Thuc. seems more trustworthy than the vague description of the appointment of the 400 give ithe text. dev6vVO] 'the examination of official accounts,' 'audits.' c. 48 ~ 4. Att. Pric p. 259 Lips. " ~ 2. TO VUV etvcu] Plat. Rep. -o6 E,, Xen. CYr. v 3 ~ 42. T1~v O:L'pr.oLV... 7roLfto-ecLL] inf. 1. 15. KcTL-rn~f] 3,2 ~ 2. Lys. 13 ~ 34 and 25 ~ 14, 01 -rptdKOVT~ KalTeoT-7o-avu. 4e'ErcLTLV 41v 6'WAoLS] Xen. Anab. v 3, 3, and Cyrop. ii 4, 1, C'E',rao-ts E'v -ro~g lirXo~t. Thuc. iv 74 ~ 3, kiraowi 6~rXwv E'roL-,' Gaaro, vi 45 ~ 2, birXwv '~erlOec Kad '1r7r1wt'. ELO-L6v-rcL] during the 'ensuing' year, after the lapse of the two remaining months of the archonship of Callias. l7w'rrpXov 'eva] The normal number was tzuo (c. 6 i ~ 4). 4v cW povs,. 6i ~ 5. ~ 3. tjJ' f'EtVcLL-WX'ov?j W7FO4 ~dpgcLL] Under the normal constitution of Athens military offices might be repeatedly held by the same person, but none of the others more than once, except in the case of membership of the Council, which

Page  126 I26 126 ~AOHNAIQ2N COL. 13, 1. 28-COL. I4,1.9. a'7ra~ a~lp~at T?'7v av'V7\V a&pX?'V. Elq & To\V a"XXOV XP0'VOV 'v VE/i/7 -&3a0-tv ol, T-E7palcoco-t Etq Ta- TET'rapa9 X7~EL, 0tTav) IToT0J ai'TOis 'o0yiyv?7Tat /ie7-a 7-6)v aXXCOV /3ovX6evee, 3tav/EtpacVT(Ov aVT-OVS- Ot EKa1-l) av~peq. 32. Ote /UEV 01)1) E'KaTO'V 01'V'7T0\ 7T)V 7rEVTaKLtCXLXLOv apE*ewT-E9 TraVTflh avE'ypa~av Tr7v 7roXO-Eiav. e~rtKvpO)0O'r'TaW 86 TOU'TCOP l'7ro TiOV,7-X 'Oovq, E'7wrflJqio-avT0( 'Apto-T0,Ua'Xov, q ALEv iovXn\ <n'> 6'r KaXVt'v wrp~v &ta/3ovXeiv a-at KaTeXV'fl FLv7\,? eapy~qXt0c)V0o TETpa&8 ' \7T 8E'Ka, at & TerpaicOa-tt ei07apeav EvaTr 00'VOVTOq 8apy31Xtcvr ecE 1 tflva V1 IvX7v tev7E-at TeTpa& e7iec 18-20 ilya et 6'rav locum inter se mutasse putat Hude, qui etiam (cum Thompsono) if'-yyl'i-YVat conicit; 0o7av' J'e/1370w-Lv/-, Itva. ~4-,er a r6ov av'-rZw /3ovXe6eLv, aiXXws &ravetIuciYTwvl nimis. audacter Poste. 19 To~s do-ro~s seci. K 3 retinent K-WV; rs avroZs Tyrrell (H-L, et B qui etiam in papyro invenit [e&]YTOIC): mnihi quidem. [E]TCpoic aut simile aliquid scriptum fuisse videtur; malui tamen au'To-is accipere, et roZg secludere, utpote ex interpretamento TroZI -' (sc. roZs -rErpaKOO-O1ot) exortum. XXXII 3 <'>- Rutherford, Blass, K-W, H-L, K3. 5 CICHI606,N ESco-1UK, H-L; eIIT37eo-av K-W, B. 6 ebe Si': ETI2AC corr. K. N 4 might be held twice (see c. 6,2 end, and Pol. 1275 a 25; 3299 a 10; 1317 b '24; there quoted). vEFLI1OWu(TLV....EILS Taci....X 'tELS] c. 30 ~ 3, vEL/ua1...-ro6' diXXovs 7rpils r371 X?~tv e'Kc 0TT731. 'As regards the future, in order that the 400 may be distributed into the four divisions (above mentioned, 30 ~ 3), let the hundred make the distribution when it is possible for them (i.e. the 400) to sit in council with the rest.' Tr;V Mw~cv refers to the 5,000, as in C. 30 ~ 3, twice. Ci'vrots refers to the -re1rpaKSo0101 aforesaid. Kaibel and Wilamowitz explain 7rc1/ a"XXcil as TW,' ev Id~, hut (as observed by Mr Kenyon) '/3vwAe6et is a technical word, and the Athenians with the fleet would not become members of the /3ovX-' on their return, and th'ere would be no occasion to await their return before arranging the subdivision of the Four Hundred among the four councils.' In 8LCLV1ELfadIVTh)V we have a sudden transition from the inf. of orat. obliqua to the imperative of oratio recta. XXXII ~ i. ('7rL+jT04(crmTlr0S] 30 ~ 4 end. 'ApLO-TrOFC4Xov, otherwise unknown. 'The absence of the name of father and deme is in accordance with the lapidary style of the 5th century, in which the decrees simply have 6 SEZvI E~rE0Tra7TE, e.g. CIA I, 32, 960~ez' -q7 f~OVX7j KaiTL 6 'UW, KEKp074i fE7rpvl)7-dvEUE MP3-q 016101 1'ypal/AL/ICTeve- E~ireLO377 i'rE9T'ITEL' KaXXL'as 1/lre. On the other hand, the addition of the deme (c. 34 "It-, ellpa*V' 70 ~/ 195tcra ApaKcoVric3?1S 'Aot3ta~os) or father (29 ~ i, 7pd'Vcav-ros Hv~o~c'pov T-O 'EtN Xov) of the proposer, is not in the manner of 5th century inscriptions' (Wyse). wi7 KaXXkov] B.C. 412-411. irplv SLa43OVX1EZcTaL] ' before the completion of its term of office.' The word is not found elsewhere in act. 6ta/ovXe6eo-OaL, 'to deliberate thoroughly,' is found in Andoc. 2 ~ 19; and in the sense of ' taking counsel' in Thuc. ii and elsewhere (L and S), eg,. vii 5o ~ 4, 'to discuss.' As appears from the context, the Council was within a month of completing its ye~tr of office. 8cMpyi1X ciV oS 'TvrpcLS 4-irl 8iCL, the 14th of Thargelion (May-June) or about the end of May. 4vCETi (ONVOV~os EOopyrXLC~vos, the 2ist of Thargelion, or about June 7. TfETpdSL EaYl. 84'KCL KLp0~0PL(;V0S, the i4th of Scirophorion (June-July), or about the end of June. 98E.L] 'was bound' in ordinary course, according to the normal constitution. T-rjv EL.X11XVULOV T~ KV4~L(? povXijv] Thuc. viii 66 ~ i, 3~,uos /dlJtO 0`j101 i7-L Kad /3OVXiq -q) ciir6 r0y KcucajAov ~pVVXyero, ib. 69 (of the attack of the Four Hundred and their emissaries on the Council Of 41'2 -41 i), E~dTT7-qcrap 7T00 ab7o6 7-OO KVUCIIOU 10VXev-at,. The object of the emphatic mention Of K15 a1/o0 is to point the contrast between the constitutional Council and,1+

Page  127 CHI. 3I, 1. i8-CH. 32, 1. I7. EJOAITEIA12 1 27 2 lKpoooptw~vog. n' pev oii'v O'XvyapXL'z 'rov'rov Kareo-7-7 rov,rpo7rov~ 67r I t~ov /6E cpXoJT09, ETEV 3V0o-Trpov 7771 Tci)V TrvamvzCK/3oXr// Ua'XuoTra E'Kar'rv, aliTUO p~aXto-ra yeYopLe'vcoW llEtcavpov Ka~ 'Av'rt0bW3'VTos Kai\ eflfJa/evovq d'v8p(v Kai\ r/Eyevi1/.kevwv ev' iat lo POL. 14.] 3 o-vW fTct Kca\ eyv /pn 3KOV'VTWV 8tacoepetv-. 11 yv ~'eV0/LE l\ rav'Tf9 T?7 'TlroXtTEla9 Ot' /LE6V 7TEV7'aK~cTtoXiOt X67;o) POVOV ~O?07av, 01 & 'epao-tot /LE'r ~va To TO lop'-pO ELEOOPT6 EV9 TO 13 ovXeVT?7"ptov npXOV T-i9 7oXewts-, Kcal wrpo AaKe~atpcoviov9 7rpeo — I3EVO-a/Levot Kca7EXVJOVTO TO'V 7ro'XepoLv Es ot' oge/Ca'TEPOL Tv'yXavovatZ '5 EXoVTES'. OVX v7TaKov[0-af]vT&) 8' eKeLZ)(ov- et'i\ /1A7a\1 T?7V afpX?7\) -rhS7 8 ereLTt H-L. 9 had LOT-r ante e'KaT6V temere Om. 1{-L, utpote e verbis proxime EPH.... sequentibus illapsum. 12 HPGOHCAN Hp6eHCtANO01. 14 jpxx~v <,re > Hude (K-W). 16 67ralKot[6]VTwP H-L. that of the Revolution. The latter was not appointed by lot out of the general body of citizens. Cf. 31, 4, OtI ss 'P XcoT a t. ~ 2.,j4.Xwrcm kics'rV] B.C. 510-to end of May 41 1, or 99 years; hence hciXso-ra. Thuc. viii 68, 4, EW fr1E1 EKalToo-Tcj [tcaiXloTal EfrEt67f ol r6paPPot KalTEA6077o-aV. IIELUo.v~pov] Thuc. viii 49, 53-56, 63-68, esp. 68 ~ i(of the fhKKXWTo-a held at Colonus), 5'P 6~ 6 's~ -Ajv7' -ys'-qv Ta6tTflJJ E17r&/J flE~crcvSpos, Kalt T!XXal CK 7-0o wpooayo~s rpo~vt/6rrTac ~t/yKcaTal~/ocs T6 6~lsow ' 6 IdTot TI. 7l' Trpa-/yxta~ ~uv'6eis b'rc1 T-p6lrt KrTeoTT7 — es Tot/TO Kali IK 7IX61OTot/ fE7ri[uEX77OetLs 'Av-TLCJXv 7'7p, dyi'p 'AO-qvaiwv TWYO KaLO' kvrbT6 a'perq -re o6&bv65 SetI-repos Kal KpacLTo-,os OvuInqO~Pat -yep6MePOS Kail a -Yl'oiq EilreLV. In ~ 3 Thuc. mentions Phrynichus who 7rapfxe.. apUTVW6'wv 6ta~ep6,vrws rpo~t//6TIroI' E's rijep 6X-yapx-i' ad in ~ 4 Eipa.jLavs, who I'l -roZs ~W/KalTalVoUo% T-6v 8hFov 7rpW~ors 7'7, av-pp dtr' davp~ov 7r0XXC3P Kal ~UvpeT-cO (cf. crViVEcrcEL) 7rpaXOEV T6 9p-Yol' OZK aL7IELK6Trws KaLLII~p IA~yca~ 6TpobXWdpfloe. On Peisander, see also Lys. 1,2 ~ 66; 25 ~ 9; and Andoc. 2 ~~ 1,2-15: on Antiphon, Lys. 12-~ 67; on Theramenes, ib. 62-78. ~ 3. Xo'yw pd'vov] Thu c. viii 92 ~ i i, KalI 01 T-e~paK6(TL0L 3ta1 Tot/To 06K ~OeXOP i-ovS V revT/aKL0OXLX1ot/S O6'Te eLS/l o6ITe /.o7 O1'T/as 35xot/s SiVlITa, TO' JAf Ka-aoT/loT?7/iLFer6Xot/s To/Tt/ot/oS 61VTtKpt/s &1 677LoS?Jyo~l-kevot, T-6 6' 116 dblaVE's q06/op ES aXX?'7Xot/s rapf4etp. L Si r-rEpCsK'crLoL KTX.] Thuc. viii 70, ol eTETa/KbTo-Lo fEo-EX66VTes E'S TO /30tXet/Tpbos... rdXX/ld~ 9PE/tOV KalTaL Kpdros T'P 7r6XtV KTX. 'rc~v S&Kc] the ten o-,palT-q-yoOif C. 31 ~ '2. wYp6's ACLK. KTrX.] Thuc. iM. 7rpo6 TE `A'YLP r6V AaKc6aLs1t0VtWV f*L6LXea /l d'TI ivrjACKIEX6kL E'EKflpUKE6oVT0, Xe-yoVTes &taXXal-y~vat /3eo6Xatrc (Grote, v p. 391i). 71i ~ 3, Tot/To rapci Tre This 'AyLP ' rpeu/3e6 -OVTO Oi TfrpalK6oTLot ob~v 7'70/Tol', Ka'KUEWoL 1Aaxxos ")77 71p0/TSEXO/L0Vot Kall 7ralpawoOtVTos eK7rljtL7roVT/L Ka~l C's T/J AalKeSalfuo01' 7repl ~t/lA3a-eCOs 7rpi/et~s /30tX6/Leyot &cX-.Xa-yql'c. 90 ~ 2, Ci7iroTELXatv 'AprTUoc5 VT K/li 4'P6'PLXOV Kali LX'XOt/S SiK/ KalTCL TIaLXos... I rUT aL/7-es rapl/i -p67ry~ `o-TTS K/la'r0 OOt/a' dVKTO0S ~tVcL\Xa-/flpat rJo's Too6S AalKE6ashoviot/s. Lastly, 91 ~ I, oi eK T775 AaLKC8al'hovos 71-peo-/3et oi6Uv 7rpdapaTes dyIb-Et/ pflo/lV TosS ~t4uralo-t 4vj/L/3/TLK6S/. 'XWe read with astonishment,' says Grote, V 409, 'that the (Lacedaemonians) could not he prevailed upon to contract any treaty and that they man~ifested nothing hut backwardness in seizing the golden opportunity.' But the envoys clearly could not answer for the armament at Samos, and therefore returned without ohtaining any terms that would apply to the Athenians at large. The text tells us what we do not learn from Thucydides, viz, that the reason for this failure in the negotiations was due to the envoys declining to surrender the maritime supremacy of Athens. This embassy was afterwards impeached hy Theramenes (Lysias 12 ~~ 66 —68); Antiphon was condemned and executed (Phrynichus had been already assassinated). KCLTEXV'OVTO] tentative impf.

Page  128 128 AOHNAIQN COL. I4, 1. 9-37. 33. p.Vva9~ /1'v offv TO &T r apaq &E/ELUVEZ 17 T(01 TETpaKcoo-7iw 7roXtTU'a, Kat?qp~ev E' aV'Tr0h' Mv?7olXoXo9~ &1427vov '7rTL OevO7TOA7rOV apXOl.T709, < 09~> 27pE TOV'q E'rtXObwovq &EKa /4j~vaq. 177T170E'VT7,7 7r~pt 'E~rtav vavptaxc ica j729E'3oaaroa07 OX) 57TX)7l) 'flpeol, xaXEWW9V' E'VE7/C0VTEq E7Tt\ T7)7 GTV/JfoopaL p'Xto-7a recz' 7TpO1yf-y6V17/4kEvcov ('wXEiw 7a4 7K2T9 ElI3oia T'q A7T79 erv~yXavov a) o4LVP 4 KaEXU-ll7VI TETpaKOo-LOV9~ Kat Ta 7Tpary/.am 7rapE8)Kv 0L 7rIEV~aKUXXLL t9 EK OW 0ww #17(I)LOaLFLEVOt /p17(e/1av apX17v) Ewat pta~o~oopov. aMTtwa70t 8' 2 1o0E7YEVOVTO T7179 Ka~aXv'o-ea)9 'ApWTO-Kpa&7179 Kait O17pat/.E'v1, ov' ovvaXXXIII 2 MN6&1M6X0C; MvaoAoXoTo (K, 1{-L): MV-00riAX03o K-W, B. 3 -<65> K (K-w, B): 6' 8' H —L. 7)T7rrqOepTes 8U <ol 'A6-qva~oL>-? Herwerden, Richards. 5 Lopioy. 9 MICOO4iOpLON: tkL0-Go06po;v J B Mayor, Rutherford, Naber, Frdnkel, edd. TESTIMONIA. 1 * Harp. s.v. TerpaK6rLoL:... ol 767-paK6(I1oL 7iCo' irTa' c'rw'v Ka(T~r~qyaIav TWEv rptciKOVl TVpiVvwv li-ap' 'AO77vCaiowt oTL'P~es Ti-7Cr1apCa /.k771'av 17qpCav 77)1 ri6Xews, W~ q577urtv 'AP. E'v 'AO. lioX. (Frag. 37,22, 4103). XXXIII ~ i. IL~vLs...t rowg ',rE'TrccLps] The 400 were practically in power from the end of May to the end of June, also for the two months of July and August in the civil year next ensuing (&A77voiv). This makes three months. Hence the oligarchical revolution began about a month earlier, i.e. at the end of April, while the constitutional Council was still nominally in office (Thuc. viii 66, i), and the four months are May, June, July and and August. Thuc. viii 63, 3, places the fall of the democracy a little earlier than the spring Of 41I1. It has been assigned to March 41 i, soon after the Lenaea in which the Lysistrata was produced (Wattenbach, De Quadr. p. 29, quoted by Classen, Thuc. i~c.). Similarly Grote, c. 63 init., describes the Four Hundred as 'installed in the Senate-House about February or March 411 B.C., and deposed about July of the same year,' and speaks of Athens undergoing 'four or five mont/hs of danger and distraction.' It now appears that these dates are rather too early. Mv,9aCXoXos] the archon eponymus selected by the 400. MAv779XOXOT is mentioned in the list of the Thirty given in Xen. Hell. ii 3, 2 and there is every probability that the two are the same. Cf. CIA iv 3, 179 d i, p. i6,2, ['AOrn'a?]ot Av)[waavcu'rhi MvqatX6]Xov dp~o[vros]. This expenditure was authorised not (as usual) by vote of the 87),uos, but 4,qqtopa A&-qs7 7771 govX7)t. At the date specifled, the 21st of Hecatombaeon, the Four Hundred were still in power. 19EowrrpjLirov] the archon eponymus appointed by lot on the restoration of the democracy in the third month of the civil year, B.C. 411-10. i7rLWo~1rov1s] not found in the Index Ar. In 40 ~ Iwe have the ordinary word zvwoXolrovs. eri-Xouios is often used by Plato, Re~p. 540 B and Leg. 7,28 D, r61' A~-'oLlrop j0iov, ib. 6,28 A, e's r6,v i'i-'Xow~ov rjj Wrep1'EpETp(aLV vcwvj~cLCqL] Thuc. viii 95. In Lys. 20 ~ 14 one of the KcaraXo-yEL sails for Eretria after holding office under the 400 for eight days only. n7ijv llpeoV. Thuc. l.c. ~ 7, (the Lac.) Ef7/oicav XcXeWW'CS iVVEYKOVTfS KrX.] Thuc. viii 96 ~,07 8r~ ' 'A077valoLs W's 7)7XOe r& riept' r77)'v E603otav ye-yev17/dla, gKrXlq~LT /E-yLo0-TI) 8'7) 7-cv lipi'p ri-peoT7?. -iXELWc-4Aj,0ovLEVOL] Thuc. viii 96 ~ 2, (Euboea) i' 's riXecw 7) r7) 'ArtKTK7 w/10fNoi~pro. Decelea was at this time in the occupation of Agis. K1LTAXW0LTOV ro~J Te-rpcLKcOO(OIS KlX.] Thuc. viii 97 ~ i, 7062T TfTpaK0OLOVS Kara-,7ia-avrhecLVoEI 7015iEVl-aKL0TXIXLO0IE 6P771o-av'lo -i- rpciyuiara ~rapa~ovzat- d171aL 8 av'Tw1' r6w0oot Kal 6riXa i-apiXovra& Kai /Lo-06'V A.oj4va 1O1lpEv F078et4 dPXzi7. ~ 2. 'ApLorToKpdirqS KaOX 9ijpQp~kIS] Thuc. viii 89, 2 (of the opposition to the A

Page  129 CH. 33, 1. I-CH. 34, 1.4. TTOAITEIA 129 pEO-KO/.LevOt T0L9 V7ror7 OV TE7-paKoo-t6W eytyv/opevow a dwalVa-a yp 3L) a1'cv O 7Tpa'rrv, o '&v E71ava~epovTE9 7o rEVraKKYXLXLOLS 8 \ XI 1covOL 8E' IcaXft'6, TroXtT1EV07tpat acL'a TrOVTrov9 'rov9 Katpovs9, 7'r0 E'.ov TE KaOEO-T1-CoT9 Katl EK TW'V 07TXCOV Ti" rOXL7-EtaSa Ovao-7q. 14 34. TroVTsov9 )EV oivV 4bXETO rrV 7roXtTEiaV 6' &)/A0~ &a\ Taxovg- e'et 8' 6,380,tt),tera\ T\ T'cv rpaKOQtOV Kaa'rXva-tVL, 6 KaXVov TOO 'AyeyeX33OEv a7pXoVT0c, fyEVO/AEJNq7' T9 ev 'Apytvova-au vav/AaXta, 7-rpwT'oV ILV TOV?EiCa oTpaTI-yovq '0OV 17 T7 vaviiaXt' 4 11 FCNOMENOIC; yLvo/IevolS K-W; yL'yv. H-L, K3, B. 13 an Kairep 7ro\4lov? Herwerden. XXXIV 2 0B&oMoI: 9KTyp K-W2. K&TbAyCIN K, H-L, K-W2, B; KcLrcidTTao-tt K-W1. 3 Apf-INOYC6c: 'Ap-ytvo6oroall B. 4 rip' vawlaxtiav Tyrrell. TrosVLKwvvCas e margine irrepsisse putat Richards. TEsTIMON. XXXIV 3-12 *Schol. Arist. Ran. 15332 KXEoq5GJJv 56' AaXg-w: rap~oov, W's 'Ap. e/oqoi, g.1ra6 7i'7v 'Apyuvo6rcLS vavcw4aXLcav aKEACKII.IovLn'v 3ovXo1.6vwv &K AEKEXE'CIa cbrtvat 69' ot' Jxovo' CEK7iTEPOL Kal eip-7)1-17 dyetv E'ri (TOO seCi. K-W) KaXXIou,1 KXEoo(jv grEtloE r6v 3101 /.1 rwpoo56~ao8ac, " E'XOiu'v E1 7EI ripKK?7q0cav-e'av 1d7 rdo-aT aO(6Lot 7Ta sr6XEL1 ol AaKE~atL6vLotL" (Frag. 370-, 4083). extreme members of the 400), 9XO1TE1 ij-y t6pvas Tcv 7rcivv [orpaT77yOjV] TW( El 7T7 6XcyapXiq [Kai] & apXa tsV Twv, olp O-qpcl/417)v TI Till`Ayv&tVOS Ka' 'AptrrToKpci7-?v T6P 2KEhXIov. Lys. i2 ~ 66, (Theramenes) /.ker6axe rc~V 'ApLt-OKPdTOVS 9pywY. Aristocrates had been one of the envoys who negotiated the peace of 421 B.C. (Thuc. v ig and 24). In 414 B.C. he is represented as a typical 'aristocrat' in Arist. Ayes, 225, ("Eroit) dpurroKpact-w orOat 6iXos el 3iqrc~v. (Eb'eXr.) &yd; 77K10Ta - Kat 701 2KEXXIOU )3EXViTTI0/a1t, Cf. Plat. Gorg. 472 A. He was a ra~iapxos under the 400 (Thuc. viii 92) and is extolled by the author of the speech against Theocrines, [Dem.] 58 ~ 67, for taking part in the destruction of the fortress of Eetioneia and restoring the democracy. He was one of the generals at Arginusae (406). oir8~v E'7rcLva4(3pov7rs TOtS 7rEVTCKLOXLXLOLS] In Thuc. l.c. the opponents of the 400 insist To7lS 7rEVTaKLrXXLX1OVS 9pYY Kal /077 010/.aTt XP?71aL alrO3eLKPv1IaL. SOKOiicTL BS KLXwg 1rokXLTE1OY VaL KTX.] Thuc. viii 97, 2, GIX "KLOaTa 5'7 Til 7rpwro Xp6'opo ert y' 4ipoD 'A677vaioL 95lavovrat eb 7roXr7e6caPTes- /JETpiCL -ya 77 Ti C' 701o1 6XiyoOs Kati C' 701o1 iioXXouLs 5)5yKpao-ts &y6 -VETO Katl EK 7r0o?7pC~V 71' lrpCLy/.CiaTwp TOUTo 7rpW7ol a1751E'jKE 77TV w76Xwt. Grote c. 57, V 430. iK 'r'7 v i'wT v] C. 4 ~ 2, 07TE&IQTO 7i 7roXt7~ea To7s 0"rXa rIaPeXo61011os. Pol. 1297 6 I, 511 56 Th7r0rTOXLciiav ElVLa /161 EK 7neV A S. A. 67rXa EX6vTwv /16vov. XXXIV. Ar'inusae and Aegospolami. ~ 1. S'fEL 38 6EpES0J KTX.] The archonship of Theopompus was in B.C. 4 1/0; that of Callias in 406/5. Thus, the latter was in the sixth year after the overthrow of the Four Hundred. Mr Kenyon suggests that 'the calculation was probably made by inadvertence from the establishment of the Four Hundred, which was in the official year 412-411 B.C.' roO'AyyeXi0Efv] Added to distinguish him from the Callias who was archon in B.C. 412 (c. 32 ~ I). Others of the same name were archons in 456 and 377. It was more usual to remove such ambiguities by adding the archon of the previous year, e~g. Arg. to Arist. Ranae, iwI KcaXXtov ToO /117' 'AvrTyevi (the Callias of the text); Schol. Ac/. io, KaXXXiov 70T /juE7a Mv?7o-i'Eov (the Callias of 456). In Schol. Nuib. 971 Phrynis is said to have been victorious at the Panathenaea 6rt' KaXXLov dpXovTos, probably B.C. 406, as this was the third year of the Olympiad (Wyse). 'ApyLvo1SoraLs] Xen. Hell. i 6, 27-38. Cf. Grote, c. 64, v 50o-536; Holm, G;-. Gescih. ii 573 ff, 58j. 'robS 84KE arpawnyyo's] In Xen. Hell. i 5, i6 we have the names of the ten generals: Conon, Diomedon, Leon (also mentioned in 6 ~ i6, but probably a mistake for Lysias, who is mentioned in 6 ~ 30, and 7 ~ I), Pericles, Erasinides, Aristocrates, Archestratus, Protomachus, 9

Page  130 130 AOHNAIQN COL. I4, 1. 37-COL. I5, 1. 4.;VIK(OV7aS~ l? Cvi /3,8 Kpt rvat F XeLPOTola wTrav- 0, Trovq /.LeV Thrasyllus, Aristogenes. Of these Conon was blockaded in the harbour of Mitylene, and was therefore not present at the battle of Arginusae (Hell. 6 ~~ i6 ff.). Leon and Erasinides were with Cleon when he first made for Mitylene (I.c. ~ I6) and we hear no more of them until we find Erasinides among those engaged in the battle (~ 29). The other generals engaged in it were Aristocrates, Diomedon, Pericles, Protomachus, Thrasyllus, Lysias, and Aristogenes. We know from Lysias 21 ~ 8 that Archestratus died at Mitylene, though Xenophon is silent on this point; and Erasinides probably left Mitylene on board the vessel mentioned in the passage of Lysias just quoted: d7ro0av6vros e -ro6rov (Archestratus) iv MvrTLXvyp 'Epactvisz s uer' etuov Cvvf7rXeL. (Bauer p. 159, assumes that Leon is the tenth general of whom Xenophon is silent, and that he is not identical with the general who bears the name of Lysias.) Thus only eight of the ten were engaged in the battle; after the battle, the generals were recalled. Two of them, Protomachus and Aristogenes, declined to come. 'Warned of the displeasure of the people and not confiding in their own case to meet it, they preferred to pay the price of voluntary exile' (Grote v 510, c. 64). Only six returned to Athens. It was ultimately proposed to the Council by Callixenus (Xen. Hell. i 7 ~'9) and carried, that the case should be decided by the public assembly voting in their tribes by ballot, and that one single vote was to decide the case of all the generals (~ 34, uLa drpj3 5i&racrac Kplvetv). In the assembly it was moved by Euryptolemus that each of the generals should be tried separately (KpiveoOrat ro0s &v8pas 6SiXa fKao'Tov, ib.). The assembly first voted by show of hands (&aXetporovla) in favour of this motion, and then against it; thereupon they condemned all the eight generals who had taken part in the battle (Kacre?7qlo7avTro r(v vavIaXslXo-aCvTWv rTpaTlrYC7, OKTCrc vriwv). The six who had returned were put to death. If we now turn from the narrative in Xenophon to the description in the text, we find several discrepancies: (i) all the ten are put on their trial, not eight alone; (2) they are tried /t5a Xetporovi1, whereas it was only the vote on the rival motions (including the decision to try them collectively) that was taken by show of hands, and the final verdict was given by ballot (&ta1p5rLats). robs /Ev ovbe ovvvav/iax7'raavras must refer to Conon who was at Mitylene, and to Archestratus who died there. TOVS 5' ei ' XXoTrplas vews awOTvras is so far borne out by Xenophon that, according to the statement made in the speech of Euryptolemus (I.c. ~ 32), one of the generals was eirl KarTaOva-rS vews &taaowOeis (cf. Diod. xiii 99). As regards our other authorities, Philochorus (frag. I21) speaks of six generals as having been put to death; Diodorus (xiii II0-2) describes six only as actually condemned. According to Androtion's Atthis (quoted by Pausanias vi 7, 7) the decision was limited to the generals who actually took part in the battle. Plut. Per. 37 says of Pericles the younger, T770rov... a7rKTrELtvv O6 6oOS JLerT TWIl avaopcaL7?ryv. The Schol. on Aristoph. Ran. 698 describes four of the generals as having escaped and six as having been put to death. This is somewhat fancifully regarded by Bauer (p. I 6) as implying that the charge concerned all the ten. Plato Apol. 32 B says: ore vslets Tros UKa cTrpaTo7yobl Tros OVGK aveXo0Yfvovs rTOb eK TrS vavaUXizas eXi ovXeVoaUX o0c e i0p6ovs KpLveIv rapacv'6oCs, TOT' e'y /y6voos Triv prpvarvecv,PvavTLw071v ViLLv. [Plat.] Axioch. 368 D states that all the ten rppaTry1oi were condemned to death. This account is carelessly followed by Aelian V. H. iii 17, OVK 7re75(lto'ev 'Al77vaiots (ZWKpadTIS) TOy rIvT OKCa oTrpa-r7-qyv OdvCaTov. Cf. Valerius Max. iii 8, 3 and Schol. Aristid. iii 245, 24 Dind. According to Bauer the 'dream of Thrasyllus' (Diod. xiii 97, 6) implies that seven of the generals were put to death. The seventh (he suggests) was Leon. Diodorus (xiii Ioi ~ 5) states that Conon also was accused but acquitted. Bauer considers the account in the text too definite in its terms (zu schaaf ausgedriickt), in so far as it takes no note of Conon's acquittal; but he actually regards it as more correct than the narrative in Xenophon. He suggests that Xenophon passes over the case of Leon who had not been present at the battle, because it would put the injustice of the sentence in too extreme a light. In Bauer's opinion the author can only refer to Leon in the vague plural TroU ouV6 owvvvavtuaX7aavras, which Bauer admits is an exaggeration. A4 I A

Page  131 CHI. 34,1. 5-II. FIOAITEIA '3'I o-vlv~av/uaX?7oavJra9, 701vq 8' E~w' dXMo'piaq veco9 OawOc'pJa9?, E~warqT1 -0OEVToq TOV 7i~4oV 8ta 70v2 wapopyioaamra9v e7TETa /3ovXoPEVWV,, V 'Col. '5.] etp~w1~v ayctv-, evLoL a~ev eOrvov4'0~v, r7\ &e 7rX17609 1 o-'X V`7T?7KOVO-lJ E~a7raT'I)06E7rrE V'-i?0KXEo0;fvroVT, ', Kc(XvO-e ryevE'o-Oat T \7V etppnv EXO&W EL"? T2\7V E'KKXflo-t'av /Le0VO)v Kcat 0Qeopaeta Ev8E~vKcWO9, OV ~c0aoKE 6 CIATr&THOENTEC corr. K. 8 &NIEN&I: ardvma J B Mayor, Sidgwick, \Vyse, Blass, Herwerden, Naber, Gennadios, coil. Schol. Arist. Ran. 1532, H-L,, K-W, K. K&l 6J) oIe EXOYCIN IPHNHN EK&TEPOI &FEIN; Kad 6'(' ols gXOoLva eKaTIEpOL ei'p?75vfl al-yet' K (H-L);-el-'p-qP~ alyCLP a'eiEpot Gornperz; eo OTS 9X0U(TLP e'Ka'Tepot Kad eip?75V27P ayeu' K-W e Schol. Arist. (et B, in archetypo iOT' of9XOVcruP' K'L~o ur versum adscriptumn fuisse arbitratus). 9 U'7r-IKOvOaaI' mavult Herwerden. 10 6sa7rar-,qj6' Rutherford. 7-12 *Schol. Arist. Ran. i53,2; v. Testimonia in p. i,:. E'cL~rrafr-q0Tos 'roD 8'jpov] Xen. Hell. i 7 ~ 3 5, fiorepov.... 4/7I'01oaTo ot7LPTIV TO 3iy.oi' 477,7rcT777raI' 7rpo&3X's aLVT~l eLVIaI Kal E-Y'YV77TA'S Ka.TaIOT77aa, 9ws aP KpIO(O`LPI. 'Cpop-y~ccLv~ra~s] in Act. hitherto found only in N. T. EK AEKeXECO.s dL'LE'VO.L] Decelea had been occupied by Agis since the spring Of 413 B. C. (Thuc. vii i 9 ~ i), and it was retained until the end of the Peloponnesian war. On the site, about 1 5 miles N. E. of Athens, near the entrance of the defile leading between Parnes and Pentelicus from the plain of Athens to Oropus and Tanagra, see Leake's Denmi p. i8 and plan in Curtius, Sieben Karten. E'+ oiS 9X0O'ULV EiKdEO.r0L KTX. ] These overtures after the battle of Arginusae are not mentioned by Xenophon or Diodorus. The terms are the same as those proposed, according to Diodorus (xiii 5,2), after the battle of Cyzicus in 410 B.C., and opposed by Cleophon (it). 53) (see Grote c. 63, v 458-461). The present overtures are in fact 'a second edition' of those put forward four years previously. Xenophon says nothing of them on either occasion. The account in Diodorus led Grote (c. 65 ail.t p. 537 n) to suppose that the Scholiast on Aristoph. Ranae ailt., who quotes the present passage, had confounded the two battles. It now appears that the Scholiast's quotation was correct. It is not improbable that Diodorus is wrong. It is to the overtures in the text that we should refer the account in Philochorus, fragm. 117-I i8 Mifller (ap. Schol. ad Eur. Orest. 371):- AaLK65IIJuoP1WV 7pCO-fv0-a/sE'W1) 7repi etpi7p7s aIrta-i~avres 07 'AO77vaZot o' wrpoo-4KaVTO. Cf. Schol. on 1.7-22. Grote v46o n. Fart~eEV v 0 KXeo+~*vTos] In c. 28 ~ 4 Cleophon (and Callicrates) are described as having 'deceived the people.' Cleophon's action is described as follows in Lysias i 3 ~ 8, 6TE -'a'P 7' 7rpcr-q e'KK2O7(tLa 7rEpi 7271 Elp75V-17 EiyL'YVETO, Kat o' 7rap&' AaKc6alLLuohvWv 77K0P7ES eXE-yoP IO' o'L5 4ETGI1.401 E EV 7-771 EIPqp75'7 7roLEITOaU AroeaKE.6at 1)101, Et KCaTauTKCa(/E17 TWED 7-Et1c -r 71e g.aKp(WV elri &9KI o-TcaSIt E'KaTgpov, TO6TE NU/JE TE, W' ap1. 'AO., OUK 2)VeGXE0rOE aLKOu'aVTEs 7repi 7(01' TELXWOP 727 KaCLTCOKa(/fl7, KXeo';bJov Tre v~r~p N/.1W1 7rriVTWo' a'vaoT&1a~ aiwre~l-ev W oSuev 7 'rpyc o`Pv TE Ei' 7ro01E-t TaOYTa. Aeschin. F. L. 76, KXEo9CPL3).. dC7rOK6l/ew 277ELX /.4a~aip'Pq 71'P TpadX-qXov, e" T11 7771 E671PhY1 /.1P77L067T0ETaL, and F. L. i5i, 7ravrd-ci 7ra01tv 9KIPpwv &eylE70 (with schol. on 15o, where ci' TIE Elp2'1)7 -yE1)V7767o —ETat, printed,Elp75V771 yE1)1)r's7 gor0a1, is clearly a mistake for dlp 5v271 IAPuooO 7o-eraL). Cf. Arist. Ran. ad'fin. KXEo4cv 5/ IuaxXE'o-rOw, and Holden's Oaornasticoa s. v. fLEOV'OV KccIL OW'PCLKCL 1EVSE8lKICWS] It has been suggested (by Hartman) that we should read 06paea e'Xwv and interpret the latter as a metaphorical phrase equivalent to /.EOVbov (coil. Aristoph. Vesj5. i1195 etc). If so, the writer has misinterpreted a phrase borrowed from a comedy and quite out of place here. But there is nothing unreasonable in Cleophon's appearing in armour. His life was not safe, as may be inferred from the animosity with which he was regarded by members of the oligarchical party (Aristoph. Ran. 1504, Lys. 13 ~ 7 if., 30 ~ 10 if.). (Herwerden's n.) It wvill be remembered that Cicero, at the time of the Catilinarian conspiracy, went down to the C~ampus Afar/lis armed with a la/a insz,,-nique lor~ica (Cic. pro.3Afarena, ~ 5,2). 9-2

Page  132 I32 AOHNAIQN COL. '5, 1. 4-34. E7rLTPE*ELV Eav /lkq wcra9a d~coot AaKcE~atp0Vtoe Ta\ W6rXEL9. Ov' 2 XP97Wa/aevot &E KaXowV TOTE TO- peyia[o-i, FLET' oi' wroX'v\ XP6VOV gyvwoo-av Tn7zV a4tap[TlaV'], T(0 fya~p VOGTEPOV 6TEt E~' 'AXEV1OU 's aXoVTOq?&V'Xo-av T77v Ev Atlyq?rOra/iovs' JavFlaXtav, E' q cTVV0f3f KV'pIOV yIEl.o/CVOV T?7Sq 7WQXcEn Aiv'cav~pov IKaTaoUT7-cat TOWi aptW oV~a Tp07rr1) 'ro j. T7r71 Elp?)'v~p? 7Ievo/.LEV aVTrOt E~f co TE 3 7roXtTrEVo-ozrrat T7)V 7n-aTptOV 7-OXtTEtaV, ot 1tLEV S&q/OTLKO\ &taOapE wEirEPc(zrro TOV 8^,ttOV, Tc03V &6 CYVO.)pt[~Cv Ol jUEv eV Trat" &'atepats? '20 OVTEqIicat ToW cjwya'SawV Ol' /IETa\ T7\?V Ep?7'v?7v KaTAO'VT1E1 OXtryap~itas E7rEOVFL.OVl), Ot'8 El' E'Tatpeia~ ALE'v ov'&IELLa (TvyKa06(7CrT07TE [a"]XXw0J &E 80KOVL'TE9 OV&8vo\S? E7tXctrea-Oat Tr63V rO'XCTC3V T?7V 7'a'TptOv 71-oXtTEi~aV 'E'Nj'TOv WV 'z, 111V cab 'ApX~vo,~ iat, "A.VVTos- icaL KXetT00jX3V Kca~ 'TDop/alo-tO9 Kca' 6'TEPOt wroXXO4' 77TP0EUT?7ICEL & 12 4,qiwci (K): 6q56.o-t Naber, Gennadios, Richards, K-W, H-L, B e schol. Arist. C 18 ~, I AC WZE I N;-crdsietv K1; - -oobrat hiatu admisso J B Mayor et Wyse; o-aqeu Blass, K-W, H-L, K. 20 APXI&.N corr. J B Mayor, Rutherford, Blass, Frdnkel. 22 em-i~rrcctm: 6'rt~dr. K, B, (an Xelreo-Oau?') K-W; diroXeor. Richards, Gennadios, Kontos, Hultsch (H —L). 23 CZHTOYN (K, K-W, B): E'NXovv H-L. ~2. fir' 'AXegCov] B.C. 405/4. 2qTVXTjOOMV 'r~jv-vOLqjLtCLXv] an exceptional, but quite intelligible, phrase for expressing 'defeat in the naval engagement.' We have something like it in Aristides ii 334 Dind., 1o0oKXiS 4)AoKX40VS '7T-67cLT...-Trl'P Oi6iwo0VV. Ev AL'y0"S WioTrcLFots] Xen. Hell. ii i,,2i-3,2. Plut. Lysandler,c. ii-i12. Grote c. 6-, v 542-7. Ai'aomv~pov] Lysias 12 ~~ 7,2-76. Plot. Lys. 15, 7rpta'Kopra p.%v t'v 610TreL, 66'Ka. U E letpcutJ KaracLO75-caas aSp~ovrTa, Grote c. 65, v 559. ~3..njv 7rcLrpLov rroXvrELca~v] c. 31, 1. 3. Xen. Lieli. ii 3 ~ 2, e~o~:e Trw, 53p' 7-pLcKoJJ7cLadv6paZ1 EX&0aO, ot -ro)1 7raTp'O VT 16pgovs ~uY-YpaipWO-L, KaLO' 061s 7roX1160oovoL. The term (as Mr Kenyon observes) was ' sufficiently vague,' indicating generally the constitution of Solon; but, as the virtue of the constitution depended on its working, it was possible for moderate democrats, extreme oligarchs, and moderate aristocrats alike to hope that it would he modelled according to their views. Diodorus (xiv 3) recounts the argumients of the opposing parties at some length, and describes Theramenes as urging the Athenians to follow T7' waric 7roXLref rc~v yvwp~j~.wv] 2 ~ 1, 5 ~ i, i 6 ~9, 2 8 ~ 2. -roLLpECa.LS] Cf. Thuc. iii 82, 8; viii 54, 4. Hermann, Staatsalt. 70, 2 'and io; Schbmann, Ant. p..363 E. T. 2Ap~ivos] Dem. Timocr. p. 742 ~ 135, 'ApXiVOV.. 7- 01) Ka7caXa[36vTos 'IVX?71V Kai percd -ye 761s O1061 al-TLwTCaTov 6VTos 7371 KaO66oU Tj UA4W~, KILL IXXaL 7roXXa& KatL KaLXcL re1roXLTEV1J4P0V Ka'l iTpL3'K6Tros 7roXXaLKLS. Isocr. i8 ~ 2, Aeschin. c. C~tes. i87, 195. Zn~f. c. 40 ~~ I, 2. "Avvros] In the speech made by Theramenes in his defence, in Xen. He/i. ii 3 ~ 42, Anytus is mentioned with Thrasybulus and Alcibiades: 06'K aS' 6ES6KE l.01 ov"re Opao-6/ov~ov o6-re "Av-rov o6T7e 'AXKL/3LhiS-qv Jv-yacL&6ELV, and ib. ~ 44 7r6repoJ' oi'oT6e epacT6f3VX0V KalL 'ApvTO-o' KI "7 6 XXov s q5v'y~i sI a 6,yc' XE /caXXov ap ev~ci5 /36Xeo-OaL -yl-y'eoOaL 3 a Ou-rot 7rpaTTOUO-LV; KX'EL~o~av] the proposer of the rider to the proposal of Pythodorus respecting the establishment of the 400 (29 ~ 3). IsOcr Ca//mi.) I I ~ 30. He is possibly, the same as the son of Aristonymus and pupil of Socrates who grives his name to Plato's Clejitophon. In Plut. Mor. 8oKXeLt-ro5C (mentioned with Cleon) is probably a mistake for KXeoo(v. 'I1opjL.crosto] 'Tw6eo-11 to Lysias Or. 34, Dionys. Halic. de Lysia, C. 32, -r01)y', 335UouI Ka7-reXO6v-os E'K HIELpcuLS, Kalik-1qotucapzivov S&a~uao-Oau 7rpi's 7061s ev acr~eL, KILL /uO7Sev'6 TW~V -yeYEV37AdWV /u)3q0-LKaLKEV, U o01) Se' 61'Tos, u.7 7rc'XLV ro' WM)Oos et's 7061 167r6pov1 '/p~~j Th 'pxalaIp e4:ovoaav KEKOpMlcrpUeV0V, Katd 7ro2\XwjVv 67p 706701) -Yu1Vd-e

Page  133 CH. 34, I. I2-CH. 3 5, 1. TT IA IT E IA '33,tuiXLo'ra enpapbE'zn-.Avo-a&pov &' 'npoo-9qtE'vov Tro- 6XtryapXt- 25 /Cov? Ka'ravXayet'; 6' 87-7to9? nvaFy1do0-0l XEtPOTOVEEV T?'7V AtryapXiav. e'7pal~e &6 T'r fnocrpa ApalcoVTI-t'qr 'Acf~va'o9;. 35. ot' Le'v oiv'v Tpta'KOVrT TOVTOJV 7011 Tipo-ov KaTE(Y7floav E7rt l v o p v 7EZJO/JE VOL 8E KVp MO T7q 7roX o a FEV aXXa Ta\~ &6~aVra 7rep't 771?7 7roXtTElaS 7racpecopcov, 7rel'TaKcoo-LoV & /3ov'XCV'ra9 Ka~t Ta~rs a"XXa9? a'p~a4 KaTaaTc7O7aVTE9 EK TrPOKptTcOV EKC TOW XAXCOW, Kcal 77-po(TEX 0 tVOt aG dOt tv airoFt? Toi llta EWSo 5 XXV1 K&TCCTHCE corr. K. 5 eK TC'i' XLXLIJp delet Marindin: 7TeVpraKO-XtXL'wv? K-W, E'K rc~i' lrel'TaK~aXIXIwv Thompson, H-L; tic rc~v OvuXc~t Hude. Kall Tall aX~as dpX&S- KaLTaoT'oaIITes E'K 71pOKpITIOP & TOI XLXIWP post /.gtOac/6 pap in c. 33, 9 ponit Harberton, mutato XLXIwV in VrEPTaIKITXNXIWP et nostro in loco ~rpocaAMtkeot S scripto (Class. Rev. vi 2'23). lTIpa&IkC: IletpaewT K, K-W; Hctp=u(Zi H-L, B. TESTIM. XXXIV 27 *Schol. Arist. Ves5 -5 pCKVIsI:... go-Tt -Yip Ot)TOS ' 6 r6 EP1 Tih' Tptd'KalTa iphq5co-Aa rep' SXIyapXtCal -ypciq/as, ' Ap. 'v ro-Xtreicmr (Frag. 3732, 4I1). XXXV 5-6 Bekk. Anecdota, p. 235 &KaI ILPCS 61lo: SIKC 7'7L-al TIVes IV' IIE~pcLE? 01 dp~avTreg KaITi T'JV TyapCvJ'S TW~v TpLdKOPal'. a'XXa Kalt 7rpaool~a~Cal a61ToL2 E1W15as r~v dpX7I S~Wpm. /7 d"YPi'AwEV be' 6TL 9TIEpOI fla-I 5&a, oOs 'A0rn'czaFO etIAi'na 1/ETA T-7v TWOV TpLCiKalVTra KaITdXvIT-L' (c. 38, 5). vwp X6-ywv, J(ap~klat6s Tts TrcP aVyicareXO6vTWP' /AfTa TOO S?5,.LaV 'YVCWIO77V eloT?7yhITTO, na 's /Lt c/766 yO al' S KaIT IL 'aI, TflV S 710X 1 -Tdapl )u 7rcao-IY, aiXX& TaS T'P -Y~z 9Xau-TL 7rapcua~oiat, jPovXoju4Pwi TaLUTa /yevlcTac,cd Aa~ce~aI/2avlwz. Grote c. 66 vi 4; Schumann, On Grate, ~ i i, holds that it is wrong to regard Phormisius as an adherent of the oligarchical party; at the same time he was no friend to extreme democracy. Schbmann's view is supported by the text. He was sent with Epicrates and others as an envoy to Artaxerxes before the Corinthian war and accepted valuable gifts from the king. The envoys were attacked for this in the H~peo-~,Es of Plato, ap. Athen. 2,29 F (frag. iiq with Kock's note). He is mentioned in Arist. Ran. 965 as an admirer (AacOnrThS) of Aeschylus. Didymus, in Schol. ad loc., describes him as 8paa-TLKO' Kalt T')l K6A01', T-pI~(/Wl Kalt Avocrdv8pou —rots dXL-YCLPXLKots] Diodorus, xiv 3. 4L LUiJOC] Isocr. 25 ~ 67, at A/v -Y i/i 75 oi -/LuaTL 7rcapaIXa0(6lTeS T/V 7ro'XIJ. ApcLKovrC811s] Lysias 22 ~ 73, 0'qpaLdeVljS eKeXEV0-EP v',LIa- TpIaiKOP'Tc dv~pda-Iy b r ~ i ~ ' I 7 l T X l, K l 7 7 7 r a T k l X 7 - C I 75v ApaKcaVTrl57Sdh7r6/aIeY. Aristoph. Ves~p. 157 with Schol. He was himself nominated as one of the Thirty (Xen. Hell. ii 3 ~ 2; Hypereid. ap. Harp. s.v.). Cf. Plat. Com.frag. 139 Kock. XXXV-XXXVII. The Rule of the Thirty. XXXV ~ i. ot...-rpLhiKov-ra] Diodorus (xix 3,2 etc) is the first writer who calls them at' Tp. Tr6prwppaI. The same designation occurs in Plut. Sull. 5 and in later writers. MI llvi06cpov C&pXovros] Si' 'A077va~oL, OTI El' -XycapXl(ql 1' 10?, 06K6151 ~ VO P dXX' dvapxiapv-6 Ti' iYal-6P KaXoaLtpl, Xen. Hell. ii 3 ~ i; cf. however Lys- 7 ~ 9. iriL 14v C''~LpveT'L-CTLr? c-CLvPTES] Xen. Hell. ii 3 ~ i, ~tlpeOIVTes Eik' JTe ~wy-ypdi at'a v6 iAov, MOa' ob0a-T0aI 7raXITE6600LVTO, TO06TOUI /2EVP ait 9,2E'XXOV ~uY-Ypd'06tV TE Kcat c7rOSEIKV6l'at, f& aX'ip 3 Ka~l Tall eWas~ dpX&S KarTeo-T?)a-ai, W's eS6KIEI aIUTO;LI. TriS 6XXcs dpxd~s, e.,g. that of King-Archon which was filled by Patrocles, Isocr Call/rn. i8 ~ 6. CK lrpOKp(Tci)V &i TIOV XLXCcWV] 'out Of those selected heforehand, i.e. out of the 1000.I If XtOt'wi is right, the reference is to the Knights. Cf. Philochorus, fragm. 100, ap. Hesych. s. v. 17r7r$, 17r7real ('Ilr7rciXtPv Schow)- adXX, E1a-IL' tww7s tipes al-Ilato Xi'XLaI[Aristoph. Eq. 225]. 0-6aT7i/2c 7raXELIKIP dvpCp6)' XtXtiwOV Y'r~raov Tpe(/)6YTWP'. '1~MXoxpas SE El' TETdpTW. ftp77KC, 7r6TE KalTfo-TdO77o-a'v XlXiot. SMdropl -y&p 75v Llr7rewif irXiOl7 KMTil Xp6Yoal"A6-qvaiats- Cf. Gilbert's Cr. St.i 305.- The Knights were generally credited with oligarchical sympathies. Cf. Martin, Les C'avaliers Athe'niens, i886,

Page  134 '34 AOHNAIQN C0L.I5J134-C0L.i6,1.I3. dp~oPrac? SEKa Ka' TrOD 8E(7/.LWT'qlpL0 v(OvXaKas- Ev8eKa Kat/a-~o o povs Trpta[K]oaLo0Vr V'7FtqpE'aq, KaTELXOV T77)1 7TOXt1) & 6av'rcov. 70o2 /LEV 01)) 7rip60rov,uerp tot TOV? 7roXi at9 ['3]o-a[V] Kait?7rP00o6EWt0V^VT0 8t(O, t TI) ii- e~ p o o[X tTr]ei'av, Kat TOVI? Tr IEb c Xr v Ia io'ApXEo-Tpa~'Tov vO/' V 7l)9wp zcv'Ape6ow7ay/tT~V KaOEtXov) ' 'Apet'OV [7raiyov] Kat Tf~3V YO6Xer'OI OEO7MtO-V &'oot &ta1ktG-I3'qT[ 'ojEt EtXOV, Kcat TO KVDpos' 0 77V IEV TOVS? (tKa7-TatV K[aLTE']XvOYav, (A', 4Ewav.op~oVhiTe9 Kat 77-otovVT4E9] a'va ~tT/,3n7T?0V Tn7 woXtTriav' 7 i'r-qp. del. Rutherford. EAYTLON: av'rc~t J B Mayor sc. -rcv V'r-qpErCvv (H-I,). 8 7roXLTe6/.ao% Poste. 9 ~IOIKCIN (K~ Coil. C. 27, 11): 616KIEL Kontos, Gertz, K-W, H-L, B, coil. C. 1.3, i8. 11 I&iMA\(izBHT- 13 AN&M4BlZBHTHTON. Post annum 3,29 A.C. etiam in titulis Atticis apparet ~ ant oa pro a-, e.g. fiVUJ7soir (3,29 A.C.). ~,95a (paullo post ioo A.C.), Meisterhans, p. 682. PP. 472-480, Les Cavalier-s et les Tr-enfe. It is improbable however that the select body, out of which the 500 and the other officials were appointed, numbered only icoo. Hence it has been proposed to read 7rEvTaKL0aXALXL&J (or lie TCOV 7.), but (as observed by Mr Kenyon) we know of no such body as in existence at this time, unless it is vaguely applied (as under the 400) to all capable of bearing arms. T-oy HELpcLLE'ws &'PX0VTCS SE'KO] PlUt. Lysano'er- 15, U.KrX 3U i'V HE6tprLZ KaLTaO7'aag. dpXov7-as. Plat. Epist. vii p. 3'24 B. Scheibe, Ol4',-,arc/hische Unmzutlzzung, p. 68. 9VSIEKa] C. 512 ~ f. Xen. Hell. ii 3 ~ 54. This new board of Eleven was under the control of Satyrus, one of the most violent partisans of the Thirty. JMcr'VyO0cj5po11s] The word occurs in Thuc. iv 47. Xen. Hell. ii.3 ~ 23 mentions certain veaiVLOrKOL, Who carried out the orders of the Thirty, but their number is not specified. ~ 2. p.&pLOL] cf. Xen. Hell. ii 3 ~ 12. The Thirty began by attacking the awVK0 -/xivTat alone. Plot. Afar. ii pp. 959_,, 998. ln1f. I. iS. 'E4)LCX-rOV] C. '25 ~ 2. 'ApXEOV-TpdT0V] Possibly the o-rpartr-ydS of that name in the Peloponnesian war, a son of Lycomnedes (Thuc. i 5~7 ~ 4.; Xen. Hell. i 5, i 6; ii 2, is5). He died at Mitylene (Lys. 21i ~ 8). In Thuc. viii 74 ~ we have an Archestratus, who is described as the father of Chaereas. Mr Kenyon conjectures that 'probably Archestratus was one of the supporters of Ephialtes, and some of the laws curtailing the power of the Areopagus stood in his name.' KcIOECXOV et 'Apetov -rrciyov] This implies that the laws of Ephialtes &c limiting the powers of the Areopagites were actually preserved on the Areopagus and that the Thirty removed tbem from the hill of Ares and thereby virtually repealed them. The context further implies that the laws of Solon were also preserved on the Areopagus, whereas they were really preserved in the Prytaneum (note on 7 ~ 1, Kedp/3eS). Possibly we should strike out l~ 'Apetfou wrdyov. As a milder remedy we may remove the Comma after etXOV, so as to bring the laws of Solon here referred to under the influence of the verb Ka7-rXvocav: but as the text stands, the laws of Solon are coupled to those of Ephialtes and Archestratus and can only be separated from them by striking out r' before 'E(PtaiX70v. X6'Xwvos] Schol. Aeschin. i ~.39, oi N -r6pra'vot....CXv/5?5Vatiro -roYs Ap6iKOPTOS KaL eOE-rjLCv] C. 12 ~ 4 1. 45 in the Iambic lines from Solon. 8La4j4qLa-rP~qO'-eLs] In c. 9 ~ 2 it has been remarked that the right of appeal to a lawcourt was one of the strongest points in the democracy as constituted by Solon., In the same passage the ambiguities in the law of property and the law of 'heiresses' are described as giving additional power to the lawcourts. Some of these ambiguities are removed by the Thirty and the power of the lawcourts (and the commons) Pro tan/o diminished. CLVaJ4Laj~rp frqov] an epithet Of KpI'aLSin Pal. iii 13, 1,283 1' 4, and coupled wvith okaVep6V in 13.32 lb 20 and Ca/eg. 5, 3 b 4 -The adverb is found in Categ. 8, i i a 2.

Page  135 CHI. 35, 1. 6-23. FTOAITEIA '3 5 ol. i6.] o'o[v] <701'v> 11 -rept ro0 e8o'va t Ta eav'rov3 66 &v MAe'X7KpL17T 0avre9? iKa~a'a~, a'n'i &e 7rpoCo-oa9a 8CvoKo tas' Eap /A7 /.a1'tow 77 15 y27(A)S <e"VEKa> y7 eyv1at/(t 7rto/Jpevo0' aq0e&Xov, '7r(0s. /44 To-0L \, / ' ' 3 Ka'r ap~a9 pev o~v 'rav'r EWrOtOUP Kat 70o)9 o-vKO0fav7-al? KaLL 'ovs 63) 771ktp 7wpo, Xaptv' 6otop va ap I 3~'t-' a 1aKo7rpay-,iova(? zra xa 7tvp vpoVV, Ek ot, eXatevP~?7 7r0X92. 4yy0/E09yyv/IE10t TOV 3XIY~VXP1 7otOeWv aVTOV. E7TEL &\ T7'V 7ro'XtV' E',yKpaT6'o-T6pO' E0-xo1, oV&'8EoS'? a'7re1XOJJTO 705) 7t~tTw, aXX) ' d'7r6,K~tvoV T701 Ka~t Tat,9 ovatat9? K~t T6) ye1'et Kat T 701 14~ ooV -<r6,v>- K-WI. apz < rts > H-L. UOIHC6&NTeC: El0ro&7o-azv 'emendatio incerta, nec praestat 7rGo75G-avrTl KaOdirca~, -rd' rpoao6o-as- VG-KoXLiaI' K-WI. 15 MV\NILONHrFHPLN, gaLVlcWv 77 lqpc~z K, K-WI: /.tavtcwz'-'7)pwS -<9VE5Ka>Blass et Wyse, coil. [Dem.] 46 ~ 14.; uaLGYLW 77 -'p77Cn -<77 r/Jcpuac KWl 7'7 V0'0-0 f`VCKEV rapau'odv> Poland; eadem. (nisi quod 9VEKa malunt et irapavoc;v non accipiunt) H-L. 16 rrI~oMENOC (edd.): iz-etO6evos Wyse et Poland coil. [Dem.] i.c. 'sed praestat aoristus (=ezotOeis) I H-L. 19 Kati seci. K-WI. 20 EX6,1PON propter participium. )7yoGZIevot retineri posse putat K, retinent H-L, B: gxatpev Sidgwick, Rutherford (iK-w, H-L). 21 F-IFN (edd.). 23 A~TTCKT6INAN (K): dizK-fretvov Blass, Kontos, H-L, K-WI. 'Trp' TrO; &OVVCLL TCa 'CVTO1) &)OV EeJXfl] PlUt. So!. '21, CE6S0Kt/.17GE SU Ka'PiV~ Tep t' &aWI7Kwz' z~g'6t 'rp~repoz' -yap 06'K 47P, aiXX' l'v T-p -ytzet ToOl TEOI/77K6TGo1 liSet Tia Xp77/AJa-ra KaC T-6v oGKOP KaTa/~vewV,0 a 5' c j3oIXE-ral -TIE 6rt-rpgl~as, et' /_j ira?3es W130 'yYv'o5GIG, Sow/at Ta' av'TGo KT\. o' A.7)7v C(PiKCV, adXX' Et' A7)7 v6owv 9IVCKCV' 7 q5q4LCK&JV 7) 'VIWV7 dViYK77 KITL tXO 77yVaK ireI66/lIevoE. See note on Dem. Le pt. ~ 102. KQL0'x1r4.] 'absolutely.' Under Solon's law it wvas only in the event of a man's having no legitimate children that he could make a will at all. Possibly the Thirty made the right absolute. 'rcs wrporo-ocroas 8-uo~rKXCCLS] either ' the inconvenient limitations altachingt/herelo' or ' the additional inconvenient limitations'; probably the former. Eov LV JIT ccvLwLCV-~rLO'FJevos] [Dem.] 46 ~ 14, ly 7 a'Cv7) '77pw 7) oaxppciKwP 7)v6crov CVEKCa, 7) yvvatKt i1et~O'leivos, and ~ i6, v'oo-ouv-a 77 ObappuaKWz'Ta 7) -yVz~aKIi wetL00'JieVo 7) zaro' y-,5pwc -,77 ATO P L (~V 7'7 ITO' aIVI'yK77E rTLVo Ka-raX77E/o~eV' 48 ~ 56, ILKVI /ph yE TIIUr ra'TI e'poo0eIT770-ev elwat 6 16Xcov, o 7TI alc Tn'yI/a1K wz~opev~ arp iT7. Lys. frag. 74, T77E StaO'aEWS... 7)P EKELO SIOT v 7r-apavo(z' oOV'U -/Vn'cui 7rELGOELE. Isaeus 6 ~ 9' 11w p?7) d'pa lpavCie 77)0 Io-6Y7)pcl KT-X. ~ 3. TO1'S O`-VK0o44VTCo. KTrX.] Xen. Hell. i3,12, rp70~TV /Iev 001 rdvTeE 7Seo-av i TS7p Iepa~ 1-6 -IK/aTLa 1w7 E ~ TOZS KCaXGLE KCI'ya160L [apeLE 0oVrca o-vXXa/p13voy-Tes V'r77yov Oav 'IiTGI/ Ka' 7) Te /ovX7) 7)S39ws aIL6TO3V KaTErt/770L~eTro, 01t' Tis a"XXoL, ikrot ~vv7)eo-av CIUToLE p77 G5vTes rTOLGVT0, '66Scz 7XOovTro. Lysias i13 ~ 5, (ol Tptci KGv7-a) r/xiG-KGV7TE Xp7vat Trdv ai6iKwv Ka~apa'v wo7roLam T7)v w6Xtv. Plato, then a young man of '24, and a nephew of Critias, was at first misled by these splendid professions, E~pist. 324 BC (Grote, v 56,2). irp6s X(CLPLV] (X1yewrtv To) Xen. Mein. iv 4, 4: Hell. vi 3, 7; Rhzel. i i, I1354 1b 34, aKepoEaOat irpo's Xa6pt. Pol. iii i6, 1287 0' 38, 7rGXXa rpos eir7petaP Kad Xapt' rpliT6TEv. Et i 10,2, r 7 3b 3 3, (S/d01Xos) pbs 7Tdya 06Y 6,.tuX6?v SGKE, (6 K6Xa~) 7rpSET 7'Sov?7)V. Theramenes protested against putting~ people to death simply because they had enjoyed influence under the democracy: ' Even you and I (he reminded Kritias) have both said and done many things for the sake of popularity' Xen. Hell. ii 3 ~ '5 (Grote, v 6) ~ 4. ov'Swo's d-rrEL')(OVTrO KTX.] Xen. Hell. ii3 ~ I4, 001 lf3o6Xov'TG ~IvPE~dgfJf3avGo, d7riKTFELVOV KT-X.] ib. ~ i - (6 KpIT7ias) 7rpwlreT7)E 'v 'ri T 7-6rGXXGO ad70-rKei'etw, and ~ I7, d7rG6V7IrK6v~wv 7z-G;XX6'D Kai aIi1iKws. Among those who were put to death were Strombichides and other officers who were attached to the demo

Page  136 136 136 AOHNAIQN COL. i6, 1. I3-COL. I7,1. 2. a w(/(LT1maa 7rpoe~0ov'a9?, v7re~atpoV/.Levo0& Te 701) (~6/3ol) cat /3ovXw,25 pevot Ta,? ov~oata &tap7ra4TUtw K~al Xpovov 8ta7TeaO'vo1)79 paXE'oq, 0o)/K,E'Xa aOU dvppreo-av 1 rvaK079 36. 07(09o, &6 T77, 7AeoXE0 VW7o~E0/JEpouE1, eflpaJE'v17 aryava/KTWi) E 'rt Ob ytyvo/4Evotc; Tq~ Ilv ao-E~x7EUL9a av-rov9 7rapy? waao-Oat, /JzE~a~ov-vat & Troh' 7rpay/aTcTow TOZr? /3EXTthJTOV?. Ot &6 7rpW^TOV 6vaVTt(OOE1)TE% '7rE' &eo-7r l~~~vOt 0oy0r 7tp0 T 70 7TX?0 at 5 7rp~q TOV 67pp'?vol`CeI(09~ ELXO1 Ot 7TU0XX, p0pfluE0VTE9~ /L77 7T0-aT'1 F)EO.E0 'u aaXep77)8vvaGeTet'av KcaTaXIEy0VO-tV T(01 7roXtTCO'V Tpta-%XI0V9? (09? /JETa8(o0'0VT6E9 Tq79 7roXLTda9~. e17pa,.'rvq &E ra'Xtv E'7rtTttta^ ca~t TOV'TOL9, 'irpCOTOv /IEV OTt, flouXo'-2 /.t6V~t,J.ETa~ovvat TOV9 E=rLEKeOL, TPUJ-Xt t0 /.OZ)0t /.LETaotoac~t, (09 10 V TV~a T() WX 7U6t T7_19 da"ET19 6opto-IEVip, ~E~tE~O oeTt 8V/0 Ta evavTtcOra~a )Totovatv) /3iatOV TE T7171 dp~i7v Kat T(OV aPX0/.tEZV'0V1 17TTO) KaTaalKeva40VTEq. 01 &6 TOV'TtOV /.\V ('d)XtfYw'pq7aav Tov &E KaT~AO 701 10 24 c&L4IacraL H-L. O6v~ros Herwerden. XXXVI 1 oV"Tw H-L. 25 116TFCC0NTOC (edd.)?: &aXLrI-6Pros J B Mayor, &r\2 F-IN (K-W). 3 TTp&)TOI corr. K. 6 KarcU X&YOVO-L H-L. 7 ~IICXIIMOyC corr. K. 9,Se7-aL&S6acrLV H-L. C KIEYZO NTEC. XXXV 26 Heraclidis epitoma, Frag. 6 i i, 6 3 (locus infra exscriptus). 12 METc5 - cracy (Lysias i13 ~ 1 3;.30~ 14); Lycurgus who belonged to one of the most eminent sacred gentes in the State ([Plut.] Vit. Orat. p. 8.38); a wealthy man named Antiphon; Leon of Salamis (Plat. Apol. p. 3,2); and even Niceratus the son, and Eucrates the brother, of Nicias, Xen. Hell. ii 3,.39-41; Lysias i 8 ~~ 5 -8 (Grote v 566). LVrcgLpovJJEvoL-+6Pov] 'cunningly removing (making away with) all whom they had reason to fear.' Plat. Rep. 567 B, and in pass. Thuc. viii 70 (of the Four Hundred) ib'paS... a-,reKretvav ov roX~o, ol 6iS6KouV E7ro-T?55ewo elvaL V7re~cupeO~pvw. Either -ro'v +o'pov, as suggested by Mr W. L. Newman (Class. Rev. v 164 b), is the 'object of their fear' (a somewhat poetic usage), or we must render the passage 'getting quit of their own apprehension.' XLXLOVS 1rEV'rCLK0TL`olIS] Heraclides 9, Kall acVELXOV 06k eiacro0VS XLXL'WV qO'. Isocr. Arep. 67 (of the Thirty), ol' A' -y'p 4k,jq0I o/LcLTL 7rcapcaXc6OVT-e TJY w6Xt,' Wep7aKO-L'ovs kdl' Kai X~l)ois TWY, 7roXcrTov dicPIrous arK-rKTE~vav, Paneg.- i3i. Aeschin. Ctes. ~235. Cf. Grote v 577 n. The Schol. onl Aeschin.i ~ 39 quotes Lysias for the number 2 500. XXXVI ~ J. ur0+EpjJL'V1qS] c. 25 ~ I. 0q~paL~f.v?1S KcrX.] Xen. Hell. ii 3 ~~ 15 -I 7. SLec-7wC~p~qhcLv] 5. X6yov, Xen. Hell. v i ~ 25. +JoP11Oe'v-res-iroXLrEdMS] Xen. Hell. ii3 ~i8, eK 7To6Tov /Je'vTOo KpLTL'aS KaL l cf XXOt rw6V Tp~cla' OPTIL, "6771 0io/3oi4 POL KatL o6' 77KtOTIL ToP Oqpag' 77v, p-kj TvPPvd6i 'ps a'7r'v Ol 7rOXZ7TIL, KaTaXlyovctL 7-pta xL~tlov roio jLEWI:OVTaS Si7 TWZV lrpa-y/.LdTrw. wrpo orrCr~S roi &rjp11oV] c.2 21.9; c.28 ~ 2. ~ 2. 0. wrdXLv i4nvrLI4] Xen. Hell. ii 3 ~ 19, 6 ' & aV 0. KatL rrp0' TILVTa gXe-yev, LiTL ILTOWrOV 30KOL7) ELTqJ -YE JLVaLL iS rpCorov pu v jgovXo1.civovs rosI f& X7,-Lor0 s i-WV iroXti-wi' KOLVWPVO6I rotnaoaOat 7TpLo-LXAIOS, WOcrep TSp a'pLO/JO'P T-Oh-oP 9XoP-d. -rtI aWI-YK?77 KILXoSS Kc-yILOo6L elPLIa, KaiL oUTr I(w Tro 6T(OP TU roV~aio Us oPl' ePTosS TroL5TC.1 iroprqpovs oihv i- eL$j -yeet-Oav iireLTIL 6', ef, OpW~ 9yW yC 860 '1/IIL i-L EPILV7I-Wi-Ta Ia 7rpdT-rov-raL, gLIaiIaP re77T7p aLPXI7 Ka~l I7T7ovC Tr(v ' pXO,.dPCP KaLTLO-KevaL~o/LlPvovs,r~v Si KsrdX0oY0V KTrX. The narrative in Xenophon (Hell. ii 3 ~ 20) pro

Page  137 CH. 35, 1. 24-CH. 37, 1.6. FlOAITEIA '37 TCOV 'rtpOXiXWV 7T0XvY IzeP Xpovov v7repE/3a'XXov7- o KcatI 7rap aVTio11 E(,btaTTOV TOV'9 VCy007-zevou9, Ore 86\ Kca~ (3O~,etEZ az'"ro~t' EW~E'Pew TOlV'9 uv e~~Xetfov ran <ey >7,6epatk6VwOV, ro9 S' Vrey5pa~o~v 37. &i7 &6 rOV xetlj'wvos~ eveO-TCOTO, Kara'Xa/3o'vro( O8pao'v/3 oi~ov /Jea\Tco rV fwIyaC~OV (IDvXt Kat Kaa rt7~v a-rpar-tav i7v cHyyaryov ot rptaKovra KaKW9n d7roX(Aopr7o-aVT6E9, e7VCoo-v Thwv fLev aXcwv ra\ o'wXa wapeXe'o-Oat, eqpap6E'vfv 8& 8ta/Ae'pat TrOJ& <TrOP> rpo77-ov. vo/.ov9 eia-7E7velcv ev9 T~7lJ /3OVXi\V &O KEX6VQJV-6TE I Co. 7r]twXEtPoroveW tvcz o p~e Et aVroKpazropa~ e'woiet Tov? TptaKOVTa 13 ynTEPB&AA. 14 avu/L/9peLv van Leeuwen. 15 FeFP&MMCNWiN (K): <e-y>-ye-ypagA/Mvwv Herwerden (H-L, K-W, B). XXXVII 2 Kali seCl. K-W. CTp&T1)N K, H-L, B: o-,pCaTEICW K-W. 3 o 1 6 TpLdKOV~ca del. Richards (H-L), ante 9-yz'woav ponit J B Mayor. 4 rr&pieccom corr. K. 5 -<r6v>- K-W, H-L, K3, B, 1poll. c. 7, 8. ceeds immediately with an account of the review of the 3000 in the agora and of the rest (Trch' 9~c roO KarcaX6-yov) elsewhere. The Ka7-AXo-yos is the list of the 3000 referred to by Theramenes in Xen. Hell. ii 3 ~ 5,2, 1KETe6w... g' ~7l' Kptu-L~ eii'cu E'~aXei/eLV...i ct,a'P (3o6X-rat, cXX' oJ'rcp v6juop o67-tO kypaq/ap lrept TWY El' Twj3 KcaraX6-yy, KaITEL ToO7Top'...ri7 KpOlVt elp/at, ib 4S. '28. LV'TEVE-ypa4ov] The word is used by Dem., but only in the pass. XXXVII ~ 1. Tro; XetLaJ~vos 11VEOG-rCOOS] the winter of B.C. 404/3. Kwrakapc43VTOS - 4vA 'V] Xenophon (Hell. ii 3, 23-56) completes the story of the opposition of Theramenes to the proceedings of the Thirty, and his consequent death, before relating the capture of Phyle by Thrasybulus. In ii 4, i, after the death of Theramenes, the opponents of the Thirty were compelled to withdraw, and many of them went to Megara and Thebes. Thereupon (e~K ro6,rov ~ 2) Thrasybulus 6'pAnqOets Eic 07p~C~V c'T o-uV 9#60f3'OPic~a 4'uvijv XWPL'OV KaraoAcz,3cdvet to-Xvp~v. In the text the occupation of Phyle, and the defeat of the force sent out by the Thirty against the holders of that fort, are described as the cause of the disarmament of the general body of citizens and the execution of Theramenes. This implies that Thrasybulus held Phyle for a longer time than has generally been supposed. It was not long after the surrender of Athens, on the i 6th of Munychion (end of April), that the Thirty came into power, probably early in May, 404. Cleocritus in Xen. Hell. ii 4, '21, speaking immediately after the battle which ensued on the occupation of Munychia, describes the rule of the Thirty as having lasted for eight months. This brings us to the end of December, 404. It was not until the small force which originally occupied Phyle, variously stated as 30, 6o, 70 or over ioo (Grote v 585), had increased to iooo that Thrasybulus advanced on Athens. Mr Kenyon suggests that 'they probably remained for two or three of the winter months at Phyle.' The fact that it was during the winter that Phyle was in occupation is illustrated by the narrative of the snowstorm which thwarted the Thirty in their attempt to blockade Phyle after their first repulse (Xen. Hell. ii 4, '2). 'rCi 07rXat 1rcapeXTOaLl] Xen. Hell. ii 3 ~20, 7-a' 6TXa 7-drapwp 7rX'v 7c(J/7rpta-xtiwP 7rapeiXopvro, and ib. ~ 4 1. Pol. i 3i ia 8 if. VOIL01JS ftaO~VEYKav] asyndeton. aL1TOKPcM'rOpcS-TpLcrXLX(c4)V] Xen. Hell. ii 3 ~ 5 i (Critias loquitur), goc7t 6L SE ' To~s KatpogPOI'6[utOg 7TWV L(L El' 7To~g rptcoxtXL'ot9 Svi-wvt FouSiva a'rOOPvtTKeu' alv/e rig V/xe7e-S par ~10V/,ho, TI(P 5' QOTOU KcIa-rXoyOu KVPLOVS e71/at L roiTptaLKovra Oava7roiv. 6'-y6 oS,', g~o-, e-qpaA9PvqP TOVTOVI E~aXEq5W E'K 7-0U Ka-aXo'-yov ~uVV3KOOP tt7rao~iv 77U1W Kalt 7roOr-op, e, ' ejp~i OaIrOuITV.ev. This implies that there were other KaW'ol v'olo, and the second given in the text, but unrecognised by Xenophon, would be one of them. But if it had already been passed before the meeting of the Council at which Critias denounced Theramenes,

Page  138 138 AOHNAIQN 138 AONAIQNCOL. 17,1. 2-38. TOM wrOXt7('r6V aworKTdvat TOVq 1701)TO Ka'raXO you 1J4ETEXOV~al~ 'rAy TptO-XtXlo(0V, 0' f' TEP0S? eKWXVE KOLV&WEL'V 7379q 7rapOVO-37q 7)-oXtTEia'; b'o-ot Tvy1Xavovo-tV TO '~ 'HE7UTWV6'q Tt 'Xo9 KaTaa-Ka~raVT1E9, 77 T-Oi'; io TETpaKocrt t'; EvcaVT OV Tt '71pa a'E JJ'os K7a-7voa77-p7- av 0e v~avv dUO~e(0VKEKCOtV(0lJKq/C(J' o eflpa/Juevfl9, 0&YGTTE U-VZJE/atvel) e77-KVpWOEVTWV T&OV VO/PU0)) e`Ct) TE6 ryltYLEo-Oat T1j' 7r0Xt7-Eta' aVTOV5 Kat TOlq TptaKcoVTa KVPlOVs' dlvat OavaTO'rovia'. alvatpEOE'VTO'; &e 0,pap.E' zou' Ta' TE 0'wXai 7rapEiXozrro 2 15 7WaPT&W 77Xqv T-)v T-ptETXLXLOW, Kcal ev rot'; aXXot'; 7Toxv wrpO'; c3ofI r Ka 7r7 p 3a '8ooav.- - 7wpeai3et' 7-E/*avT-e' et' 7 ruv rpw'-xA'ws delere VUlt B. 9 7-vyXaLvoo-)tL 1-L. 10 ' sec. K-W, H-L. 14 eANATOYNTAC (K, K-w) defendit Kontos coil. Thuc. v 34, Plt e 187,Plb iii 85, 2 etc.: OaVa-rotV Lacon, Keil, (+aV'-6v Poland), coil. Xen. Hell. ii i3, 5'. 16 rrpeofgets <6i>- J B Mayor, Blass, Hude (H-L, K3, B): ante lrp&e'o3Ls lacunam indicant K-w; verba 7wp! Ets-E'/pod'poLvV olim in fine capitis 36 locum habuisse censet van Leeuwen. the latter would obviously have withdrawn from Athens. The only alternative is to suppose, with Mr Kenyon, that Critias proposed the second law on the spot and 'forced it down the throat of the council by the threat of armed force.' This is not inconsistent with striking the name of Theramenes out of the list of the 3000, the only detail recorded by Xenophon, who omits the second law as superfluous, and as therefore marring the dramatic effect of his narrative. Cf. Isocr. i8 ~ i6i, obezva oa~-y,r~ov 7roXLTWP6 o6rE Xphlkao-L ~77/.LLW0LLL OL)rE i7rcpt ToO) aGlkLLIros EIS KL1P6VV0P Ka7TILLT7J oCLs, OV EK /ACV TWY/47eX'7w ~ 7oL-Ea 4~~ set's SE' rosv fJE-ra Avuar'V&pov KaLTL\o-yoV Eiyypci/~as. O' ~' v 'He~rLCwve4c TEIXOS KCLcuTKdCL'LVT7ES] 'the projecting mole which contracted and commanded, on the northern side, the narrow entrance of Peiraeus,' Grote c. 6,2, v 403, 408, 412. See Map of Peiraeus in Curtius, Sieben Karten, no. 2. Thuc. viii 90 ~ 1, 7-O E' 4P7 -,q'HETLwveL'M KaLXO/LVge-q77 TXOS e'7rLOvl'TO. ib. 90 ~ 3, 7iii6' 7E ot) TEL'Xovs ' yYl'LzuAL aV"r-q, W' L - 1z37par/Ivl'77 Katl oL /LE7T Lv'7-oOL, o0U( SLva ToLJs epl Idgy~, l'y /3LM E~rLtr~iLII, 1dJ 36dwJTaL e's 7-u' HlEtpaL6, aiXX' i'L'a -rovs woXeliiovs y&XXol', 0`7al /3odAwvTaL, Kad l'avcri KaILLr~y SE'wL,,atI. -X7'7~ -ya'p &TTL ro5) llctpatc3T i7 'HETL'vELia, KILL 7IILp ati-r?7v eV66 6 E'w0 aLTTLIV. ib. 92, ~ jo, 7-6V O77pau/Ivl7v?' )pd'T&l' EL' 6OKEF aiirtjp e7r' ILaI6 7-0 TECiXO1 I0iKOSL/LeLdOaIL, KaLL EL CL/EtVov E'LVLL KaL6aLpEOEv. 6' UE, ELI-Erp Kal C'KELt'VOL S0KeZ KaLOILpeLl', KILL EILv7L 90- ~UVV0KELV. KILL iPE'VO6ES E'OvsS Ila/3Lu7Tes o' r-e 'rX7r-atI Ka'L iroX~o' r(5 EK 7W)O HEtpatcWS a60OpLO7ILV KaL7-0-KaLTrovl ' T reL'XLo-LIL. In [Dem.] Theocr. ~ 17 P. 1343, the incident is wrongly referred to the time of the Thirty. ~ 2. b",rrX..rrpc~pCXov'ro] This has already been mentioned as resolved by the Thirty, in ~ i. Xenophon places the actual disarmament before the execution of Theramenes, Hell. ii 3, '20. 'rroXO' irp~s 06 +'nj'rx-41TrE'8oa-cv] Xen. H~ell. ii 3, 21, 7roXXobs Me'v E'X~pas E"VIEKIL ame'KTELtvov, 7roXXoUL5 86 Xp7)P.4a'IWv' I t w as after the disarmament, and before the death of Theramenes, that, according to Xenophon, ten of the /_4LEotLKOL became the victims of the Thirty. Among these was Polemarchus, the brother of Lysias (Lys. i32 ~ 17) —Cateo. 10, 13 a '24 EILSOL'77 6 ELsr'S Ti)(3'XTol' ELvIL, Eth. 10, 5, 1175 a 35, fr1LSLS6ILao-L EL's 7-6 0L'KEV 9p-YOV. Aiagll. Mar-. i 9, i i86 b 29, rposS 6, 1.aXov JlrtL'iSoLLEv' Isocr. 33 B, E'. 7rp~s EvSILL/Lol'viav. 7rrptOI3ELs rr4La'vres] This asyndeton is not justifiable on the same grounds as Vb/LOL)L EL'0771'EyKILv in the second sentence of this chapter; and betrays some serious disturbance of the text. 'There is no connexion whatever between the first of these sentences and those that go before them, and the coming of Callibius preceded the final measures taken against Theramenes' (Edinburg-h Review, i891 p. 478). Besides, it is too late to accuse Theramenes when he is already executed. There is thus every reason for believing (with van Leeuwen) that this paragraph ought to be transferred to

Page  139 CH. 37, 1. 7-CH. 38, 1. I2. TTOAIT EIA '39 AaKe~3alti/ova TOO T7E &q7pa/E'vov9? /caT7-?oOPvV Kal /3oqOd'v at TOtS' tovl coy a ovoaavTe6 o Aace~actyi'vLot KaXXI/3tov '7rE7-TEtXav apl.LocmTv Kat U'pT~7tW7a,9 (0( EOr7aKoatwvS, Ot T7vi aKpowroxtv 'EXOO'wT-E1 EcfOpOl'p0VV. '20 -38. pC~a\ 8E TraV-a Kca7aXa/306TCOl) Trcv adwo (JDvX?7t Tn~V MovvcXLav, Kat, vtKcqo-aVTiCOV/I 7TyS 7-aPX-?CKV7- /3o~q097oaV~avr, E7ravaXpc op1-aVTrE9 I.LE7a To\{v] KL1V8VVO Ot' E'K T01) aOTE&J09 Kat -v va~poctGOEv7E'VTELS 7-1T'7V aYOpa'V, T77/ VO-Tepaia T7-0 11V -ptaKcOVTa Ka-Xv7aav, at'po'Vzat 8\ &'Ka T-c'V 7roXtT&)V aVTO~paropa,~ E7 Tt717V 5 [Toi^ wro]X/.k0 Ka-a'XvatLv. 01' 8E 7raPa)-a/360r1TES Tq\V a'pXqv c'f ov??p ~ pp~~-VOK 67p7Tv, *77'[ TX0V 8' e', AaKE8a'iov 2 13o0'lOeav ULETa7rE[I.L7ToFL]EVot, Kal, Xprn-,aaa 8avet~6'pbevot. XaXeWWS'1 &6 [bE]pO'VTCOV 67 TOVTtq~t TrcOV EV T-? 7rO'XtTCh', ~o[/3o'p~ev]ot AL, Ka7-aXvwo-')tV T7'i7s a'pX?/s Kalt f8ovX6'.teVOt, KaT-[a7rX37~]at, T01) a'XXW 0v'i (lFI-Ep Ey1EVETO), cTvXXa/3O'VTEq [A]}q1/apE70V O&V09VO1 01)7-a SeV'TEPOV 7-WV 7rOX1T4COV a7?TE'KTELvav, Kat Tra 7rpaflaara 13e/3alt9 elxov, G-vva17 &YTOIC (K, H-i): avbro~s K-w, EIavToLI B. XXXVIII 2 et 16 MOYNYXI6N. Cf. C. 19, 5. 4 CYN&COpOICO? 6 ENOIC corr. K. 7 64wp&ojvso]4av] K (K-w): 97re[[ipav] H-L, B; spatium litteras aliquanto piures quarn igrE/Aav, paullo pauciores quam erpeof~evo-av, postuiare videtur; scripsi Ei-or&sxxos, coil. Thuc. viii.38 ~rorXs -rs7'p Aa1KE53a/.opa. 10 Kal-aX vOwoa H-L. 11 A'qtd'pe~oP Blass (K-w, H-L, K3); post hoc nomen dpesr^ fortasse recte inserit Richards. 12 o-vvaycvoPtdvA'wz' papyrum. habere putabant H-L. TESTIMNONIA. XXXVIII 5 Bekk-. An. 235-6 (cf. Testim. ad xxxv 5-6). some such place as the end of c. 36. Xenophon's narrative (Hell. ii.3 ~~ 13, 14), as noticed by Mr Kenyon, is supported lby Diodorus xiv 4, and is in itself more probable than that in the text:-'It would hardly have been possible for the Thirty to have carried on their Reign of Terror without an armed force at their backs, whereas Aristotle represents it as having occurred while the whole body of Athenians was still in possession of weapons.' Part of this objection is removed by transferring the passage to the end of c. 36, but we still have the protests of Theramenes placed after, instead of before, the arrival of the Spartan garrison. KCXXCPLOV] Xen. I.e. and Plut. Lysand. 15; adfin. In neither of these passages is the number of the garrison mentioned. XXXVIII-XL. Tize Rule of thze Ten. The end of the oligarchical revoluttion and the restoration of the democracy. XXXVI II ~ I.- KC.TC.XCLO.'vrw~v-MovVLX(L'C.V KTrX.] Xen. Neil. ii 4, II-19. Andoc. De Mjv)st. 8o.,EWrcLvcLXWP7J~CrLVTFES KTX.] Xen. i.e. ~ 2,2, -ross i-ze' f'vCvus-b dir7fryasyote's Tli do aTuv TOV'S TPLCLKOVTFO. KEVTIEX'XU-CLV KT-X.] ii. 23, 6t/77E/JOcO'ToaP &KEIVOVS I-d Kara17ra~loVaL, sa~ot 5U Vo-eOac. Kca t' dXOz7-0 &Ka, "vacr' The appointment of the Ten is described by Lysias, c. Eratosthi. 12 ~ 54, 6PXOV7-s Tro1~ C'KELYOL 'XOL'OTro1Js eiLXovro. Among them were Pheidon, formerly one of the Thirty, with Hippocles and Epichares and others who were regarded as opposed to the extreme party of Charicles and Critias (5). Xasjo'vres...-ras dpap s Kat TrSV 7ro Ay'uoo ~ pot s~1 ErOXV/LOUV, TOES Tre T-ptcKOP-Ta 7rc*Ya KaIKa elpyaO7Sl 5015 Katl vl~fLL 7ruix-ra MM'r~ 7reiroPO6o- (57'). VEITE O0-TEXXOV KT-X.] (Pheidon) EiXOcWv et's AlIKE3ad~uova gWEt6eL a' 1rUoL~ a-rpareL~Eo-6at.. or 6vvdAe/sUl'S5rOei7WVvTIXEF.. E'KaT~iv Trd\lavO C13aVelcTmo, is'a eXot E'rW06LpOVS gFUO60UodlaL (58-59). They were appointed soon after the time when 7repi [-rCov] &aXXa-yc~v oZ XO"yoL i'ysvov7ro (,3 but their policy tended os~ &aXXa'cat saXV ' doXeo-at...-ri' 7r6'Xu (6o). The ioo talents are also mentioned by Xen. Hell. ii 4, 28. Suidas and Harp. S.V. &IKa.

Page  140 140 140 ~AOHNAIQ2N COL. I7, 1.38-COL. I8, 1. 30.,y~wvt~o'okvov KaXXq3Lov TEI~-~- ll~wvfotwvr~ 7a~' #at 7rpoq [TOLr]q ~ViwV TC~ 'V TO'9LrTa o~o ~ LE / i~,X-TaZ T&W rO (T EO rv 117V I~7 KaTEXOLV TOl)9 (VIWOT Vo-7o 8~o M r 4)vxy9. (09 8' 01I TOP lletpate'a Ka(U T77W MOVvLXtav eXOVTC(9, dwroa'-TdzrOq 3 a~ralr-og TOV (1;qLOv?7TpOq aVT0Vg, E7rEKpaTOVVTd 77TOXE'/k TOTE ' L (3EKa TOyS' /3XTUY0TOVS' Etvat (3Ku~TSEb cov o~v/~ Ic TaS 20 8ta-Xto-aeg 11 7'ev'~o-Oat Kca\ KaTEX1EW T\V 8'7LLV ovayawt~'o/L'VW) Kca\ [Col. i~rj 7WpOOV/JOV/J'EPOW TOVTCOV. 7TpO6tO'T?7KEO-av) 83 aV'T(OVl /.ka'Xt(Ta'PIV&)V TE O' IHatavtev\S Kat (IDc'vXXog O 'AXep(o0%-toS' oV`TOL yctp 7Tpiv <TE> jJ llavo-avidaV E[TI aOtcE'o-Oat (3tE7t1E'/[L[W0T]O 7TP0S' TOV~JS Ev llEtpatet, Kat a'OtKopUe'vov o-vvEcT7Wov(ao-al) T2711 KcaO8(OV. 6Et7TTe~paLS yap?77Cye 4 25TiV Etpi'qVi/l Kat Tag'.taXv'oetS' Iavo-aviaS' 0 Twil) Aaice(atpovirow /3catXeV'g /J6TA T(il)V 86E'Ka (3teaXaKTCTO T(ilV VOTEpOI a(OtKQ/.L6V(AV E'K 66 16 Tnip~lb,: Hletpadrz K, K-W, B; He~pat6i H-L: in titulis Atticis HetpaLear saepius, quamn Heypadc apparet; lletpcztc nondum inveni. 17 tJTTNTOc Blass (K3): fTrANTOC K1 (K-W, H-L). 6,YTHN (K): av'rov's Blass, Kontos, Hude, K-W, H-L. 22 &Xcp~oycyioc corr. Bywater, etc. 22-23 1TTIN H TTYC&NI&N TE K7-X (K): 7wpb' ' H.-&eireitrovr6 <-ce>- K-W1; irpiv -<T-e > Hl.-&eweJ-rovro Richards (H-L, K-W2, B). 23 Tr ip&~: lletpateF K, H-L; HletpaeF K-W, B. IICLpade tituli Attici (M~eisterhans, p. 2.52) duodecimn in locis, habent, e.g. Dittenberger 337, 9, I4, 36 (B.C. 320) ev vel 'g IIEepcLEL 24 &(4IKN0MGNOYC corr. K. 25 lavo-avlas del. u-L~;A 0ao-/Acc6g del. Richards, regis nomine iamn antea commemorato. 21 Heraclidis epitoma, 6i i, 63, rov'rwz'6Si Kal~aXv)Oe'TwV Opaci6/3OVXOS Katl Piw irpocLOTri'K Caaa, ie 7z'v d'jPP KaX61 Kal aiyao6s. ~ 2. 'rots i'rrrr~iioL] Xen. Hell. iH 4, 24. Lysias Alan/i/h. i 6 ~ 3, o6'X itIrIjz'... CrL TWY~x TpLaiKovrac. After the restoration of the democracy there was evidently a prejudice against those who had heen iinirds at the time of the Thirty. Mlantitheus meets this prejudice by shewing5 that he was not of the number, and also that many who were, had subsequently become members of the ~3oiA-i or had been elected a-rpar-q-yoi and tlrirapXot (ib. 8). ~.!LXovs EiXovwro SE'KcL] These are not mentioned either by Lysias or by Xenophon. ao-uvaywvLto~iL'vwv] with the democratical party. -ToWU'wv probably refers to the Ten. 'PL'vcw] Isocr. Cal/in. ~ 7, et's TWP liKa -Yv6/,EZ'03, but Isocrates, does not clearly distinguish this board of Ten from those who were elected immediately after the overthrow of the Thirty: ~ 5, -5pXo' ue'v -yap el U&Ka ol /he7T& -ob's 7-ptaiKovTa KaTaorcu' ies. 4cdiXXos] otherwise unknown..np'w] The removal of ') (proposed by Herwerden) is justified not only by its rarity in Attic Greek, but also by the fact that mss often vary between 7-pb', and 7rp P (Wyse). ~ 4. kurl u7ripas- "jycaye] The phrase uz-ipci Ixetv =w7ePalveoO~at is found in Isocr. 4,2 B, Lycurg. I55, 34 (~ 6o) and elsewhere: and Polybius uses 7repcxs Xabq~dvetv (v 3 1, '2) and 7r. E6nl~ewad -r-i (i 41, 2). Ar. Aleteor. I, 14, 3531a i8, Tb6 gpyoxia' Ir6TW 9Xet r-pas, 6' U Xpbvos ObK 9XeL. wiepas is a frequent word in Ar., but unrt unipcs diyetl' is not recorded in the Index Ar., though 6-yewv 67uii... occurs in Poi. 1313 a ig; 1270 a 6. Ilcva-vcrwas] Xen. HeZZ. Hi 4, 29-39. i-Wv SE'KO 6LCLXXCLKT6CV KTX.] i.e. ~ 38, ~e~iueg/J/tav 7rehTIEKatISEKca Sdlpa ei's T-a'5 'AOi'vaS Kcd iw7e'iaci~cv ~z'P Hccavo-ai he5tXXdi~at 0'7r-q &lh'e1Vi-r KdaXXLt0-7. (It wvill be observed that Xenophon mentions 15, not io, and as the number is exceptional it is more likely to be right than not.) 01 65' &5n)X~eae 6EX' (W1i-e eipi?'Pvi yv /g xew ' cs urpos dAXX)Xovs, airiitiei a Un ~e'7t Ca'UTW

Page  141 CHI. 38, 1. I 3-CH. 39, 1. 8. TTOAITEIA '4' AaKe~aituovol~, ovsr aivrbs~ Ec07rOV'8a-eEVcX0,EFV. ol' 81E Vr[p'] T'rV Pvawva &6a re Ti>P dvotaV T7 Er?)v TOb 'r q Ejitv pwye 6t-v,, Xa/30'VTEs~ T7i> E`Wrt/4EXEtav ev dAyap'<ta Ta\ s dev'va'~ A3ooav [E']v 81gPLoKpaTia~, Kal ov'&Ls oi'&v EVEKa"XeO41v aav']TOis~ owrT Ta'V E'V a07-rEC 3a ILELVaVTCOV OVTE TOV ECK HEtpateco' KaTEXOO'VTCV, dXX A ta\ TaV"Ta Kat 0-Tpa~l-ly~l cEVOVI~ yPE MPOPw. 39. 'Eyc'VOVTO S' at' &aXvceves ~w' E1'K'X1Ei`8V afpX0VTOS~ KaTa Ta,~ cvvO fras~ 7TaO-8E. TOi'1 fl0VXO~,LPOVI 'A0iqvat0)w T'r )V e ac-rEt /L1EtVaVT(0V E~OLKEZV 6"(Etl) EXeva'tva, EVrtPOLVS? OPTal' Kat KVPLOVS~ 2 ia\ av'TQKpdTopa,~ 4a]Tv ca a V COP3 KapwroV/JLUVVI~ TOi~ CEPOP elvat KoLvop a/4OTEp&JV, E7rttgEXE'tY~aL 8' K~jva a El44.oXm'8~ta9 IcaTa\ Ta\?ra'Tpa. pq\ e~e-Fvat &6 /J7'TE TOFV~ 'EXcvaotvo0,Ev aL O a-TV /177Te T06'~ EKC TOD acrT(A9'EXevo-tva&e "Pat 7r-k7 /4V0T'77LOV8 EKaTepOV'~. CTVVTEX6FLV &e a'7ro\ T70)V 7rnoa-tolTA)V EtS TO 29 post l7rtq6XfLav,.. COyC (ei0O6? H-L,) deletum. 31 Trip&IWCc: IHe~patews K, K-W; ilpruWtcj H-L. [fl],E[t]pa~j CIA ii 834 b 64 (B.C. 329). XXXIX 2 &eHN&IWN, supra T&N additurn, retinet K, post TWeV locat K1, Coil. c. 27 5 P ovXo/Advc, AaKsa~6vy et C. '29, 24 O'L OOVE'Arscw:dlnK-,HL ante -r(u' ponunt Blass et K3. 4 4avu],r~o Jackson, K-W, K 3, B: 4irl raojwL K'; a 7ra'PT&wPoland (H-L). 8 CeKa-repovs fortasse ant defendi ant excusari posse putat Jackson, sed mavult CsKaTpoLS, 'mysteriis maioribus minoribusve'; idem mavult Hude. EKao-7-ov rXi rcjv TWrpsaicovic Kal 7TWY iPV&Ka KILL TL*Wf E'v T() IeaLpCe? cipSLVT~W UKC. eL1 U7Lpes q50/ooi'ro 7WJ'v E4 ILo-rew, 96o~ev av'-oLs (aiiTov's Hartman) 'EXrvorFva Ka7TOLK6FV. XXXIX ~ i. 4w17' EiZKXE(8OV] B.C. 403/2. The &aLX6IeLs took place isear the end of the summer Of 403. Xen. i~c. ~ 25 speaks of the party of the Peiraeus as foraging for ~V'xa Katl 0'rWdpat, and Plut. Mor. p. 349 F (de glor-ia AMh.) gives the u2th of Boedromion (September) as the date of the return of the exiles. igOLKEL 9XIELV] If we retain 'MeXv1o-7c, we should probably have to render the passage: ' should have Eleusis to migrate to., The words are generally understood to mean: 'should have it in their power to migrate to Eleusis.' This would require 'EXevaOLva~e. Cf. Dem. 29 ~ 3, M~,yapci8' 6'~L,2KIOKE, and Lys. 31 ~ i9, of an incident of the same date as the present, (Philon) OUOGKevaoTIL/LEVos -ya'p -r/ EcuJTOU 40dc& ELL TUEq' V7rEpopiapv E'cY'K2)crE. iETrr~IJ~ovs] in full possession of their rights as citizens; cf. Xen. Hell. ii 2, i i (of an earlier date, when Agis was holding Decelea), T0o61 cLTL/Lous Jm7iLjuovs 7roL?)GaVTes EKa~pT~povv. Xenophon is referring to the I75PLto-/IL of Patrocleides, quoted in Andoc. de MYst. 7 7-79; ib. 7 3, 'rel -y'p a' V?7es UEcfl0cp —lolu Kal? 7rOXL0pKka 'y6vero, ifoouXEV0_c0OOe 7rfpi O/kiOVIS Ka'l 93o~eY U/AZ ro's ari)eOVT ersri/A0T 7rOL?7O-Ut. Then follows the locus classicus about airt~ss'c in which, among those who were uinder partial d/LTL/LI, are mentioned (in ~ 75) the soldiers who E6r~fLELVa 6'7rL W' Ts~pI 7ivpapwJ ev 7r3q W6XEL (mrETpaKdcoi'WV may be suggested instead Of -ruprvvwv; this suggestion is anticipated by Dobree, and approved by Blass; in any case the Four Hundred are meant; and not the Thirty). Kvpt'Ovs KCLI amuroKpd-ropa.s] 'possessing full and independent powers of self-government' (K.). ~ 2. LEp~v] The temple of Demeter at Eleusis. KIpvKCL Kul E1'lok7rCksa] c. 57 ~ I. TrotSBXE1JrcvoeEvi conlstructioliraegnacnfs, influenced by iivaL; similarly below, 6'K TIrL) doTews. IMEKL'povis] The constr. changes from the dat. to the acc. with the inf. For a similar change of constr. after ~e~eaL, Cf. Aeschin. 3 ~ 2, I11a, r p~rrop AL/ TLr2 7rpEof3v-cLTrjJ -rwv, 7roXLTWLv... Eirl -rS /3iua 7ra~peXO6vrTL ra& f3IX-TLo-7 r-q- lroXe a-vyPOVXE66LV, 666TePOV 5 MO5 K~l ~-rCu a"XXwv

Page  142 I42 A42 AOHNAIQN COL. i8, 1. 30-COL. 19, 1. 12. ovIJ4LaXLtKV KacLOaTEp 70o vLXOv 'Aa 'atov. e TLZJE9 TwV 3 io a7tovrowv oLKtav Xa,4j3aPvwo-v 'EXevUTZvL, TV/.Lr7M06e1 TOP KEK'tE7 -/Evo1Y ECa mo /LI cvLl/3aL-tv aXX-4Xor9, Tt/1q EXoaia 7pEis E~aTEpov, Kat 7v'rw' iv ovrot Ta wcoc-tv TtL/Pv XaP3avetv. 'EXevOvtvw v av ctvro0 /3OtKXono'avra T ' awvoypao 4 EPiat TLot /3ovXO/Levov efoLKeLP, 70TV P u wv [fLeC8qJ/i a b Oa" 15 OfLotXo~ t 7OCV OpVI Ov O tSEKtL]a e7ep&oP, T71v 87 e4OLKCq(7P ELKOCL, T0t'? 3 iwortoiaov e arS e qcoo-tv KcaTEa TavTa.,wk) 4e~E E 5 apXeLP /L?7qe/Jpav dpX?7v 'c~v e' T(03 a'aTTEL r0\v 'EXEvo'tVt KaTO1K~vrta rplv tv cAwro'ypaJrqTat WaXtv ev 6 aa-Tet KaTowetv. Ta'? \ fl &/Cas- [Col. 19. 12 EK6\TC3PLN (B): &KiTEpov Bury, Richards, Hude, Papabasilius (K-wN, H-L, K3). dciWat H-L. 13 OYToi (K, K-W, 1I-L): aurToi Richards, Herwerden, B qui etiam ot &v aV-oi scribendum suspicatur. 15 46,creO-L H-L. 6[6iK]cx K-W, i-L, KXl, B: t' (67rT]a K1. 16 dlro63lqoiz< v > K, H-L. 18 &TFoFPMF'H I HTai: — ypc-ratc K-W, H-L, B; — ypcio-77caL K. 7T0XL7WVTO -r o tOX6 AeVov yvw'vjU-v a' ro - veo-Oat (Kiihner, ~ 475, 2 c, Anm. i). &KaTipovU is possibly preferred to avoid the ambiguity arising from EKaTE'POLS, which would naturally agree with IkVor7iqpiots and has actually been proposed in this sense. OVVTEXEtv... Els] Dem. Lept. 28, -VVPEXoeOOLP G's T0V 7rOXE/OY. 'ro a-VJ14LELXLKov] elsewhere of 'the allied forces' (Thuc. iv 77), or of a 'treaty of alliance' (iii 91, v 6): here 'the fund for the common defence.' ~ 3. crvpLrr(C0ELv] not 'shall first obtain the assent of the owner' (Poste), but 'the people would help them to obtain the consent of the owner' (Kenyon). G-VVOLK(ZV] ' of the inhabitants of Eleusis, those whom the secessionists desired should live in the same community.' Thuc. ii 68, 3, Ciw6o TWiy 'A17rpaKL&WrTC VVVOtK70CLaVTWV. In Thuc. vi 64, 3 (the Syracusan horsemen tauntingly ask the Athenians) EL 'VVOLKKann-es ov/dou' abroi's Aii\Xov l17KOLEP iE 7T-7 aiXoopqi 7?? Aeovi-lvovs Es Tp'X OiKEirxV KraTOLKLO13PTes, ib. ii 68, 3. The proceedings have an arbitrary air as against the ordinary inhabitants of Eleusis, but it would appear that Eleusis was, subject to certain conditions, handed over to the secessionists. ~ 4. Tnjv dwoyp%+fnv EtvtL] Those who proposed to secede were required to enter their names in a list (cf. 40 ~ I). 0 aoypcaon), in Attic law, is generally applied to a register of land, property, moneys, rather than of persons. Lys. 25 ~ 9, dai S~ o1'T"ves 7Wyp 'EXEvo-V ale diroypatIaC'C~g w, irEXO6vrEs [OEG' VYV, ii'roXLopKouV7ro ILET' aV'vP (Westermann, Cobet; [LEO' aT'7-Cv Ms; fE7rotLoPKOVJV Tous gLEGav'r( Scheibe, Frobberger). TOiS 6'pKoVS] 'the oath of pacification' (Poste). Xen. Hell. ii 4, 43 (of a slightly later time, after the commanding officers of the party at Eleusis had been put to death and a reconciliation effected with the remainder), 6[l~o-caVTES oPKOvS A'V U' Ed u'7LKaK77Le0-C. BE'O.LEP V, II, 5 SIKa 67WV. ~ 5. wrp'v-d roypdjnrqaTI ] 'until he shall again register himself in the list with a view to resi4ence in the city.' Lys. 25 ~ 9 quoted above. airoypieo-Oat, mid. to register oneself (e.g. as a citizen: Pol. vi (iv) 13, i297 a 24, EJLaXoO 1' kEo-TtL [dve 1TOiA7LV arTOypaVC/La/k'CL/s EKKX77 -OLLlELv KLl &KCi3ELL', "uV SE ' 7o-ypaC'/Ci/LEvoL [V?)T' EKKX-q6Wo-td~ L j[OT1E F &Kd6~WOWLV, E7riKEW-atIL FLEycaXa& S774iat T06TOLS). Xen. Hell. ii 4 ~ 8, vi 5 ~ 29. The passive is found in Plat. Leg. 9, aZ a~royEypaCufLEPOP r rapa. Toi iLpXoUOL To KTo7ts L. TdCS Si SCK(S TOy +65vov-] This passage does not help us to decide the question whether the Areopagus was suspended or not by the Thirty. Lys. I ~ 30 (delivered after the year of Eucleides) says of this tribunal, Y K(iX 7rd-T7PL6V E-TL Kait E' ucAu ( M4Ev iSS) dZ-OSSOTaLL (droSo~rat the reading of an inferior Ais) i-e 90'Poe 7i-&s Kas SLKclEtv. Grote, Rauchenstein (Piilol. x 604 ff.) and Curtius (iv i6 note) hold that it was suspended; Schbmann (Ant. p. 549 E. T.) that it was not. Practically, however, its authority was obviously superseded by the Reign of Terror. See also Philippi, Areop. p. 265, 266, and Frohberger's Lysias vol. ii iSo. 10

Page  143 CH. 39, 1. 9-CH. 40,1I. I. 1-IOAITEIA14 143 rOV cf'VOV Etvat Kara ra wrarpta, et V Ttv ra aVTOXEtp a7TEKTE&V6V, 6n iTpwoO-EV. rc~v &6 7rapEXflXvOoTo0v Ftfl86vt 7TPO9 IJAeva /.L0flOtKaKEV '20 e'dewat, irX \~v 7rp~ 0o\1s Tr\1pta'KOVra Kat ToV? 8)E'a Kat roVi Ev&Ka Ka' ro ol lletpate'w ' ccpaVr, /tl8E& Wrp \ TO 'OV9;, EJ tO ev vtvaT. ev5GzvvasT &e 8Soivat rOV~'q IU\V ev lletpatd' c'p~aVra9 Tl o'V Ev lletpatEi, TOV\ T' c'V Tw' a"orTt EV ToZ`( Ta\ riq,'para 71apeXoptevot9~. etO' o6TWT 6'4~ouKEZV TOV e0AO'XVraq. T\ &xp 'jutara a~ &3av'ekraVTO '2 n1 O r'6Xe 7,to E'KaT'pov9 dwro~ovvat Xw'pw 40. 7EJ'O/.LE'V&flV &6 TOtOV'T(W TCO^V &taXVcTECOV, Kat Io3vte'vwv 19 &YTOXIP&CKTlCl (Ci 'ita ut paene N legi possit B) CHPWC&CTLAN ante pw deletis CH (B), vel OT, i.e. 6 -rpc~avas (K), vel oic (K-W), vel CH (H-L): a1'TOXeLPt' <4'r&KTOVEV > C'K74IOEL lepcbas K1, tcaiT6XELpca &rloOEL lep6$i-as t K3;c~rXt iLq l9TE eerpdo-as Wyse; a~iTOXELPILq &KTELVEv 7 TpW(Tev K-W, H —L; car6Xetp (van Leeuwen) di'r&TIELVE 77' &pwO-ev B. 22 TTIP&IWC: He1LpacuwI H-L. 23 mrpwi. 24 rrpwii. Praestaret Iv -ro~s < 7iv d4coi-et K et Gertz > rWu,.Lcara (=dl7rortA j /.aTa) 7rape)ogeo/Jvs, aut -ra -<a6lT& Gertz> 7L.-i5/.uaa 7rcapeXojuiots. Cf. C. 2, 1,2. 25 TOYC COECONT&C: roYs dX~vras B, qui in archetypo litteras E~e deletas, et & (non I) scriptum fuisse putat. TESTIMONIA. XXXIX 21-23 Bekk. An. 235-6 (cf. Testim. ad xxxv 5-6). CVO)(IISeLP dWrFTeLVeV] Hdt. i 140 etc. ca6ToxeLpiq KTIEL'PeW. a,'7T6Xetp gkreWvep would be a poetic form of expression, but a~,r6XE~p itself is used in prose, as in Dem. p. 321, i8; 549, 5; 552, i8. rp~o-as, 'by wounding,' gives less good sense than 77) 9TpwcTev, but might be defended by e'dv TIS~dphaKV 5l~I&7rKTLJ/I et similia. 'Unlawful wounding' comes under the cognisance of the courts that try cases of hoicde c. 5 ~ 3 fin. KTetV~aL ' -rp6%cd 7-Wa. ~6. jLVTICTLKCLKdV] Xen. Hell-. ii 4 I'l-., 6/L60-av7-es O"PKOUI 7)7 /Jk7)V /h?7) 1SV77)OLKhLK1ELP, &7L KatiV~' P/OP U0 T-e irOXt7retiOVra KCL 70o11 OpKOLS 4L/Li6VEL 6 56~gos. Aristoph. Plut. 1146, /17) /LV?70OKaKhO'-1 EL' GU~ 4X7)VKLi 'Xaf~es, adXXa' ~6VOLKOP 77-p6s OEWVp 8i~aO* /Le, with Schol. Andoc. de Myst. 90, Ka~l OV~ /.LV7)OLKaK?7)OW TWV 7r0\LTWVV O735EV1 7rX7'7J 7TwY TrpLdKOJVTL KaLL 7WVO L'v.5EKI, Oli T06TLAV 6S &,P i0iXoL 6OOvcs 5&561aL r~ p~ 7?W~eV and ib. 8i, 9i. Aeschin. F. L. I 76, (Archinus and Thrasybulus) i-S 1d7 /w?70LKCLKEZ 7rp~s dLXX/7)XOL)1 9VOPKO/ 7)/LW KaLTraaT77oCLJ'TWP. Justin v io ~ r i. Cf. Luebbert, De Amnestia, Kiel, i88i. KL TojiS 84Kc] Neither in Xenophon (Hell. ii 4, 38) nor in Andocides is this body of Ten described as excluded from the amnesty. Xenophon mentions the ' Ten who ruled in Peiraeus ' (c. 3 5 ~ i); Andocides does not mention even these. EV 'rois IV IIfLpcLLet] not 'for all matters coming within the limits of Peiraeus' (Kenyon), but 'before the courts held in the Peiraeus.' 'To the residents in Peiraieus' is Mr Poste's rendering; but such a rendering of an account would be very informal. Some lawfully constituted body is clearly meant. Ev 'rois r4 'rLjV'jCTL 1WrC OpCXOIJ.4VOLS] 'before a court consisting of those who can produce rateable property' i.e. who have property on which they pay taxes. This limitation excludes all paupers or citizens of the lowest class. 7rapeXco-OaLL, is ' to have as one's own, to produce as one's own,' 'to bring forward' (L and S); Trool "irXa rIapeXo/SSvoLI occurs in c. 4, but Ican find no instance of 7rapeXeorOaL being coupled with -TL/AO'/Lca7a. rL'rj~c&rcL is here understood of penalties, by Poland, Kaibel *and Kiessling, and Haussoullier (600ivat came under the class of &1Kat -qrL7Tal, Att. Pr-oc. pp. 2,26,,264+ Lips.). Reinach makes TL/47)/LI synonymous with a'7ror~4u7)a, 'a security,' comparing CIA ii 570, '21, [rtLI-u)]/aILtL 7 l)y7Tand Lys. ap. Harp. s-v. -r'/~z oI~rws] after satisfying all these legal requirements. cd~rroSO1VcLL XWP(S] inf- c. 40 ~ 4.

Page  144 '44 AOHNAIQN COL. 19,1I. I13-45. /o-t eTa rwhv -rptacozrra o-vvew7o e'qo-av, Kal 7roXXcwv etoovznmwv p~E4OtKetv avaIcaXXo~i6'vcv &e -ri)v '7roypao 'v ek - 4 '~~aXra 6tt'p, o '~ Etcoaa-tv-'rotEw d7ravr-es~, 'ApX'vs v-t~wr ~30 5 K 3 /vxo,iEvosq Ka7-ao-X~Etv av'rovq coieras' L7roXor ov e7fL/aS T(S Jop?sCO)~ ovcza~ao -9vat /JkE~'EtV 7roXo v baovras09 e a~pp~i70av. Kat 8oKet roih' -re 7woXt-reta-Oata,aXw'", 'ApXZo', Kat hera 'ravrTa rypa'ifau.Lvoq TO *'44fecra Tro epa-v/30v'Xov 7wapaYXL 2 MENETTINOOYNT(A)N (K, <E'0LKfW>- Ah& e'7rLvool5vTwv? K,-W): 97r(voQ6v7W1' jI-e Blass (H-L). 3 6,N~jFP~qHN (K): d'7ro-ypaq5'dv Jackson, Wyse, Bury, Blass, K-W, H-L, B; dvPa —ypa0'v fortasse casu ex aiva-f~aWA~&.wv ortum. 4 ehbOaot H-L, B. 4 XL ~ i. 'Ap)Ctvos] mentioned (with Dion) as an orator in Plat. Menex. '234 B, and with Cephalus in Dinarchus,I ~ 76. He was the proposer of a law to prevent OUKOOaxvrla after the amnesty (Isocr. c. Calimi. i8 ~ 2, 1'v 7(5s SLKdL!>Tat ~rapc' 7065 6'pKOVS, 6'EtEatc 7q rE6-YOvTL Trapa-ypdbLao-OaL KTX.). It was on his motion that the Ionic alphabet was adopted in public documents from tbe archonship of Eucleides onwards (Suidas s. v.). The action recorded in the text is not mentioned elsewhere. He is described as cooperating with Thrasybulus in the restoration of the democracy, 'ApXL'POV Kati Opaovf~ouxov irpooardv-rwv roO 5Huov, Aeschin. F. L. 176. It was Archinus who moved the decree on that occasion: c. Ctes. i87, 6 7S~o5bg -ypailpacS Kal VW'(K2 aS p3 0 JK K LX~ eLS 7-WiV KcLTa-yay6Vrwv ro'v 6~oi'. On his opposition to a proposal of Thrasybulus, see below. O'JVLBS'V T'r wijOos] 'observing their numbers.' TrLS 167okoCwrovs T'jJiLE'pcsl] the remainder of the term of days allowed for the purposes of registration. ~ '2. YPcMdJLEV0S To' + LSTFLE T'r EpcLv-v~o'U'Xov] This fact is well known owing to its having affected the position of Lysias, who fully deserved promotion from the position of a piTOLKOS to that of a citizen for his great services towards the restoration of the democracy, and for the losses he had incurred at the hands of the Thirty, who had even put to death his brother Polemarchus (0;-. 1,2). Aeschines, c. Ctes. ~ 19,5, describes Archinus as having resisted the proposal to confer the distinction of a crown on some of those who had done good service in the restoration of the democracy. The scholia give us further details: Epao-6 -3OuVXos 6' ~2;TELP&6V5 jirT& 7-6 K1Te'XOeLV 7r0V &Jmu0v d5710 EI~O\27 9yp as4,e l/1h p toJ~lT ac 8o0 vat iro~vreifa Avoi4 T-j) Ke~aiXov (Kepd'Xy MS, correxit Wyse) T-~1' /T0Pt 7o\XX 'Evey -rt~aa vr- To dc I 1 (r`i'V M S) I'uX7jv Karcae)v-y6v-raS Kal rOLYTo dirpo[3o6XevToJ/di? e1T'V6EKfV els rb T6JJ27/oP. OS~Urw 'YAP 'V KaGeo-7a/hiV27 [SOVX'q 11Ta' 7271 TOO)1 V KaTCLXvo(Vy 7roO7o 7ro ip2)Otal~a i'-ypci/a-ro irapca'6/AwP 'ApXi'os 6 iK K01X27c Katl ELXE Kal' eiTL1/.L7oav Tqy^ epaorvP06MY 01 &Kao-ral 3paXi,&~s ~u~tis 'AXXwsfriT-revop T-oLE S0KOU0WL dju15veLp 7-roLEv 1.o 'ApXZvos -y&p 6' &i KOL'X-qS 16'Ypcal/aao 7rapav6/L,uw 6STE KaT27XOeV 6' 5$uos...Auafou i-OU 2;VpaK~cTL0O 7re1TaKoEahaE /1/1' darl~as 66vT-o 7-ois /LaXec-a/Ldvots E1 (I)vX1, rpLaK00oL'OVS 6/' (2;vpaKooioc0L MS, correxit Blass) a0Tpartw'Tas /LLG6wo-a/Ivov /~ Ai'YIP77s, 9ypai/e iP7/2)to0/La 7roXL'r271' av'roi' yepioOat Opao-6ouXos. 7rapcuJ6/LwV S a6T6r1' 'ApX~vos 6' EK KOAX77c e-ypa lla-ro, Ont o6rw E6/ V7 ou c it/2)e/J(0/a 9iypaite1' Kal < 01>- &Kao-7Tal Ka7-25 VVlYKav a6T-OU TOEs ~bOovs 6X~y 'pw -7p6 TrOt /3ovuX vrd61cp~a (6XvyWPws-v'rdip~aL placed after 9-ypa~lev by Schultz). 6 6/ eP Tr7 TL127 w p X0 'v, Oavd'Tov, 14/27, -TL/Lw/LaL ourt d~aPio-rovc 'A027vaL'ovs &T'ac Ev) e'ro17a. Ot 6/ 6LMUC-al al~e-OivTes cw 7(jv /1T1'j1/07(7a T7-V Ka7-a&LK277 6paX/127E, 761' 6 Avo-Lav ob&' o'Trws J7r0L2o0a1'To uroX1,r27v. Maximus Planudes, Scholia on the a-rdoetc of Hermogenes in Walz, Rh. Cr. v 343, 7rapaurX25owV Kcdl 7-6 7rept' Opaa-uvio6Xou toc7-opot6tevov, Sc /tera 7271v 7-W(V TrpLaZKo1-Ta KaTCOXUOW 9ypatq/e -rc Avo-19 1ip54)L0Aua 7rept' 7TOt 6SEw av'r6v -ye1'io76CL 7rOXLT2' Kal KCLT27 -'y0p27Oelc WIS d171p0/3OXeVT0V ztr/74to-A a... eiE1'EV6YKdW', O' ya'p 277' 71W Karaoi-CTaa 77 90Vou\2, Kar63tKdciT02 XP27ItdTW1'0V 6 5, 06 IA& Atfa, go-q, 6,XXa' Oa'dT-ro Ti -ya'p TOtOV6 -TovE gaw~ov; Cf. [Plut.] 846 A. The proposal was made Atera. 7-iy CK60601' Jr' dp'apXias T7E 7rpb E6'K'XEIS0 (ib. 83 EF), i.e. between the return from exile and the restoration of the democracy. At that time the /3ovXj had not yet been constituted. See Blass Att. Ber. i 3401,

Page  145 Cl-. 40,1. 2-24. 1l0AITEIA '45 PO~kWV, eVi co /LEE&8OV T?79 7r0Xt7Ea9~ 7TL0-t 7T9-V EC lletpat'o9O~y JCaTEXOOVc0tL, (1'V 6vtot 0av~p(5, 77o-av 8ol-3Xot, Kcat TpLTov, 67MTtq7( 10 '4paTo T603h KaTEX'qXV0OT0Pwvi/'70-taKcetv, awayaryawco T0ov~o e71 T ~V I8OVX \V Kat, 7welaa, aKpii-ov a7rQKTEt1)at, X~ryawVb viTh V 03d~ovo-0 8l/oiXva r) u~ioKpa~TaV 0tE K o&OKO9EJqLEvetv' Ct OAO~a1T \V t 0c'~ev K\ T\Z,,K~1 IoroD'ro Ka\ TOv'q aXXov9?, eaV a C/V~a9?14VfypTVO 7rp07pe p'ev1a I, aVEXwcatv 7rapa.8erylka 7rot )0etv a'7rao-tv. o7rep Kcat OvvoeaT0ev' 1 3a~ro~av0TOV1o fya~p OV'8EbLS 7TC0'7r07E V'cT7EpOl /V CU77KaKilOev. aX a 8OKO1J0-tV,c'XXtw-Ta U) Ka~t 71-XtIC'T-K)a7-a a7rcvamwC Ka~t l8ia Kab KcotlXp aao 7at9 Ta Trpoeyyevq7/evatL9 ovpoopat"-/ o' rya~p fLoVov Tas? 7w~pt T60V '-poTEPovw airla9? e~77Xevt~aV 4XXa\ Kca~ Ta p7/L~ AaKe~atpiov1`t(i, a' Ot1 Trpta'KOVa 77rPOI 7TOP 7To'XEAL0v ~Xa/3ov, adwe'ooav 2o KOtVy, KEXE1)0V0W(V 7(05V 0TV1/Ofl/c&)V E'Ka7ePOV aivo&8bova& xwt?)T 7 EK 701) aUT7EW9S Kat, TOW) EK 70V IIetpaLe'w9,?770yV/.LEVOL 70V70 IrWo a~pX~tV 86EW 'r~l 0110VOtal? 63 8& Trab, aXXais 7ro'XEO-tw oi' OTL TPO(FT~tOea(Y-t) T(01 OUKEtWlJ 01 &q40L KpaT7alaCTaVE9;)XXa Ka~t ewe) 9 Trip&JOic: llrtpatCwS H-L. 13 CL..ZCIN. 17 60K0OL)- H-L, B. C icII ante co rr. 22 mipwwc: lletpatCOS H-L. 23 ACN correctum in ~iEIN. 23-24 oyX O1ON CTI (vel CMT ): oCI O'OV &L0P9 K, H-L, B; o6X otov f'nirpoartO6aou' Gennadios (K-W); oV6X rTL 7rp00orW0ao-Lv J B Mayor, b'rL in 9TL corruptumn atque otov deinde per errorem insertum arbitratus. 24 01~,HMOKP&T: 01 677IUoKpcT75orLaTES K et B cui 'est 310OKpaT'I~o-a'Tel Ut /hoPapXhrcavTes': 01 62j=O KpaTo-aJVTES van Leeuwen, Hude (H-L, K-W), quod unice verum est,-'alibi cum vicerunt populares, spoliare solent divites, non propria etiam bona in publicum commodum absumere' (Herwerden). 3491, and Jebb, Alt. Orators, i i5i; cf. Wyse in Class. Rev. v 335. 1jpgcL'o-p~v,9lTLKUKELV] C. 39 ~ 6. The action of Archinus is the natural sequel of his law against crvo~avrTa (Isocr. c. Callim. ~~ 2, 3). Cf. Curtius, H. G. iv 59. But his method of procedure was arbitrary in the extreme. Nevertheless, the author passes no condemnation on it. Mirya-YCLWv] of summary arrest, 29 ~ 4. TOZS 'OpKOLS jJLVV]Xen. Hell. ii 4 Uit., TO6l 6pKoLS e/.L/dJ-'e 6~gS ~ 3. cniXLw-Tr Si'] According to Eucken (De Aristotelis dicendi ratione; de partiecularumt usu, p. 49), S3j is nowhere found in the writings of Aristotle after a superlative (Class. Rev. v i6o a). cL'TrCc~s igAXeL~ocv] Andoc. de MYst. 76, f'~aXEqZaL ircdvTa T&a ip/177cr/0/a~c, Lys. I ~ 48,T-ou'S KEL/.dOVSU i.'6soVS iaXEcipar, 6'i-ipovs 86~ eva, 30 ~ 5, Ta, /5~v fl'ypc*LSr a&6 E~IaXe45ELI. Here probably metaphorical, as in Dem. Pant. 37 ~ 34, r6' -ytyPd)ArKELZ srd oin'd~at 7a' &KaLLCL...EaCXeLV/a 4a. S. A. Xebpetp is not found in the index Ar.; awcaXe1q)betv occurs in c. 47fin. and 48 init. and 7rpoE~aXetf/peLJ in C. 47 ult. -ra XpV~mrca- ovo~oas] See note on Dein. Lept. p. 460, esp. ~ 1,2, TrOUTo 7rpWToro v~rcp~au T$~s 6Aso1'oas010AC r OJP, KOLPi7 &aXi~arz Tra Xp Aara, and Isocr. Areop~~6,8 there quoted. oiX. OrTL] o6'X olov is not found in Ar. 0Q TC.cXX&. Kra' occurs in Pol. 13 1Ii, Poet. 4, 1448 b 35. o!'X 6-rt*..*aX& in De Cen. Anirn. iv 1, 765 b ig, De A nina ii 7, 4 19 a 21I, A nal. i 41, 49 b 2,2. irpOOTrLOiaTV 'rov 0LK(E1W] 'pay additional sums out of their own Lproperty.' OL &ijJLoL Kpcvr 'a-v'res] Pol. vi (iv) 8, 194 a i3, El' 6X-yap~1q aL iv apLG-ToKpazT6 Kai iv 5~Aou. viii (v) 10, 1310 b 21, ot 3$Aot (opp. to al O'XL-yaXPiat). iii i, i128,2 a 28, a'S (n6606M Kaid dpxaT) iv EvlaLS 7ro0\7cTaLLI....ro~sa'r5Aot dwo&3S'aawt. vii (vi) 4,1320 a U POPS vh' ga-yw'yo' Xapt~6I/AeoL' TOol 5a7/10tg lroXXaI 5771q,60V0C &&' TWV &KaIrlpw. 7, 32a19Ta6Til Ci f7rLKpa10

Page  146 I46 AOHNAIQN COL. 20, 1. I-26. '25 T 'V11Xwpav davca8a-Top 7rotov-atv. 8teXvOrn7-avJ 8 Ka' 7rp'i9 7019~ 4 [Col.2zo EdiI 'EXeval'vt [ca'Tot]Kt7'o-av'Taq eTEL /tT eTa' r?7)V e'otbK1-tV, 67 -[A'Ez-'at]v6'ov adpXovros9. 41. TavrTa li' oiviv El o091 v'o-TE[po]v 01)vv6/3'1 ryeveO-Oat Kcatpov9, 'TOTE (SE' /iCvptos~ 6 877,~oq ryiEPOAlevo9 T-v 7rpayjLUarwv, eveo-T?70aTo q [vVh'] ov'coav '7roxtrdav, E'7i-t Hv0o(Scopov PE-v a~~VO~ [(S]oKoVro9 8E\ &Kaitw9 'rOV 7S7lkv Xa/3Ew r77)v [E'ovait]av, 8ta\ ro" 'rot '4caoOat r?7\V 5Ka'Oo(So. St av'Tov^ 'r\w &JF OV. v r 65v FLe'a/30X& Ev V&Ka7T J r'{v 2 dpt]O/M\w av'Tr7. 7rpw) 7~f,ILev 7yap qe'/vETo [Kj~aar 'o- ao-ls 'rc0v 6' 26 EN supra scriptumn melius abesset (K, coil. Cobet, Var. Lect., pp. 30, '201); retinent K-W, B, delent H-L. Cf. Meisterhans, p. i692. [ikoL]K'o-avraS K, K-W, H-L: [A~r0L]K5o-avr-av propter hiatum. conicit J W Headlam; [KaroL]K'1o-aVra9 B, qui E40L. 'et propter hiatumn et propter spatiumn vestigiaque' condemnat. XLI 3 IlvOo&$pov: E6'KX6L'6V exspectaret B Coil. C. 39, I. Post dfpXovros lacunam indicant K-W, 'hiat sententia; damnatae Pythodori memnoriae facta erat mentio.' 4-5uov-&3jop: an Opao-v/36Xov-&' ao'rv r-6v fjoP? K. [i~ovadapa K, K-W, B: Y [irpoo-rao-t]aP? K et Kontos (H-L). 5 ~6y O 'a TV K (n~5 a'TOi3? H-L) a v'ToD B; idem, seclusis TroP d5~,uov, K-W. 6.. &T&CIC: 7) Ka-rdo-7-a0L K, K-W; KaL-d'o-Trao-LS B. [i-r~ul K]arao~-c-ao-ewv] I'dubitanter van Leeuwen' (H-L). 7TOVoLY EL -ra11 6ao-rcdo-eow ol 6~uo -rCD ebr6pwp. Thuc. iii 8,2, i; viii 65, i. T JV XWpOv cdvcd Socrov 7OLOZflT] Pal. viii (v) 5, 1 305 a 2, 6r-~ yuv -ycip, 'Ip'a Xapi~wvr-at, ad&KOOJrTI r-6s yvwp1p1ous ov-Vp ~oruv 11 & 600 L60Tu 7OoVE 7l Ti&l lrpoo-68vs raLL XeLrovp-yLaLs, 6-u U6 6aa'cqliXoPT-Es, 1' tXwo-L L177/LE6E( T&, KT-h.a-ra -ruo rXoU0-iwP. 7, 1307 ai (of the Lacedaemonians about the time of the second Messenian war), 6Xi36/1evoL -ycp 7TLVes &&a 7r0v 7r6Xq.op 01)ovp a'YaL& (TTOV -7rOL p -r Xcb~pap. 8, 1309 a 14, 6e7 6' Cev AI/ 7La~ 677JLOKparlcLS -ru' e67r6pwp 4>tbeo&rOat, A') ju6VoV Tq. TaLL KT5 CELS Atij 7roteEh dcava'icrovs, cAXca /1775e0 ro06 Kap~ro6s. ~- S. &Xi5O~crcv] Xen. Hell. ii 4, 43, var p 3 ~Xp6vqp aiKo6crc7-es 41ov0U F c — Oo-0aLcuroV'YEXevo~vL, o-TpLLTEUo6 /1 VOL 71a'5rn~el 67r aviT7 iYL T6 s /e'V UTPLTLTrYO6 5 aO)T WVP (0' X~yovse O.66V-rs d7&/TELVLaV, TOZS SE a1XXOLS eiLar/,iuav7reL Tro/i q51X0VT K~l' aVa-/Kalovs groa avvaoXXa-y7vaL' Kad 6/1J6o-avreg G"PKOU 77 U 7V UL~ /1 77LKL -ELV, 97TL Ka' POP ' 0/OU Tre 7T0XLT-E6ov aTI, Kail ToIL 6PKOLS EJ/lIPEL 6 9,r(L 'rp('-rw -1r'l ~ZEVcL~VE~ov] B.C. 401/0. The final reconciliation is thus placed later than has generally been inferred from Xenophon's phrase /ic-r~lpwj Xp6'VLI (corresponding to /v ToLL bo-repov KatpoLL of C. 41 ~ i). Grote c. 65 end, v 598-9. XLI. Recapitulation. ~ 1. be 'aj-av'ro] Probl. 95i a 28, Ei'. or75 CIIOILL r6' 7rp6wy/II. Intrans. 5 ~ 2, i6. lilt., 1 7 ~ 4, 2 7 ~ 2, 3 7 ~ i. The intrans. parts are those generally used in Ar. On the other hand C-UvCioirdvaL (ovoTrprat, ovaTr75CuftOI) W6XLV, 7r0?uTdavL, is found in Pol. 1,266 a 23, 1,284 b i8, 1288 a 40, 2319 b 33, also in Qecon. 1343 a 7. VArl HV0oS84OV] B.C. 404/3. In c. 39 i the formal convention for the restoration of the democracy is placed in the archonship of Euclides (403/2). But the return of Thrasybulus and the other exiles of the democratical party, and the occupation of the Pe'iraeus, took place about January 403, in the archonship of Pythodorus. The text implies ' that the subsequent extension of the democracy....was justified by the fact of its having secured its own re-establishment, without the open help of any other nation, and in the face of the opposition of a powerful party at Sparta' (Kenyon). But it is difficult to, resist Mr Kenyon's suggestion that the passage is corrupt, and that the position of Thrasybulus as leader of the restored democracy was recognised in the latter part of this sentence. ~2. KCLa-d-TCwLa-S 'r6i 4 a~ xj I v s The constitution under Ion (which is, of course, prehistoric) was doubtless described in the early chapters of the treatise. Cf. fragm. 3432=3823.

Page  147 CH.40,1.25-CH.41,1 L17. rIOAITEIA '47 apXi 'IOVI Kai TWA^v /J67ET av~'Tovo o-vvotK1n7OavTwlYP ToTE 7ycp wrp3omv etl9 Ta9~ TET-rapas' c7vveve/J797Oa c a~t iCa ro's c1XO3a~t KaTeY7-1770av. 8evTepa SC' Ka't 7rpc 17 /.Lea TavTq7V e~ovo-a 7roxtTreta9 Tra'tv 1 CMr' 7nC7EOS ryevo/.ev1, /iuLpov 77-apE1/KxiVvova Tr9 i0 /3ao-tXucJq9. /te-a' Se' TavT1r7v 17' e7rt ApaKcov7-o% eV V7 Kat V0JZovs avc~ypa~4iav 7rpc)T0v. TPIT17 8 17 /Ze'a\ T171V UTCaYLY, 1e7 '7rt\ YO&.O9xv,, 19'77 a'PX17 817 ~pa a CyElveTO. TreTCpT 7 17 e7rt\ illeUt w-TpaTov Tvpavlv't. 7rC/177TT17 8' 17 /era\ <TI7lv> 7(0v 7Tvpa'vVcoV KatraXvOatv, KXeto-9E'vov9~, 8q//J0O-tKC7Te'pa T179 Yo'x&VO9. E/T 8 17 FLera Ta 25 -M178tKc', Tr-?~ e 'Apetov?r'n-5ov /ovXq' e77-tO-TaT~vO-179?. 'E/380,pq 7 8 /.L~aTc~T1V, ~v'Apta-Trei817sq /2\v' 7T'8et~ev, 'E~tadXrT1 8' '7eTET 7 crVV~tK'qo-cdYrwv Blass coil. frag. 3813, K-W, H-L: 0TVwGLKL0-dP7Twv defendit K 2 Coil. HN C. 2 5, 7 et Thuc. i '24, vi 5. 8 eCCC&p&C. 9 MCTA T&(T6& CXOYC&I (deleto 1) TTroAIT61&N TtIIN: /ILeT&a rai~ra [4]SXovo-a WroXtTekia rd~ts K1, -[/Ler]SXovoa J B Mayor, -inrcdpXovoca Richards; [7raplXovoa-c aut 7roXtTf1iav -rd'~tr (Rutherford) aut 7roXtrTias rdi~tv (Wyse), veap gXovoac 7roXvTelas rd~tw Gertz. /p46Tpiav ort' g~va 7roXtTGeia rn4w H-L; /2cmrd 7maira. /Xonaa 7ro'ureclaS Td~t K-W; /.ITaL Ta6,r-qx g~ovoca 7roXtTEdcI Tdcitp K3, B. 14 < r >- add. K (edd.). 16 ACe KMI (K, B Coil. vv. 9 et 2o-21): 6' J B Mayor, K-W, H-L. 17 Iz-erlXeoe H-L. G-VV0LK'14Jcv-dvhv] Heraclides mnit., avot Kho0aWTOs & JIwplos av'To?1. EL IOSiTracLps-+v~X 1s] c. 8 ~ 3. aJuvevqG1'Oqc2v] cf. 21 ~ 2, U1'eqLet (al. +-uXo~cw-LXdts] c. 8 ~ 3; C- 57 nit. Sev-r'pcL.... Kclt rrp6'1r71] i.e. the constitution of Theseus was second to that of Ion and was the first of the eleven juera/3o;\ci. TroXLTECCLS 7aELLV] C. 3 ~ I, 7'7 Td'~tS 7211 ap~aias 7r0\LTEL'as. j.LLKPOV 1'rcpfyKXCVOVT. r7JS Tqs A7LXLK1jS] The prehistoric I'constitution of Theseus' was treated in an early chapter that is now lost. The lost passage is referred to in Plut. Thes. 2 5, Sn76L U rp(~Dos dir eKXLV6 7rp61 -rv 6"XXov, W's 'Apto-ror/X?7s q57~-qa, KUId aL(/7Ke 7-6 /LoVCp~eU/, fOLKE Aapr/Jupe-tv Ka~l '0O.oqpos IV pews~ KaTaX6'yy~ As6vovs 'AO77valovs 35?gov 7rpoocryopelo-as. lrape-yKXLiVCLv intr. is found in [list. Anim. 498 a i6, OWiX77 /.LKp6P EtC S 7i6rXa'ytov 7rape-yK'XliozTa. C'yKXIVCLV intr. in Pal. 1307 a 21, i95' 0'7r6-repov i'v I-yKXI~Pq i 7roXrrela, and 1,266 a 7, 2' 7-Cv AaLKe~t1sovtwv 7roXt7-eia 1taXXOV I-YK)JV61V PoXe-rat 7rpbs T'qv 6Xt-yapX~aV. EiKKXL'P ELI intr. in Pol. ii ii, 1,273 a 5, -ra AJ&~l et's 38/uo; EKKXLVE et AaXXoV T&a 5' et's 6XL'yapXklav. bI 'j KCLI V05pLovs dVE'YPCL4CLV 7rwpTov) The summary does not strictly correspond to the original account in c. 4. Nothing was there stated on the important fact that under Dracon the laws were first reduced to a written code, though it was partly implied in the words: roils OeaAoils 90hqKEV. On the other hand, the remarkable ' Draconian constitution,' which has justly aroused considerable suspicion, finds no recognition in the summary. This supports the view that the description of that constitution is an interpolation. X6XCoAVOS] 5-12. QPXij 8~LPoKpcL 'rtcus] 9 ~ i.- IIELu-LT-,rpcLrov] I14-19. KxeLweNvovs] 2,2. 8S~L0TLK(0TfEp0L] '22 mnit. rijs it 'Apcdov.srcyov jPovXijs 23. 'ApLo-,re(8iqs] Aristides is here described as having, traced the outline which was conmpleted hy his successor Ephialtes. The former admitted the lower classes to a larger share in public life. Though he'did not actually throw the archonship open to all the citizens of Athens (as asserted in Plut. A rist. 2,2), he encouraged the rural population to resort to Athens (c. '24 ~ i) and thus prompted them to take an interest in political affairs. Ephialtes carried this democratical movement still further hy abolishing the supremacy of the Areopagus. There is no justification for the criticism of RUih (Rhein. Mus. 46, 432) that Aristides is here represented as cooperating with Ephialtes. The absence of the name of Themistocles is, however, worthy of note. As a constitutional reformer he is eclipsed by Aristides. It may even be IO0-2

Page  148 148 148 ~AOHNAIQN COL. 20,1. 26-cOL. 2I,1.5. Xe0-ev KavjaXlo-aa T'rV 'Apeowaryi'r /3ov-X'w E'v ' 7rXeiFr vr'/31 T717 7rov &a70) 8,ql/a~cy~rov1) ar/.apTavetv - - 8a'T '~8ta TniV Tnq,2o Oa'XacT-rq a'pX?7'v 6786q 8' [77] T-c'V TETpaKoOLO.W KaraOrTao-tsq, Kat /hE-a 7Tl 7171) eVa17 [j84J [8]r,gpoKparia '7-a' IV. 8E6a1C 'T S ' TirpxaOVra Kat 17 Traw &Icca T1vpavvtqL. EV86ECa'Tq (3 77 Tn7v a~r (Dv'Xi's Kat\ &' llEtpatewo Ka'Oo(3ov, ahfo' 1,9 8tayeeyeVfTat U-C~Xpt TqVvV~' ael 7rpoo-erfltXapt/3at1ovo-a Tii 'n-XyWet T7'71 e~ovcaaV. ct7ra1)VTWV '25 yap avTog aVTOV) 7TEW7OtflKEV 0' &7/JpO9 Kvptov) iat 7rapra &omTKrat #l9cfto-/Lao-tv ica' (3ucao-T7pt'o1% eV o0 6 73ip~6 EQ.7LV 0 icpar3V. IKat yapa,i'i-]1 /0vX'q Kptoaetq ev~ Tov~1 &7/ov e'7XV'aat. ea~t TrorOT 19 &&a (K, K-W, B): <Kai>- && H-L; - - 'deest fere Oapp'iraocwv' K-XV coil. Pol. 1274a 1,2. 20 orFA0HN2~ KATAGTACTACIN. 21 5U seci. J B Mayor (K-W, I1-L), retinent K, B. 22 Kal~Jj K-W. 23 fleipwiwc (H-L). THO: 'ra H-L. 24 Locus corruptuS, K-W. 26 V/7701,/Aaat H-L. doubted whether he really has any claim to have acted with Ephialtes in overthrowing the Areopagus, as narrated in 1 7.2 ~ir& Lgev] with ~rp~,ros in Rhet. iii 2, I404 b 25, and Poet. 4, 1448 b 37. Cf. Hdt. 1 89, Xen. Qecon. xi i8. The metaphor is probably derived ' from the tracing of lines underneath by a writing. master, for the pupil to follow or write over,' Protag. 3,26 D (Cope's Introd. to Ar. Rhet. p. 284). EcjLcdX'js] From the tenour of the earlier. part of the work we are prepared to find a prominent place assigned in the summary to Ephialtes, as compared with Pericles. The reforms in the Areopagus due to the latter were of minor import. ance. But it is singular that so notable a name should find no mention in the present passage. He is here regarded as one of the demagogues whose influence was detrimental to Athens. The slight notice of his policy in 28 ~ iis indeed not unfavourable; but it is certainly far from enthusiastic. Sum' Tr'jV Tis eGcLXTms c~pxiiv]i Isocr. de Pace, 79. TwOV TeTpaCoKC(tWV] '29-32. 8iv}ioKpc-CcL]~ 34. 71j rWV TPLCXK0VTCL-rvPcWVV~s] more accurately described as an oligarchy in 53 init. T4ZV 84KCcL] 3 8 ~ i.wrpocrEWLX1\CLLdV0V0-a TFC A40jEL Trij 4 ovuacLv] Schomann, Ant. p. 386 E. T.: 'The demagogues found it their interest to extend the activity of the popular assemblies as far as possible, and to establish the principle that the people was, in the most comprehensive sense of the term, lord over everything, and could do what it pleased (in Neaer. p. I375 Xen. Hell. i 7, I2). On the other hand, men of keener insight complained that the State was administered by Psephismatathat is, according to the pleasure at any moment of the sovereign people —rather than according to the laws, and that there was only too often a contradiction between the laws and these Psephismata.' Pal. vi (iv) 4, 1,292 a 4-.37, 9,TepO Cd3os SqgoKparlas TalXXaL /AI eb'at 7Tat'rT, K~PIpV1 8' e'at 'rb l7rXJOO Kad -djrbp v6Asov. ToUTO 6&yIvE7cll 6M~ai'r q//7q5icrfla7a K6ptcl j' aXXi A6 v6Aeos. OU/JjahElSet TOUT ro &o 3ta'-ol' 3flbca-yw~yo6S KTX. Dem. Lept ~ 9,2. LIS -rdv Spjov AqX7VXOcUTrLV] In the department of judicature indictments or informations concerning breaches of the law, which could not be dealt with in the ordinary course, were in the first instance brought before the Council. If the offence were too important for the competency of that body, they passed to the popular assembly. The Council could not inflict any fine beyond 500 drachmae. Schomann, Ant. 394-5 E. T. Cf. 45 and 49 ~ 3; Pol. i1299 b 38 if. KCLl 'rofJTO KT-X.] This is understood by Cauer (p. 48 f.) as a general eulogy of the fully developed democracy and as inconsistent with the views expressed in the Politics. But the eulogy is really limited to one particular point, the transfer of judicial functions from the jgovX'~ to the iKKX-qo-icz, and both of these bodies are

Page  149 CH.41, 1.-8-CH. 42,1. i. UGAITEIA'4 I49 8oK0V0"L 7rtOezv O'p0(A9)q el)&tac00peM-ETpot fyap <01'> OXt'yot r63'v woXXcj3V 3 etaiv lc~at] Ic' pEL K[ait] Xaiptut. ptxaoooPov 8, EKKC1XflTav To /.El 7rpc Tov aW~ryvcoaav 7rtOEtv. ov v cTX~0JElW E v Tfl V 'EKKXOav, 30 aXx a 7oX-ka\ coo~t~ope'vcv TW-V Trpv'raveow, o7rcol? 7pocato-~n 'rat Tro Jol. -21.] 7rX?79oS? 7rpo\, T'Tv 6E7tHA/cV'pc(O-W 'r?7' XEtPO'rovlaq 7TpCIJTov F'\" 'Ayl/pptoq 06/3oX~v 6E7T'ptcTev, pLe'r' 8e ToJTov 'HpaKXEt&?)9 6' KXc46-,tzevtosq 6 /3aotXEl'P9 fEwtKaXo1J/JEvoq 8t(OjoXov, 7ra'Xtv 8' 'A7/Ptppto 'rpt(0/3oXoV. 3 42. EXE 0' y7 PUPv Kca'raTaot9 T?79 T7roXtTeiag Trop& v0\V 28 oAlroN: 6-yot K: <ol>- 6XI-yot Gennadios, Kontos, K-W, H-L, B. 29 ea H-L. 8': Ul <Trhv J> K-W, 3e1 B. 31 CO(?)(~IZOMCNcN Blass, Gomperz, K-W, K3: 1Pq5tPo/slvwP K1, iP70ogvpwv <A6vwv >-H-L. TESTIMONIA. XLI 33-34 Hesych. KXapoup.1vos- oVTIo HpaKJAEL8-qI 6' KXa~OUlvt6T 76 Kat 6 a'T (ex hoc loco ~aotXebs scripsit Houtsma) K1Xo6/Levos. distinctly democratic. The text is in fact in perfect accord with a passage in the Politics, iii iS, 1,286 a 30, 3L&' T0o70 Kal' KpLVC& 6I/IELVOV O~XOS 710XX&. ' Js 6aortoio~v. g7-1 AiAXXOV d6Lar)Oopov 7T6 7roX6, Kaoalrep ii`&Jp 7-6 irXEOV, 007W Kai r' 7rX~Oos 711'v 6X17wxv &&IO/ap~Top'poV. Cf. 0. Crusius, Philol. 1, p. 175. ~- -r. t76 irwplZovI on the restdration of the democracy. 'A-yi'ppios] a statesman belonging to the deme of Collytus, prominent as a financier in the early part of the fourth century. In 400 B.C. he had a dispute with Ando. cides about the lease of a tax (Andoc. De MfYst. 1 33, with Marchant's note). Schol. on Arist. Ecci. (B.c. 392) 10,2-5 ('A-yUpp~os....7rpa',77eLr 711JyLorT' &1 7 —7 w6XE1): 6 'A. o-rpaT1?y6s O'qXv6pLW'6qs, alp~as e'V Aeoi-qy. Kai 701'P gto100'v 5 7WCV 7r10n7W1 7Vl'IefSE (cf. Schol. on Ran. 367 and Plat. Com.firag. 133 Kock) Kad 7rpw70o1 EKKXt7crLao-r7LKObv WlWKE. InEccl. 300 -310 the poet refers to the time when only one obol was allowed instead of three: 77V'LK' 96E1t Xa/3eiv X67 6f~o\6 ju6vov, whereas now 7rptc*$3oXov ~?7TOOCL XaeF3v, ii. 380,.39,2, Plut. (ed. 12, B.C. 389) 329 and 171 with the Schol. where, however, the Iuo66s eIKKXWI7Lao7IrK6S is confounded with the 1A. 8LKao-ITIKIC. The text shews that the Schol. on Ecci. 10,2 was right in making Agyrrhius the originator of the fee. Boeckh (ii xiv p. 316 Lamb) inferred from the mention of Myronides in Ecci. 305 that the fee was introduced some time after the beginning of the influence of Pericles. He was further led to ascribe its origin to one Callistratus, Appnd. Vatic. Proverb. iii, 6~oX6v vpe' HIapv6nr-s. KaXXo-rpa-ros 'AOz',qt. 7roX1 -76VOca/.Le1'S, IgrtKca geo41v 61 Ha1p1'OT-s,.ucrO&v 9,ra~e 7011 &Kao-7raS Katd roL1 eKKX?7 -orza-ra~s. Possibly Callicrates, who added an obol to the &$fgoXov of the 06OwpMK&z is really meant (,28 ~ 3). The text also proves that for a short time the fee for the public assembly was two obols, though this was denied by Boeckh, 1. c. Agyrrhius also restored the Oeopl K6P (Philochorus ap. Harpocr..s.v.). On the death of Thrasybulus (early in 389) he was elected arpar17Wy61 (Xen. Hell. iv 8, 31; Diod. xiv 99). Plat. Com-frag,. x85 Kock, Xapoii Xat/oi 7rs xEtp6s 's -rd~to-rd gov. giXXWj a7parn-lyb XetpoToveuP 'A-&-p PLOV. It was probably after 387 that he was long in prison as a debtor to the State (Dem. '24 ~ 134). 'HPCLKX(C8TqS 65 K1Xc~odLo~A'Lsjentioned in Plat. Ion, 54i D (With Phanosthenes of Andros), oON 'e ' 'r6Xts ~1vovs 6v-ras, fpta~v 0571 t1~1O X0V6'youclo, Kad et's o0Tpa-r-qy~aS KaiL el's 7111 dXXa1I apXa1 'a'yet. Favorinus ap. Athen. 5o6 A; Aelian, Var. Hist. xiv 5. The name #aLLTLXcu6I is perhaps due to his belonging to some royal family in Asia Minor (cf. Strabo, p. 632; CIG 2881, 2069, 2157, 21i89). Peisistratus was called #acw-Ae6s in the Aiuos of Eupolis (frag. 123 p. 291 Kock). 0. Crusius in Pihilol. I, p. 177'. Heracleides is identified by Kbhler (Hermes, xxvii 68 if.) with the person of that name mentioned in an inscr. in Bull. Corr. Hell. i888, p. i63.

Page  150 150 AOHNAIQN COL. 21, L. 5-26. pO7rOa'. /PTEXOVO-tV ~UEV T?79 7tOX ta t OL E4 cicrEPwOV 7670OTES? a Tctw. EyypSOO {V 7at] T s JOV91 832P O'Taq? OKTa~icaL8e1,a E3 E v07-E' oraz' 3e77YpacpWV7at, oetaqr77ptOVrab 7r-epb\ av'T&V o/LofraYLTE'q 5 L 8fp 6at, 7p r- v f V Eb ~ evab ryE7ovE'vab T7-7) tiX utaV T-37V &C TO0? VOQ/OV, K~alJ U?\7 &0'COo-t, d7rnE'pXOVra6 7caXev eb9 7wa'3ak-, S1eVTrEPOV 8 etEXEV'Epoc; E0-7T6 icat 7EyovE,ccra~ [TO]VNI VO.ovs-. E7rtEL7 ap7 /JE7 da ro~frflc/) w 7)Tat, jtt? Elvat E'XEO EpO V-, 0 /' E\ f )L?7(TtV Et9 -0\ 8tK( oT7-7'XLII 2 1zerTXOvarL H-L. 3 0KTtK&,&KcI6KtCT6IC ante corr. 4 Aerpb4q 6' iyypcb/. Wyse, Blass, Herwerden, Naber (K-w, H-L, K3). 6 664wcJO H-L. 7 fiav ptiv H-L. 8 erT I'jH4) (K): di~o1/sq5. Wyse, Blass, K-W, H-L; cf. Phot. Ic. TESTIMONIA. XLII 3-4 *Schol. Arist. resp. 578 7ral~wv rolvUv' 5OKL/Ica~0/JlWV7rp6s r6 90os. 'Ap. 5t 0,jtp~t rt1 VI7(/ ot' 4e'ypaq5/6issvot 5OK1/5d~oprtU, /L7 Vecbrepot (vecbTepot jd~ codd., correx. K-W) - 'rr~z' etev (Frag. 427 2, 4673). `O-WS a' I v api Vcu,~k KpLvofkiPco 7rc13wv cis robs 'yV/.LK06s d-y(vas XtyeL (sc. O''Apte oqodyv0s) o0'X W's ey 6LKao77-7piq KptVo/45.wP iAX U'rb TWZ' 7rpeo-/3u~pov. 8 Phot. (et Etym. M.) gpoets:...&yhvero & A07'5V77o-t ia- rwv s' 7roZt Uiotsor dhro~I'qqOta0 pTCwP, e95e~ar8aU -yap aLSOtI 4~7v aL15oLI Csi &KaoTT7hptop rTi-p 771 7roXLTEIaSl KatL 5?' ph, idiXwoaa, e~rwXo0vro W's ~4ivo et' Rju' l~raprlaav et's robs e'~ w'v d'r0tnPio-O-o-av StLVr Part II, c. XLLI-LXIII. The Existing Constitution. XLII ~ i. Enrolment on the list of citizens. ~ i. t~er4XovcrV rnjs a-oXvz-EdS] Pol. 1,268 a24, 27; 1275 b31; i9o a 4. 'Etip4o-iripcov-d rrcV] Pol. I278 a 34, Tos U gs6vor robs i4 ciauoov dOT6.Z' iroXITal IIotoULP. 1227 5 b 21i, 6'pl~oprat i wpo's r-~v p2~ ou 7r0 T2 J 76P l.~ d uor t pw s iro'X tTrws KIal /u?' Oaripov 1.is'os, otos aarp's jx-qrp6s. See note on 26 ~ 4. eypa4ov1-rcu] Pol. iii i, 12275 a I4, irai~aTr roiir gn~rw V r' XLKLIaY ei-cYsfYPa/kjeksovs. Dem. Eubul. 57 ~ 6i, 'P3IK' firs-YPcid10'j l-yw Kal oi66oI-a'T5 ol 5-qA67-at &KaLiws -7a-6TEI asepi ieoO ridv l/di~os go5 -pop, o6T6- Kar77-y6p-qass o~r' esas-rlaV T?'Jv V/kOs?7P5'YKEP. Isaeus 7 ~ 28, 6'js6ocawrsr KILO' llepc5 epe-ypai/'cd p s j (sc. 511s TO Xq L a~pXtKoV -ypag1.sare~oP). Lycurg. Leocr. 76, l751eV~' ELs r 6 XqphapXtKby -ypapp4jarTfOP iyiypacojxrr KalL 90-qijot yevwvra. The earliest ephebic. inscr. (B.C. 334-3) mentions ol gq57f~Ot 01 E'rl TOOi KTWOLKXIOUI C'pxosrOS 1-yypaq56PTeS. By this registration the youthful citizen entered on the duties of civil life at the same time as he was enrolled on the list of ephebi. This was the only list of ephebi kept by the demes, and such a phrase as ly-ypdoeacOat es eo I~ovs (Pseudo-Plat. Axioch. 366 E) is an inaccurate equivalent for #-y-y. sEIT ToOb 3,qs6ras (P. Girard, in Daremberg and Sa~lio, iii 62) 0KcTW4KCL(8EKCL I-ra] Schol. Aeschin. c. Ctes. i222, diro6 6KrWKaIL'SKaL?TW5j?eypdiOor tsi r6' X-I~LapXLK6s, and ~ ig. Irl 3~TEre' -/3'crct (Aeschin. 1. c.) denoted the close of the two years intervening between the ages of i 6 and i 8 (A. Schdfer, Dcem. iii '2, 19-38; Lipsius in N. _7ahrb.f. Philol., ILo. I I7, P 2 99ff.; Gilbert, Gr. St. i i 86). In Aristoph. Vesp. 578 it is regarded as a privilege of the &Kao-racd to take part in ascertaining the physical mnaturity 'of Athenian youths on the occasion of the SoKtgaacra. In the present passage the preliminary enrolling belongs to the 8-q~6rat, while the subsequent 3OKLuaoclTI is now for the first time assigned to the PovXV, to which it was perhaps transferred after the time of Aristophanes. According to the text, the &KcrcrTad are only concerned in the event of an appeal on the question whether the person enrolled was of free birth or not. (Cf. Meier and Schi~mann, Att. Process, p. '25 3-4 Lipsius. The doubt there suggested as to the accuracy of the Schol. on Ves~p. 578 is now withdrawn by Lipsius, in the Verhandlungen der K. Sdichsisc/hcn Gesellschaft der Wissensehaften, Leipzig, i891, p. 63.) Possibly, in the event of a dispute on the question of age, the matter was similarly referred to a court, but this is not stated in the text. 8Lfn+'4)(ov-T-csL] The ordinary 8ta~L+5 oto-t5 here described might be followed by an appeal to a &KaIoTr tpL. The procedure was the same as in the special 8cua4r/xdto-L described in Dem. 57 ~ 6o, r-spt cLTCV KIlL K nT17OpW s i I Il /0 TIClS 1~l/3aXe5, ON CI7rapTaL r1X?77 EVOr KCaTf5i~aro 7r6 5IKaar27pLOs. -0

Page  151 f CH. 42,1. 2-I7. flOAITEIA I51 PLO v, 01 & 6fl6/Lrt KaT7-'7yopovS? atpo3wrat 7relrre [66]8pa9~ E' a15'rca'v, Kav p /Ev pa) 6y [ao eyrypaL{Eoj0at, '7flYJAEO'y tK 7r e' roi',rov ' r'7TXtqr io 2 8ev vLK 70-y, ro0[~,crt e ravayKEV eyyaEv,tr 'raD'rcz &SKq.Ld'~et -rov E'yypacfevras- 75c 13ovXi, KaV 'rt9 CoIiv exro'9 O/T 8)K EKa 'r63v eh'at, ~,qyuoZ [,ro']9~ 8,rg6raq To' e 'yy avTra(. e77aV 8i) 8OKt/Lka[O-O]Co0o-tv ol601 74ioto, oTvXXEyE'1PrEq 01 7n-ae'pe9 av'rw v carc V Xbv 4a, 0) a a o/wa-av'JE9 atpovvrat Tpet9 EK 'T(Ov cvXeTCo V TC04 IS v71-ep rerl-apaKOvra 6"r7 yeyoz.'6rwv, ovs' av 77,ycw-ra& 3EX7'0rla etvat Kab e7rtT177&,to7-dTov9 e7rtaLeXeWt-0at 'rcv '0,o~v, e',c &6 ToV'rwAV N 11 Versus in fine CNFPW461 E'y-ypcd/EW (SC. Jlraiva'yKil 1,TTLI awrT~v I-1Y-pdoetv) recte van Leeuwen (H-L, B): CNFp&(6T &y-ypdbperat K, K-W; constructio quidem utraque recte se habet; Iraa-iclyKEI e-y-ypcipety defendunt c. 29,2 21, Pol. 1 266 a io, 17, i 8 et 1 301 323; e'7rai'YayKEI Eyy-pcic/iETaL Pol. i1266 a i15; sed manus tertia nunquam aut rTI contrahit aut Ai supra verbi finem scribit, N autem septies eodem in loco ponit, C. 41, 30 y' V V V EKKX77Ola, C. 42, 34 XaLL~ugaovo1, C. 43' 4 XEGpOTOVOVI31, 7 7rpvrcuPeue, 15 ~ouX?7, 17 XCLy' 1 POTOPVEL, '29 KEXEVOVcrL; quorum exemnplorum sex in fine versus inventa sunt. 13 6'KTWOKatISEK' K-W, B. 14 fTT&N: e~rELM&1 H-L. &Tro+f(~COrv'TcuL] used absolutely in Dem. 57 ~~ 1I, 56, 58, 59, 6,2; followed by A'j in F. L. 174, bLrE1/.77q/~UaaUTo A' 7ri/LMrEII. i7n-~t77cpl~E0Oat is found c. acc. in Dion. H., Ant. vi 71i, and Diod. xix 6 i; but these passages do not justify the retention of 6'rt'mqpo-wvr-at. cfIE+'oGLV KT\X.] Dem. 57 ~ 6, ai...... 11Th Si7rc, 7771 TWYP 8)77ILOTWV dVO~l/4/1LCV irolEOTOOat TIEK/chpL0P qIal, WI 1iXp' OUQXt 7rpOOr4KEL /101 T771 7r6XEI)1. EI -Y& IV0,.L~eTE T& &KatcI 3vp5aeo-Oat TO~S 6-qg6rTas 3aKpivaL, 016K a'p itOKaLTe T7JV ELS V/ILLES94 dqEO1VL. Cf. Etym. M. and Photius, s. v. gq5Eo-L, quoted in Testim. irEv'rE adv~pcxs] We find a similar procedure in the decree of the qppciTEpEs recorded in the Decelean inscr., CIA ii 12, P. 534-6, no. 84i b, 11. 30-34, E'P SI 711 /306X-7-m7vL E /7ELa L Ets A77/LoTLWVLILa, Wp avp drol//01a-/d -ra)tc, I4e1I'at au'-rc, iXlcr — Oat 5U E'' a1&TOZ ouvp7Jy6poVS 731' AEKEXEtK(5P oTkop irlP7re Ct'CP5caS U71-p TptciKOV7ca t1-7 -Y-y0yV6Tas. Cf. Class. Rev. v 2,21 a..rrcXCt] Dionys. on Isaeus, i6 p. 617, E'ypdc5-q/nJTL 577711 on -r 'AO77valw,' v6/S1 ioTaUTLP yEpeoOOat T6J3 7rOXLTWI' Ka7LTIL &hA/OUS, 7-nv 81 aw7oV1-q4)a-0evra ur6 TWI'p 677150TWV 7771 7roXTIELas /.1 /SereXELV, T-o~s a51KCISKI SWdt7r4/UtT~eoEUtP 1Eq~oV ECIS T6 8LKao —r15p10P ETVLaI, Irp0GKaLXeaaAJ.IoLI Tro3 577)67raS, Kal Ecap 76 E6TreppOI' eEXE-yX~oW1, 7relrpaaOcS Katl i&xpr/Sa X E~kTa tat3IgI6o-ta. Bekker, Anecd. (and Suidas) s. v. adro4/qtau6lvrca 7e1 -rSV0 16osE 9oEtlicpt Katl o6 7-oXiTr77s, TOTI 11 cL Ild7AT1LTi 7/W ad7Eip-101ovro 01' 6-%7-ITLI, KIal eXC"YETO 1a7r — 4710(PLOIT/SI. ET7ca EIIT75yIETO El' T& 6LKLo — TlhplOV' KILL f'KPVET0 ~,Epi'aI, KILL et 51' AiciaXw, f~rtVpcLOKe~ro WSl 1~&OS Et' 51 4Kpa'TEL, IavEXaaiL/3bETo et's 7-771' 7roXrTEIla. olirw A7-q /Soro-0'771 (de Cor. 13'2). Cf. Meier and Schbmann, P. 440 Lips., a. 705. ~~ 2-5. On the miilitary training of the Ephebi. On the Ephebi, see Dittenberger, De Ephebis Atticis, i863; Dumont, Essai Sur l'EIphe'ie Attique, i875-6; Grasberger, Erziehung und Unterricht im Klass. Alterthunm, iii, i88i. Also Capes, University Life in Ancient Athens, I877 Wayte on Ephebus in Smith, Dict. Ant.; P. Girard, l'&lucation Athe'nienne, i889, pp. '271-327; and esp. the same scholar's article in Daremberg and Saglio, i891, iii 6,2t-636 (the only account of the subject written since the discovery of this treatise). ~ '2. 8oKLIJLMdteL] This SOKCeagrhL (like that of adopted sons) probably took place at the time of the dpaPXtpeO-Ila (Isaeus 7 ~ 28; Dem. c. Leoch. 44 ~ 39) at the beginning of the official year (Lys. 2i ~ 1. Cf. Gilbert, 1 87. viRlp rET-ra4K(KOVTcL 9Tni Similarly any Xop7yys1 who had boys under his superintendence had to have attained the age of 40 (56 ~ 3).

Page  152 152 AOHNAIQ2N COL. 21, 1. 27-35. c' 877o E'va 7'[9~ Ob]vX-q-, E'cin, XetpoTovet o&XobpovCo-r)V, Ixat [koo-]~wrq)v E'I rcOV aXXwv 'AOrnvatov 6' vardraq. o-vXXa/3o'vre; 3 3 OVT0 'OL TOV9 EI/37/30,8 vq, 7rpWTrov a' -a' le a F -.''v eT' e 19...MHTHN?: KoofL74T7?'v Paton, van Leeuwen (H-L), K-W, K3, B; frUe7,1KTTANT& vel TT&NT&C ante cyAA,: 7rcdv-ra. cruXX. K; 7rdV'7a. civXX. K-W, B; 7rciz'TaI. irapaX. H-L. 18-25 Bekk. Anecd. 301 (infra exscriptum). XeLPoTovei] one of the few exceptions to the general rule by which appointments at Athens were made by lot. Cf. 43 ~i and Headlamn, On the Lot, p. 104. (Tca~pOVLG-rWj] [Plat.] Axioch. 367 A, ~ras ' 70o1 /JetpaK10-KOV XpO'VOS (v. 1. 76pos) Eo-rTv? iV6 ocxqbpovto-rdsi. Dinarchus, adv. P/ti/oct. i5, 6' 1.4 6j~os a7ras o6r' daXo4)~ 06T6c alKatLo? vo0IL1Wv' eTctL lrapcacarca O&Oat 70o)1 6avToOV 7rcLLas, aiWeXeLpo76vJ/770Ev a~-r6v dir6 T7j5 rcv ec/n5g3v EcrL/IXEas. Philocles, the ~TrpaT77'y6s here referred to, was a o-&4opovurr's5, not a K017/377775 (Gilbert, i 297; Dumont, Essai sur 1lI~philbie Attique, i876, p. 369 f.). In Bekker Anecd. 301i the o-wq~povwo-al are defined as dpXov7T9s 71V63 XEGp0T0?77T01, &KCL Tbv'dpLOJt6v, E'Kd -- 7771s q5UX71 ci. EJre/eXouv'ro bE 7771 0W()po061771 7Wv '0h/)g[wv' uto70?'v irapa' r T 71 6Xews Xaj/L/d?'0v'res gKcao T70 KaLO' '7/Jepav' b/paX/.1?'7 (similarly in Photius and Etymn. M. s. v.). They are mentioned in the earliest ephebic inscr. now extant, B.C. 334-3 (Butt. Corr. Hell. xiii 253); also in B.C. 32o/i19(CIA ii 58 i); and in B.C. 305/4. This last inscr., as restored, includes the words: [700 KOCA-17770 Kad T]W?'?TWO/pO[V'LT7WV Kal rc~v &]bcao-KadXwv. The KoaA177T'7 also appears to be named near the beginning:.. 01Xo7r]L/Lo0v[-rat.....] L7-Wa- ev7TaXKTWS... 71 KOO/177q[7 r. ]oa' Xa T&a 7repti T'7[v?' T0?T &6aj0-a'cXotT KTX. In the same inscr. the g/qflf3ot are described as E-y-ypao/7rr'TE (Kobler, /lMittheilungen, 1879, iv 324-7). The latest inscr. belongs to B.C. 303/,2,.. T-W0/pOLa(7'7h 67r6 701O 67/oU XetpoT-o?'70eti1 6Lo?'ib0o?/vX7)1 E7-l AeW0r7pa'iov iipxop'7os (B.C. 303) KaLX,.) Kal aco~p&vwS Ka31 ev7LiKT-WS1[7r/5e]/5eX-777a aVr37,M Kal drzo4[ai?']ovo-v a1676? ELI T'1 40v77?'7 [o' tr]caTipel 7W?' E(/)5h(WV rt Acg41X]7o0OaL Kar7& 7061s v6yosoul~ 7W' E/)5/3Wv KTX. (Bull. Corr. Hell..1888, xii 149). A relief published in Rev. Arch. 1876, ii i85, copied in Daremberg and Saglio, iii 6,28, represents three crWOpovLO-ral in their robes holding their wands of office in the presence of a divinity who cannot be identified. The office was apparently suppressed early in the third century B.C. to be restored in imperial times. See Ditten berger, De Ephebis Atticis, pp. '29, 44; Dumont, Sur l'E8phe'ie, p. 200; Smith, Dict. Ant. i 998 b; and esp. Girard in Daremberg and Saglio, iji 626. K~oO-L'qTv] Erotianus, Lex. fliptp. s. v. Kb07.1oU' Ko00j71777at 01 7W?' e075j3W?' EVTa~~LI -rpo?'ooIJ?7es. The word is found in [Plat.] Axioch. 363 E (as quoted by Stobaeus), E'wetav ' et's 7061~ eE1)?'77/vU CiYypa95?il, K00/-1u777r77 Kid 0b6(os XelpW?', and, in a general sense in Plat. Leg. 372 A. The usual formula for the election of this officer is XetpoTO?'77 -6111 KOO/1yr7s77 e7rl 7061s E'Oh~ovs et's 70?'v E'r (700 SEL?'0) da~PX?70o1 Ea1 11J6?, CIA ii 465, 467, 469: in 471 1. 56 the people KO0-/fI7 -[T] 5'V KcaOio-7771T[L? 'Kei] 7w? ' cpto-c1 f3[/3]WK6 -7rw?. Hardly any of the inscriptions in which this officer is mentioned are earlier than the second century. The earliest belongs to B.C. 305/4 (quoted in last n.); the next to about B.C. 28,2 (CIA ii 31 6, io=Dittenberger, lnscr. no. 346). It is suggested by Dittenberger (De Ejphebis, p. 31i) that the office was created in the time of Alexander. The inscr. of B.C. 305 (already quoted) shews that for a short time the KOO/5U-77777 and the aWppopto?0-ral existed together. This is confirmed by the text, if the restoration is correct. Cf. Dumont, $phebieAttique, p. i66 if.; Gilbert, i 299; and Girard in Daremberg and Saglio, ii 6,26-7. In literature, one of the earliest passages on the Koo-/.u7777'1 is in Teles (fi. middle of 3rd cent.), ap. Stob. 98, 72, 77/0100 TYyOP'E?' g/57rcaX1? 76?' KOO7.1777iT ' (/o/et71a1, 76?' 7raL3 O7-p1/7?', 7-6? ' rXo/1Cxo0?, To?'v -yv/WaoapXo?', 676 7r~i?7-W? To701)w? JLC0TVY017CaL, 7rapaT77-pEF7aL, 7rpaX-qX1~e-raL. e-' i/n5(3Wz' 0ion KIL 7777 L'KOL? ~7?'~i~LI (03E7IL K 7rapaL777pEL KaI raIlaLpx0?' Kall (7rpar777y6?'. &rl ircivroLS] For Ciirl, of persons set over others, cf. Xen. Cyr. iv 5, 58, 6~-i 7061 7IEP061 KcaOLoT7I'aL a'px0?'7r, and Hell. iii 4, '20. In this sense it is more common c. gen. o r da t. ~ 3. Tac LopO. lrepL')-Xeov] It was pro. bably at this stage that the l9p77foL. took the oath in the cave of Aglauros (Dem. F. L. 303; Lycurgus, Leocr. 76; Stohaeus, F/or. 43, 48; Pollux viii 1o5; another clause is quoted in Plut. A/ce. is5).

Page  153 CH. 42,J. 18-24. ITOAITEIA '53 letpate' wo~pevovznat, Kaat 4)povpoi~otz- ol, ~kv Tvv movvqtav ot 77)v 'AT. XLo[Trove] &\ Ka' 73-at8 o~ptlaq a'-ro'9 &o Ka't &a-' oGccAoVu, [0't]rtV1Eq 07rXoI.taXELFv Kca TO~EVEL1) Ka1I ailovT'rLEtv ic[a\] Ka~ravA-aXfl aOte'vat 8t&dUYKOVctLV. C3&8oat ae Ka&t EL~ rpo[17V] '2 21 IletpaL6& H-L. MOYNYXI&N. Cf. C.19, 5. 23 [Og1TLJEIK, H-L, B: r[17]7r[a]pas &1T1CATH N < 0?> K-W. 24 KA H N KcIa7I-areTI)V (K1, K-W2): -7rdXTr'v K-W1, H-L, K3, B, cf. Meisterhans, p. 1,2 2(=KarraXr~j3v anniS A.C. 330-32 3). &6ci~ovav Rutherford (H-L). Cobet, N. L. 2,3 regards the formula in Stobaeus and Pollux as a figment of the grammarians; but it can hardly be doubted that some such oath was taken, although it is not mentioned in tbe text. (Cf. Schomann, Ant. p. 359 E. T.; Gilbert, i 296 n.) The taking of the oath is exhibited on a vase in the Hermitage Museum, which shews us an 95igs armed with shield and spear, holding his right hand over an altar; the oath is being administered by an aged man (probably representing the &voX') beyond it: behind the go-q/3o we have a NLIK-q holding a helmet (Daremberg and Saglio, iii 62) MovvLXCG~v] 19 ~ 2. Even in Roman times, B.C. ioo, the epihebi i7reptt'Xevo-av. 'L'S MouVLXcLaV (CIA ii 467, 22) 'AKI-Tj] the name given to the southern peninsula of the Peiraeus, the highest point of which is about i8o feet above the sea. Harpocr. s. v. E'7rt~aXaLTr~t&6s TLS /JO~pa Ti~1 'ATTLKiJI. Lycurg. Leocr. ~~ 17, 55; Diod. xx 45; inf. 6i ~ i. Wachsmuth, Stadi A/hen, ii 46. lra.LL8o~rp(fPcLs] officials employed to train the ephebi in gymnastic exercises. In B.C. 305/4 their number was reduced to one (Kobiler, Mit/heilungen, iv 327, cf. Teles ap. Stob. Flor. 98, 72). In the inscriptions this officer generally takes precedence over the other instructors. Dumont, pp. I77-i85; Daremberg and Saglio, iii 62 7 b. SSLcuTK~ovX1s] Down to about B.C. I136 this term is regularly applied to the instructors of the e~phebi, including the 7ratao-rpO/77T, the 0'rXo/.kdXos and the rest (CIA ii 341, 465, 467, 469): after that date they are usually called 7raLLSVTai. Dumont, p. 176; Daremberg and Saglio, iii 627; Grasberger, ii 167. The four following verbs describe the functions of the several instructors. The corresponding official titles have hitherto been known to us from the ephebic inscriptions of the 3rd century. The literary evidence of the text is earlier than the earliest inscriptions mentioning these instructors. &olrOLcLXeiv] Xen. Anab. ii i, 7; Plat. Gorg. 456 E,, ro6I 7rat6orp43car KC(I To's eV' 0rX011 Wd60K0Vras /J4dXe-Oat, Euthyd. 271 D, Laches I79 E, 182 B, Leg., 804 D, 813 D, 833 E; Teles ap. Stob. F/or-. 98, 7'2; Theophr. 7r6pi p1KWpOrfeOTLjUlas (with Jebb's note on P. '203). In the ephebic inscriptions the 06wXocidXos, or 'drill-serjeant,' ranks next to the KcOrO-g7TS and the 7ratborp1/3-qs (Dumont, pp. i85-9). CIA ii 467 (= Ditt. no. 347) 1. 512, B.C. 1OO, e7raL1'iatcU Kati TOl~1 &6c10Ka'XOVS, r6v re 7r-ct3OTptf3?7-Kal 761 ' 6XogdlXoP-Kai T61' caKoP'TWTT?1-Kal -roz' d~ql7TJv. In an inscr. of Teos, the 67rXogdciXos precedes r-by 6t6a'~OPTa 7-0~666eP Kcai dKOPTI'ELV and receives astipend Of 300 dr., as against 250o (Ditt. no. 349, '22-2 7). In the Attic inscriptions the usual order of precedence is 67rXordXos, d'KOPTtOT's, r~6r-T KLTararOAao~T?7-77, and after these the -ypaLILIcaT6U' and blr-qperT- (CIA ii 316, 465, 467, 469 -471, 482). The drill was held in the Lyceum (Grasberger, 'ii 139). TrotEvEL] On the TO~6-r-qs, see Dumont, p. 15,2; Daremberg and Saglio, iii 628. He was not necessarily an Athenian (CIA ii 316, 11. '29, 72). Cf. Plat. Leg. 813 D. cLK0oVTrC1ELV] On the d'KovTLrrThS, see Dumont, P. 190; Daremberg and Saglio, 1. c. The same person is repeatedly mentioned in the inscriptions as holding this office for several years (CIA ii 465, 471). KcvralrcL'X'rllv jKEL'VaL] Elk. iii 2, 17, p. i ii a i i, 6 66 lrpd1-TTE dyvo-4o-ete, af'v 7T1, olow....&Lica povX6,uepos dlq1eJvaL, W's 0' T1r1 Ka-ralriXTqP'. The instructor in charge of this department was called the aiq5Tns or the Kca7aaraXTa~er-qs (Ze mai'tre de balistique). The former title is found in B.C. ioo; the latter in B.C. 28,2, CIA ii 316 (=Ditt. 346), 28, 6'ratp6cat 6 Kacd r61' 7rca60TpL/3?7v-Kcai TQT' aKOPTLOTJV-[KaCU 7TOP Kca-aar]aLX[Ta~lefThwP-Ka1i 701'v 'ypaA/La.eaicKeal T6V TO~6-r-iJ (mentioned last in this case because he was not an Athenian, but a Cretan). KcaTc7lraX7-at/tTf14, KaTararaXacoeoleOa and Kacara-d'XTIO- occur in an inscr. of Ceos, Ditt. no. 348, 25, 30, '27. Cf. CIA ii 413 (=Ditt. 196), 15 (after B.C. 200),

Page  154 '54 AOHNAIQN COL. 21,1.35-COL. 22,1. 12. -25 'rOt' uJ6V o~co~povta-rat'q (paX~t v pv FL eKdaOTcp, Toi';~ 83 E(/)?;10otq 're'rapa'; o,/30oXov)' eKdaoT(0 d &\ TCOv O~ T' TCOv av"To' Xa/.aV l p Y ( 7-t elcaa ro'; a y7 a t 7 ~ t t (ca acff v~T /cowLvO (o-vo-o-ii-oiot ryap KaTa\ 0v0a'q), tKa\ rco'v aXXoaw E'7rq.eXELTat 7ravTafl'. Kat 'Tov p v rpco'Tov E'vav'ro~v ov'T&J' (La'7ovow Tov 3' 4 30 UO-TepO1, e/c X?7cula'; CV 'TtE) O'Ea'rp p 7yevof P77, a7TOa t~adhevot T~o 25 3paX~u7jv /dcwa per compendium scriptumn <. 280-VoOLTOVro00' B. 29 ovb'rc H-L. 29-30 &YCTEpON; 6' Va7rEpov K, H{-L, B: &6repov K-W, Coil. Harpocr. TO'P a6T6EpoV FirEPvaVT6p. 30 F-EN? -yevou4i'i Blass (K-W, H-L, K3). &TToJEiE K, K-W, B; E=rL6EL. Hf-L. ~ 4 * Harp. 7epihroXos:.. 'Ap. iv 'AO. 7roX. ~rep! 7rwv N/fl5W5 Vy1WV 0b7oi-V OfJ'TWS TO 6E6TEpOP E'PLCavT6P fKKX77O-tas iP TCW,) GE6iTPWj -yEVO/dP77 (-yIP. CD) dn-o&e~dueLot (dro&t1aciuevot Dittenberger) 7rw, 675gcy r1ept Ta'S Tad~ELS Kai Xa/36VTCS &or16a Kad 36pu lrap& TrOU 6 5,uov 7repLrod\OLTL T7P~ XW'paV Kai 6c-ptf~ovats Jv roZm 4/XaKT97pIoLs (Frag. 4,282, 4683). Schol. Aeschin. 2, 167j. ets roIoI KaraLrciX7-as vevpaI e7rE'5WKey. The engine used in this exercise is termed in the inscriptions Ka-ra~raiXT7 —, 6p-yavov or Xt~o/6Xos. KaTa~rakrTW5 is the spelling found in B.C. 330 (CIA ii 807 b i129, i31, 1 32); in B. C. 3,25 (ib. 809 e 10o, 1,2, i13); and in B. C. 3,23 (ib). 8 ii b 1 96, 200).- Cf. Dumont, p. 291; Daremberg and Saglio, ii 6,28 a; Grasberger, iii i66. S8CXiX FVLCQV KTrX.] Bekker, Anecd. 301, quoted on 0ce0povLo-T75v P. 15~2 a. Boeckh, II xvi p. 33,2 Lamb. ~ 4. r6v 1j.iv 7rpwrov EvLcOvTroV KT-X.] Aeschines says of himself, F. L., 2 ~ 167, 2rEp17roXos T771 XW'pa -ra6TI7s II'yeP6/177P 66' 9fT7J. Hence it has been supposed that the 9/5ftgot served as 7rEplrIoXot for two years (Schdmann, Ant. p. 360 E. T.; Philippi in Rhein. Mies. 34, 6i3). The text describes the first year as spent in military exercises, and the second as devoted to the duties of wepiwto (this was the view already held by Dittenberger, De Ephebis, and Gilbert,i 296). The discrepancy is noticed in Harpocr. s. v. 7rEplyrXO... rpaT?7P-qTe0s GyUP OTt 60 ApLUTTOTAXTJS 9Pa 4~)iqOi5' C5LaVT65V ep rotI 7repuW6XOLS 717seo-Oat Tou's Eq0-q'/3ovs, 6' 6 A1i0-X1i,-s 36o (cf. Dumont, p. 28 if.). The purport of the text is quoted by the Schol. on Aeschin. I. c., ot -yap 9g5-qgot rov 6e6 -TEPO5 e'p1avt)65, eKKX?70~ia3 IEs Ty- GeaiTpI1J -yevokawqs7, Xagf6VTES do-wi6a Kai 66pu 7rap& 7T0U 6' ov repte~r6Xovp TOVTiITTL 7Ep~t'p XOV7-0 Ti's XwpaV Kall 34&pqLOs iP TOFS 4)vXaKer7ptoL1 97 Es TOZS ~O UOVLOLS EPLIOTC 9TOS ubsoy, 151'OTE0 66o. The context of the present passage shews that they acted as cipovpoi for both years (~ 5), while it is implied that they served as 7repl~roXot for the second year alone. Girard endeavours to remove the discrepancy by observing that the author ' ne dit pas expresse'ment, en effet, que les e6phe'bes n'e'taient astreints au service de rzepliroXot que la seconde anne'e. Ii se borne 'a constater que la premniere anne'e e'tait remplie par une sorte d'apprentissage du metier de soldat, mais cet apprentissage, qui se faisait au Pire'e et 'a Munychie, avait de'j'a le caracte're de ce que devait e~tre, l'anne'e suivante, la vie e6phe'bique' (Daremberg and Saglio, iii6 29note 174). It seems simpler to suppose that Aeschines was using a popular and only approximately accurate phrase in describing himself as 7repiroXog for two years. XKkocCas fiv Tr7 eE,rpcy Cf. A. MUller, Bzi/inenaiterthiimer, P. 74; and Jebb in Smith's Dict. Ant. ii 8,20 a. 'Juv. x 1,28; Plut. Tirnol. 34, 3; 38, 3; Nepos, Timol. 4, 2. Athenian decree in Joseph. Ant. xiv 8, 5. The inscriptions bearing on this point are collected by Adam Reusch, de diebus contion um or-dinariis ap. A thenrienses, diss. phil. Argentor. sel. iii 4' (Mayor). alro8eLtail~EVOL KT\X.J i.e. 'having given public proof of proficiency in military exercises.' Harpocr. has aio~e~aiisesoi, corrected by Dittenberger, De Ep/zebis, p. 1,2, n. io. The f973lqOt Of B.C. 100 similarly appeared in public, at the end of their period of service, firontoaaro 6U T7 /3OVX7.7, CIA ii 467 (= Ditt. 347, 43); cf. ii 468, 26.

Page  155 CH.42, 1.25-CH.43, I. I. flOAITEIA '55 [Col. 22.] 8 'C/Jpt 11 Ta 7rep' lra a5et', /cab Xa/3ov7n9 c'orwLta Ka'l &pv wrapz oXew, Trept7roXouot T' Xcpav Kcat 8a-rpi3ovo-tv 'v -ro7-77 q 7ro 77 e tlp~rro 5 OvXalrcrpiov~. cpoQovpt 8e 'Ta Uvo e~rl, X'XcaLV&a 0XovTe9, Kcat aTEXEZ` eio-' 7n-dv'row. Iai 81[`cr]v oi3'r[e] 3t6atv ov`re Xat43cz vovtv, rva pui 7w[p]0['b]aa-r9 T []o7' a'7tE vat, 7rTX \v 7rept ICX7'pov Ica6 ETLKX?7- 35 [POV], KaI ' cara O 7EvOV LPE(O0' 'TVVflt Evyl at. &6E~XOOV7WV E/ffW TLV /IEZ) Gui CO \ ry vetv ETWv,?)(Sl fLE78 a a wv aCtXXro) elo-'v / ~ a iev 7rEpt?7 v 7(r/ 7rOXLtcWV Eeyypaof\v icaKt 70V9 Evfr07/0v9 -rovTO EXer 70t ) 7r077-o. 43. 7ra4 ' dpxa, 7-ra9q 7rep\ 7271 / EyKVKXLOv &to'Kl70-W a7rao-a9 31 r& om. Harp. 32 rjs 7r6Xew1: roO fstuov Harp. et Schol. Aeschin. 35 4rp]6[0]aats T[o0] ciardvat in ectypo feliciter agnovit Blass (K3); legebatur wrpc-y. lsao-t oU/AL-yerv 7r-? K1; 7rpa'y[-L]aol avucs.myvt 6wvrat J B Mayor, Hude (H-L); irpady[]ao-t ouyyPvWPvra. Rutherford (K-w). 36 K&T&TOFCNOC?, KT& 7rb -ygvos K, H-L, B; Ka7-a -yeop K-W. IEPOCYNH; iepwo.Uh77 K, H-L, B; iepEWo*-q K-W (cf. Meisterhans, p. 362). 16e/o\0NTLNTN: 5rX8Oovr. H-L. 37 AyEIN: 6uoiwp K-W'. dowirCcL KMa 18pv] These are exhibited on the vase representing the ephebus taking the oath, mentioned in note on ~ 3, ra& iEpl& 7repL'XOoY. ~. 4 povpov-rL] The Schol. on Aeschin. F. L. i67 quotes the two following lines from Eupolis, ot'Tos iv Toils 9poupio1L KOLT-iL SCETat, and roIbl 7reptr6Xovs airvYCm Ei TIr 95po6pta. The 1q5-qfot of B.C. soo (CIA ii 467, 22 and 87) E'oiiXvo rl n Ta Opovp'a Kail r& 6pa r7s; 'ATrLK-?p 7rXEOJ'dKtS EV OWXOLS. Among the qapo6pta were Anaphlytus, Thoricus, Sunium, Rhamnus, Eleusis, Phyle, Aphidna (Gilbert, i 297). XXcqasva ] 'short gowns or mantles.' Pollux, x 164, Trb bi TWv e'/o03wv qo'ppa 7T&aoToS Kil XXaIL~LA6 4LXhUWP v (v 9upcopt i-y( Y-K p k Tqv Xha i;8a KaT6 T076lqY rOoi Kai T011 TYITaTofOv. Cf. Antidotus, ap. Athen. 240 B, E'-y-ypa0ivaL KIL Xa3eZpv TO XXaLPu6BLOP. Meleager, in Ant/i. P. vii 468, has an epitaph on a youth whom his mother 6KTWKaL5CEKe-Cr 60T6XTeJ' XXaFct. K XXact6os=eS eohfov in Plut. ii 752 E, cf. 754 F. It appears on vases as the characteristic dress of young men (L and S), e.g. Tischbein, Vases,i 14; Hamilton, Vases, i 2 (in Smith, Dict. Ant. i 416); and esp. on a lecythus from Eretria (Studniczka, 7ahrb. des Kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. ii i63; Daremberg and Saglio, iii 630, fig. 2680). The garb of the uq5q/oL is sometimes supposed to have been 'yellow or saffron-coloured' (Dict. Ant. I.c.), but it was black according to Philostratus, Vit. Sop/i. ii I, 5, peXalvas XXa,.4v6as Cv'77gfLLvoL Ta's iKKX-7 -alas IrfplEKdWIPT0 KIL 7Tis 7ro0/ani grchrov. Herodes Atticus altered it into white and himself defrayed the cost of the change (CIA iii I132; Capes, Univ. Life, p. 9). dT1EXEZs-w7civrwv] This general exemption did not include the -rpvqpapXia, which was incumbent on all Athenians of a certain census from the time of their enrolment on the X-LLapXEK6W ypaILFLaILEoYv (Dem. Mid. 154). Even this X-k-ovp-yia was remitted for one year in the case of orphans, Lys. 32 ~ 24, oOs i7 ir6XXs o6 Abvov 7TiLIs 6i'ras aiLTXELI ir67O'r aev, daXX Kai firftELV 3OK/KtGao-otLv 1vLaUaT6Y diAjKEv araoawv Tw q X1Tovp-ytWv. 'JrEpl KX'lPOVJ Thus Demosthenes sued his guardians as soon as he came of age, Onet. i 15,i7; iid. 78. Ci'rLKX jpov] At the age of i8, the young Athenian became K6pLOS T771 E7TLKX75pOV, Isaeus 8 ~ 31, io ~ 2, frag. go, Hyperid.ftag. 223= 194; Suidas, s. v. XqLItapXLKbV ypaL/aLiLTov,oB; A. Schafer, Dem. III 2, p. 24 f. The list of lawsuits in the text is possibly not exhaustive. In Lys. io ~ 4 the speaker, who was 13 at the time when his father was put to death by the Thirty, instituted a prosecution against them before the Areopagus as soon as he came of age, i71ELt&7 TiLXLOT-rIL i8OKtgd6OO (~ 31, in B.C. 399). The other alternative is to assume that the statement applies only to the time of the writer (Hager in Smith, Dict. Ant. ii io66 a). XLIII ~ i. On officials elected by show of hands. ~ I. "'V 1'YKu'KXL0V 8LOCK'nLow] Pol. 12 55 b 25, E'YK6KX~a3LaLKOVh5a7-Ia, 1263 a 21i, eYK6KXLOL &LLKO=dILL (every-day duties). 1269

Page  156 I56 AOHNAIQN COL. 22, 1. I12-20. wotoiut KXflpcoTa9, 7rX'v 'rabuov o-TpaTWrtaKr6V Kat 'rcOV EV TO OecoptKo\) Ka~t ToV TOW' KPflV6OV E7rt/JeX?)TOv,. Tav'r a9 (E XEIpOTOvOv'uuv, ica~ Ot %EtpOTOVrqO6'vTE9 a~p~ova- eK llavaO~yat'o et's~ HavaOSvata. XUtPOTOVOVO-L 86\ Kal ra\9 -7rpo9 TOyv 7rO'Xe/ov arao-aq. K XLIII 2 TrAH poTmC (6 TAH poyTI). <TroL>- -ra/ilo <TWVj>- o~pa7tLwTLKW Richards. 3 KpHNLWN: KOLVGV J W Headlam (H-L). b 35 (of courage), Xp?5oL/uoO irp6s- o6Slv r~o' IEyKVKXL'WV 6AX'et'rep et's rll 7r0OXe/Aol. Qecon. '2, I346 a 8, 7rp0oGo6os d716 TW(v e'YKVK'XI WV. TrcL[LCov1-o-rpm-rLcllrLKCwv] The war-fund included the income from the propertytax and the surplus of the yearly revenue, [Dem.] Neaer. 4, ra& 7rEpt6vrac Xp-q4,uara,r~ &oLK'acrews. The fund was administered by the ra/Lifas -r(' oTp. This official provided pay for the troops and defrayed all other military expenses (Smith, Diet. Ant. ii 761 b). He is first mentioned in B.C. 338, [Plut.] Lycurg. 27. In 334 (CIA ii 739) he makes payments to the treasurers of Athene and to the commissioners for restoring the figures of NL'K- and the articles of plate used in processions (see further in Hartel, Studien uiber aft. Staaftrecht, PP. 135-6; Gilbert, i 237; Diirrbach, l'orateur Lycurgue, PP. 32 -33). For some of his other duties cf. inf. C. 47 ~ 2, 49 ~ 3.,rcv ~i-yTo.'r OECWPLK0OV] probably instituted under the administration of Eubulus (between B.C. 354 and 339). It has heen a moot point whether there was only one official bri -il OIEWpLKbV or more (Gilbert i2,29). The text implies that there were several. In -B.C..343/2, CIA ii 114 C 5, a single individual is mentioned 6'r i-rb OeWPLK6v, immediately after the -ypagg/are6s KaTa 7rpvrca'eic'a and e'nl Tra )~-qcfoqiara, and immediately before the fOovX*~ -raduia; thus he is possibly only a f0oVX1EVTqs charged with looking after that department of business and is not necessarily to he identified with the management of the fund. Aeschines, c. Ctes. ~ 24, mentions the archon of the year in which Dem. was elected treasurer of the 61wpIKl'P; hence it was inferred by Boeckh (Ii vii p. '248 Lamb) that the office was annual. The text shews that it was held for four years, from one Panathenaic festival to the next. Cf. 47 ~ 2. KPTjVZV (ElrLp.EX'Tjri] KP?)P(V f' rt/ueX-qrtcd are mentioned in Pol. 13,21 b 26, where Athens is doubtless in Aristotle's mind, though not expressly named. Plato, Le~g. 758 E, refers to Kp7JVCJJ 6'rt/IEX-qTds. An inscr. published in the 'Eq5i1)eptis 'ApXato \oyLK-1, 1889, PP. 13-i6, no. 28, describes the work done by one Pytheas as incr/he6X?7r17 TWOV Kpfll'Wl in B.C. 333. e'761ELS Hu0~ias alip6e~ls eirl Ta& Kp75las i-rWI &XXwp El'rT PX 1 irlf EXeZ7-a KaLX W Kd / X i- 1 w s KTX' 6'rcal'&a-a Hu~av....dpertjr 9XEKc Kal &KatoY6v'?f 7iJI irep' 7 —7l'p E'rqJe~eLal' i-WV Kp-qVwjV, Q`rwS a'v 0i cLXXOL Ii deif XELPOi-0V06 -ptevoL E7rt i-aS Kp77Vas CptXo7tL/LWv7at KT-X. Cf. Hesych. S. V. KplJVci-IYyi (Sic) dpXil Ert T7~I 6'r1LeXetas 65aros, and Pollux viii 113, flrL/.4EXnp-i7 Si TLS... &YlPETO, 6S Kal e'KaLXet-o il)' i'WP, 'V... Kal KP??VOSbVXa6KLOV apXi57: also Pbotius, Kp-qvoq5Xa~- l'v 3 Kat apXih 7TL 'AO-iPz'iTo-. It is uncertain whether Kp-1PJV'XAia~ was another name for this officer or the title of a subordinate official. The importance of this officer is indicated by his heing elected and not appointed by lot. The office of V6&drwp i6rwi-cTd?71 was held by Themistocles (Plut. Them. 31i ~ I). Cf. Daremberg and Saglio, s. v. Epimeletes, ii p. 668 6. As two of the officials mentioned in the text are connected with finance, some surprise has been felt that no notice is taken of the important financial officer called the Tragila T771 KOLV*J lrpoo-63ov or r'u -rj &OK7 5-L (The latter title is supposed by Fellner to have been introduced about 300 B.C., but the supposition is not approved by Gilbert,i 233. Cf. Ddirrbach, Lycurgue, pp. 2 1-38.) This official, like those in the text, held office for one term of four years only, [Plut.] vit. Lycurg. 3. Lycurgus, whose financial activity began in 338, is described as 7-aXOhis 'un i — &OLK?50-L (Hyper. frag. 121i Blass); he probably ceased to hold this office in 334, and this treatise was written about ten years later. Hence, it is suggested by Mr J. W. Headlain to alter Kpi7V.CV into KOVWCV. It would be safer, however, to suppose that Kad TO-l fun T- &OLK?50et had dropped out, than to accept this suggestion. The fact that the Kp?7Vwl' 4E7-1/LeXil-r's was elected at the Panathenaea (about -23-28 Hecatombaeon, before the middle of August) is confirmed by the above decree in honour of Pytheas, which is dated 9 Metageitnion,

Page  157 CH. 43, 1. 2-8. ITGAITEIA '57 2 /3ovXi)7 8'e KCXflpo -at 7rMv'aicotot, 7ir6irT771cov'a anro <rip;> ovX13 eacTT'rn9. 7rpvTal'v'E v El'p~E'pe 'rCOV obvX v icaoarq IeaffO Tt a'v XaXoow;V at pev wrpca'at TETr~ape,64:6' Ieatb 'rptcdxV'a i7/.tepa9 ee/a(WT77, 8 6 4) N (K,, H-W, B); 1rEVTcK6crL0L, 7rcVrhK0o'Tca H-L. -<,ris>- OVuX~ B. TESTIMONIA. XLIII ~ 2 * Harp. 7rp-racweas:... 9at5e alpLO/ubs?7.lw ' vrapUrecla 7770o1 XE 7 XE, ASE fKdTT7J2 qniX~7 7rpv7-YC~661. &dXEAKTcL 5& 7repZ -ro6,rcw 'Ap. ip' r,,q 'AO. iroX. Harp. (=Bekk. An. '291, 4, Lex. Dem. Patm., Schol. Plat. p. 459) 7rPuVcieLr:..ierpu* TdiI'V0V 3W... K 5&aIoX*7 dXX725Xats a~l 54K1L qOvXat KX?5pyj XaXoiircu. Schol. Plat. Leg. p. 459: lrPvrc'ec 5-ErO' Ts )IEpP( 77T0 XE 77 Xf, G.E E'Kio-T77 (/UX7 7rpv-racL6etY Xetye-,rtc... Kaid0 &Pp ratci es -ra~ras at' ildpa& Tog evtawTOi3 Kcar& -ya'p oecXhv77v d-lovcL ToOUTop, WS IEKdLT77 q/WX17 TIC,' 8eKG. 17r1/3Xet Xe l'gpas, 7rXEOcv,~Et 8& 6XiycaE. 513 Kal T-&E XoL7r,&E a745iWKG.V ol 'AO77VG.iot TatEs 7rpd)7-aLE Xa.Xo60GaL 7-eaapo-t OuXaZs, It'a iKELi'W PV /~' KO'T7 Tr&E XE ip9pas Trpvrave6f,q I 5' Xotral t~ d'v Xe. Fere eadem Photius, 7rpvi-raveia, inter alia cietrwr6v 5~ ol' 'AO77va?oL rokv a0EX77E'cKbV ' ov (Frag. 3932, 4333). Schol. Maximi Planudis ad Hermog. in Rhet. Gr. v p. 509, 20 Walz: W'ptaec~v 4'craw fiKX-qoi1at KaLT. 7rpvrvl apcwe aE'o-,r-qY7 T-r~r-apeE' aeKa. & ov'o%3, 'AO'Pq7o-t c/vX(Bv f'rpvT6JvEvoE' at' /A6 7rpwo-rat XacXoio-at cvXal Tiro-apeE d,'? TptdKOE'Tca t~ '(LipaL, ad 5& Xourcd e~ aw& TrpLa6KoVTa 7riP7-e KT-X. eleven days after the close of the Panathenaea. 4IIc aVcLGqvaCCWV (LS IlavQ6'~VCuczj i.e. for four years. The phrase (with 4E for ciE) occurs in CIA i32 A '28, B '27 (Hicks, no. 37); I17, 3; i2I; 125; 129; 133; 141, &c; 170; 273 (Hicks, no. 46). The greater Panathenaea were held in every third Olympic year, in the same year as the, Pythian games. The loci classici are collected in Michaelis, Parthenon, Anhang I I, 31i8-3 33. '-res 'irpos 'r~v irr6XEILov] The offices of 0-7TpaT-qry01 and their subordinates, the O-rrapXoE, 06XIapXoE and Tra~iapXos. Cf. Gilbert i 2 20 if., and Headlam, On the Lot, p. io2; inf. 6i ~ ~~2, 3. The Council. On the subject in general, see Hermann, Staatsalt. ~ 1'25-127; Schdmann, Ant., p. 37 1-9, E. T.; Gilbert, i25i-264; Smith, Dict. Ant. i 309. ~ '2. KXI1PornTCLL] It was appointment by lot that made the Council consistent with the democratical constitution of Athens and prevented its becoming an oligarchical body of higher authority than the public assembly. The power of the old aristocracy had centred in a Council, and this power was broken down by the introduction of the lot. The Council of 400 under the ' Draconian constitution' is described as appointed by lot (4 ~ 3). The earliest documentary evidence bearing on this subject is an inscr. of Erythrae, the constitution of which was modelled on that of Athens in B.C. 455-450. It is there ordained for Erythrae (as for Athens) cilrb KVA41W1 jPOVXhv elecu (CIA i 9 = Hicks, no. 23). Cf. Headlam, On the Lot, PP. 41-56, 86. 7irpv-rcve1UEL] ' presides,' i. e. sits as a superintending sub-committee of the Council. Cf. Harpocr. s. v. 7rpu7-ra'ecE, Schol. Aeschin. 3 ~ 3; also Schdmann, p. 376, and Gilbert, i 255. Even the order in which the 7rpVTcivecl held office is determined by lot (cf. Headlam, 1. c., p. 5i). This fact had already been ascertained by Clinton, Fasti, ii 344-6=415-8. aLL p.~vwrpCOi.FL K-rX.] The normal Attic year consisting Of 354 days, the tenth part would be 35 days, and 4 over. It has been supposed by Gilbert, i255, that these four days were assigned to the several prytanies by lot. The text states that they were assigned to the first four prytanies, which thus lasted for 36 days, the remaining six lasting for 35 only. This fact was already known to us through Photius, Suidas and the Schol. in Hermogenem, v p. 509; but their authority was set aside on the evidence of the Choiseul Marble, CIA i i88 (Ditt. no. 44) 11. '25 -40, B.C. 410/9, where we have express mention of the 36th day of the 8th, 9th, and ioth prytanies. Hence it was inferred by Clinton, Fasti, ii 346-4i8, that the four supernumerary days were assigned to the last tribes and not to the first. While this was clearly the case in B.C. 410, the text shews that, in the writer's time, the latter plan was adopted instead. The duration of the 7rpm-v7uerta is discussed by Unger, Philol.- 38 p. 425 iff., Usener, Rhein. Mus. 34 p. 39-2 if., and A. Schmidt, Gr. Chronologie, pp. 241, 423 etc.

Page  158 i58 AOHNAIQN COL. 22, 1. 20-37. ate &E a t VO-ea 7rerre Icat Tpta'cOVTa ~77/~pa EKaaTTq7 Icamr V170a1)"7vot 6 el)L 'V~. Ot (E 1p avv T6 aVT&) 10 (T EC fT N V fyczp C-Va )' O V OLJ) 'V Tr p v r a v e v o vra / r v. 7r c7 o ) t~ v o - o tr ~ v z r~ o ~p0 a/ 3 V ov 're 9 d p y p to v 7ra p a T?7 7TOXEV, 7r~tTa ovvaeyoveatv cat T7171 j8ovX17i Ica~t TO T7-7V Fue P[PwI1 fovX?7v b'cat 77pe'pat, 7wX?'v e'aV Tt9~ ac'ce'Oqeo9 y, T'V 8q^1p40V TETpaKlcSl T7 7T VTaveta9 EKa0-T7179. tat, o%[a] ESE' XpqlI-"t,9-10 Ka-ral UEXh517P-61'P1aVT6V del. Lipsius, Herwerden. 10 acL-yovaL H-L. 12 o-Va'ciyOVcr H-L. K& I (vel ci?): Kai T7'PV K3, K-W, B: 611 Thy K1, Tz'P H-L. 13 OYN om. Harp. (K-W, H-L, B): retinet K coil. Ar. Poet. I458 a 25 etc (Ind. Ar. p. 540 6). TUAHNEN&N corr. K. 14 XPHM&T1Z6I corr. K. ~~3, 4, 6 Pollux viii 9 5, lrp V rav eLts: ov'roL 77'v 130vX'?7'v dTV-yO Vo vatv 6'o —qpat, irXv 711 T?7 6(P6701r, " 701' & 377/aov Te7pai1K t1 E'Ka'o-T77 7rpv7CaVdtas- Kai -n-po-ypa6(Povort 7rpb r5 /3ozX hl Ka12 7rpb 7771 f'KKX77c0iC'S 6'r~p W vp "SE Xpi77IaTlfet'." TCW1 ' iKX?7)OLCV A7/Lv KV~pic, IE -07 Ta' dlpXa'S cEWIXetpo7oVO0-V1W d'6 Ka~ 'pXovo-Lv, 77' a'70XELpT0TV06TLV' eY 17, Kall 7a1 eIITCa-yyeXias 6' (3vX6jevos 6hrcayy~XXet, " Kad 7a6 dlroypaq a5& 7~p,qe1' ~ v a11a yt'yPIA$KOVITLV 01 rp6s 7aU1 &lK cuS, " Ka' 761 Vu5461 TWYV KX 1)pW I." 96, 77 56 SevTepc IKKX770cri aIVeL7Ca 70?3 flOVXOl SOCTs 1LK6T 77p1'az Oe/.6hoLs X -yuvJ d1SeWI I7re t 7p7i ~ W KaIl TWL' 3q 001W 77 5 TPiT777 "K15pl)~ Ka11 7rpf0`I3EatSll" d~to? Xp-q1.arlf'eE P, 061 Sei irp6-repov To ~s 7rpvrcivec-t' ai7O&SOlVca 76' -ypai/A1/a1 a, 77 5 a 767I1 T7 e Pt' I'EpW P Ka12 ooiw v (Frag. 3942, 4343). Cf. Schol. in Aeschin. ~ 104. ~~3, 4. * Harp. KVpi'a 1EKKX77eTLIa:...71v61 56 a' K1~ptII fEKKX77ITLIaL 'Ap. 3eS'4XWKE6V 'EV 7T7 'A O. iroX. X4-y'wv 7061 7rpv~av'et oUvva'yELV' "7171 f3 1'X i'V Kail 7-b' 517/Lo, 7171 1.6v 8ovX 7v " Su77ju~pa.1, "1rX771-EK a0OT771." 7rpoypa(povaL & (P77,L Kail Kvpt'av 6KKX77Oi1aI, 'V jj Se 7a11 dIP X a ar7oXetpo7oPEP 0l 5010 K V0rLO /177. K a X CO IP X EL V Kai 7repi (fvXCaK17 5 7771 Xw'pas. "tKall 7111 E1'Ta yye'Xi'as- rot016Z0aL' ( 077O1 KaI Ta' e'771 (Frag. 3952, 43 53). f KO.-CL a-EX 'V-1v-ZvLcLvT60V] This explanation is introduced quite as natu. rally as that in the corresponding passage of Schdmann's Ant-, p. 376 E. T., where, immediately after defining the duration of a prytany, the writer continues: ' The Athenians, it may be explained, had a legal lunar year consisting of i12 months of 29 and 30 days alternately, and therefore Of 354 days altogether.' The phrase reminds one of Arist. Nub. 6,26, KIaTII and Diog. Laert. i59 (of Solon), 1~wo-e 76 'A 77 al on 7a 77/1 1 1 7 E 71P-OP d-yeLv. The explanation (like many others in this treatise) would not be needed by Athenian readers; but it does not necessarily follow that it is an interpolation, as suggested by Lipsius, Leipzig Verhandi., i892, p. 47 n. ~ 3. GrvOO~LTOVOcLv iv Trjj eoikc] Dem. F. L. ~ 290, oi rpvrU7Iis1 ObovowL 6111107076 KcO1wv Kai oV-S6L7TV0LJ01v aXX75XoLT KIa' "VO7ry5 U0v. Am m onius ap. H po r s.v 06Xos,- 6' 5 7-67ro01057r0o) E07LT W1~L1 ol 7rpv761611CL Ka1XeLTIaL 66Xos. Cf. Pollux viii '55; Bekker, Anecd. 264. On a special emergency the g3ovVh even passed the night there, Andoc. de MYst. 45. It was also called the 011161S (Gilbert, i 256, n. 4). It was near the 8OlXfVr7)PL0V (Paus. i 5, i), to the north of the east end of the Areopagus (Curtius, Stadtgeschichte, p. xciii and i7i). Thus the rIpvraivets could readily leave the 006Xos to attend the meetings of the whole body of the Council in the neighbouring &ovXevmjptov. Cf. Wachsmuth, Stadt Athen, ii 315. o-vv ' ovOLV K7X.] CIA ii 417, 459 and elsewhere (of the 7rpv-r61ELs), Ere/AeX75677aa1 56 KaIl 777 avXXo-y?7 7 71 TE (30UX77 Ka1111 70 37'74Ov KIal 71&W a"XXtv 101 al"T7-ot 71p0o671r770o ol v 6wxo. 5acrmL?jjLF.6Pa] The manuscript reading has been retained, 'as it facilitates the following 711' (J. B. Mayor). Hitherto our earliest authority for this equivalent to 60o77Aepat has been Themnistius (A.D. 355), who also has GOcat Wp1L in p. I192 D. 0001 /117161 occurs in Dem. 744, 25 (L and 5). cd~e'crLjJ~os] Aristidesi 344 Jehb. The large number of such holidays is noticed in [Xen.] de Rep. Ath. 3, 2. Among them were the Ajpaturia (Athen. 171 E), th phsno~ oria (Arist. 7'hesrn. 79),th K'ronia (Dem. 24 ~2~6), and the anro(PpdcsE 77114211 (Plut. Ale. 34). Gilbert, i 258, n. 4. T7E'rpMlKLs] Elsewhere (Photius, s. v. KVpi1a EKKX77011, Schol. Arist. Ach. ig and Schol. Dem. '24 ~ '20) we are told of three

Page  159 CH. 43, 1. 9-21. T1oAITEIA '59 r'cw rT \3OVX )\ V EKa\ ' 7tjfl Ev E'KaaG-r T' r/tp'e a, Kal 67rov caOLREtl), 15 4 OwrtO 7TpOlypa VOV(7. 7rpOlypc/oV0-t &6 Ka& 7a9 eKKXqlO-ta, oblrot, /aiav FEl KVptlav, E) 9 7t a ap aPXW EmtXutPo'oEtv etSOKOV(T KaXosq apXEtv, iKat 7rept 0t-rTOV Kat 7rept 0vXaKP-7q T?'7 X"pa'~ Xprnla'1'EtV, K\ T \ ';7l 7 EV I ^ C /CL~OV ICa& 7aq etoa(y7ya tae EV TaVTy,7 Try?7/Epa TOV' P A EVOV9 7ToLELo e 0 L, at 'a9 a7Troypa~cJa \reo &7/.Levo/kEvl)W av~ayLtyc)W0KteLV, Kati 2 Tq X?4EL9 rqCh'V KX 'pCOV Kcat Tc^v 6'7wucX jpaw O [avatyLylyo0-KEtv]j, [0'7O]9 15 KWIOTI (corr. e KtITOY) secl. B. OTI0YK&0..C1V 0 TI oU KcaO7KEL? K; OTIoYK&0EIZ6I? 07roV Ka61fecv egregie K-W (B); etiam Herwerden verbum Kaot!Ie1 hic latere suspicabatur. 20, 21 a'vayyvP$0KELV (bis) K3, H-L (Meisterhans, a. 12382): &NtFIN (K, K-W); verbum in V. 22 secl. K-W, B. ~.Lex. rhet. Cantab. Kvpta iKKX-qoLa-:... Ldetpop oiv' 'Apio-TrorXe < reEOeeOa >Tas 7ap aJpXas iv -raTiS KVpLcLL EKKX7)qirtLS c/npiiv 67rLXeLProToveLOeca Kal Tal eiaayyyetas< bTo foUX6epov ei1ocay-yeXXetv addidit Meier> Kai ni cZXXa T6'JI aCayllKaLWi XPrIIcLqgiServ "KKai 7repi CITovU < KaIt> (/)XaK'17 T)SX XW'pas, KILL Ta's adroypa~as'-KXP5pboV." meetings in each month, all of them termed KVpiLL EKKX7oLlia. But the text shews that there was only one KVpia iKKX7)0la in each month (~ 4), as already held by Gilbert, i 269, n. i. 6iroV KCLOtELv] The sessions of the govV?, though ordinarily held in the 3ouXeuT?'7ptov, were occasionally transferred to the Eleusinion, the Theseum or the Panathenaic Stadium, or even to the Acropolis (Gilbert, i 259 n. i). 6' TL o6 KaL6IKeC could only mean 'what is not suitable'; and such a sense is out of place here. I was once inclined to suggest o~rac KaO-15K7, 'at the proper time,' lit. 'whenever the time arrives.' Dem. p. 399, 6, iKKX-701aV roLJoiaaL, 67-av IK TIn' v6~UoV KaO'5K-7. Ar. Hist. An. viii 2, 23, 0 XpSvOS KUL075KEf. 'rpoypcL(J ovcL] CIA ii 6i, ireL~Lv 36 TaOTIL rcapaIaKeIEva006, TO/ 7TrpUTCaELI srpoypcipat 7repi TroT',wv ' fOUXEVT7lpit~p S6TI' 016v Tre ~~ 4-6. The Public Assembly. ~. irpoyp iLovrL-EKKX71o-Cas] Five days notice was given; Bekker, Anecd. 296, 8, lrp6wreqrra (Gilbert, i 270 n. i). IL(CLV j-aV KVpCLLV] see note on T6epCiKcL, ~ 3. The agenda for the Kupia iKKX-qola were already known through citations of this passage in Harpocr. (Gilbert, i 282). EIFLXELPO0oVdtv] 'confirm the election of.' Harpocr. s. v. Ka7-aXeLpoTovia' 96os 77v 'A0i'vq0n KaL-a' 7Ti/v alPX6vT&Jl KaI KaTCL TWV OVKO(/)avTWI' -7/po/oXiLs l'sv TI1) 5'V TL0e0at L~Ei '1 TLS Kara7eLproT7v700etq, 0o/Tos etao) ETo s Tir &Kao-rTo/5P vL. For this KaTaXetPoTow'aI he refers to Theophrastus, iv 3' N6,uwv. Cf. Schomann, De Comitiis, p. 231; Ant. 391 E. T. The term rpo /oXd is inaccurately applied to the iz-cXpOTOvia (Meier and Schdmann, note 389 Lips.; and Smith, Dicd. Ant. ii 492 b). 7Epl o-CTov] Xen. Memn. iii 6, 73, br6oov XP~OV VK Lavo's E-TLv 6 iK T7)1s Xcbpas yLyl'/LevOS FOLTS &a7-pi6ELv T-i7V roXXv, KaIt rw6ov ELS TOY evLIL/VTl'V rpoo-eLTaLL. -irept (XaKCWs] ib. ~ io, repi ye ovXaK$p T?)S xcjpas oLY "T4 001 /L-OtE/si~X-qKe, KILL ota8a, 'ro'uat LTE 9JvXaKat E riKatpoi E/iO Kaci bCorIat /A7), KIL 07rr0/To 7TE 9povpoL ikLKavo ei0- KTX. This topic of deliberation is mentioned in Ar. Rhet. i 4 ~ io, repi 0vXaKj7S Tj7 X1 pas /p3 XcavOdeiCv 7rrs /wXdiTTETaI KTX. in PoM. 1298 a 3 it is omitted. Cf. CIA ii 225 and 334, E' /vXaK7l' Tj7 XWPqS (Gilbert 282 n. 2). 'rods EJCovyyEXCLs] Such information might either be brought before the /ovXhl, through the 7wpvurctve's; or (as here) before the 'KKX7q0iIL, through the Oecr/xoerac (c. 59). Cf. Hager in Smith, Dict. Ant. i 709,, 1067. 'rcs cQloypacds 'r(v STjJeluojLE'vwov] 'inventories of confiscated property.' Pol. 2298 a 3, repi...86ue-kews. On airoypa/sij see Meier and Schbmann, pp. 304 -6 Lips., and Dict. Ant. s. v. Tas Xhj~ELs TCOV KXIpCOV KMa.rcV ArLKX'Ppov] i.e. the legal claims (or 'lists of suits') for the right of succession to inheritances, and for that of marrying the daughter of a citizen who has left no son to inherit his estate (56 ~ 6, KX?)PWV KaIL 7rIKX 'p&ov i7-L&KaotLO). Meier and Schbmann, pp. 791-4, 6o6-8, 6i6 Lips.; Dict. Ant. s.v. Heres, i 947 a and Eliclerus, p. 747 a. 67rrws-9piiyrov yEv6jAEvov] 'that all may have cognisance of any vacancy in an

Page  160 i6o i 6o AOHNAIQN COL.22,1.37-COL.23,1.5. /tfleSva Xa60, /47E piytov 7yevo/1evov-. e~ [& ris' eKcTfls 77-pv7-aM~ai' 7rpo9 Tows etpfl/Levows IKal 7r6p i T?77 (a o-paKo~opt'aq e71LXELPOT0 -vlav &86'ao-tv-, et' 3oKeZ 7roteW Ical xat vKoe/av70Wv 7rpo/3oXa9 -rcz'v,25 A rat'cov Icat 'rcv JerTKowc /LeXpt 'rptwv elcaTep[W,,rvris ~) wouj -rp r 87j,.up. erepav~ & rats' bcev~piae,6 23 HPHMENOIC. ErcXELporovlaw; idem habet lexici rhet. Cantabrig. codex a Dobreo exscriptus (K, H-L, B): 7rpoXELPOTOvlav K-w quod ibidem a Meiero scriptum est. 25 EKATEpAN? KdPi 7-ts Blass, Friinkel (H-L, K3); 4EdE -rs K1; Keal icai T-s K-W. 26 ETI epav 51 K, K-W, B; C'-repca S f'0T1 H-L, quod I'spatium non capit' (K3). ~5 ib. " el' - TS~ 771 KT7 —S67ErLXl1p070V~P~ (rpoXIELporovlaw edd.) 616oo-Oat el 8oKet 7 o~(Frag. 3962, 4363). Hesych. KupL'a EIKKX.: /.1a Kupila 6KKX77Ola 7'7-'ETO 'AOi~v-qat, Ii' TI s apyrs '7rtXeLporoPeZP ISIet. estate.' This clause refers only to the suits concerning KX77pot and f'rL'KX-qpoi. 1'pq~os is a specially appropriate epithet for an estate deprived of its owner, or for children bereft of their father: Plat. Leg. 9'27,El 6' p95cu'& Kail gp77ta 3~pi~ovo-t. The object of this public recital was partly to draw attention to any claims on the estate; partly to give due notice to all who were interested in establishing a right of succession. ~ 5. 9Krfljs '1rpvrLLve~11s] In B.C. 410/9, when the Attic year began on July 24, the sixth lrpv-rcveia began on Jan. 5, B.C. 409 (Clinton, Faesti, ii 347 =48). do-TrpcLKO~op(CLS] On this occasion the point to be determined was whether there was a case for having recourse to ostracism; if so, a day was fixed for the final voting in the eighth 7rpUTILPEIIa (Lex. Cant. S. V. 0a-7-pcLKto-/6s; Schol. Arist. Eq. 852, and fragrn. Lex. Bemn. Arisfoer.; cf. Blass in Hermes, 188,2, p. 152). "A. Schmidt, Gr. Chronologie, p. 2 59, seeks to reconcile Aristotle and Philochorus. The date of the S'o-rpcaKo9ophia is explained by the desire to settle a dangerous political struggle before the opening of spring, i.e. before the end of Anthesterion. The 6th prytany in an ordinary year is equivalent in general to Gamelion iAnthesterion 5. But Philochorus wished to embrace the case of an intercalary year in which the 7th prytany is equivalent in general to Gamelion 2,2-end of Anthesterion: 'before the eight prytany' means either in the 6th or 7th, for if the principle was that the ostracism was to be proposed in Gamelion or Anthesterion, it might fall in the 7th prytany of an intercalary year. The hypothesis is absurd, for absolutely no reason is suggested why the Athenians should have ostracised men later in the year if it chanced to be intercalary,-to say nothing of other obvious objections " (Wyse). T-VKo4KtvTrCov wpopoXa's] A irpo/3oXiq was a preliminary criminal information brought before the public assembly; if the people approved, a trial before an ordinary lawcourt ensued. This procedure was applied in the case of those who had accused the generals concerned in the battle of Arginusae (Xen. Hell. i 7 ~ 34). The case against Midias began with a izpo/3oX-. Cf. Schbmann, Be Cornitiis, p. 231 iff., Meier and Schomann, p. 335 Lips., Bid. A4nt. ii49,2 a, 7 32 a. For its application in the case Of O-UKOa5civrat, cf. Jsocr. Antid. 314, KIL7-a' 5 7ro6,rwv (se. TWEV OVK05IpavWP~ f'roi7JCTILp) -ypa95a1 s1 i~vrpols 7061 Oeau/oOSTraI, eioaciyyeXt'as 5, ELI T'7JP f3ovX?~1, 7Tpo/3Xa 's 1' b 4i 6h5s,, and Aeschin. F. L. 145, Tii~P oUKoI/Ipav-W1' U71 KILKOiP-yWP 8?7/1oo-r151 7rpog3oXctt 7rotoAOa4EI, also Pollux viii 46, -7rpo/3oXat' 51 '~ro- Ka~i Iat 777 0VKO95COTica1 -ypaq~al. Trwv IETOCKWv] This implies that a /Ji&0IOS could be charged with o-Wco9acTtia. Hence it follows that he was entitled to give information against public offenders. Ordinarily this right was confined to citizens (Plut. Sol. s8, i~jp rySiwaluvct, KaI fOVN0oUevCO KI-X.). A foreigner, who desired to accuse a person of any offence against the people, was required to obtain special permission for that purpose, d~La5L, Andoc. Be Myst. ~ I5. Cf. Meier and Schomann, p. 330 Lips. KO.V TLS IJ~rooXoIJ.EVOS KTX.] Dem. Lept. 100, &TL7- 51 577r0o P/101 6/UP, E'dv 711 67roXO.LPSIi- T6' 77/OP77 1% 7i, i)Si and ib. I35 (where it is called a P6/LoS dpXcLZos and death is named as the penalty). The procedure began either with a 7rpo/3oXi (as in Xen. Hell. i 7 ~ 35) or an elai-OyyeXia, [Dem.] c. Tirnoth. 49 ~ 67. ~6. LKFE"rPcULS] 'supplications,' formal.

Page  161 CH. 43, 1. 22-30. T7OAITEIA [C-ol. 23.] Ev j 06E 0 /3ovUXo,/evo 'cKET?7plav, [vtrep] cv av 13ov\Xr)ratL i KEal LtOv KcaL 8juLo oa'lov 8taXeeTrat rpo rTov T 8/LOV. al 8Svo 'rep't 7Trv adXXCo eltiv, Ev a6t Kcevvcu o0a oL VOUOt rpta /uev 6epmv Xpr/LaTtetL, rpta 8E KiPVtlV Katl pec3SelatL, rpia 8' OCi00. Xp aTto EVi'OT6 30 27 oyBoyAo corr. K. LA)N K: *repi Wv Kontos, Lipsius, Gertz, K-W, sed spatium vix duarum litterarum capax vacuum relictum; virnp (\) w H-L (B). 28 Ala- eCTAI: tota\XETrat K (K-W, B); ataXyeraL H-L. 30 KjpvUt H-L. Tpl&AOCI~ON suprascripto cypaKoCION 'corruptumne ex cap& A OCICON ut Ar. Trrrapa 6' oaiwv scripserit?' K-W. XpxraTrLouvtL H-L. petitions.' For 0Eis...iKerTlpCav cf. Dem. de Cor. 107, o0X iKeTrlpiav tr0Ke rptjpapXos ovsels *rU*7ro0' Wd daciKo6/LeVos trap' V'AiV, c. Timocr. 12, fOenav Trv iK. wiv a'av ra Xp5!ara davOpwwrot, ib. 53; Aeschin. F. L. 15, IK. OvTes Ol OiKelO[ /6eovTo fidiv. The iKeTrqpia (pad38os) was an olive-branch bound with wool (Aesch. Suppl. 22, 192), which the 'suppliant,' or petitioner, held in his hand before depositing it on the altar in the place of public assembly. Such an application for the right of petition might also be laid before the BovX\, Aeschin. c. Timarch. 104. In Andoc. De Myst. IIo-i t6, it is laid before the PovX\ on the occasion of its session in the 'EXevaivtov, although presenting a petition in that place was forbidden, ib. rI6. Such petitions might include applications for the recovery of civil rights, or for the remission of sentences; and, in general, for exemption from legal penalties. Cf. Dem. c. Timocr. 46, TrS deias 6o0eiaolrs, and see Sch6mann, Ant. p. 397 E.T.; Gilbert, i 294; Diet. Ant. i 24 b, 702 a. at 8 Svo KTX.] Pollux, who gives in viii 96 a paraphrase of the present passage and its context, describes the hearing of heralds and embassies as the business of the third eKKX7oqia, while that of the fourth is 7repi lepwv Kal 6ba&v. This distinction is not in accordance with the text. The latter is confirmed by Aeschines I ~ 23, 7r6w 3e KeXE6jE TOsr) TOpOOVpov XP]/ cuatiritv;-7rpoxetpoTovelv-7rep ilepcv Owv rraTrpiLv Kai KrpvU Ka Ki rpeoetat Kct 6al oav. The statement in Pollux may have originated in some confused and fragmentary reminiscence of the constitution in c. 30 ~ 5, where, in the order of business before the fovX~, the third place is assigned 7rpeo-peiats, after which they deliberate 7repti TW a\Xcov (= 6ioiw). Trpmc] This implies that only three questions under each of the several headings were allowed to be discussed in each 7rpvuaveia. Similarly in ~ 5 only three OrvKoqavrTcv 7rpofpoal could be brought S. A. against Athenians, and three against resident aliens. These limitations have been hitherto unknown. Hartel, Studien iiber Urkundenwesen, cites, as examples of business connected with ritual etc., being brought before the people ev rpois, CIA ii 325, 352 b, 373 b, and (a decree of the KrjpvKes and EuiuoX7ri/sa) 605. On p. I73 ff., he cites the following inscriptions: 'AO4svaov vi I52 (=Ditt. no. 11o, Hicks no. iii) 1. 55 (B.C. 347/6 on the 7rpofpets from the sons of Leucon), Xp1qJuarilaa Tobs Trpo6Opovs ot av XciXwoL irpoerpeV6ev iv rw 6U/~y T-' b'-yo6 iri 86Ka 7rpjTOv ELerT Tra iEepa. The privilege of access to the /ovXi? (and in most cases to the 6oj/os) uerT& r&a tepa was granted to Aretus of Colophon (CIA i 36), to the NeoroXicrat (ib. 51 Suipp. p. I7), to the communities of Mytilene, Colophon and Cythnus (CIA ii 52 c, I64, 233), and to certain individuals named in I b, 34, 2o6, 29g, 289, 316. Cf. Dem. 24 ~ 25 ff. lEpov...6crCov] 'things sacred and profane.' 6o'ta, when contrasted with iepd, includes all that is untouched by divine law. Thus, in things concrete, lepa would include temples and their treasures; a6oa, civic buildings and money belonging to the state. Dem. 24 ~ 9, -rwv tepwV /#CV XPiLCaTrwv -roS 0Oeois, -rwv 6oaiv iO T-V 7r6Xlv droarepet. The same terms are used to contrast religious and civil privileges, Dem. 23 ~ 65; 39 ~ 35; as well as the corresponding legal enactments, as in Lys. 30 ~ 25, TWV 6oawv Kal rTwv lepCv dvTrypaqe6s (see Frohberger's Lysias, iii p. 172, and Ruhnken, Timaeus, s.v. otaa' T- iWTLKa, Kal y/0 1epCd). KtppViLV Kal trpeo-peiCas] The construction changes from gen. to dat., as in Aeschin. I ~ 23, where the order in which the four kinds of business are mentioned is the same as in the text. Foreign envoys were usually introduced to the iKKX\rLia by the fovX' (Aeschin. F. L. ~ 58). Dem. 24 ~ 150, Kal KnpVKOS Kal lrpeoaeias. Cf. c. 30 ~ 5. Xpqpa'TCto'urV —aveu TrrpoXELpoTovCas] II

Page  162 162 AOHNAIf~N COL. 23, 1. 5-i8. Kal avEv 7roetoota 7tpocaEp~ov~rat 86 Kal Ot K077VKES~ Kat ot -7Tp7/3EtS -rot0 7irPvra'veo-v 7rpCOTrOV, Kat ot Ta9~ e~rto-TOXa4 0e'povrres 33 7TovTov' aorA&6aot. 44. "Ea —t 8' 67r t -ra' q, 7-cv 7TpvU-aZ)EwZ ets 6 XaX fl 32 7rpvTa'ieO-L H-b, B. 33 dhro866aaow H-b. TESTIMONIA. XLIV ~~ 1, 2 * Harp. C7rLto-7-6Tqs:....86o 610lY 0l KCaOtcTTCa/Levot?7rtaTdr7aL, WV0 ACLV EK 7rpvUTaVEWV KX77"061MVOI 0 & 'K T-V O SV 7p8w, w'V Ekai-'Teo r0I OK-0L 3LOLKE? 3IE675XWKEV 'Ap. IV 'AO. iroX. Lex. Dem. Patm. p. 13 Sakkelion, rto-rO-7-dTs: ouros E'K TOWV 7CpU7-'CiWV 6EKX-qp007- Kail Ereo-HEcTEL "Vd6KTCL KaLL iepav " A6voV, Kaid oViK 4~i 6167-,EpoV 7-61 a207TO\P Y1V1E(TOaLL. 7-6 &' K X ELS 7-WV " 1fpWV & Oil " dLriKev-o Ti'a X p 7') a r a KCL1 r-. yp d4J4L LTC 7- 7~sr6Xews..-. Suidas (e lexico Photiano) C'rLoT67-a 77: "-W(V 7-pt'7-dcIVwV ei ' X aX aw' " E'7rL0Td7-7 iX ye o. 1s 66 T6V aZu'T6V E7ru7o-cLarqo-aL 00 E~~. 1w ~ ~ - ~ 7-roO iepoO 7-Ia' KXCS C y'V Ta' 677/A6(-taI XphIga7-a, g7-1 /dV Kail 7-\v 3 pq oolaV CT1/pa-yZSC (95vXd-opceyZ-0afia Etym. M. p. 364, 41). ECErLSaLv 6 ol 7rpvTILPeLs " o-uvIpy-ywc -r V IP u i 77~ 7-r v 377g ov," 0' a~~o c T7 I KX pO 2Tf~p~ aVI," o "( C I E W r7 " 6V1a " 7-Xi7\V Ti~ 7-rpu7-a ev~lo6O771. KaLi IraLXt " E'K 7-WY EVPi 7-o67-W V Er to-7ra'-r —7V 9 a KCLI i-r 7rpa7Apa (sic) rapaCl&wo-LV. Telephus ap. Eustath. in Od. p 455...-YlVE7-I 'yaip 9577ITLV 'AO75Vflou' 6EK 7-W~V 7rpv7-aZVewV ETI 05v1 E7rLta7-c7-eE V6KTIL KIa' 7'/J.paLv" /la, KaL1 7XCLW X p6V 01 00PVK 9~6,TLV o0066 " 81 7-6p' av'6V -yev~o-OaL, 7-a'l 7-h KXE-ZS -<7-WV lepWVY>- &1 oil 7-r Xp75PAa iCd, l /)1 VXIL17-6tE KCLi 7IL ypaL/L/a -ra, T771 i7r6XeW l KaIl 7-71'v 6n7 Lo Tulap o-(ppa-yL6 a. KX77 pot & KaIl rpoi6poIvl e'~ e'Kd0rT771 /)vX7I gCL " rXhV 7-r 71pv~aVEvuO6O77 KaIl 7rCOEL El 7017 WV E~L~ c T7 V L" (F a. 397, 43 3. P o llu x viii 96: E'rL07cLT7JI a' 'o 7-T V h 7-WVp rfPvrda Vewv, 6' KX 5pq, XaLXI$v, 611 6' OUhC teO7-rL yepe -OaLI T-6V ab6T6V C7rLO7-C7d-r7V. 9XeL 6E 0oTYOS 7-WV ICpW~V Ta\l KX ELI C6V O11 Tal Xp-/IIaTCL KIl 7-IL ypI4LI ara-IL K LL 057-W 01 7r~v7dI1ELs 7-61 6ij/.0 ' r'P~ &3VM ~V 1TUV d-WOLV, O'ro 0 6 'CT S~ir-7 Vws~ jS rp6h6poV eVIL KX77OLO, AL6V-qVv -a -r7-V 7rpv7-IVE60L TIV CqhLe (Frag. 3942, 4343) 'Sometimes the members of the IKKX7-0 at'a take the initiative in bringing forward public business, without a preliminary vote (on the question whether it will discuss a proposal on the part of the /3ouX-, or accept it without discussion).' Cf. Harpocr. sLv. 7-IpoXEtpo7-ovia _6.ro'TayIL 7-771 /30vX77 7Tpo/3vXEcvoa-Uc77s eicr-bp777 aL1 et' TOPV 6~LL0V ij yVW$/I77q rpo-rEPOz -Y[Ve7-I xetpo7-0Vp a EV 77 EKKA37O-1q, 7C0TEp V 80KIEL 76EpL 7-WV~ rpo[3vXeUOvTWv-r (IKE ~ac-OatL i-r6v 6iov, 71 apKet r-6 rpo&o6Xcu~a. In Dem. '24 ~ 12 (after a 7rpo&o6Xev~I) -yEVO/L6V77 E'KKX77ITICL 7rpo6Xetpo0T6PVq77EV 6' &$Aos. Cf. Aeschin. i ~ 23, and see Gilbert, i 276 n. 3. The course described in the text would involve a departure from the principle laid down by Solon, b776EV EOV dzpo/3o6 -XEUTOV ElS 6KKX77IIILVa eIITE/IpeoOaL (Plut. Sol. iv). This principle wvas also virtually set aside when the /3ovX', without arriving at any conclusion on its own part, referred a question to the CbKKX?77criC direct. Thus, on the memorable evening when the messenger arrived with news of Philip's capture of Elateia, the CEKKX770ICL had already begun to assemble before the fPovX9 had had time to draw up a pre. liminary decree; and, the business being urgent, the v1pv7-dveL1 brought it immediately before the assembly (Dem. de Cor. 170). It was also open to any member of the E'KKX770-LCa to take the initiative by moving to refer any question to the f8ovXi with a view to a 7rpo8oe6 -XEU/LC being drawn up by the latter (Gilbert, i '278 n. 3). WrPoOEPXOVTGLL-Tots irPV-uMVEOLV 'rrpwzTOV] Aeschin. F. L. 58, (the Povdj) TCLLI ~EVLKaLLI 7rpEo-/3eIlaL 7-r6 ELIS T6oV 677/oV 7rpoo-65ovs 7rpof3ovAEI5E. On the capture of Elateia, the messenger brought the news WS 7-061 7rpVTdIiEL3 (de Cor. 269). Cf. Arist. Tlhesm. 654, -raOra 7-011t 7rpt'7ravEIIV a-y-yEXwv. XLIV. The Public Assembly, continued. ~ I. rE~rLOrTC lT S T-WV Wp7r -cLVEOIV] In the fifth century the C67rt-Ld'r7-q7s 7-WVrpv -rveWV actually presided at the meetings of the IPovXi and EKKX7IrOiaL, and took the sense of the meeting. Thus, in 415 B.C., we find Nicias addressing the President at the Assembly in the words KaIl au', W' 7rp67-CaVt, 7-aLL/-ra.... CropbotLE (Thuc. vi 14). Again, in 406, on the memorable occasion when Socrates refused to put the illegal proposal that the generals concerned with the battle of Arginusae should have judgment passed upon them collectively, his own tribe was the OWX 7rpvTILve6ovo-C (Plat. Apol..32 a), and he

Page  163 CH. 43, 1. 3-CH. 44, 1.8. TTOAITEIA 163 0VT71? 8 e,77-Lo-a7E& vvK(Ta Kal?7pepaV, Kat OVIC E-TtV OVTE 77-XEL( XPVV0VTE 3T9 701 avrTo\i ryeveo-Oat. T77P6F 8' 0V70~ Ta9l TIE /XEL9 a. \ \, >, ActOEL Ka \I 7\77 8277poalav (7/pa~y'~ta, Ka\I6 /.teveLV atva7Katt0V EV' T? 5 E07 Ktt77) 7V01709 2 0 ICEXEVy. TKEV <T7Fe0L&W ov ayaywo- TVVa 7VTCOV 7PTdvriwv /3ovX'av OVT~rq &7bLkOV, 01)T709 KXl7pOZ 7rpoE8povq Jvv7-eC, ElaC eK 779 (fVX^7q e'Ka0-T7'q9 XLIV 2 06K gTTL 7I-XehO H-L. 3 KAE61C (K-W, K3, B; cf. Meisterhans, p. 282): KXjS K5, H-L. 4 ypc' acc-c K: <2-cl> -ypcap4iacza e gramm. K-W, H-L, B. 6 oOrT6P <2'-> K-WT. ~~2, 3 * Harp. wrp6e~pot CKX77p00P)0TCOPW lrpUTcEVC(OP KaG CiKdio-r' 7rpraVelaJ' 4ts 4EKdiaT2-17 cuXjs 7rX'V 7-75 7rpvTCl~evo6o —qs, ol'TLVes 70.X 7repi 2-al e'KKX77(YICL 8LW,'K0VP.... 6-n8 KcXO/.LVO ~7L0-rT77 K77pL uir~s dp7Kl''Ap. i'P 'AG. 7roX. (=Suid. s.v.). Photius (Bekk. An. -29o) 7l-p6e3pot: ol r&' irepl TaS e'KKX?70O4as 'AO 'v770c &OLKOLJJTes -<Kal -1-es evrccaicas E71-t/LeXo6/4LePo add. Lex. Dem. Patm. p. 12 >. CIS eKXoqpOOTO Viorb rivP 7rpvTclVEWV KaeG CKdITT77VP CKKX-JO-caP E4 CE0dT775 quX~Ss. was ijrto —cra'js for the day (Xen. Mernz. i, i8, E~rtorTcLTSS EP T-jJ 5huyC yeV6/LeVos). Cf. Gilbert, i '257 fl. 3. In the fourth century, on the institution of rp&e3pot with an 17Lrcorcr-js of their own, the duty of presiding in public was transferred to the 97r. -r7,v w7pod~pwoz (Gilbert, ib. n. 5), while the Eiw. T-^P wrpuTILVecop discharged the duties stated in the text. As the latter remained in the 06Xos for the day and night during which he was in office, he was necessarily precluded from presiding over the 6'KKX-jo-Lca or the /3ovXi. On the institution of the 7rpoe~poL, see ~ 2. Ircs 'rE KXELS KTX.] The keys of the public treasure kept in the 06wro-008o/Ios on the Acropolis (Boeckh, usI xx). The custody of the keys did not involve any responsibility for the actual management of the fund. The Arg. to Dem. Androt. p. 590 applies to the 6'rbITa-Tar77 language of less precision than that in the text: abrTs Ta&S KX6ZS T4jS cbpoo'XEwjs 'EtarTe6eTro KaL 7ra52-ra T&a Xp'lIuara- 2-971 ro'Xews. It adds: " ' olsp /-'q ipao-0' -vpavv16os, && 2-02- 77CI 1)pCV 7OUP C~Z pc rTWV 'iypv does not necessarily imply that the public treasure was kept in more than one temple. Hence the pl. throws no light on the obscure question whether the 067rtu068oj.cos of the ' old temple' of Athene between the Erechtheum and Parthenon was at this time still in use, as well as the Parthenon (see Miss Harrison's Mythology &'c of Athens, p. '505 -8). The 'old temple' was burnt in 406 B.C. (Xen. Hell. i 6), and the burning of the 067ro-0068o~os mentioned in Dem. '24 ~ 136 may refer to the same event. In B.C. 353 the priestess transferred to the eVr11-cTaLa (probably the 1'7r. 377.soolwv gp-ywv) in the archonship of Thudemus certain 'gold ornaments' which were removed from the ' old temple' to the Parthenon (CIA ii 758 IT 7). The public records (ypdajmrtL) were preserved in the M9-0 -rpypov near the fgovXEvr'ipto;v (Ae'schin. 3 ~i87; Paus. i3, 5; Lycurg. Leocr. 66). Cf. Curtius, das Metroon, Gotha, i868. Sijpoo-~cwv o-cpcL-yt&L] [Xen.] de Vect. 4, '21, aoP diro~cs orEo —/.tco-Aei~ Ty- 3-qaoal wp o —qIa'rpcp. The seal probably represented an owl or a Gorgon's head. Cf. Curtius, Abhe. d. Berlin Akad. 1874, p. 88 (Gilbert, ip. 256 n. 2). Both the badges above mentioned may be seen on the extant examples Of &Kcao-Tcb' rLza'Kasc (c. 63 ~ 4). ~ 2. wrpoe8povs] In the fifth century it was the 7rpurcdvvs who presided over the govX' and f1KKX970G10 in the person of one of their own body who was the iwst07&rT-qs 2-rv 7rpvTal'EPwx and was necessarily a member of the -rpvravE6Oovoa /vXv. Thus, in CIA ii ib, we have two decrees of the year of Eucleides, B.C. 403-2. (i) was passed in the prytany of the tribe Pandionis, and the J7rta-r~aT2r7j was of the deme of 'Dla, which belonged to that tribe; (,2) in the prytany of the tribe Erechtheis, and the ibrto-Ta'T77 was of the deme of K-q6at belonging to that tribe. As a general rule the deme of the 6r. TWYv irpurcivcwP is not specified; it necessarily belongs to the presiding tribe. In the fourth century the 7rp~epot came into existence. The E'7rccrd-Td7 TWYi 7irpuTraLvewp was deprived of his preeminence I1I-2

Page  164 164 AOHNAIQN COL. 23, 1. I8-3 I. 7rrXv r71 7rTpvTavvovtS7q1, Kal 7raXLv ec or707Wv e7rT e va, Kcal 1o 7rapaSi8owa To 7rpodypa/jLa avrots ot e 7rapaXa/3ov7eT r ' T' 3 10 wp6ypa/juta corrupte mutatum in 7rpa6yLa habet Suidas s. v. E7rro-TaiT7. o0 K-W, B; 01 K, H-L. and obtained in its place the privilege of appointing by lot nine 7rpoeSpot, one from each of the tribes except his own, and of drawing lots among those nine for one of them to act as the irLo-rdr1s? rTvW 7rpod8pwv. Under this system, the Trr. Tr) 7rpoeopwv was necessarily a member of some other than the 7rpvTave6ovaa qfWvX. In CIA ii 17 b (Ditt. no. 64), in the archonship of Nausinicus, B.C. 378/7, though the Irpoe&pot are mentioned, the deme of the 7rsTaT7dr7 is uncertain; but in CIA ii 17 (Ditt. no. 63), in the same year, in the prytany of the tribe Hippothontis, the E'rrtrTa'T7 is of the deme 'AOBxovov which belongs to a different tribe, Cecropis. In ii 50 (Ditt. 75), B.C. 368/7, in the prytany of the tribe Aeantis, the e7rraTaTr s belongs to a deme of the tribe Aegeis. In ii II6 (Ditt. 107), B.C. 341/o, in the prytany of the tribe Pandionis, the ertarTair'T belongs to another tribe. Between the years 378 and 320 we have in all 24 decrees giving the name of the prytany and the president, and in no case does the deme of the president belong to the qfvX\ rrpvrave6ovoa. For the years between Eucleides and Nausinicus (403 -378) there is at present no evidence; but it is probable that the change came into force in the latter year, a date of special importance in the financial history of Athens. The aim of the change was clearly to give all the tribes a concurrent share in the superintendence of the povXqi and eKK\ccX7-qa, instead of each tribe having in turn the sole superintendence for the duration of its own prytany. (See esp. Prof. W. W. Goodwin's paper in Trans. of the American Philol. Association, I885, vol. xvi I65-I75.) In the fifth century the formula for describing the president was 6 oeZia e're-rLTeLi. From 378 to 347 the same formula is used to denote the TrliTa-CTrr rTv Trrpocbpwo, side by side with a new formula, riWv 7rpoiepwv e7refT/ritqev 6 eyCva. From 347 onwards the last alone is found (Gilbert, i 257 n. 5). It was once supposed that the 50 7rpvTraves were divided into five groups of ten 7rpoe6pot holding office for one-fifth of a prytany (generally for seven days) and appointing one of their number to serve as e7rrorda-r for each day. This supposition rested on the Scholia to Aeschin. c. Ctes. 39 and Dem. p. 594, 5, and on the 2nd Arg. to Dem. Androt. p. 590. It was accepted in an early work of Schomann (De Comitiis Ath., I8I9), where, in the endeavour to reconcile the conflict of evidence, it was suggested that there were two sets of 7irp6eopo in existence at the same time, (i) the proedri contributes, belonging to the same tribe as the -rpvraYetr, and forming a subdivision of that body; and (2) the proedri non-contribules, belonging to a different tribe to that of the 7rpvTravts. Nearly three centuries earlier it was held by Sigonius (1529-1584) in his De Atheniensium Republica, that wherever the irp6e~pot were mentioned, they were the nine who were not of the same tribe. This opinion was accepted by K. F. Hermann (1843), who noticed further that the Irp6ospot are never mentioned until after the time when one of the 7rpvUaveL used to preside in the Assembly. Hence the rrpbebpoi (non-contribules) were a later institution, and the proedri contribules were a merely imaginary body. Schomann's earlier view survived in Grote, c. 31, iii ii8, but it had meanwhile been abandoned by Schomann himself, in favour of Hermann's view which is conclusively confirmed by the text. See Schomann, Ant. p. 377 E.T. Some confusion has arisen from the fact that Harpocration, s. v. 7rpoepoL, implies that the TrpO'Opot held office during the whole of each prytany, whereas the text, which he professes to follow, really describes them as appointed by lot for each meeting of the fovuX1 or eKKXrtiLa. The most accurate citation of the text is that preserved by Telephus ap. Eustath. on Od. 17, 455, and by Suidas, s. v. ETr1TaTrds, art. 2. On the general question see Goodwin 1. c., and Gilbert i 257 (with the authorities there quoted); also Caillemer on Boule in Daremberg and Saglio, i 740-I, and Chavannes on Epistates, ib. iii 700; and Wayte in Smith's Dict. Ant. i 320-I, and on Dem. Timocr. ~ 21. ErIo-TcrlTiv] sc. rv TrpoIopwv. He is mentioned as presiding (i) at the AovXh in Aeschin. c. Timarch. 104, 3ovuXevTrs Xv cKai rpoebpewv, and in CIA ii i68 (B.C. 333) rTwv tpoeBpwv 7re~'j94-/ie~v, and similarly in ii 179 (B.C. 325) about the time

Page  165 CLI. 44, 1. 9-i8. TlOAITEIA i65 EvKo tao-/eLra E t/LEXovVraL, Kcal v7Tep W' 6r t vPI W 7rpo-rtO'ao-t rIaa >M? XecpoTovias? KPWOVOLV, Kat 'ra <7r> at'XXa vaaia 83LOLtOOvLav Tjjfl] acfJEtvat IpLoL El etLtV. xcal E'n —Taryoat /LV OVKv Icat -ropov OVKa'~fear~ ~rrf e re-rt vov ql arra~ rco 'mv 3,vpe0 vet 8 f~,o-tva0a 4 7rotovt 0- 1ca1t a pXatpcutar o-Tparnrywov Ical K7rrrapXwv Ical rwp aXXcov Tr'ov 7rTpo\ TOlv rO'XeALOV afpxOw~ E)v -7r EK/cKXq?7 T, 1caG ' A' m (3ij~tuo 8OKI7- 7rot0o-ct (3 Ol -LEra 37-v etri)v 7rpV7-avevovTe9 eqc cov 11 7 11 EIXPHM&TIZEIN: 6eL XpW7L/Ar*T'E1P K, H-L, B: XPr-qy=TL71PE ~tp K-W. 12 -ra 7r K-W. 13 r' delent Richards, Blass, K-W, B; in 6' mutat Hude; 7ijV EKKX-q70CW% Rutherford (H —L). 14 QEfa71 H-L. TT1-ION (K-w, B): 7rXeov H-L, K3, Meisterhans, p. 1202. 16 &CK(I)AeKCKXX: delevi 2CK e ACK(WI) male iterato exortum, idem fecerunt Blass, Friinkel, K-W, H-L, K3; etiam in versu propinquo (i8) dittographiac vitium denuo apparet METhT&THN (,gEcra 71i). when this treatise was written; (2) at the EKKX77Ola, id. c. Ctes. 39, 7-6 6' f'rto-7-arj,r7o 7rpoe6pwP 6lrXELpor-ovtav &66VaL 1 6 jpy, F. L. 82, (Demosthenes) Xa/yXavPE wpoespEUE1I and (84) dvao'Tcal EK TWV 7rPO06p&vP OUK 90-q To' 1tiPq50O1L' E7Cr'MIO5LV, cf. ib. 68. `re wprypa04=a] 43 ~ 3, 7rpoypb(OuO1. ~ 3~. 6KOWIL(Coo s 4WJrL.XOU vrCLL] In the previous century the same duties had been performed hy the wrpvurcd'PLT with the aid of the o~6&ra1: Arist. T/Zesm. 923, 929-946, and esp. 854, EL IuLdj KOo/4WS fQeCs EwI hI' 7)i' lrPUVd'EdVCw 7T1 Oacu'. The -np6c6poL as well as the rpv7'daEL1 are named in Aeschin. c. C/es. 4, 73j1 7TW' p7776op. aKOo7Itlas OVK97L KpatELP 6'U'raL o060' 01 vb/uoL o66' ol 7rpv~d'Pet o66' oL wp6~6po, o66' ih wpoEbpe0ovoa 9vX?5. The phrase f'rLjLEXEZ0GcU Et Koodc-l is found in Pol. 1299 b i6 and 19 (cf. 1321 6 14 and 20); also in Isocr. Areop. 37. 'TrporLO4cWLe~v] 48 ~ 2; Xen. Merm. iv 2, 3, Tls l7r6XEWs X6-yov rpwPtOdEfo771. In Aeschin. F. L. 65 we have the exceptional proposal that, at the first of two iKKX370o-L'l, there should he a dehate; and that, at the second, the rpbWspot should put the question to the vote, X6yov 6U uei 7-portOiPaL. In the fifth century this was the duty of the WrpvUrdveLI. Thuc. vi 14, W' 71rp'TavL....y/.Lca 7rpo-lOEtL aG'O iii 36, 4; 42, I. XELPoToVias] Aeschin. c. C/es. 3, &a TI rLS -rwV /LXXwv 8OUXEv7-0jP 0P77ws Xax, KX7pOP6/EV01 SIrpOEpE66ELV Kai Tlas SeiTpClpas opf70vas 6p&ijs dvayopE6- 7X XELpOT lLa 1lOlhLL qi KT X. d4ELvaL] Arist. Ach. 173, 01 Y'P lrPU. rcPELTr XVOUWL 7?)V EKKX?7LTLZv. Dem. Timocr. ~ 26 (during the Kp6o'a), diEt/4v37r 7j?7T povXis. Elro-TcLTrr ocLL] se. -rwvij rpol~pwv. In Dittenberger, Inser. nos. 98 and ioi, we have two decrees in the same prytany of B.C. 347-6, in hoth of which eE6oJXoT 'AXtgo6artos 'E7r-Tci7-E. It was rightly inferred hy A. Schaefer that hoth were passed at the same meeting of the CKKX7Oala. The text shews that no one could be &ILO-IdTr-1 r-dy w7poeGpwv more than once in each year. ~ 4. a-,rpaQTnlyyv] 6 ~ i. LrlrcdPX(IV, 6i ~ 4. r7v dkXXcov, 6i ~~ 3, 5. Cf. Aeschin. c. C/es. 13, (dpXas) a's 6 8ijuos hIW06E XELPOTOVLV eY V aipXaLpeo-rL'L, a-7paT-qUy6 KTiL L77rripXovS Klil /ST TO6TLOV rpXa's, also Xen. Mem. iii 4, I; Dem. 23 ~ 171; Plut. PhoC. 8. 01 ~LETaC '1jV 9K'rqv 'rpv'LVQO0VTES] The author of the 2nd Arg. to Dem. Androt. p. 590 erroneously states that the dipXatpeatlr fell on the last four days of the Attic lunar year of 354 days. But, as observed by Sch6mann, An/. 390 E.T., they could not possibly have heen held so late in the year: they must necessarily have taken place much earlier, so as to allow time for the oKLauao-L'a. It has been inferred by Kohler (Mona/sb. d. Akad. d. W., Berlin, m866, p. 343), that they were held in the first EKKX77OtcL of the ninth prytany. This inference is drawn from an inscription of the time of the 12 tribes (after B.C. 307), CIA ii 416, in which the dpXapLLPatL are fixed Ka7n- 7rjv/-LCLVvrdru for the 22nd day of Munichion (early in May), corresponding (in the time of the io tribes) to the beginning of the ninth prytany (see also Gilbert's Beitradge, pp. 5-13, and Busolt in Mifller's flandbuch, IV i 152). The text shews that the election was held in the seven//i prytany. This would begin

Page  166 i66 AOHNAIQN COL. 23, 1. 31-24,1. 2. av evo-frlpa yE'vrrTat. 8et 8e 7rpoI3ov\XevuLa yeve'aOal Kac 7rept 20 TovTwV. 45. t 8\e 3ovX)r 7rpoprepov /tLV tjv Hvpta cKa Xpr7iaa-iwv ^,t77Co-aL Kcal srjacTa Kat daroc'retvat. -- K Av crv/izaov avTrt? ayaryovor'ls 19 rfN6CCOl K, H-L, B: ylveaoOat K-W. XLV 1 Xpujiao-t H-L. 2 post diroKTetval lacunam indicant K-W. three days before the end of Gamelion (the first six prytanies containing 214 and the first seven months 217 days), and would mainly correspond to the month Anthesterion (middle of February to middle of March). This statement has a direct bearing on the story of Sophocles being appointed o-apa-r7yos against Samos &c owing to the success of his Antigone (on the authorities for the story, see Jebb's Introd. p. xliii). If the play was produced at the Great Dionysia (io- 5 Elaphebolion = March-April), i.e. late in March, B.c. 441, the ordinary election of orpar7-yoi for the ensuing official year had already taken place a month before. We must therefore either infer that the story is false; or that the date of the election was exceptionally delayed in that year owing to inauspicious weather; or that, at that time, the apxacpeaolat fell later than was the case in B.C. 325. If the election of Sophocles took place a month before the Great Dionysia, and was prompted by the success of the Antigone, the play must have been performed at the Great Dionysia of the previous year, in which case eleven months must have elapsed before the election. But by that time the impression produced by the play would have become appreciably weaker, and the story would have lost its point. On the bearing of the date of election on the ' deposition of Pericles,' see Mr Marchant in Class. Rev. v I65. evaclLCcL] 'on whatsoever days there are signs of fair weather.' evodutia is found in Hippocr. I I70; efatruos in Meteor. p. 363 a 27, yypaLraTai rov T,aXXov evja-r7/uws ~XELt 6 ro p OiptovrTO KLKXOS. The proviso is one of practical importance in the case of a large meeting on an open hill-side like that of the Pnyx. Even when the ordinary ecKKX7 -aola came to be held in the theatre of Dionysus (e.g. in 290 B.C.), the Pnyx continued to be the scene of the dpxacpeatia (Pollux viii 133). When the 6jOuos was desiring to elect Cleon as arpaTry6s, there was thunder and lightning, an eclipse of the moon and afterwards one of the sun, Arist. VNub. 581 -6 (and Schol.). Presumably amid all these portents the election was deferred. In Thuc. v 45 ult. an eKKX\rl-ia is adjourned because of an earthquake. Even a drop of rain was sufficient to be regarded as a 'sign from heaven,' &ooa-ltia 'art Kal ptavir Pfi3r3XpKg e (Ach/. I7I). Cf. Suidas, s.v. irpo3povXEVp.u KrX.] In accordance with the general principle ordained by Solon, Plut. Sol. 19, toAIv iev adrpoPoiXevrov els eKKX17TIiaP elo-icep-Oai. XLV-XLIX. The functions of the Council. XLV ~ I. KvpCa-t-'qlJ.tLL L] The povuX7 was not competent to inflict a higher fine than 500 dr., Dem. c. Euerg. p. 1152 ~ 43, (after an elaayyeXia) dv rq3 6&axetpoToveWv 7v 71) 3ovX\7 7r6repa &LKaCrplaTIp 7rapaooirq 7,'rjjltw'oete raT? 7revTaKoo-'ats, o0-ov iv Kvpia KaT. rObv vbLov. In a decree drawn up about 446 B.C. any encroachment on the IIeXapyK6bv is punished by a fine of 500 dr., to be inflicted after an ealyoyeXia has been brought before the 3oved by the archon faatrXe6s (Ditt. no. T3, 59). 8ic<raL] Arist. Thesm. 943, e9ooe rT) Bov\X. ae 8eiv. A limitation to this right is mentioned in the oath taken by the Council in Dem. c. Timocr. 144, ov85 67ow 'A0rqvaicwv ou'hva, 6s aiv eyvyuvTra rpes KaOto-LrT TO avrb reXos reXouyras rX rlv eidv Trs drl Trpo3oaoi rijs 7r6Xccos X eirla KaraXaiEL TOV0 67jfOV o(TWrV aLXv X ^ r77 Xo T rpldaLevos 7 eYYVYadU7UvYEos 7 i'KX\yWI)V A/ KaTaPdXX\. It is there stated that this oath was in the interest of untried persons to give them every opportunity for preparing for their defence. In ~ 148 we are told that' Solon' made the Council dKVpOV ro0 Wocrat, i.e. did not grant them an absolute right of imprisonment, but a limited right subject to proper bail being found. In certain cases, however, bail was not allowed, and in these the Council's right was not barred. See also 22 ~ 2 and 48 ~ I. Cleophon was imprisoned by the Council and then handed over to the dicastery (Lys. 30 ~ io); he was condemned to death by a court consisting of

Page  167 CH.44, 1. 19-CH. 45,J. 3 110AITEIA (09 T0OV &7/LLov *Kal aV'fl/Lpep0v* '81 UtXX0Vra aw0617o7(ctKE Ei',a7 Xt( 6 A' NEC7EPa)LETO, 01 (f),6107CA 3fte avIEV &xcmpt 7W006W9 ov'Uva~ TOWJ 7TOXIT65V a7rOOVyO7Ct Icat Kpt o L Stca-.5 up7EV0/.LEV279? 6 pev Avo-4taXoq areofvryev ical e /Aovvpla e'-e O a'n-o TOV T'rvavov, o S 37.0 (7iEO'7' 3o~~r aao~ ia (Sewv 1cat Xp?7p.acrt ~~,qpto-v, Ica\ volzov e`06TO, a'7V0 &KL 27 /30VX7\7 KaTayVO272/At07Ta aaf&-E9ia TOS EOG`t 77/Lta-etq eta-ayetV T01)9 OE(T-LOOE'Taq Et9 To\ &xcaTm7'ptov, iat o 'Te at' otio (Sticao-Tat *,qr27G(;bVTaVCt, TOVTO /CVpLov lJevat. Col. 24.] 2 KPIVEt 8SE 1 Ta\, a'pXa~ q7 I30VX-q Taqg 7rXde-Tas, p(aXtTO, oa-at Xpyi ara 8aXe'piova-t- oz" Icupia (3' r Kpta'ctq, a'X E)EL/0 t 3MKOfl/)elop?)5q.49XXovrca droOP. K, K-W, H-L; KaL?/JEov f6PO )- < KalU> XXovrca dn-oOV. J B Mayor: legendum fortasse Kati abOvt'iep6iP 13&q ALXXovrra dwo~zv. cf. Aeschin. i~ i6 (lex) irapcaao~er -roZs 9Va6Ka reOJ'7Tw aM-q~ep6v. 3, 5 6,Tro0NHCK6IN: dilroovyc,1-Ke K-W, H-L, K3, B, Cf. Meisterhans, p. 14 12, fl. 1234. 3 CYMHAcI~IHC (B Coil. 'FLXoI.(37Xei3771 Od. p I34): E6A-qX18fl1 K-W, H-L, K3. 4 aA&d1TTEH KEN corr. K. 5 <TrP> 8LKaTT27pICP1 K-w, idemn in c. 46, 30 et C. 55, 7 Tcp non inserunt. 6 a're~qbvye H-L. ECXCN: 9ETXE B, 6TXEJ' K. 8 e'Pz H -L. 9 17rL~7l/LU,$JEL (nusquamn alibi inventUmn) K, K-W, B: ~71I~t~eLs Wyse, H-L. 13 ECT4E6CIMOC?; E406-tLuos K, K-W, B; &7-'95.kLosLio H-L. the Council and a dicastery, ib. i i, and 13 ~ 12 (Newman). Ava-Cjpa~ov] possibly the person of that name mentioned in Xen. He/l. ii 4, 8, (the Thirty) Avo4/xaXov TLW?r7rapxov eeLXevoV tiva-yc-yobpTa lrcpaSo~vat aI6TOLJ TOdl Wf~~cc. On the restoration of the democracy his services to the Thirty may well have been remembered against him. KO.L %0ELcOLp0v-cL-,To~v'j-K(Lv] Hist. An. 603 a i 5, airo~vilOK0V01v A6aep6,v, 398 a 35, 568 b 2 i. One Sosias had a similarly narrow escape: Antiphon 5 ~ 7o, d adpvi'p a'?7X (mss, achr~X0- Dobree, alreX6Oq Kayser, a7r771X~aXOfl Baiter; ac/ei~ero, in the text, suggests do-p4/Oq) &'r5 TOil 5i)to i-oi L'/eTr~pov Irapa6SESo/.vos 1~3-q Troo 9V36Kca. E~pXCStjs] The only passage where the name is found, as that of an Athenian, is [Dem.] 49 ~ i i, -r4 2rat& 7roO EWpqXl~ov. The date of the speech is B.C. 362. cj4E(XET0o] bere 'rescued him.' It is used below in another sense: 'deprived of the tower of.' o &Yro rov 'rinravov] 'the man who escaped the bastinado.' Schol. Arist. P/ut. 476, r6gsravarL...~Aa, V&'x c-vrobT KaL~ra5KOUI t'rir-rov, and Photius, s. v. -r6/e4ravop. Cf. Lys. 13 ~ 56, w's av~po9b6vop 'ovra-,rq 5 3-qup riap48o76 Kai tire-rv~sirawo-0q, ib. 67, 68; and Dem. 9 ~ 6i. This form of punishment was inflicted on KaKoip-yoL, including civ~poo6vot. This confirms the conjecture that Lysimachus was arraigned for taking part in causing citizens to be put to death under the Thirty (Xen. /. c.). The restriction in the powers of the /3ovX-i mentioned in this chapter has already been noticed in more general terms in c. 41, al T~lI f3ovX$ Kpiacts el's T-bp ftjiov e'xfX6Oc0a-Lv, a passage referring to the time subsequent to the archonship of Eucleides. Even before that time the PovX3) did not necessarily enforce its right of inflicting penalties, but sometimes exercised the option of referring the case to a law-court, Cf. CIA i 59, (7i P IOOVX~V) KOXcd~EP 7-0WP &Jp06K?7OrdPTWV Katraifri7q5L~OLL&10P, Kati el's &KcaoT'lptoJ/ rallTo6I eIad-yetV KaL6-TL aV 8OKt1 7 aui. CWrLtT1ILL0STELS] not found elsewhere. -a' Efrt~hita is used of 'penalties' in Dem. and Plato; CLrt-qIAL~o~v, in Xen. He/i. v 2 ~ 2,2; eLPrtqfL'w/sa, in Pollux viii 149. Ovcr[LW9CiS] 59. ~ 2. KPIVEL TCiS QpCLpxs] Antiphon, 6 49, rrvO6,eeos aL6TOVIS (the iropurrcda, 7rwXi77ctl, irpaK70'peg and v'ro-ypa~kuaTEFS) &C4P& Kal aOX&Xta lp-yd~erOat, earYlo-ype'sEL i-r' j~ovXuhv. 4+4orLJPoS] [Dem.] 7 ~ 9~, -raila 5U K15pLC aco-Oat 06K lied$&z' v &ry &Kao-7-1pi1qj 7r~ urap' 'IAZy KVcvpO...a'X' e7rLavP W's gaurbp E,c'EIO, ct/~opio uI 7 —prap' V/LWP -ycpo1tepwqv -yvwoow WIs e'avt' rov Io61Ievos. Lucian,

Page  168 i68 AOHNAIQN COL. 24, 1. 3-25,1I. 4. 7 &KUY~ptO. ETL Ka' To" '8t 'ats~ etoayyE XXetl 7'v a'v I 5 /3op-Xawta TCoVa X ~ /in Xp-a-Oac Toc; Pl(ot0L. Ecbo-t9~ 8E Kat ToVTOLS~ EOTUJ\C el? To\ &KacTr'ptoJ, Eav av-roV?7 /ovX2'7 lKa7ayvp. &SKLtpa'~Et &E Kab Tov9, /3ovXevTa9q Tov9 T0op vo-Tepov eZLavToI 3 floXEve(aovTa9? Kl Tov' E1)VEa a~p~ovTct,. Kat 77-po+EPOvi)u/v 737v awo08oKt/Ja'o-at Kvpta, V4Vv 8e <Kcatt> Tot TotS' e~eal9 EcrTtv etS T o 'rV~ov~a FLev 0v aiKvpo;' Eertz?7 /3ovkq'. 7rpO/3ovXEVELt 8 t' clqTV 4 &7^71Lov, Kat ovlc e~eo7TLV ov&8Ev L7TpoI3oV'XEVTOlV OV83 0 Tt ai' 1(t? wpfpc4wo-tv O' 7Tpv-raPveL *,Jfl~cf~aoOat T(,t) 87/'~k KaT'a~ a TaVorya EVOv~a 7a Ta7 a6PX E0CTtV o Vti/c~aS' ypa4~y 7apalvopco7J. 46. 6'WrtaLEXETat 86 Ka \t T c)' revrotl/qEwV rpupoiv KaLL TCOV O'KEVCOV Kat 7T)7) VEWOOLKWWV, Kat 7roLetTat KatvaS'[fE] Tpt)77 petS ) 19 <Kcal> rov'rot.T K-W, B. 23 MrT& -/up raiira Kontos, H-L; v. Dem. 20 ~ 96. XLVI 2 56' secl. K (edd.). pro linaginibus I 5, ie(/krfIO... 81K77V. Pollux Viii 125, (Kpto-sv) 6'06at~OV. Io-LMyewXE] probably here used in the general sense of bringing to the knowledge of the Council, without reference to the special process called Elo-a-yyEXia. The procedure in the latter case is described by Dr Hager in Dict. Ant. s. v., I 709 a. ~ 3. 6oKLJL4tL- ovXiEv-rcs] Dem. Mid. I II, /300EV6EW /Jou XaXX6,vros aOKi~a~o/A epov KrLT-i-ydpeI, Neaer. 3, Xa-yXivei /3oUXe6eLv 'AiroXX63cwpos- i3OK/iuaY66LI 5U Kal 6A6o-as TOPv 6pqt~ov dpKaV KI-X. Two of the speeches of Lysias are concerned with the 3OKtal~cya of a 3ovAevTJs: Or. 3i, KaLTa 4iXwios. is a speech for the prosecution; Or. i6, hi7rep Mcu'TtLhov, for the defence. ~ 9 of the latter speech shews the wide scope of the scrutiny in such cases: E'P Se Ta,?S &OKLA~arais &'KatLOZ dvat 7rcLVTOT 7QJ /3iov Xo'yoi, &86z'ai. Q~pXov~rc~s] Lys. Or. 26, KaT' Evicivpov, is a speech in accusation of one who was appointed by lot to be First Archon in reserve. The case was heard on the last day but one of the preceding official year (midsummer, B.C. 38,2). The next day was a public holiday, and, in the event of his rejection, an appeal was impossible: ~ 6, &KaclT-1p~o1'.. oil uviar~i ~rX-qp&cG-~vat. Dem. Lept. 90 asserts that the junior archons underwent a double 30KL.ao-ta:-,roils Oeo/LoO~as Sis 3OKLfaaoOhvras SpxCEu i's TIE ry /30VXq K lrra /lp~ el, Twp &KaolT777piq. The &oVkaalcra before the fgo~vX is called an db'PdKpurts9 in Dem. Euibud. 66; it is described as affecting all the archons (ib. 70). Cf. C. 55 ~ 2. ~ 4. oi58v dirpopolXvAevov] Plut. Sol. 19, quoted on c. 44 slt. wTPO'YP4~wxLv] 43 ~ 3 11lt. -ypa4,qj irrpavo'Rwv] Here the illegality turns on a point of form. Among cases in point are the motion of Androtion to award a crown to the outgoing fPovX'? (Dem. Androt. );and that of Thrasybulus to grant Lysias the citizenship of Athens (note on 40 ~ '2). XLVI ~ i. -r~v.rpL'pwv] Gilbert, i 26i n. 4. T-COV 0-KE1J6V] esp. of ' naval stores and engines,' and 'the tackling of ships.' [Dem.] 47, c. Euerg. ~ 19, r-Kcilq P-rptlpKa'. Xen. Qec. viii 1,2, &a' 7roXXb'p...uXlfpcwl CKE1JWV (' oars,' ' rudders,' 'masts,' ' yards ') Kai rXcIEKrCei (' cables ') o'p/.tlerai va,05 Kal iav~ycrat, Sma 7roXXCD' Si' Trov Kpeisao-7c&) ('sails' and 'rigging') Ka~ovAevio' wXeZ. The specifications of the famous o-K6VuOG-q5~ in the Peiraeus, designed by the architect Philon under the administration of Lycurgus, are still extant (CIA ii 1054-Ditt. no. 3.52). This O-KEfV06K-7 was intended TOZS KPC~ao-ToL5 TKe6e60Lv, and (though not finished) was probably already in use ill B.C. 329, a few years before the text was written. Cf. Ddrrbach, Lycurgne, pp. 64-73.,rZv vewrCI-0K()V] Strictly speaking the Pclo-osLcOi are the sheds in which the ships are laid up, and ved'pta the dockyards; but the terms are sometimes interchanged (cf. Diet. Ant. ii 206 a, and Diirrbach, ice. p. 65, n. 3). In [Xen.] de Rep. Athi. iii 2, among the duties of S0

Page  169 CH. 45, L. I4-CH. 46, 1. io. FFOAITEIA i 69 TETPVEVeL, 07MT7paC av o 8qgo,~ Xetpo-rov?70-77, Icat clcevi7 rawratq wow.wolov~ Xetpo70oPEZ 8 a)pXt7~eKT Nlzoq e1"~LC t Ta4~ vav'ql Kcat VEWOXYtO9.XLOTV0 ~r oval9 0 E7LTC7Va9 a e,L w U \ apa&3 a-u Jtpfyaoia T'7aaTav 7L v~t a ov j, 1v 5 &opea6v ovC ea~Ttv awroL't Xa/3etv. EW7rl ya~p T79 Va-EPO1 /3OVXri aol. 25.] Xaiii~vova-tv. jj TrotetTat 8e\ Ta9 Tpt?7PEV9, &Ka alJpaq E~ a'[77Ta'VTwO] 2 XoCe'v77 TPL7pO~rOtOv9 q. E&ETa7EtL tE Kalt Ta' OIK0o8oL?7fIaTa T Ta 897 ata 7raPcTa, KcaV TtL a tE LJ ai ry 7&p T CO TE OV aO_ VEt Icat KaTayPv6VTov wrapa8t'Swotc 8taa-TllPcW. 1 5 iav H-L. 7 ai'r7rav] K, H-L: JavTjjS Wayte, a[c'ir$v] K-W, B coil. 48, 13. 10 KbbThFNOYCc\ K, H-L: KaTcya'6vTOs K-W, B. <T&-> &Kao-71-77pic Gennadios, Naber (H —L, idem -r non addunt in c. 45, 5 et c. 55, 7). the &ouA' we find Pewpiwv E7rLLEuo7O78vat. From B.C. 347 to 323 an annual property tax amounting to ten talents was raised for the building 71jv PC.O-OiKWJ Kal Tri-s OKEUO6~K-qS (CIA ii 270). KQLVC.S.rpvpaELs] Twenty, according to Diod. xi 43. In B.C. 356/5 the Council failed to build the requisite number of new triremes; Androtion nevertheless moved that they should receive the customary compliment of a golden crown; and for this he was attacked under a -ypao' 7rapav6Owv (Dem. Androt. 8). Ti vE-rptjPELs] In the list of the fleet for B.C. 330/29 eighteen quadriremes are mentioned: CIA ii 807 b 76-79, TeTppELS 6' e~ b roa vewpiots CLcapbleo/v PIII, Eau 7rXw43 & A. For the three years between B.C. 334/3 (ib. 804) and the above date the lists are missing. The earliest notice of quinqueremes is in B.C. 325/4, when seven are mentioned, ib. 809 d go, the list for the previous year (ib. 8o8 d 36) giving quadriremes, as well as triremes, but no quinqueremes (Boeckh, Seezirkeunden, p. 76). The archonship of Cephisophon, B.C. 329/8, is mentioned in c. 54 ~ 7. Hence the date of the treatise falls after B.C. 328, and before 325, the year in which quinqueremes appear for the first time (C. Torr in Athenaeum, Feb. 7, i891; and Lipsius in Leipzz~,o Verhandlungen, i8g9, p. 45). dpXLTEK'KOvaS] 'naval architects,' or 'master ship-builders.' These are not mentioned elsewhere, but the names of 35 such persons are known to us from inscriptions (Boeckh, Seeury-kunden, pp. 93-ioo). The aPXLt-KTWV of Dem. de Cor. ~ 28 is a different kind of official,the manager of the Theatre of Dionysus. 7rcLpcLSCaiLv] ol /ovXEvraL. rjv SWprev] Dem. Andrat. ~ 8, (v6'.Uov) OVOK fEOl7J-OS ewat ud7 7roL?7a/5v117 T77 /oUX?,l 71r 'as7pthpE aiTruoo-m 717' &'pedV (=Trw orT-Tevov, ib. 36)..rpL-po~rroLo1s] In Dem. Andraot. 17 the treasurer of this body is mentioned: OU' 7 /ouXi y-yovEv at'iC!a r o!)7.7 76E7ro-o-Oa!. Tras Ears, CXX' 7 TY Tp7oqpO~rot(V 7aadas airolpas y"X oXWY 7reO'O?'7/uTdaXavra. The reference to the T-poqporotoi in Aeschin. c. C/es. 30 implies that they were an apXi7 aipETl5: 001 at 'vXai Kat al TptTTOE I Kal Oi 01 uOL ~ E'aVTWiv alpo~vyat -Tr a -60AL-a XP'IP.arC a &aXELpyfLzi. This last passage suggests that they were chosen by the tribes out of candidates nominated by the demes: the text implies that the choice rested with the fovX-z. Probably the latter ratified, as a matter of course, the selection made by the tribes. Among similar commissioners elected by the tribes, may be mentioned the 7ELXo7rotoi and the Tracporotoi; the cllrTOXELs were certainly elected e' 'AO17 -vatwpv carcivTwv (Gilbert, i 250). ~ 2. oLKoSo.I j'.-,ra The inspection of public buildings has not hitherto been known to be one of the functions of the PovMul. But it is naturally connected with their duty of letting TE/.dVT7 Kai LEpaC Kat odKlas, [Xen.] de Vect. iv 19. crrocfcLCvl] 'formally denounces,' 'reports.' Ant. de Char. 9, droo/-l/aOTL Kat t ~s\1ycaatp, Lys. 20 ~ 7 (ol KaTTjyopot) di&KOOPTaLI Icwrooaivouot, and Dinarch. c. Dent. 48, Ka/sOO KCaT9yvW 7rp6TEPOp 17 gO1JXt (the Areopagus), and ib. 49, dareo-vez' S PovXh. ircLpcL8SCa6aOL SLKaocrqp1Cc()] CIA i 59, (B.C. 410), [-rijv IouXhv f ovXX6c-]ca El Tf V7rP 7 `6[pq, EP lr~ VouXe6rVrpi]q Kal KOXci~ei ri-V &WPO[3OK17oCK- rCe KaL7cfl27nLSO1AV71v, Kai E6i &JKau[frlptov acvro6s EoadyEL]V, KaO67tL CAP 80K? ClaTi^ 7T[wP 3 &Ka(T-rwl -rois] 7rapbv-ras dCirO(aivELV, KTX.

Page  170 170 AOHNAIQ2N COL. 25, 1. 4-1I3. 47. CVV8touKel &6 KCat Ta?'w a"Xat'; dp~av~' Ta 7wXea-7ra. wrp6rOV ~v y c p o T a L a T) ' 8A't'; E ~ / V & ca, /CX [ flp o vra t] 8' c l' K 717' O~VX?7'; E/C WEVTaKoaTL L8l/LVov ica ra TOP Y "ZX&c,wO' v0,tt[OV a d 6 v]0 o; i v p to '; E O L ) a0a 8 c v i-u 7v ' 5 p. 7rapaXau c iov[at &6 T]]6 TE a`yaXpia r'; 'AO17vai'? Ka~t Tais NtKasIa 6~ dXXOV KO'UILOV Kab Trd Xp[?taT]a e'vap7riOV Tri3',l0VX?-; XLVII 2 KXIqpOOTaLL 5' Gertz (edd.): KX-JpwTOi' K1. 2, 7 KX-qpo~vv-at 5' 41 E'KaoaT?7 q~vXi~s Wyse coil. 6i, '2;-fiK TS OVXiS <fEKcicr7?s> Bury. 6 'Xp?'1)/ara tepci 17 Kal 5q,yu6cra Phot. et Bekk. An.' K-W. TESTIM. ~1* Harp. Tattlat:.ci pX7' rtL1 wap' AO qvalots 7' o' TcaAl~at 3eKa -ro'v dptOI6v. rapaXa/i3civovua 3' oihot "7-6TiE &yaX/a-povX~j1," "S Oqfl~cLv 'Ap. 6V'AO. iroX. Phot. (Bekk. An. 306, 7): a'pxoz'rfr EiOtV 'AO'5V-qo- KXOP7-WO' d~r3 TW 7rEP'TaKOO1LO/LESIJA'WV, olr I'rQ ip4 T~g 'AO?7v6&r Io' cKpolr6Xet Xp-qJIcaTa lepa re Kal -qgiboa OwXairTovoo'P, alxxcL KatL aIUTO' -rb cl-yaLX/.4 ris 'AO-qpas <Kal rO'V K617/Aov add. Bekk. An. 1. c. >. Pollux Viii 97: 7caplat T7)1 0eo0 KX)7Pw-orL' 1tko' EK 7r6V7-aKoO-Lo/J63'/JW 7ap, r Xphg,~wra lrapeXcp43clavov -ri~ fovXi$ rapo6oa77. XLVII ~ i. Ot.rCLjJCCLL irvs 'AO9qvCs] The full title is -raglat TrWv lepWI' XpWcirTWV -ri 'AOrn'atag. This is found in the inventories of the treasures in the Parthenon, the Hecatompedos and the Pronaos (CIAi 117-175), and in the records of payments from the treasure of Athena for public purposes (ib. I 79, 1i8o, i88). Cf. Hicks, Hist. Znscr. nos. 50, 51', 53, 54. The short title, ralulas TGip,rs Oeoi3, is found in inscr. of 325 (Boeckh, Seeurkunden, p. 465). See Boeckh II v; Schomann, p. 418; Gilbert,i 234; and cf. note on 30 ~ 2, Tagilas TWI'v tepbov Xp-17IudTW2 K7TX.; also Panske, de Magistratibus A/licis, i890, ipp. 13-46. X6'Xwvos vO'i~ov] 8 ~ I, KX-qpoOP TObI -rapitas IEK 7rev7-aKoarLO/Ie&1/VCOV. dLPXEL 8' O' XcLXCV KI-X.] Solon's law regulating the qualification was practically obsolete. Cf. c. 7 ult. cLc4CLVOVorL KTX.] The accounts of the treasures transferred in each year were annually audited; they were also inscribed on blocks of stone once in four years (.EK HavaO-qvalcp E's HavaO?'vaLa). To QL-YcLXiicL] The statue is not mentioned in our inventories; but from B.C. 385 there is proof of the existence of a separate specification respecting it. This was kept in the temple and the treasurers certified in each year that the statue and its appurtenances were all safe KmT-& Tip O-T?Jqx7) (Kdhler in Miltheilungen, 1879, p. 89, quoted by Hicks, p. 89). The ae-yaX~ua is incidentally named in CIA ii 652, 42 (B.C. 398). r&s NLCKcS KO~LI T'rV \X~OV KO'ciJov] About 435/4 B.C. the treasures of the Parthenon included golden figures of NL'K7q, CIA i 32 B 2, r&s Ni[KaLI 7Ta' XPV]cr&1 Kcd r&e ir[oprieZa]. The number was probably ten. About 407/6 eight of these were melted down and made into gold coin, the Kacw'iv Xpvoaov of Arist. Ran. 7'20 (see Schol.). Seven of the pedestals of these figures were still in existence between 377 and 367 (CIA ii 678, 47). In the earliest inventory after the archonsbip of Eucleides a Xpvu~ Ni'Kis mentioned (CIA ii 642). This NIK-q, which was nearly two talents (5,2 kilogr. i 115 lb.) in weight, was probably made out of the proceeds of the confiscated property of the Thirty (Michaelis, Parthenon, p. 301). The same NL'K- is entered in an inventory of the -ragdat rdv tiep(sv Xp,-q IAciT-wp 71J 'AOrn'aiaS Kad 7rv 6iXXcwv Oe~ov, who existed as a joint body from about 403 to 389 B.C., to be separated again in 385. It is also named in CIA ii 677, B.C. 367. Under the financial administration of Lycurgus (B.c. 338/7-326/5) part of the surplus of the public revenues was spent on preparing a number of golden NZKat, which were set apart among the treasures on the Acropolis. The decree of Stratocles, preserved in [Pint.] ii 85-2, recites that Lycurgus adpe~els I'7r6 -roiO &15pov Xp'jua-ra 7roXXa1 OvvrI-ya-yep d's r-'p a'Kpo6 -lroXt1' Kal TrapaCOKElJ'bTaS T-r OC) 6 7. O K q 0l veo v u o Kat p'YP6. at'KO''UOVXPVOPElIS f.KaTO1' Kav1-I/)6povs (cf. lb. vit. Lycurg. ~ 5, rZo~,&Irei.L TI. XPVOcL Kal dp-yvp6,Tf 7 — 6XIt KalTI.crKeIagClc Kal NL'Kca Xpvo-Es, and Paus. i29, i6, KaLTECIKIEbaOI & 7TQLLcrI.a -r —7 OI.Cp K al NficaI XpvoOtis ocal lrapG'O&OL KO6T/L10' E'KaLT6V). It was in B.C. 334 that, according to the X6-yos ra~tu~v -r-qr Oeoi9 and a special commission acting with them, part of the surplus handed over by the 7-ra/dla -r6)v

Page  171 CH. 47, 1. I-12. ITOAITEIA '7' 2 e-7rEtO' Ot 71cXflTa't &EKa t /1 El(t, KX'qpovTat 8' et' EK T?79 J nviq. Pt0wjOi0uL &e T'i- 1.kt0-8o)1-aia 7rc-aVra Icat Ta P~aX~a 7irwXOi^o-t, Kal Ta TEX?7 [pUIEra T]oii TaptLOV T60V a-TpaTtwrL/ccoV '(at row E77-t TO OEOLO 7v1vT)7 fo~~~ ~~~OW 1 TOT? av 27 OU X~PrV7p a a 7rpaucVrca /I XAL [aT y ataTa Et? Tpta 6Tfl 7rc7rpa/ eva, Icat Ta -VfYKEXWJP?7/LEva Ta, 11 /ITraXXa. [6'oa.] K;....... c eH-L (in papyro scriptum non ei, sed ap vel &r vel &I; A. Ta' T' K-W (B), MET6&AA/ T&T~pcpf- deletis 6.p sec. K-W). In archetypo erat fortasse T6, T &PFe& K' T& 6PF-bC1M&. 12 ouVyKeXwa-Aiza. Poland, Busolt. W~~ 2, 3 *Harp. 7rwXg7TclL: o' jueiv 7rwX-qrat' adpX' TLis eoCTI'AO?5vqo-1, 3eai~T6V d&pLOA6 rLVPES, 111 6K /)VX17 E'KCLOT?10. &LOIKOUO1 36' raI rL7rpca(TK6/seva io7r6 T?~s7r 6XEws 7r'v7-a., T-IX?7 Kati jFdTaXXalKad MALLTOdOLTEL Kail TO. 677ILU6V0'(eva.. &LEIXEK-raU 73 repi' ac16T17X Kati 'Ap. Eiv 'AO. 7r-oX. Fere eadem in Bekk. An. 29i, 17 et Lex. Dem. Patm. p. 14. Pollux viii 99: 71wX?77-tI - 'a TA7-,I 7rpcLKOVO-t "JIETU\ TW(p J7rL 7T OCWpLKIJP 77p?7/J.'VWV, " Ka' T7- \ " TWY i 'Apdfov 7rcyov" /J.E-cL TO0P 7rpo6Tepov X6'-yoz' /vy6P7&w o'o~ia~S Kat' -Ta. ae3ffiUev1eVa. (Frag. 4012, 44I 3). OT-pa.TLWTILKCV was spent 'EL' Ta's NL'K[a-I Kai] TO. 7[o~u]wda. (CIA ii 739). These may be identified with certainty as the NZKa.I of the text. Koou-jJ.s refers in part to the KOO/.IOI Ka.1'?)9/0OLK6s (CIA ii i6~,2 frag. c io), including 315pt uwr3epi&es (necklaces), adAOLbta. (bracelets), and OrTeoa~vOL (ii 741 B c 3-5). Cf. Michaelis, Palrt/zenon, p. 29,2; Boeckh, note 719 Erdnkel; Foucart, Les Victoires en, or de l'Acropole, Bull. de corr. /zellen. xii 283-; and Diirrbach, Lycurgue, pp. 8o-91. ~2. 7rX'qTCL] Hermann, Staatsalt. ~ iii, 2; Schdmann, P. 417; Gilbert, i227; Panske, tie /liagistralibus Atticis, ip. I'0. IiL~arouo-L KTX.] 'farm out the public contracts.' Thus the contracts for setting up tablets inscribed with public documents (orriXa.t) were let out by the 7rWX77Ta1i (D~itt. no. 13, 51; 43, 35; 45, 8). The contract for building the walls of Athens in 334-3,26 is let out by the same body (CIA ii i67). T4i FL('TrcXXcL 1rr)XoZarL] By the 'sale of the mines' is meant the sale of the right of working them. The 'purchaser,' who may be more correctly described as the lessee, paid a fixed price together with one twenty-fourth part of the net produce as a perpetual tax. The ordinary price of a share was one talent. See Boeckh, On i/se Silver Mlines of Lauriumn, Appendix to Pubi. Econ., ed. Lewis. In CIA ii 780-783, and 78,2 b (p. 5i3), we have fragments of &a-ypaoati /IEfTd'XXw. drawn up by the 7rWX-17Tat.. 'r'.rEXq] Most of the tolls, customs and taxes were farmed by TEXCopa.L (Boeckh, III viii; Gilbert, i 335; Diet. Ant. s.v.). 'roll raRdov TIov a-rpt1LrOPTLK(a)v] The management of military finances, which, in the fifth century, had been entrusted to the eiXX-qvonrayfda., was entrusted in B.C. 338 to a new officer called the Trag/Ia. TSip o-,paITLWTLKWP. The first to hold this office was Callias, the brother-in-law of Lycur. gus ([Plut.] Vii. Lyc. ~ '27). It was supposed by Boeckh (II vii) that it was immediately after the archonship of Eucleides that the 6iXX-qvoraydat were superseded by the Tra/da. TWPv O-Tp. and the superintendents of the theoric fund. But as late as 347 B.C. We find the adwoUKcra. described as making payments EK TW1 07PUT~faTITIKWP Xp-1/JdTWPV ('AOGq'v. vi 152), which implies that the Ta/.da.I TWPV o-Tp. was not yet in existence (A. Schaefer in R/ein. MIss. xxxiii 431, quoted by Gilbert i '23 7 n. 3, and Demn. 2i. S. Zeit, I12~ 307 n. 2). In Boeckh, n. 317, Frankel assigns.347 as the date when. this office was instituted; but he is opposed by Ilartel, Sizudien, p. 132 (Diirrbach, Lycurgue-, P. 32). It is at present therefore impossible to assume any earlier date than 338 for its institution.-The same official took part in superintending the Panathenaic games (49 ~.3). '~ov iwl1 To' e1EWPLK03v] These financial officers were apparently instituted under the administration of Euhulus, between 354 and 339. The plural here decides the question whether there was only one official of the name, or more. Boeckh (II vii, P. '2492) supposed that there were ten. The pl. in Aeschin. c. Cles. 25, 01' E71r1 T6 6. KCXcUpoToV'ThedVOL used to be understood of successive holders of the office. Cf. Gilbert, i 230..rpCcL 9Tn] It has hitherto been supposed

Page  172 I72 AOHNAI Q N COL. 25, 1. I3-25. etl <Trpa> '[rr7] 7re7rpapueva. Icatl Tas ovotla? v'CV e 'Apelov Vrdayov Ev~ryovTrwv Kcat rc TV [hoetXe]TSv ev[avTov l r^] /3ovXrs " ^ A.,,, \ '\ \, 15 7Xovo'tv', KcaTaKcvpovo'L S o EvvEa apXovTEq' Calt Ta TEX'r Ta e', CvtavT[ov] 7ew7rpaLE, va, dvaypca'favreE9 eid XXevEvco/eva ypa/LLaTela 7OV Te 7rpLa'a/evov calt [oov] av 7plbirai, -j 3ovXj) rapa&86oao7tv. dvaypdfovpa o v 8e Xwpl? Pev ov? &elt,cara 7rpv[T]ave[av EKa-rrTv 3 Ka'rafaXetv els &etca ypa/,arLaTela, XWops (' oiF? T[pl 'TOV] vlav'TOV, 13 Eel. T?7 K3, K-W, 'et 'y' e'T7 dubitanter nunc legit K', els TpLaC eT B: [els del] H-L. 14 [6etXe]Trwv? K3: [ie epe]TCyv dubitanter K-w; drTiwv (quod quondam conieci) acceperunt H-L; hAA (i.e. a\XXws vel aXXoOev) post T(LON) agnosci posse putat B qui Trw [aiXXo0ev e]vavrlov] dedit. 17 [67r6oov] Tyrrell, H-L: os'ou spatio aptius K-W, K3, B. 18 rTv ante rTpvTavedav ins. B. 19 T[plS roO] K-w, B; T[f\orVTOS] K1, rT[Xet roO] K23; 7rpb TeXovS H-L. that the state never let the mines for a term of years, but only granted them on perpetual leases (Boeckh's Silver Mines of Laurium, ~ 7, p. 645). We have already been told that the 'rwcX7raL 'sell the mines.' We are now told that they lease for a term of three years, not only the mines that are still workable, but also those that are the subject of special concessions. It is observed by Boeckh, i. c. p. 646, that it could 'scarcely have been compulsory upon a tenant to pay to the state the purchase money of a new mine, if, after having expended his trouble and capital, he was unsuccessful in finding any ore.' It may therefore be here suggested that a term of three years was fixed for a provisional letting of the lease, and that the annual payment of w- was not due until the three years had elapsed. Possibly the original purchase money was in the first instance paid conditionally, and was recovered in the event of no ore being found. In the other event, at the end of the three years the provisional lease would be 'confirmed' in the presence of the fovXr. In connexion with the mines, a period of 'three years' is mentioned in Hyperides, Eux. col. xliv, and [Dinarchus] fragm. in Baiter and Sauppe, Oratores Altici, ii 325 b 4; but it seems to have no bearing on the present passage. Tr o'YKEXOp'tlEvac] possibly mines 'let under a special agreement' without the previous payment of purchase money. It has been suggested, however, that some word contrasted with epydiatua is needed, such as 0vyKeXw)osvha, exhausted mines with heaps of scoriae accumulated near them. Such mines, if they had reverted in any way to the state, would have to be 'sold' for a very much smaller sum. In CIA ii 782, shortly after the time of Lycurgus, we find mention of a (iTraXXov) 7raXaLov dvaacdLiTLov, 'an old mine reopened and worked afresh,' which is sold in the second 7rpvravela (ib. 780) for the small sum of r 5o dr. rcv 4i 'ApCdou wrdyov /E~VYYovToV] In trials before the Areopagus a person accused of wilful murder might (except in cases of parricide) withdraw from Attica 'after delivering his first speech' (Dem. 23 ~ 69), and thus avoid the penalty of death (Pollux, viii II7). Such a person was never allowed to return; and, when any decree was passed to sanction the restoration of exiles, there was a special clause excluding ol ie 'Apdiov rdiyov eyOovTreS, Plat. Leg. 871 D. Their property was confiscated, Dem. 23 ~ 45, TWv dv6po()ovJWv rTWV eXe\X\XvU6TOv, wv TC Xpi/uara e7rLTLua. 'rav 6oELXEr6v] If a debt to the'treasury remained unpaid at the ninth prytany, it was doubled and the debtor's property sold (Andoc. De Myst. 73; Dem. c. Nicostr. p. I255 ~ 27; c. Neaer. p. 1347 ~7). XEXEAKOvLEKva yp.] [Dem.] 46 ~ T, (yp.) XeXevuKW/ivov. Lys. 9 ~ 6, (of a fine) ypdapavres els Xe6Kwpca ToNs TactuaL Trapg&ooav. Dem. 24 Timocr. 23, (of a new law) dva-ypd4a s els XeVKWa. Bekker, Anecd. p. 277, XE6KWUiad r0Tt Crivat yv6iy dXr\tXLuLe'vos, rrpos ypa4riv rTOXLTLKWV ypatLtaTrwv 7rrTrTeos.. ~ 3. KaTcrca3dXXELv... KaTapoXAlv] of payment by instalments, as in [Dem.] c. Neaer. 27, ewvt)devos TrV TrevYT7KOTTr TOV o iro...Kal ago avTbvV KaTa3ad\\Xetv Tr& KaTaloX\s el's TO 3ovUevXUTrov Kara& TrpvTavetav, c. 7imocr. 98, al Trv TeX\v KaTaTaoXal.

Page  173 CHI.47,1 L1I3-27. FIGAITEIA '73,ypap4LxaTetov Kara T77V Ka-rafloX?7v e'KacG-T?7v 7w-ou7oavTEs, XCPV ~'20 ob'q [Ca)wr] TrI e ~Vcaf T w P VTaveta~-. avaypa4fiovo-t 86\ Kait Ta co Icab Tas- otKta9 [Ta- dwroypa01Jv Ta Kca\t 77pa,0& Ta Ez, T438~oTqt0 ~ ap 'av OUTOL ww)X[oivatv. ETL] & T~ t V Z\ OLKUAW ' 77-ElJTE E7ECULP aVaryKf T77 TII/AL7V 4awo~oiwvat, T(OV &, XaPy"-' eP cEKa. 4 KaTa/3cXova-W &6 Tav'Ta e7rt Tn^(~ elVafTn7S wpvTavetcaqx eofob']petL25 ic\ a& o' faao-LXel\s Ta\is /Ltc009WOEt9 TW'V <T6>/LE~avci ava-ctpa~aq 6 ~v,ypa/JJaTE[L'ot9 'XEX1EVK]co/LEVQL19. 6'-rt &E Kab TOV'TWV ~ kEV o-OwO-Ts9 22 [i-ra adro-ypa0]i