M. Tulli Ciceronis Orationes et epistolae selectae. Selected orations and letters of Cicero; with historical introduction, an outline of the Roman constitution, notes, excursuses, vocabulary, and index, by Harold W. Johnston ...
Cicero, Marcus Tullius., Johnston, Harold Whetstone, ed. 1859-1912.

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Page  1 Inter.acoleltate atatgocal sertes. M. TULLI CICERONIS ORATIONES ET EPISTOLAE SELECTAE SELECTED ORATIONS AND LETTERS OF CICERO WITH HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION, AN OUTLINE OF THE ROMAN CONSTITUTION, NOTES, EXCURSUSES, VOCABULARY, AND INDEX BY HAROLD W. JOHNSTON, PH.D. PROFESSOR OF LATIN, UNIVERSITY OF INDIANA, BLOOMINGTON, IND. CHICAGO SCOTT, FORESMAN AND COMPANY 1900

Page  2 8-1 / j7, 3 IL -M vl-~ COPYRIGHT, 1891, BY ALRERT, SCOTT & CO. PRESS OF THE HENRY 0. SHEPARD CO. CHICAGO

Page  3 THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED TO MY SUCCESSOR IN WHIPPLE ACADEMY, Principal 3osepb R3L. arker, ^.t., WITHOUT WHOSE ENCOURAGEMENT IT WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN BEGUN, AND TO WHOSE PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE NEEDS OF SCHOOLS IT OWES WHATEVER MERIT AS A SCHOOL BOOK IT MAY POSSESS. 283925 E ': AS. ~., ~ g;*jDE-d

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Page  5 CONTENTS. PREFACE.................. LIFE OF CICERO....... CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE....... THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH...... ABBREVIATIONS AND REFERENCES.... ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA...... ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA...... EXCUISUS I., THE AFFAIR OF THE ALLOBROGES PRO L MURENA ORATIO...... EXCURSUS II., ROMAN CRIMINAL TRIALS.... ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA..... EXCURSUS III., CAESAR'S SPEECH IN THE SENATE... IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA..... EXCURSUS IV., EVENTS FROM THE CONCLUSION OF THE DEBAT'E TO THE DEATH OF CATILINA.... PRO P. SULLA ORATIO.............. EXCURSUS V., ROMAN CORRESPONDENCE....... EPISTOLAE SELECTAE........ III. Ad Atticum I. 16...... 360 IV. " " I. 18...... 374 PAGE 7 13 50 53 78 79 111 139 142 218 221 249 252 279 282 352 356 V. " (( VII. " " XI. " " VIII. " 4" IX. " X. ' II.. - III.. III. 2 III.. 5..... 380..... 386..... 390..... 387..... 388..... 389

Page  6 CONTENTS. PAGE EPISTOLAE SELECTAE - Continued. XII. Ad Atticum XIII. XV. XVII." XVIII. XIX. XXIII. II. Ad Familiares I." XX. XXII. XIV. VI. Ad Q. Fratremn XVI. "4 "4 4 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO... PRO T. ANNio MILONE ORATIO INDEX......... VOCABULARY....... iii 6......391 7II 7......392 9ii 9......400 i.10......408 i.13......410 i.19......412 iv. 1......422 v. 5......358 v...... 356 xiv.......416 xiv.. 414 xiv........419 xiv. 4......395 i.2 2......382 i..'.... 402...... 429...... 553. t.. 617...... 655

Page  7 PREFACE. THIS edition of Cicero's Orations and Letters is intended for the use of secondary schools. It differs in several respects from those already in general use and, as these differences are the only apology for its publication, I desire to call attention to them at the outset. I. The Selection of Orations is very different from the usual one, and the Letters have not before been published with the Orations. Twelve years' experience in reading Cicero with pupils of from thirteen to nineteen years of age has taught me that their chief difficulty in understanding the author lies on the historical side. To read understandingly the orations against Verres, for the Manilian Law, against Catiline, for Archias, Milo and Marcellus, and against Antony, even in chronological order, requires a more minute acquaint. ance with Roman history than the average schoolboy possesses, and the case is worse when these orations are read in order of "ease," "merit," or "interest." I have, therefore, tried to lessen a difficulty which I could not wholly remove, by limiting the field of historical study. I have taken the Conspiracy of Catiline as the main theme, following it up with Cicero's Exile and his Feud with Clodius. The period covered is only from one-third to one-half as long as the usual one, and is the most interesting in the life of Cicero. Thevorations given are arranged in chronological order: Against Catiline, 7

Page  8 PREFACE. I., II., for Murena, against Catiline, III., IV., for Sulla, for Sestius, and for Milo. The period between the Sulla and Sestius is covered by a selection of twenty-three Letters, equivalent to three of the shorter orations usually given. The amount of text is greater than in any other school edition, and the student will find in the specious reasoning of the Sulla, the despairing weakness of the Letters, and the passionate self-justification of the Sestius, better material for an estimate of Cicero's character than in the Manilian Law, the Archias, the Marcellus, and the one or two Philippics which they have displaced. In the text edition, however, which accompanies this, I have included the Manilian Law and the Archias for the purpose of giving material for reading at sight and with dictated notes. II. The Introductory Matter is much fuller than in similar books. It is divided into two parts: The first contains the life of Cicero and an estimate of his character, together with an unusually full account of the events which are treated of in the orations and letters following. The second part contains an outline of the Roman Constitution as it was in Cicero's time. It has seemed to me better to put this matter in a connected form, however imperfect it may be, than to scatter it through the book in the form of introductions and notes to the several orations. The matter is divided into sections, which are numbered, and to these sections reference is constantly made in the notes. The teacher should have the second part merely read over in the class-room, making such explanations and adding such illustrations as may be necessary. The first part should then be assigned for study in convenient lessons as far as ~ 50 before commencing to read the first oration; the rest may be taken in order as directed

Page  9 PREFACE. 9 in the notes on the title of each oration and letter. The constant references in the notes will help the student to retain what he has thus learned and recited. III. The Text presents some peculiarities. I have adopted that of C. F. W. Mtiller for the Orations, and A. S. Wesenberg for the Letters, both contained in the former's complete edition of Cicero's works in Teubner's series. I believe that this approaches more closely than any other to what Cicero actually wrote. But as printed here, the following changes should be noticed: 1. Where the editors supplied words necessary to the sense but lacking in the MSS. they printed them in italics —I have left them undistinguished by the type. 2. Where the editors found in the MSS., words that they did not think Cicero's, they enclosed them in brackets -I have omitted both the brackets and the words. 3. Where the editors found passages defective, or senseless and defying reconstruction, they marked them by an asterisk or an obelisk — I have omitted all such passages entirely. With these three exceptions, the Teubner text is here given. I have made these changes in order to furnish a clear, straightforward, readable text, which would make unnecessary the suggestion or discussion of various readings. IV. The Notes are placed upon the same page as the text, for the convenience of both teachers and students, but a separate text is furnished to prevent the improper use of the notes in the class-room. These notes are intended to assist the pupil in the harder places, and to call his attention to such matters as will help him to a knowledge of the Latin language and of the life and thought of the men who used it. It follows, therefore, that they are to be studied and recited, not merely consulted or neglected at the pleasure of the

Page  10 10 PREFACE. student. Three principles have been carefully regarded in their preparation: 1st. They are brief and pointed, and their tone is positive. In the many places where scholars disagree, and certainty is impossible, I have given that explanation only which seems to me the best, without a hint of other possibilities. The discussion which is so stimulating and profitable in college classes, I believe to be out of place in the preparatory school. 2d. It is assumed that what is once learned will be retained, and no notes are intentionally repeated. When an illustration occurs of a usage that has already been explained the student is merely referred to one or more passages where his attention has been called to it, a key word (case, mood, tense, etc.) being always given to assist him in getting the point desired. The teacher should insist upon a full transcription of at least one of the passages cited, with an explanation of the principle involved. 3d. Great care has been taken in making references to other books to limit these to such books as each student must and does possess. I assume that he has a Latin Grammar (Allen & Greenough's, Gildersleeve's, Harkness', or Preble's revision of Andrews & Stoddard's), a school History of Rome (Allen's, Creighton's, Myers', or Pennell's) and an edition of Caesar's Gallic War, I.-IV. To these books I make frequent reference and to absolutely no others. I have also confined quotations from other Latin authors to the four books of Caesar, which are read before Cicero is begun, and to a few passages from Sallust which are printed in extenso, and are meant to be studied in connection with the Orations against Catiline. Even in case of references to other parts of this book the student is never referred to a passage in advance of the chapter on which the note is given - provided, of course, that

Page  11 PREFACE. the orations and letters are taken as arranged in the book and the Introduction as suggested above. I am sure that these three principles are pedagogically sound, whether or not I have successfully applied them. V. The Vocabulary is intended to contain all the words found in the text here given, and in addition all those in Verres I., Philippica XIV., Archias, Marcellus, Deiotarus, and the Manilian Law, editions of which I hope to furnish soon for supplementary reading. I shall be grateful to the student who will call my attention to words omitted. VI. The Index will be found useful for purposes of reference and topical study. VII..Passages for Retranslation have not been included in the book, as it seemed wisest to have them in a separate manual. An excellent little book of this kind has been prepared by Professor J. D. S. Riggs, of Granville Academy, whose In Latinum has already been introduced into many of our schools. No claim is made for originality in the matter here given. I have drawn freely from all sources accessible to me, chiefly English and German. Besides the standard Histories of Rome and Latin Literature, and the Dictionaries of Antiquities, I have used for the Introduction the biography of Cicero by Trollope, Gow's Companion to School Classics, and the introductions to the editions mentioned below. For the Notes, I have used the editions of the several orations and letters by Halm & Laubmann, and Hofmann & Anderson in Weidmann's series, by Richter, Koch, Eberhard, Landgraf, and Frey in Teubner's series, by Hachtmann and Bouterwek in the Gotha series, by Reid, Heitland, and Purton in the Pitt Press series, by Wilkins and Holden in Macmillan's

Page  12 PREFACE. series, by Upcott, Watson, and Pritchard & Bernard in the Clarendon Press series, and by Sipfle, Muirhead, and Long. I have not consulted any American editions while preparing my notes; but I have used for twelve years with one or more classes daily the editions of Professors Harkness, Chase & Stuart, and Allen & Greenough, and it is impossible that I should not have reproduced in many places their thoughts, perhaps even their very words. In any event, my debt to them is very great. Finally, I must acknowledge the great assistance given me in the correction of references and revision of the proofs by my former pupil, Mr. Frederick W. Sanford, B. S., of the Jacksonville High School. OAKWOOD, Dec. 1st, 1891.

Page  13 LIFE OF CICERO. PLACE IN ROMAN HISTORY. MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO (106-43 *), is the most promi-1 nent figure in the history of the last years of the republic. Born in an obscure country town, his family of the middle class only, without the prestige of wealth or noble birth, brought into contact with some of the greatest men Rome ever produced, - Sulla, Caesar, Pompeius, Antonius, Octavianus, - aided only by his natural talent, high ambition, and tireless industry, he left a name remarkably free from moral reproach, prominent in politics, incomparable in literature, the second, if not the first, in oratory. HIs PRIVATE LIFE. -Judged by the standard of to-day 2 -a standard by which Cicero alone of all the Romans is ever judged —his character was not spotless. He was intensely vain, hot tempered, not always considerate of his friends, vindictive toward his enemies, extravagant and selfish. On the other hand, his morals were conspicuously pure. In an age of corruption and social degeneracy he was always above all scandal and reproach. He was merciful and compassionate to his slaves; his dealings with the poor and helpless were just and humane. The lifelong 3 devotion of Atticus and Tiro testifies to his amiable and affectionate nature; his defence of Roscius, Sestius, and Milo to his courage and loyalty. His tenderness to his daughter Tullia and his love for his brother Quintus touch us still. His wealth was acquired honorably, and, if spent * BC. is to be understood with all dates in this hookL 13

Page  14 LIFE OF CICERO. lavishly, was spent on books and villas and works of art, not on the gratification of the meaner passions. His domestic relations became unhappy. After thirty years of married life he divorced Terentia. He married a young heiress and divorced her too. The sufferings of Tullia caused him the keenest sorrow, and his only son was dissipated and incapable. He found distraction, however, in his studies, and consolation in philosophy. 4 HIS POLITICAL CAREER. - Cicero's political career began with his quaestorship in Sicily in 75. At the earliest legal age he became aedile and praetor. In 63 he was consul, and suppressed the conspiracy of Catilina. In 58 he was exiled, but was soon recalled. During the so-called first triumvirate he was kept in the background, neglected alike by friends and foes. During the civil war (49-45), after long and anxious hesitation, he espoused the cause of Pompeius against Caesar, but was finally reconciled to the latter, and lived on friendly terms with him until his assassination. He took no part in the plot against Caesar's life, but openly exulted in the deed of the conspirators. For a short time his early vigor reasserted itself, and he headed the patriotic party against the new triumvirate. When the cause of the republic was finally lost, he was among the first to fall a victim to the proscription. He was murdered in 43 at the age of 63. 5 (iipl,. a ps antriot -- a politician he was a failure, je seemed unable to comprehend the tendenciesjLLofth-tiue, the fickleness of the people, the rottenness of the aristocracy, the insufficiency of the old constitution. He was short-sighted, hesitating, by turns lenient to weakness, and harsh to cruelty. He was easily swayed by circumstances, and often the tool of unscrupulous men. He lacked the far-seeing statesmanship, self-control, and resolute determination that gave Caesar the victory, and the disinterestedness of purpose and stubbornness of will that made Cato great in defeat. But Augustus said of him, "He loved his

Page  15 PLACE IN ROMAN HISTORY. 15 country." His motives were pure, his integrity unimpeached, and he laid down his life for the republic. His POSITION IN LITERATURE. -To the pursuit of litera- e ture Cicero brought extraordinary intellectual capabilities, a strong imagination, refined and elevated tastes, and habits of application that excite our amazement. His learning was great, - Varro alone of his contemporaries surpassed him, - and to the end of his life he read and studied incessantly. His memory, like Macaulay's, was always in action, and he seems to have easily run over the immense accumulations of his intellect. He raised the Latin language to the highest plane of its development; Ciceronian Latin means all that is clear, direct, and forcible. It is doubtful whether any writer of any age has been more widely read; it is certain that none has exercised a more powerful influence upon the world. There is no style of literature that he did not attempt; but it is to rhetoric, philosophy, and his letters that he chiefly owes his fame. In the first two his ' services to the Roman world as the mediator of Greek culture are beyond estimation; he was the first apostle to the Romans. His letters are to us a still more priceless treasure. They are a complete history of the times, bringing before us most vividly the last days of the republic. They are more than eight hundred in number and of various styles, some mere records of the events of the day, a few carefully prepared for publication as political pamphlets, the larger number friendly communications on all sorts of subjects to all sorts of people, revealing the writer's most personal relations and thoughts with the most transparent and engaging candor. Many of the letters of his correspondents too are preserved among them, and add still more, if possible, to their value. CICERO AS AN ORATOR. - Quintilian says of him: Apud 8 posteros id est consecutus, ut Cicero iam non hominis nomen sed eloquentiae habeatur. In clearness, fulness, life, and energy of style, he has never been surpassed. He

Page  16 16 LIFE OF CICERO. made for every speech the most careful and conscientious preparation, and handled his subjects with the most consummate skill. He could confuse a thing when he chose, and weave a web of sophistry almost impossible to disentangle. What he wished to make clear he could put in the simplest, plainest, most forcible way, and he generally did 9 it in the shortest sentences. He could be humorous, sarcastic, pathetic, ironical, satirical, and when he was malignant his mouth was most foul and his bite most venomous. His orations are distinguished by variety and rapid change of sentiment. His delivery was impassioned and fiery, his voice strong, full, and sweet, his figure tall, graceful, and impressive. He possessed a wonderful influence over the senses and feelings of his hearers, and when other counsel were associated with him it was usual for Cicero to be the last to address the jury. By universal consent he is' placed side by side with Demosthenes, or at least close' after him. He surpassed the great Attic orator in variety and brilliancy, but lacked his moral earnestness and conse10 quent impressiveness. In all ages he has been the model and despair of the greatest orators. Petrarch and Erasmus, Chatham and Burke, Webster, Everett, and Choate, have all felt and owned the powerful influence of his example. We know of over one hundred orations which he delivered; fifty-seven have been preserved entire, some twenty others in a fragmentary condition. We do not have them, however, in the precise form in which they were delivered, because it was his custom to prepare his speeches for publication by removing the parts of less permanent interest, and revising the rest. TO THE CANVASS FOR THE CONSULSHIP. 11 His EARLY EDUCATION.- Cicero was born on the 3d oi January, 106, at Arpinum, an old town in the land of the Volsci and the birthplace of Gaius Marius also. As a mere boy he attracted attention by his decided talent and resolu.

Page  17 TO THE CANVASS FOR THE CONSULSHIP. 17 tion to excel, and he was early destined by his father's wish and his own choice to a public career. His family belonged to the equestrian order (p. 56, ~ 18) which had maintained since the time of the Gracchi the attitude of moderate opposition to the senatorial, or conservative party, and none of his ancestors had ever been a magistrate. Forced, therefore, to 12 rely upon his own merits to recommend him to the people, he devoted himself with all his might to the study of oratory, which was then, even more than law is now, the gateway to a political career. The best teachers of rhetoric - and they were chiefly Greeks -were his; but he visited the forum daily to listen to those orators of his own country whose eloquence was most admired, especially Lucius Crassus and Marcus Antonius. He was a diligent student of Roman law also, under the Scaevolae, and this knowledge was afterwards of great value to him. He read with unflagging13 zeal the best Greek writers, especially the poets, and of these Homer above all others; and from them he derived a wealth of noble and exalted ideas, and the beauty of style which he conspicuously possessed. But to complete his ideal of a well-rounded orator and statesman he added philosophy and logic to his studies, having for his teachers representatives of the three chief schools, Phaedrus the Epicurean, Diodotus the Stoic, and Philo the Academic. To this list of his instructors must be added the famous rhetorician Molo, who had come to Rome as. ambassador from Rhodes. His FIRST CASES. - Thus prepared, Cicero in his twenty-14 sixth year, in 81, commenced his career as an advocate. It was customary for young men to make their first bid for notoriety and public favor by bringing a criminal suit, on good grounds or none, against some prominent but unpopular man: so Caesar, in 77, unsuccessfully prosecuted Dolabella. Cicero, however, preferred the more honorable course of appearing for the defence, and in his first public case, in 80, he spoke in behalf of $extius Roscius, charged with parri

Page  18 18 LIFE OF CICERO. cide. This was the justest case that Cicero ever championed; and the courage with which he opposed the favorite of the dictator Sulla, and exposed the corruption of the Sullan reign of terror, brought him into immediate prominence. 15 It may be that he feared the resentment of Sulla, for the next year (79), pleading ill health and the need of further study, he went to Athens and thence to Asia and Rhodes. In Athens he studied for six months under the most famous philosophers, and there formed his memorable friendship with Titus Pomponius Atticus. In Asia also he visited the most distinguished masters of eloquence; but it was at Rhodes, and under the same Molo whose lectures he had heard at Rome, that he profited the most. Under the influence of his criticisms Cicero put aside "the juvenile superfluities and redundancies" that had marred his earlier style. 16 His QUAESTORSHIP. - Greatly improved, -prope mutatus he calls it, -he returned to Rome in 77 (Sulla had died in 78) and resumed his labors in the courts. His talent, skill, and unselfishness so recommended him to the people that when in 76 he offered himself for the quaestorship, an office (p. 56, ~ 14) carrying with it a seat in the senate, he was unanimously elected. As quaestor (75) he was sent to Sicily, at that time the chief source of the corn supply of Rome, and his honorable administration did much to reconcile the provincials to the burdensome exactions of the government. All his spare time was devoted to study, and at the expiration of his year of office he returned to Rome with the confidence and esteem of the whole province. 17 He soon found, however, that in his absence he had been forgotten: even his efforts to supply the city with food during the scarcity had been unnoticed or unappreciated. This fired him to still greater activity, and he formed the resolution to stay in the city as much as possible, and live and work under the eyes of the people. Consequently, while the slave war raged in Italy, while the pirates defied

Page  19 TO THE CANVASS FOR THE CONSULSHIP. 19 the power of Rome upon the seas, while Lucullus fought against Mithradates and Tigranes in the east, Cicero was daily busy in the forum, always at the service of all who needed his assistance. None of the speeches, however, which he delivered in these years (75-72) have come down to us. His AEDILESHIP. - Cicero's political attitude up to this 18 time is very uncertain. He seems to have acquiesced in the triumph of Sulla as an earnest of peace and order, but to have revolted at the tyranny and cruelty of the dictator. Neither are we thoroughly acquainted with his relations to, Pompeius, the spoiled favorite of the senate, who had returned victorious from Spain in 71, had quarrelled immediately with his party, had nevertheless gained the consulship in 70, and had set about the undoing of Sulla's constitution. But we do know that Cicero, who in 70 was elected aedile (p. 66, ~ 64 f.) for 69, took advantage of the trial of Gaius Verres to pose as the zealous champion of the people's rights. Verres had been propraetor of Sicily for three 19 years, and had shamefully abused and plundered the province. On the expiration of his term of office the Sicilians brought suit against him for extortion, laying damages at $2,000,000. Bound by a promise given during his quaestorship Cicero departed from his custom and undertook their case, thus appearing for the first time as prosecutor in a public cause. He made the case a political one by publishing through Rome his intention to proceed against Verres not as an individual but as a type. He promised to expose 20 in this trial the corruption of the senate's system of administering the provinces, which had made the title of governor a synonym for plunderer and extortioner. He also promised to uncover the rottenness of the senatorial courts which had regularly acquitted offenders notoriously as guilty as Verres, and had unblushingly divided with them the spoil. The case of Verres is closely connected with the proceedings of Pompeius against the senate.

Page  20 20 LIFE OF CICERO. The culprit did not venture to stand his trial. He went into exile, the Sicilians were avenged if not recompensed, and Cicero was acknowledged the first advocate of Rome. 21 The next year (69) he was aedile. The aedileship was not a necessary step in a political career, but it carried with it the management of certain of the public games, and upon these the aediles were expected and accustomed to spend immense sums of their own money in the hope of gaining popular favor. Such an expenditure was entirely beyond Cicero's means; but the Sicilians had not forgotten his uprightness in his quaestorship and his eloquence in the prosecution of Verres. With their assistance he furnished corn at unusually low rates, and the grateful people received with favor the comparatively modest games he was able to give them, and his popularity was undiminished. 22 His PRAETORSHIP. - When the two years required by law had elapsed he became, in 67, a candidate for the praetorship (p. 65, ~ 59 f.). The election was several times interrupted and postponed, but on each occasion Cicero's name was at the top of the list of candidates in all the centuries. In his year of office he presided over one of the standing courts. Here his minute knowledge of the law (~ 12) was of great service to him, and his tribunal was thronged with young men listening to his decisions. The most important political event of the year was the proposal of the tribune, C. Manilius, to transfer the command against Mithradates 23 from Lucullus to Pompeius. The latter was to have unlimited funds, unlimited troops, unlimited authority over citizens and allies, in short such powers as not even the ancient kings had possessed. The measure was clearly unconstitutional, and as such was vigorously opposed by the conservatives. Besides, they hated Pompeius for his own sake, because to him they owed the loss of the courts and the re-establishment of the tribunate. The measure was supported by Caesar and Cicero, by the latter, perhaps, because he felt it his duty to take the side approved by the

Page  21 THE CANVASS OF 64. 21 party to which he owed the very position that gave weight to his opinion. He therefore delivered in support of the Manilian law the eloquent oration De Imperio Co. Pompei, his first distinctively political address to the people from the rostra, though there had been no lack of politics in his speeches for Roscius and against Verres. The bill was 24 carried, and the successful termination of the war seemed to vindicate the policy of Cicero, who, notwithstanding many rebuffs and wrongs, continued the ardent supporter and eloquent apologist of Pompeius all his life. In spite of his exacting official duties Cicero remained true to his profession of advocate during his praetorship. At its end, remembering his experience in Sicily, he declined a province and remained at Rome, working with the greater energy to keep his hold upon the people and to gain the favor of influential men: all with a view to the great prize of his ambition, the consulship, for which he became a candidate in 64. THE CANVASS OF 04. CATILINA. - His most prominent and most dangerous 25 competitor was Lucius Sergius Catilina, of patrician family, born about 108. Endowed with unusual powers of mind and body, he had inherited from his father a noble name but not a patrimony sufficient to satisfy the excessive needs of a luxurious age. In his early youth Catilina flung himself into all possible excesses which, without undermining his gigantic strength, blunted his moral feeling and coupled with an inordinate ambition led him into a series of awful crimes almost beyond belief. He entered upon public life 26 just at the time of Sulla's reign of terror, during which, stained by the guilt of a brother's murder, he had the murdered man's name put upon the proscription list as if he had still been living. He is also accused by Cicero of the murder of his wife and son to clear the way for a second

Page  22 22 LIFE OF CICERO. marriage. As a zealous disciple of Sulla he sated his thirst for murder, for at the head of a band of Gallic horsemen he slew a number of Roman knights, among them his 27 brother-in-law, Caecilius, and tortured to death a relative of Cicero and Marius. He is supposed to have gone through the regular course of offices (p. 69, ~ 77) at the regular age for each. He was elected quaestor, and afterwards as legatus conducted the siege of an enemy's town, but the year and the war are unknown. In 73 he was accused of incest with a vestal virgin Fabia, the half sister of Cicero's wife, but was acquitted. By his mastery of the arts of hypocrisy and dissimulation, and by his rare gift of attaching people to him, he succeeded in spite of the stains upon his character, in obtaining the praetorship in 68. 28 CATILINA'S FIRST ATTEMPT AT THE CONSULSHIP. - The following year he administered as propraetor the province of Africa, which he left in the summer of 66 to appear in Rome as a candidate for the consulship. But even before his departure from the province envoys from Africa had appeared before the senate to present complaints about the scandalous oppression of which he had been guilty; hence threatened with a prosecution for misgovernment he was obliged to retire from his candidature. The technical reason assigned was that he had failed to announce himself as a candidate seventeen days before the election as the law required. 29 From his family and former connection with Sulla's party it is probable that he expected to stand for the consulship as one of the conservative (senatorial) candidates. Upon the conservatives, therefore, he visited his disappointment, believing that had their support been earnest and sincere, the prosecution might have been evaded or at least postponed. He turned, therefore, to the democrats, the opposition, and secured their support for his next attempt by putting forward a program more radical than any that their own leaders dared propose. Attention, however, was called from his designs by more exciting proceedings in the state.

Page  23 THE CANVASS OF 64. 23 THE (so-called) FIRST CONSPIRACY. The candidates 30 elected for 65 after Catilina's withdrawal were Publius Autronius Paetus and Publius Cornelius Sulla. The latter was a relative of the dictator, personally insignificant but brought into prominence by his influential connections and by the great wealth which he had accumulated during the proscriptions. The consuls-elect were immediately brought to trial on the charge of bribery, were convicted and deposed. In their places were elected the rival candidates, Lucius Aurelius Cotta and Lucius Manlius Torquatus. Autronius is said to have immediately conspired with Catilina and Cn. Calpurnius Piso, a youth of good family but abandoned character, to murder the consuls at the very outset of their official career when they appeared in the Capitoline temple on the 1st of January to make the customary vows for the welfare of the state. Whether or not Sulla took part in 31 the plot cannot be determined with certainty; it is probable that he did, but so cautiously that strictly legal proofs could not be secured. Vargunteius and others were in the plot, which was to be executed by means of gladiators. Catilina and Autronius were to be proclaimed consuls, and Piso was to be furnished with an alrmy to gain fame and fortune in Spain. Sallust declares that the plot was formed early in December, 66, but became known before the end of the month, and a body-guard was provided by the senate for the consuls-elect. The execution of the plot was therefore postponed until the 5th of February 65. and its scope was enlarged to include the murder of the leading senators. It was asserted that it failed only because on the appointed day Catilina gave the signal before a sufficient number of his followers appeared. The conspirators escaped without punishment: Piso even received from the senate the reward he was to get from the plotters. He was sent as quaestor to Spain, where he was soon opportunely murdered by the natives. Although tradition has assigned to Catilina the leading 32

Page  24 24 LIFE OF CICERO. part in this plot, and although it is usually called his first conspiracy, it is very doubtful whether he was actively engaged in it. He probably sympathized at the time with Autronius and Sulla in their disappointment, and was afterwards made their scapegoat when their sins were discovered. In fact, it became quite the usual thing at Rome to ascribe to Catilina all unfathered crimes and outrages. It is at least significant that after the failure of the plot he went on with his plans to get place and power by the forms of law, even if his methods were violent and unscrupulous. 33 His SECOND ATTEMPT. - In the same year (65) Catilina was brought to trial by Publius Clodius Pulcher, afterwards the notorious enemy of Cicero, for his cruel oppression of his province. Catilina bribed his accuser to allow him to select most of the jury; but although several of the jury were also bribed, and the influence of many prominent men was exerted in his behalf, he narrowly escaped conviction. The intervention of the trial, for the case did not come on I until the consular elections were over, prevented his standing for the consulship this year, but he caused it to be known that he would surely be a candidate in 64. In this his second canvass he was actively supported by the more radical democrats, the influence of Caesar and Crassus being secretly but 34 no less effectively exerted for him. In order to make his election more certain he looked for an associate among the other candidates with whom he might exchange votes and resort to the boldest and most violent measures. Besides Catilina and Cicero there were in 64 five candidates for the consulship of 63. Of these the most promising was Gains Antonius Hybrida, who in character and antecedents strongly resembled Catilina. He was a son of the great orator Marcus Antonius and the uncle of the greater triumvir of the same name, the Mark Antony of Shakespeare. During Sulla's rule he had plundered Greece at the head of a band of cavalry and had taken part in the proscriptions. In 70 he had been removed from the senate,

Page  25 THE CANVASS OF 64. 25 but was afterwards restored. To him Catilina attached 35 himself, and both resolved to leave untried no means of canvassing, lawful or unlawful, to defeat Cicero - of the other candidates they had no fears. Catilina found friends to assist him with their money and credit in the purchase of votes, and at the expense of other friends shows of gladiators were promised the people in his name. Finally, in June Catilina called together his trusted adherents and laid before them his plans and the means of executing them. To the ambitious he promised high positions in the state, to the bankrupt complete or partial relief by legislation, to all alike the rich spoil of an unscrupulous administration and the plunder of the provinces. All was conditioned of course upon his success in the election of the following month; and so, after ratifying their engagements with the most fearful oaths (it is said that they pledged each other in wine mixed with human blood), they separated to work, each in his own way, for the election of Catilina and Antonius. CICERO'S CHANCES. - While Catilina was indulging in 36 the most confident hopes, the prospects of Cicero were by no means bright. He could count certainly upon the support of the knights only-the order to which his own family belonged. For however great the reputation he had made as an orator, advocate, and administrator, however high he stood in the affections of the people, however pure his character was amidst the moral filth of the time, however persuasively he urged his own claims, and however eloquently he exposed the designs of his opponents, still the arts of his competitors were strong with the lower classes, and the nobility was solidly against him. The nobles despised him as a homo novus (p. 56, ~ 16), hated him for his attacks upon them in his speeches against Verres and for the Manilian law (~ 23), and feared that in the future he might work in the interests of the democrats, and further the ambitious designs of Pompeius.

Page  26 26 LIFE OF CICERO. 37 THE RESULT. - A fortunate accident, providence he would have called it, turned the tide in his favor. Q. Curius, one of Catilina's penniless adventurers, began suddenly to set a day for the fulfilment of his long-standing promises to his mistress Fulvia: gold, jewels, everything should be hers - after the election. She told her friends of her expectations, of course with due exaggeration. The vaguest and most extravagant rumors spread through the city. The terrors of the Sullan revolution were revived in the minds of all who owned property, valued peace, and cared for their lives. The threatened danger broke the pride of the nobles, and they cast their votes for Cicero as the most conservative democrat among the candidates. He was elected at the head of the list with Antonius second and Catilina in the minority by a few centuries only. For the first and last time had a homo novus been elected consul at the earliest age permitted by the laws. HIS CONSULSHIP. 38 His OFFICIAL DUTIES. —In another part of this book (p. 64, ~ 53) the duties of the consul are described. Mr. Trollope, however, has called attention to the little that we know of the administrative work done by the great Roman officers of state. "Though we can picture to ourselves a Cicero before the judges or addressing the people from the rostra, or uttering his opinions in the senate, we know nothing of him as he sat in his office and did his consular work. We cannot but suppose that there must have been an office and many clerks. There must have been heavy daily work. The whole operation of government was under the consul's charge, and to Cicero, with a Catilina on 39 his hands, this must have been unusually heavy." In spite of his official duties Cicero continued his practice in the courts. He has given us a list of twelve speeches, consulares he calls them, delivered this year, five of which are

Page  27 HIS CONSULSHIP. contained in this volume. He entered upon office on the 1st of January, 63. The winter and spring were occupied with contentions about the agrarian law of Rullus, the trial of Rabirius for the death of Saturninus, the proposal to restore to their rights the children of those whom Sulla had proscribed, Caesar's intrigues to secure the office of pontifex maximus (p. 70, ~ 81), Cicero's law to check bribery, and above all the rivalry of the candidates for the consulship of 62. One of these candidates was Catilina. CATILINA's THIRD ATTEMPT. -Discouraged and dis- 40 heartened as Catilina was by his second failure, he could not give up and turn back. He had staked his all and his friends' all upon the consulship: he would make one more effort to secure the prize -if that failed there was nothing left him but ruin or civil war. He had already exhausted all means countenanced or employed by the Romans in their party struggles. One last resort remained, and so without openly renouncing the support of the democrats he strove to attach to himself a personal following, not a "party," of the bankrupt and the ruined. There was no lack of material to work upon. There were the dissi-41 pated youth, those who had no possessions, the spendthrifts and criminals of all kinds, the veterans of Sulla who after quickly squandering their ill-gotten riches longed for new booty, the great mass of those who had been driven from house and home by the military colonies, and finally -the most dangerous element-the mob of the capital, always thirsting for pillage and blood. What hopes Catilina held up before these new supporters, cannot be definitely determined; the designs of anarchists are not usually very precise and well defined. He undoubtedly promised a cancellation of debts (novae tabulae), and the spoils of office with hints at the proscription of the rich- just as he had promised in 64, but on a larger scale. The threats of fire, pillage, outrage, and murder that we read of must have been the idle mouthings of his followers, or thrown

Page  28 28 LIFE OF CICERO. back upon this time from the events of the following summer and fall. 42 THE ELECTION OF 63.- Cicero, who had kept accurately informed of Catilina's designs, fully appreciated the critical condition of the state. As Catilina had turned from the democrats to the anarchists, so Cicero turned to the conservatives. He tried to win the confidence of the senators, to open their eyes to the threatened danger, to arouse their energies in behalf of the republic which he believed could be saved by the senate alone. To convince them of his disinterestedness he had declined a province in advance of the lots. The rich one, Macedonia, which afterwards fell to him, he turned over to his doubtful colleague Antonius as a bribe to win him from his connection with Catilina, or at least to secure his neutrality. The less desirable one he caused to be given to a stanch con43 servative, Quintus Metellus Celer. He bribed Fulvia, and through her Curius, to keep him informed of Catilina's plots. To counteract his election intrigues he proposed and carried through a law in reference to bribery, adding to the number of acts that were declared illegal, and increasing the severity of the penalties. He looked to his personal safety by forming a body-guard of friends and clients, who also served him as a secret police. Finally, in July, when news reached him of a secret meeting of a particularly atrocious character, he called the senate together the day before the election, and laid the danger before them. The senate determined to discuss the condition of the state the next day instead of holding the election.- This was done, and when Cicero had acquainted them with all that he knew, he challenged Catilina to reply 4 to his charges. Nothing daunted, Catilina replied in an exultant and defiant speech, for which, says Cicero, he ought not to have been allowed to leave the house alive. The senate, however, took no decisive steps, the election was no longer deferred, and Catilina left the senate house

Page  29 HIS CONSULSHIP. with an air of triumph. Fortunately the revelations of Cicero were noised about, and had more effect upon the better classes of citizens than upon the senate, and his conduct upon the day of the election increased their dread of violence. He appeared at the voting place wearing but half-concealed beneath his official toga a glittering cuirass, and surrounded by a numerous body-guard. The expected attack was not made, but the people, duly impressed with a sense of the consul's danger, rejected Catilina for the last time, and elected Lucius Licinius Murena and Decimus Junius Silanus. THE CONSPIRACY OF CATILINA. - It is at this point 45 that what is known as the conspiracy of Catilina really begins. However radical, however revolutionary, his designs had been previous to this defeat, he had aimed at overthrowing the existing government only, not at subverting the very order of the state itself. Now, however, his plans were changed. In despair he set about the utter destruction of the republic which he could no longer hope to rule. He collected stores of arms in various convenient places in and out of Rome. He sent money, raised upon his own and his friends' credit, to his trusted lieutenant Gaius Manlius at Faesulae in Etruria. Three armies of 46 Sulla's veterans and other disaffected persons were to assemble in Etruria, Apulia, and Picenum. Outbreaks of slaves, mostly gladiators, were arranged for. He counted also upon the aid of Piso in Spain and Antonius in Rome, but both failed him for the reasons given in ~~ 31 and 42. On the 27th of October Manlius was to raise the standard of rebellion at Faesulae; on the 28th Catilina himself was to put to the sword the leading men at Rome. But Cicero had contrived to keep informed of all these plans, and on the 21st of October he laid before the senate all the information he had gained. For the moment the senate awakened from its lethargy. It passed the resolution 47 always reserved for the gravest crises, VIDEANT CONSULES

Page  30 LIFE OF CICERO. NE QUID RES PUBLICA DETRIMENTI CAPIAT, equivalent, says Caesar, to calling the Roman people to arms. A few days later came the news that Manlius had done his partdesperate men of all sorts were gathering around him ready for open war. The senate sent the proconsuls Q. Marcius Rex and Q. Metellus (Creticus) to Etruria and Apulia, and the praetors Q. Pomponius Rufus and Q. Metellus Celer (~ 42) to Capua and Picenum, with authority to raise troops as needed. Rewards were offered for information concerning the conspiracy. The bands of gladiators in Rome were hurried away to distant points, and to lessen the danger from incendiaries armed watchmen patrolled the streets under the direction of the inferior magistrates. 48 A week passed by. There was a report that an unsuccessful attempt had been made to surprise Praeneste, an important fortress east of Rome, but in the city itself nothing occurred to justify Cicero's extraordinary precautions. The senate began to believe that the upstart consul had been trifling with its fears, and Catilina assumed the air of injured innocence. In fact; when he was charged at last with treason, he offered, as if confiding in the purity of his motives, to surrender himself to the watch and ward of any good citizen (custodia libera). All this time, however, he was getting ready to leave Rome and join Manlius. He saw clearly enough that the only chance of success lay in a sudden attack upon the city before the senate's forces 49 were enrolled and equipped. For this reason, deceiving his guard or securing his connivance, he gathered together at the house of the senator, M. Porcius Laeca, on the night of November 6th, the leaders of the conspiracy. He -informed them of his intended departure, assured them of his early return with an army, selected some to accompany him, despatched others to important points in Italy, and assigned to those who were to remain at Rome the duty of setting the city on fire in twelve places when his approach

Page  31 HIS CONSULSHIP. 31 was announced. He spoke bitterly of Cicero's unusual watchfulness, whereupon two knights volunteered to murder the consul at his house at daybreak. The night was so far spent, however, that the attempt was postponed for twenty-four hours. In the mean time Cicero was warned by Fulvia, and when early in the morning of the 8th, the assassins presented themselves at Cicero's door as if to make the usual morning call, they were refused admittance. Several prominent men, summoned by Cicero for the purpose, bore witness to the attempt, and helped to spread the news through the city. THE FIRST ORATION AGAINST CATILINA. - On the 50 same day (November 8th) Cicero assembled the senate in the temple of Jupiter Stator, on the northern slope of the Palatine hill and probably within the original fortifications of the ancient city. Here lived Cicero and Catilina, here lived the aristocracy, and hence is derived our word palace. The senators came in large numbers. The late hour of the day, the unusual place of meeting, and the supposed subject of deliberation, excited their liveliest anticipations. Among them came Catilina, undismayed by the watchmen already patrolling the streets, by the guards already posted, by the crowds of people anxiously running to and fro, by the band of knights who surrounded the senate fully armed and who regarded him with no friendly eyes. As he made his way toward his usual place, where as ex-praetor he sat near the ex-consuls, no one spoke to him, no one greeted him, and as he took his seat those near him rose from theirs and left him alone. Cicero, losing his self-control 51 at this exhibition of Catilina's effrontery, broke forth in a fiery speech, upbraided him with the events of the last two nights, and demanded that he quit the city. Even now Catilina attempted a defence. He begged the senators not to believe the charges too hastily: he was sprung from such a family, had so lived from his youth that he might hope for every success; they could not think that he, a

Page  32 LIFE OF CICERO. patrician, needed the overthrow of the republic when Cicero, an immigrant into Rome, put himself forward as its savior. He was going on with further insults when the senate interrupted him with cries of hostis, parricida. He rushed from the temple, and, after a last meeting with his accomplices, he left the city the same night to join Manlius. His friends spread the report that he was going into exile at Massilia, a report that Catilina craftily confirmed by letters written to prominent men at Rome. 52 THE SECOND ORATION.- The next day Cicero delivered an address to the people, corresponding to a proclamation of the president of the United States or an "inspired editorial" in a European court journal. He acquainted the citizens with the condition of affairs within and without the city, defended himself from a double charge, busily circulated by his enemies, that Catilina if guilty had been allowed to escape, if innocent had been driven into exile, encouraged those who were anxious over the result of the apprehended war, and finally tried to frighten from their purposes the conspirators that were in the city. 53 In a few days, as Cicero had predicted, came the news that Catilina, with the fasces and other insignia of a consul, had entered the camp of Manlius. The senate immediately declared them both outlaws and traitors, promised amnesty to their followers who should lay down their arms by a fixed day, and commissioned the consuls to raise troops. Antonius was directed to take the field against Catilina, while Cicero took charge of the city. Days passed with no decisive action —outside the city both parties were gathering forces, inside they were watching and waiting. 54 CATILINA'S REPRESENTATIVES AT ROME. - Catilina had left the senators Lentulus, Cassius, and Cethegus to watch over his interests at Rome. P. Cornelius Lentulus Sura had been consul in 71, but had been removed from the senate on account of his immoral life, and, in order to regain his seat, had a second time stood for and obtained the

Page  33 HIS CONSULSHIP. 33 praetorship. He was slow of thought and action, and extremely superstitious- at this time the victim of pretended soothsayers, who assured him he was the third Cornelius whom fate had destined to rule at Rome. L. Cassius Longinus had been one of Cicero's competitors for the consulship; he was looked upon as indolent and stupid rather than wicked, and people could scarcely believe him in the plot. C. Cethegus was a young man of reckless life 55 who was said to have been concerned in the conspiracy of 65 (~ 30). Besides these, the knights P. Gabinius Capito, whom Cicero calls Cimber Gabinius, and L. Statilius, were especially active. Lentulus was the authorized leader, and he refused to resort to the torch and dagger until Catilina should move upon the city. At last his impatient and sanguine accomplices forced him to appoint the night of the 19th of December, the feast of Saturn, for the general rising. Cicero was convinced of their complicity in the plot, and was informed of their plans, but in the absence of legal proofs he could only wait for some overt act while providing for the safety of the city as best he could. THE ORATION FOR MURENA. - In the mean time, one of 56 the consuls-elect, L. Licinius Murena, was impeached for bribery under the provisions of Cicero's own law (~ 43). Although the law was aimed particularly at Catilina, there was little doubt that all the candidates were guilty of illegal practices, and even before the election Cato had declared his purpose to bring to trial the successful men, whoever they might be. One of these, however, proved to be his brother-in-law Silanus, and him Cato permitted to go in peace. Associated with Cato for the prosecution were the great jurist Servius Sulpicius Rufus, who had himself been a candidate, and two unknown men of no importance. The trial took place toward the end of November, and Q. Hortensius, Cicero's only rival in the courts, and M. Licinius Crassus, assisted Cicero in the defence. Cicero 57 passes lightly over the legal points involved-probably

Page  34 34 LIFE OF CICERO. they would not bear much handling - and lays the greatest stress upon the retention of Murena in the consulship as a matter of state expediency: Murena was a brave, loyal, energetic man, such as the crisis required; the needs of the republic should outweigh the strict requirements of the law. In answering the opposing counsel, who were his close and valued friends, he adopts a tone of good-natured banter, which, though no less effective than abuse, could not offend them, and has made this speech admired in both ancient and modern times. Mr. Forsyth says: "It is a striking proof of the elastic energy of Cicero's mind that at the very moment of the explosion of the plot, in the midst of the most awful danger, he was able to deliver in defence of a friend a speech distinguished for light wit and good-humored raillery." Murena was acquitted, and Cicero turned his thoughts again to getting evidence against the conspirators in Rome. 58 THE ARREST AND THE THIRD ORATION.- There happened to be in Rome at this time envoys of the Allobroges, a Gallic people whose country lay between the Rhone and the Alps, trying to obtain from the senate some relief from the cruelty and avarice of the Roman governors. Their efforts had been fruitless, and in the worst of tempers they were preparing to return to their homes. With them Lentulus opened negotiations, using as go-betweens Cimber Gabinius (~ 55) and one P. Umbrenus, a freedman who had traded in Gaul and was personally known to the envoys. Lentulus promised the Gauls full relief under the new dispensation of Catilina, and asked in return that the warlike nation would assist Catilina in the field, especially with cavalry. The Allobroges hesitated for a while, and at length consulted their patronus, Q. Fabius Sanga. He revealed the plot to Cicero, and at the latter's suggestion directed the envoys to feign the most active interest in the conspiracy but to demand from the leaders in it written 59 pledges to show to their people at home. Lentulus, Stati

Page  35 HIS CONSULSHIP. 35 lius, Gabinius, and Cethegus fell into the trap, but Cassius explained that he was soon going to Gaul in person, and immediately left the city. The envoys also secured letters from the conspirators to Catilina, by pretending that they meant to turn aside to see him on their journey. Finally, on the night of the 2d of December, they left Rome, having all these damaging documents il their possession, and accompanied by T. Volturcius, who was to guide them to Catilina. In accordance with a pre-arranged plan, they were arrested not far from the city gates, where the via Flaminia crosses the Tiber by the Mulvian bridge, and some show of violence was made to shield the Allobroges from suspicion of treachery. On the morning of the 3d of December the senate met in the temple of Concord. The meeting lasted all day, but in the evening Cicero gave to the expectant people a report of the proceedings in the THIRD ORATION. The four leaders, Lentulus, Statilius, 60 Gabinius, and Cethegus had been confronted in the presence of the senate by the envoys and by T. Volturcius, who had been allowed to turn state's evidence. The letters written by their own hands and attested by their seals had been produced and read, and the culprits had confessed. The senate had ordered rewards to be given to the Allobroges, the four conspirators to be kept in custody, and others implicated to be arrested if possible. The effect of this speech upon the people was wonderful. Those who had been disposed to doubt could doubt no longer, and Sallust tells us that the lower classes, who had sympathized with Catilina more or less openly, now cursed him when they understood that their hereditary enemies, the Gauls, had been summoned to burn the city over their heads. THE PUNISHMENT. - The fate of the conspirators was 61 now to be determined. Their guilt had been fully established. It was proved that they had formed a conspiracy against the government, that they had planned an uprising with torch and sword, that - a still more heinous offence

Page  36 36 LIFE OF CICEILO. in Roman eyes- they had summoned a foreign people to arms against their country, and had contemplated calling up the hordes of slaves against their masters. In a wellordered commonwealth this would have been enough -the punishment of high treason has always in all communities been death. The civil courts would have dealt with the leaders in the city, and the army with Catilina in the field. 62 But the state was utterly disorganized. In the first place, it was doubtful if the criminals could be held for trial. They had been put under the care of certain eminent mert - Caesar and Crassus among them - who were responsible for their safe keeping (~ 48), but the freedmen of the prisoners were stirring, Rome was full of desperadoes, the government had no efficient police or military force at its disposal, and finally Catilina was close at hand. In the second place, even if brought to trial, it was doubtful if they could be convicted. The courts of Rome were notoriously corrupt; if it was difficult to get a verdict against an influential man in an ordinary criminal case, in a political one it would have been almost impossible. No one knew how far the conspiracy extended -Caesar and Crassus were suspected, though probably unjustly, of complicity in it - and the very jurors selected to try the 63 accused might have proved to be their accomplices. In the third place, granting that the prisoners could be held for trial, and that a fair trial was possible, their punishment was a still more puzzling question. Penal imprisonment had never been known at Rome, and the death penalty, originally imposed by the people in full assembly only, had ceased to be inflicted. In ordinary practice a criminal who looked upon his conviction as certain, was allowed to escape the theoretical punishment of death by going into exile (~ 20), but the courts no more imposed exile as a penalty than our courts now banish defaulters to Canada. The criminal, by a legal fiction, left his country of his own accord and was merely forbidden to return. In the case

Page  37 HIS CONSULSHIP. 37 of Lentulus and his associates, this voluntary exile would have been farcical -they would simply have joined Catilina to take up arms against the country. Such an act would have been a confession of weakness almost fatal to the government. THE CONSULTUM ULTIMUM. - It was therefore sug- 64 gested that the prisoners be put to death without a trial by the mere order of the consul. It has been said (~ 47) that on the 21st of October the senate had passed the consultum ulttimum, VIDEANT CONSULES NE QUID RES PUBLICA DETRIMENTI CAPIAT. Good constitutional lawyers, Cicero among them, had always maintained that by this decree the consuls were empowered to perform any act deemed necessary for the safety of the state, that the laws and constitution were temporarily suspended. On the other hand, authorities equally good maintained that by this decree the senate delegated its own powers only to the consuls, and that, as the senate had no judicial powers at all, it did not and could not give the consuls any authority over courts and processes of law. This is the great constitutional question 65 that had so much to do with Cicero's career. It was undecided in his day, and we cannot decide it now. Cicero had always asserted the unlimited powers of the consuls by this decree, but when he became the consul upon whom rested the fearful responsibility he hesitated to act. Convinced, however, that the death of the ringleaders was necessary to the security of the state, he resolved to incur the responsibility, but he felt that the senate should at least declare in set terms that it counseled and approved their execution. He therefore summoned the senate on the 5th of December, the fateful Nonae Decembres of which he so often speaks, to pronounce upon the fate of the conspirators. THE FOURTH ORATION. - The first to give his opinion 66 was the consul-elect, D. Junius Silanus, who boldly declared for the death penalty. With him agreed the sen

Page  38 38 LIFE OF CICERO. ators one by one until it came Caesar's turn. He proposed imprisonment for life in the country towns with confiscation of property, and in an eloquent speech dwelt upon the unconstitutionality of putting the men to death untried, and upon the vengeance the people would surely exact from the consul who should thus disregard their ancient right to impose the sentence. His speech turned the tide. All who followed him, including Cicero's brother, voted with him, and many who had followed Silanus changed their votes. The consul's friends crowded around his chair imploring him to think of his own safety and lend 67 his eloquence to the support of the safer proposal. All eyes were turned upon him as he rose to speak, as the consul had a right to do at any point in the debate. Without giving his voice outright for either proposal, he declared his belief that the prisoners, by confessing themselves hostes, had lost their rights as cives, and urged the senators to take no thought of his safety, but consider the interests of the state only. Still the senate wavered, and the decision was about to be postponed, when Cato in a vigorous speech declared for death. The majority followed him, and that night the five ringleaders were strangled in the Tullianum, the dungeon beneath the prisons 68 THE END OF THE CONSPIRACY. -This bold and decisive act broke the backbone of the conspiracy. From this moment Catilina received no accessions of strength, and his followers even began to desert him. His attempted retreat with his army into Gaul was blocked by the praetor Metellus Celer (~ 47), while M. Petreius, the legatus of Antonius (~ 53), advanced against him from the south. Early in 62, when Cicero's year of office had expired, the opposing forces met near Pistoria in Etruria. Catilina and his followers, after fighting with the most desperate courage, were defeated and slain to a man. The body of their leader was found far in advance of his men covered by a heap of dead soldiers that he had killed with his own hand.

Page  39 HIS EXILE AND RETURN. 39 But before Cicero's term had ended he received an earn- 69 est of the reward.he was to get for his boldness in behalf of the state. On the 31st of December, as he was about to lay down his office before the assembled people, and as he ascended the rostra to deliver the usual address, the newly elected tribune (p. 66, ~ 61), Q. Metellus Nepos, forbade him to speak: "A man who had put Roman citizens to death without a hearing did not himself deserve a hearing." He permitted the consul, however, to take the customary oath that he had observed the laws, and Cicero added in a loud voice that he had saved the country too. The people shouted their assent, hailed him as pater patriae and in crowds escorted him, now ex-consul, to his home. HIS EXILE AND RETURN. AGITATION OF NEPOS. - The political disputes between 70 the conservatives and democrats, which had ceased during the common danger froin the conspiracy, revived in the year 62. The above-mentioned tribune, Metellus Nepos, a friend of Pompeius and initiated into his plans while his legatus in Asia (~ 24), fiercely assailed Cicero and through him the whole senate. He denounced the execution of the conspirators as arbitrary and unconstitutional, and reproached the senate bitterly because of the continued prosecution of Catilina's associates. At last in connection with Caesar, who was now praetor and wished to lessen the power of the senate, he proposed a bill recalling Pompeius with his army to defend the state endangered by Cicero's misrule. But the conservatives had gained courage by their victory over the anarchists, and strength by the better feeling which Cicero had fostered between the senate and the equites. They met the proposal of Meteilus with such determined bravery that he left the city and returned to Pompeius. For a time the democratic

Page  40 LIFE OF CICERO. opposition languished, and with the ascendency of the conservatives Cicero was secure. 71 THE ORATION FOR SULLA. - Meanwhile in the early months of 62 the ordinary criminal law was set in motion against several of Catilina's party, whose guilt was for the most part clear. Among them were Autronius (~ 30) who vainly appealed to Cicero once his colleague in the quaestorship, Servius and Publius Sulla, nephews of the dictator, M. Porcius Laeca, at whose house (~ 49) the famous meeting was held, Lucius Vargunteius and Gains Cornelius the would-be murderers of Cicero. Against all these Cicero gave evidence and none were acquitted. When four years later he was driven from Rome, Autronius was living in Epirus in exile. About' the middle of the year, probably in July, occurred the trial of P. Cornelius Sulla on the charge of complicity in the First Conspiracy (~~ 30 -32). Since his conviction for bribery he had been living in retirement, almost constantly at Naples, though an effort 72 had been made to remove his political disabilities. He was prosecuted by T. Manlius Torquatus, son of the consul who had been elected in his place, and by C. Cornelius, son of the conspirator of the same name, and known from Cicero's speech only. Cicero's reason for undertaking the defence does not appear upon the surface. He alleges his desire to aid a man whom he had good reasons for believing innocent, his anxiety to show that he could on due occasion be merciful as well as severe, a natural impulse to act with the most distinguished men of the day, who had turned their backs upon Vargunteius and the rest, but warmly supported Sulla. His real reason was that he was casting about for friends in the troubles plainly approaching. Sulla's wealth and influence were very considerable, and Cicero was anxious to lay him and his powerful friends under an obligation. With Cicero was associated Hortensius (~ 56). Sulla was acquitted, but we know little of his subsequent career.

Page  41 HIS EXILE AND RETURN. 41 THE AFFAIR OF CLODIUS. - But toward the close of the 73 year 62 occurred a circumstance that excited party strife again, and exercised the most baneful influence over Cicero's later fortunes. P. Clodius Pulcher (~ 33), a young man of ancient and noble family, but guilty of all sorts of excesses, in prosecution of an intrigue with Caesar's wife, ventured to disguise himself as a dancing-girl, and steal into Caesar's official residence at the time when the mysteries of the Bona Dea, at which the presence of men was strictly forbidden, were being celebrated there. Caesar was then pontifex maximus (~ 39), but absent as propraetor in Spain. Clodius was detected, but escaped. The high priests declared the act sacrilegious, and required the matrons and vestals to repeat the rites. Besides this the senate ordered a judicial inquiry, and for the purpose of securing greater rigor resolved that the jurors should be selected by the praetor, and not, as was usual, be drawn by lot. This required the assent of the people, and party 74 feeling prolonged the discussion into the year 61 when the senate was defeated. The jurors were selected by lot, and the money of Crassus, who, in concert with Caesar, used every opportunity to humiliate the senate, secured the acquittal of Clodius by a vote of thirty-one to twenty-five. Cicero had from the beginning championed the cause of the senate, but without personal bitterness toward Clodius. Now, however, for reasons unknown to us, he suddenly became his most vindictive foe. He not only destroyed during the trial the attempted alibi by testifying that Clodius was at his house when he claimed to be miles from Rome, but after the verdict was rendered he let no opportunity pass to twit him with the crime and the trial. Clodius soon went to Sicily as quaestor, but he had resolved on revenge, and was merely biding his time. THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE. - In 61 Pompeius returned 75 victorious from Asia, but was coldly received by the conservatives. A triumph was granted him and celebrated

Page  42 LIFE OF CICERO. with great magnificence, but the arrangements made by him in the east and the rewards promised to his soldiers met with much opposition and delay. In 60 Caesar returned from Spain, and there was soon formed the so-called first triumvirate between Pompeius, Crassus, and Caesar. Pompeius contributed his military reputation, Crassus his wealth, and Caesar his influence as a political manipulator. United they were irresistible - the only opposition they feared came from Cato and Cicero. They silenced Cato by sending him to Cyprus on government business. They made every effort to win Cicero's support, and, when this 76 had failed, to secure his silence and neutrality. They tried to induce him to accompany Caesar into Gaul as legatus on his staff, then to go abroad at public expense (libera legatio) as if on public business, and finally to preside over the board of twenty senators appointed to distribute lands in Campania-all with a view to getting him out of Italy, or at least out of Rome. Cicero declined all these offers. Even his unreasonable admiration for Poinpeius (~ 24) could not reconcile him to the desertion of the conservatives, although he saw that that party was unable to defend him against the attacks of the Catilinarians or to maintain its temporary connection with the equites (~ 11), which had up to this time secured its position against the democrats (~ 70). His refusal to be silenced cost him dearly. Unable to cajole him, the regents resolved to coerce him, and employed as their tool for this purpose Clodius, who had now returned to Rome. 77 CLODIUS' REVENGE. -Eager to wreak his vengeance upon Cicero, Clodius had sought to arm himself with the formidable power of the tribunate. For this purpose it was necessary that he, patrician born, should be adopted into a plebeian family, a proceeding violently resisted by the conservatives, and accomplished only by Caesar's help. Clodius entered upon his new office on the 10th of December, 59, and proceeded, by various proposals, to attach to

Page  43 HIS EXILE AND RETURN. 43 himself men of all parties, especially Cicero's personal or political enemies. He won the favor of the poor by his corn-law, gratified many knights and even senators by limiting the power of the censors (p. 65, ~ 56), and paved the way for his favorite political tactics by abrogating the law which had put a check upon tumultuous assemblies of the people, and by restoring the suppressed ward clubs. 78 As soon as he had thus secured a following upon which he could rely, he came forward early in 58, in the consulshipof L. Calurnius Piso.and Aulus Gabinius, with a bill providing that any person who had caused a Roman citizen to be put to death without a formal trial should be punished with banishment. Cicero's name was not mentioned, but it was easy to see that the law was aimed at the proceedings of the 5th of December, 63 (~~ 65-67). Cicero seemed at once to lose all his wonted resolution. Without awaiting the progress of events, while it was yet uncertain that the bill would pass, he put off his senatorial dress, assumed that of a knight, and, in deep mourning, went about appealing for sympathy and assistance as if already accused. There was no lack of sympathy: 20,000 citizens, knights, and senators put on mourning too, although the consuls by edict forced the senate to resume its usual dress. 79 L. Ninnius, a tribune, and L. Lamia, a knight, were especially active in Cicero's behalf, until Clodius prevented the former from addressing the people, and Gabinius banished the latter from the city. Cicero's friends were harassed also at all times by Clodius' hired bullies. Opinions differed as to what Cicero ought to do. Some advised him to remain until a direct attack was made upon him; L. Lucullus in particular was eager to resort to force in his behalf, knowing that the great mass of moderate and peaceful citizens, especially those in the country towns, were devoted to him. But others, among them many of his sincerest friends, counseled temporary submission, encouraging him to hope for an immediate recall. To these Cicero yielded,

Page  44 44 LIFE OF CICERO. and, accompanied by crowds of those who loved and hon ored him, he left the city about the end of March, 58; into exile itself he was afterwards followed by clients, freedmen, and slaves. 80 CICERo's BANISHMENT.- NO sooner had he gone than Clodius proposed his formal banishment, and the people voted it. He was forbidden the use of fire and water within 400 miles of Rome, all who sheltered him within these limits were threatened with punishment, and the senate and people were forbidden to agitate for his recall. Not a night was suffered to pass before his property was seized by his unrelenting enemies. His house on the Palatine (~ 50) was reduced to ashes, and on a part of its site a temple was consecrated by Clodius to the goddess Libertas. His villas at Formiae and Tusculuin were pillaged and destroyed, and the consuls appropriated a good deal of the spoil. Nor was his family spared. Cicero tells us that his children were sought that they might be murdered. His wife, Terentia, fled to her half-sister Fabia (~ 27), a vestal, and was dragged from Vesta's temple to a bank to give security for paying over Cicero's ready money to his enemies. The news of these outrages reached him before he left Italy, and he already regretted not having 81 followed the advice of Lucullus. He had left Rome uncertain as to his destination. He repaired at first to Vibo, in Bruttiulm, where he had a friend named Sicca, and there he first heard of the enactment of the law and of the limits fixed in it. He was refused an asylum in Sicily by the praetor, C. Vergilius, who feared the dominant party in Rome, although Cicero's services to the Sicilians (~~ 16, 19) would have insured a kindly reception by the provincials. He went, therefore, to Dyrrachium, declining an invitation to the estate of Atticus (~ 15), and avoiding Greece for fear of meeting some Catilinarians who were living there (~ 71) in exile. In Macedonia he found a devoted friend in the quaestor, Cn. Plancius, who had hurried to meet him at

Page  45 HIS EXILE AD) RIETURN. 45 Dyrrachium and offered his hospitality. At his house, not far from Thessalonica, Cicero lived in security but in deep dejection. He apprehended that his brother Quintus, then returning from his administration of Asia, might be persecuted for his sake, suspected false dealings on the part of Hortensius and others, and was tormented by fears for his wife and children. EFFORTS FOR His RECALL. - Meanwhile, his friends in 82 Rome had not been idle. The conservatives felt bound to secure the recall of the man through whose exile their weakness had been so exposed. As early as the 1st of June the tribune L. Ninnius had proposed his recall before the senate, and, while the measure did not pass, it at least nerved the senate from this time to devote all its energies to Cicero's cause. On the 27th of October all the tribunes except Clodius and Aelius Ligus repeated the proposition. So long, however, as Clodius was in office nothing could be accomplished; besides Caesar, who from Gaul exercised great influence on affairs at Rome, had not yet declared for Cicero, and Pompeius, to whom Cicero had written in May, also failed him. At last Clodius quarrelled with Pomnpeius, and the latter determined, out of spite, to recall the former's arch-enemy Cicero. On the 1st of January, 57, two new consuls entered office, P. Lentulus Spinther and Q. Metellus Nepos. Lentulus was a devoted friend of Cicero, and Metellus gave up his enmity (~~ 69, 70) at the instance of Pompeius. It was determined to recall Cicero, 83 not by a decree of the senate but by a vote of the tribes (p. 59, ~ 29), and the 25th of January was fixed for the attempt. Although Clodius was now out of office, he was still as active and unscrupulous as ever in his opposition, and sought to make up for his loss of power by the use of force and arms. With a band of gladiators he took possession of the forum early in the morning of the appointed day, drove away the friends of Cicero, and spread terror through the streets. The tribunes Sestius and Milo adopted

Page  46 46 LIFE OF CICERO. like tactics, and for weeks the city was the battle-ground of the two factions. Finally, as the tribes could not meet for the transaction of business, the senate determined to put an end to the struggle by a vote of the centuries (p. 59, ~ 30), and summoned to the city citizens from all parts of Italy. Pompeius visited in person the towns and colonies, and exerted all his influence for Cicero. So, on the 4th of August, the resolution for his recall was finally passed by an assembly that the Campus Martius could scarcely contain and Clodius could not daunt. The news filled the city with indescribable joy. 84 CICERO'S RETURN.- Cicero had not waited in Macedonia for the decree to pass. Having learned from his friends that his recall was merely a question of time, he had returned in November, 58, to Dyrrachium, where he waited and watched the progress of events. He sailed for Brundisiumn as it chanced on the very day that the people authorized his return, and reached Italy on the 5th of August, after an absence of about sixteen months. At Brundisium his daughter Tullia met him, -the 5th of August happened to be her birthday, —and here on the 8th he learned finally that his banishment was at an end. His return to Rome was a triumphal march. Crowds attended him; deputations from all over Italy met and welcomed him; no sign of joy or mark of honor was omitted on the way, and in the city itself the demonstrations were on the grandest scale. 85 CICERO'S LETTERS. -To this period of his banishment refer the Letters of Cicero that are contained in this book. They have been selected largely to show the deep dejection into which he was plunged by his removal from the capital. From these and other letters of the same period modern writers have chiefly derived the material for their unsparingly hostile criticism of his character. While these letters show little of ideal Roman fortitude, while they abound in expressions of doubt and regret and despair,

Page  47 HIS EXILE AND RETURN. 47 while they reveal his impatience to be recalled and his injustice to Atticus and other friends, it must be remembered, on the other hand, that Cicero's nature was keenly sensitive, and that his pride had been most cruelly wounded. All that he had was taken from him; all the cherished occupations of his life were over; and, so far as he could know at the time, his doubts and fears were justified. The expression of these doubts and fears may be open to criticism as a matter of taste, but the Roman feeling in regard to such matters differed widely from ours. They did not affect a fortitude they did not have; they did not, as we do, try to conceal their feelings. If Vergil makes his great hero Aeneas weep in storm and despair in battle, it is not worth while to make excuses for similar weakness on the part of Cicero. His own justification for his conduct in retiring before 86 his foes without a show of resistance may be read in the two orations that complete this book. Even after his return the city continued to be disturbed by brawls and riots. The armed bands of Clodius on the one hand and of Sestius and Milo on the other struggled for the mastery of the streets while the triumvirate was engaged with the graver affairs of state. During the remainder of the year 57 Cicero was employed in recovering the remnants of his property and getting his affairs in order. The site of his town residence (~ 80) was restored to him, and damages paid for the destruction of his house and villas. In 56 he was busy as an advocate, taking but an insignificant part in affairs of state. The rival factions were employing the courts to annoy each other; suits and counter-suits were brought in rapid succession, and Cicero had ample opportunity to defend his friends and assail his enemies. THE ORATION FOR SESTIUS. - On the 11th of February 87 two malicious charges were brought at the instigation of Clodius against Cicero's champion, P. Sestius. He was charged with bribery (de ambitu) by Cli. Nervius and on 0

Page  48 LIFE OF CICERO. the same day by one M. Tullius Albiovanus with a breach of the peace (de vi), because he had gone about as tribune with armed bands disturbing the public tranquillity. Of the former charge nothing further is known. Cicero is concerned with the latter only, and to this he pays little formal attention. His object is rather to give an outline of his client's life and character, and especially of his tribunate, in such a way as to bring before the court any circumstance that might favorably influence its decision. In this historical survey we have the fullest possible account of the disorders of the time, from the standpoint of the conservatives. The trial lasted with interruptions until the 14th of March, ending with the acquittal of Sestius. 88 THE DEATH OF CLODIUS. -The events of the next four years, 55-52, have little to do with the conspiracy of Catilina, however important their part in the history of Rome; among them may be mentioned Caesar's conquest of Gaul, the defeat and death of Crassus in the east, the death of Julia, the daughter of Caesar and wife of Pompeius, and the consequent estrangement of the two great rivals. During the absence of Caesar in Gaul and Crassus in the east, Pompeius was in Rome, and everything pointed to his supremacy. As proconsul of Spain and as commissioner of the corn supply he was invested with the highest military authority, and by remaining at Rome he made his influ. ence promptly felt. An event now occurred that made his power still greater. The year 53 had passed in contention and disorder. Party dissensions had been so violent and unscrupulous that no magistrates had been elected for the 89 following year. On the 1st of January, 52, there were no consuls to be inaugurated. Milo was one of the candidates, but Clodius had found means to prevent his election. The wheels of government had therefore stopped, and according to constitutional usage a series of interreges had to be appointed by patrician senators to set them in motion again. 0

Page  49 HIS EXILE AND RETURN. 49 At this crisis it happened that Clodius and Milo met by accident upon the via Appia a few miles from the city, each attended by his gang of bullies and roughs. A quarrel began among their followers, and a free fight followed. Clodius was wounded and took refuge in a house near the road, from which by Milo's orders he was dragged and murdered. His body was carried to the city, and his funeral was made the occasion of a disorderly political demonstration. The corpse was burned in the senate house, and the building itself took fire and was consumed. Anarchy ran riot, and order was not restored until Pompeius, in defiance of constitution and laws, was made "sole consul " and put an end to the battle of bludgeons with the swords of his soldiers. THE ORATION FOR MILO.- -A special commission was 90 appointed to try all cases growing out of the disturbance on the Appian Way, and all the members of this commission or court were selected by Pompeius. At the same time all men capable of service in Italy were called to arms and made to take the oath of obedience to Pompeius. Troops were stationed at the Capitol, and the special court, sitting in the forum, was surrounded by soldiers. Before this court on the 10th of April Milo was arraigned on the charge of assault and homicide. Cicero undertook his defence for personal and political reasons. As.he began his speech he 'was received with hoots and yells by the partisans of Clodius which the troops were unable to suppress. The consequence was that, for the first time in his long career, he lost his composure and broke down. Milo went into exile at Massilia, whither Cicero sent him a carefully polished (~ 10) copy of the speech which he had intended to deliver, and which we now possess. Milo is said to have replied on reading it that he was glad the speech had not been spoken, as in that case he should not have been enjoying the delicious mullets of Massilia. The oration in its revised form is regarded as perhaps the very best specimen of Cicero's eloquence.

Page  50 CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. B.C. Aet. Cic. 106 1 Coss., C. Atilius Serranus, Q. Servilius Caepio. Cicero born Jan. 3d. Pompeius born Sept. 30th. 105 2 Coss., P. Rutilius Rufus, Cn. Manlius. 104 3 Coss., C. Marius II., C. Flavius Fimbria. 103 4 Coss., C. Marius III., L. Aurelius Orestes. 102 5 Coss., C. Marius IV., Q. Lutatius Catulus. Marius defeats the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae. Birth of Q. Cicero. 101 6 Coss., C. Marius V., M' Aquilius. Marius defeats the Cimbri. 100 7 Coss., C. Marius VI., L. Valerius Flaccus. Saturninus and Glaucia put to death. Birth of Caesar. 99 8 Coss., M. Antonius, A. Postumius Albinus. 98 9 Coss., Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos, T. Didius. 97 10 Coss., Cn. Cornelius Lentulus, P. Licinius Crassus. 96 11 Coss., C. Cassius Longinus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus. 95 12 Coss., L. Licinius Crassus, Q. Mucius Scaevola. 94 13 Coss., C. Caelius Caldus, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus. 93 14 Coss., C. Valerius Flaccus, M. Herennius. 92 15 Coss., C. Claudius Pulcher, M. Perperna. 91 16 Coss., L. Marcius Philippus, Sex. Iulius Caesar. Cicero assumes the toga virilis. Drusus is killed in a riot. 90 17 Coss., L. Iulius Caesar, P. Rutilius Rufus. Social War. 89 18 Coss., Cn. Pompeius Strabo, L. Porcius Cato. Cicero serves his first and last campaign. 88 19 Coss., L. Cornelius Sulla, Q. Pompeius Rufus. Civil War. Marius is driven from Rome by Sulla. 87 20 Coss., Cn. Octavius, L. Cornelius Cinna. The consuls quarrel. Marius is recalled by Cinna. Reign of Terror. 86 21 Coss., L. Cornelius Cinna II., C. Marius VII. Death of Marius. Birth of Sallust. 85 22 Coss., L. Cornelius Cinna III., Cn. Papirius Carbo. 84 23 Coss., Cn. Papirius Carbo II., L. Cornelius Cinna IV. Cinna, about to make war upon Sulla in the east, is killed by his own soldiers. 50

Page  51 CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 51 B. C. Aet. Cic. 83 24 Coss., L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, C. Iunius Norbanus Bulbus. Sulla returns and begins the civil war by defeating Norbanus. 82 25 Coss., C. Marius C. F., Cn. Papirius Carbo III. Sulla becomes Dictator for life. Proscriptions. 81 26 Coss., M. Tullius Decula, A. Cornelius Dolabella. Sulla's Reforms. Courts restored to the Senate. 80 27 Coss., L. Cornelius Sulla II., Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius. Cicero defends Roscius. Int. ~ 14. 79 28 Coss., P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus, Appius Claudius Pulclier. Abdication of Sulla. Cicero studies in the east. Int. ~ 15. 78 29 Coss., M. Aemilius Lepidus, Q. Lutatius Catulus. Death of Sulla. Civil war between the consuls. 77 30 Coss., D. Iunius Brutus, Main. Aemilius Lepidus Livianus. Cicero returns to Rome and marries Terentia. Defeat of Lepidus. Pompeius takes comnmand against Sertorius. 76 31 Coss., Cn. Octavius, C. Scribonius Curio. Cicero elected to the quaestorship anno suo. Birth of Tullia. Int. ~ 16. 75 32 Coss., C. Octavius, C. Aurelius Cotta. Cicero is Quaestor at Lilybaeum in Sicily. Int. ~ 16. 74 33 Coss., L. Licinius Lucullus, M. Aurelius Cotta. Cicero returns to Rome. Lucullus appointed to command against Mhithradates in the east. Int. ~ 17. 73 34 Coss., M. Terentius Varro, C. Cassius Varus. Cicero labors in the forum. Spartacus heads the Servile War. 72 35 Coss., L. Gellius Poplicola, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus. 71 36 Coss., Cn. Aufidius Orestes, P. Cornelius Lentulus Sura. Defeat of Spartacus. Conclusion of the war in Spain. 70 37 Coss., Cn. Poinpeius Magnus, M. Licinius Crassus Dives. Cicero elected Aedile. Impeachment of Verres. Courts reformed by the lex Aurelia. Int. ~~ 18-20. 69 38 Coss., Q. Hortensius, Q. Caecilius Metellus (Creticus). Cicero is Aedile. Lucullus defeats Tigranes. Int. ~ 21. 68 39 Coss., L. Caecilius Metellus, Q. Marcius Rex. Mithradates reconquers Armenia Minor. 67 40 Coss., C. Calpurnius Piso, M' Acilius Glabrio. Cicero is elected Praetor. Pompeius takes command against the Pirates. Mithradates resumes his throne.

Page  52 LIFE OF CICERO. B.C. Aet. Cic. 66 41 Coss., M' Aemilius Lepidus, L. Volcatius Tullus. Cicero is Praetor. Supports the bill of Manilius, transferring the command against Mithradates from Lucullus to Pompeius. Int. ~~ 22. 23, 24. 65 42 Coss., L. Aurelius Cotta, L. Manlius Torquatns. Cicero begins his canvass for the consulship. Birth of his son Marcus. Pompeius retakes Pontus and reduces ligranes to submission. "First Conspiracy." Int. ~~ 30-32. 64 43 Coss., L. Iulius Caesar, C. Marcius Figulus. Cicero is elected Consul anno suo. Marriage of Tullia. Pompeius makes Syria a Roman Province. Int. ~~ 33-37. 63 44 Coss., M. TULLIUS CICERO, C. Antonius Hybrida. Orations against Catilina and for Murena. Death of Mithradates. Pompeius enters Jerusalem. Birth of C. Octavius, afterwards Caesar Augustus. Int. ~~ 38-69. 62 45 Coss., D. lunius Silanus, L. Licinius Murena. Oration for Sulla. Clodius violates mysteries of Bona Dea. Int. ~ 73. 61 46 Coss., M. Pupius Piso Calpurnianus, M. Valerius Messalla Niger. Pompeius triumphs. Trial of Clodius. Q. Cicero propraetor of Asia. Caesar propraetor of Spain. Int. ~ 74. 60 47 Coss., L. Afranius, Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer. Coalition between Pompeius, Crassus, and Caesar. Int. ~~ 75, 76. 59 48 Coss., C. Iulius Caesar, M. Calpurnius Bibulus. Clodius is adopted into a Plebeian family and becomes Tribune. Int. ~~ 77, 78. 58 49 Coss., L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, A. Gabinius. Cicero goes into exile. Int. ~~ 80, 81. 57 50 Coss., P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos. Cicero is recalled. Int. ~~ 82-84. 56 51 Coss., Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus, L. Marcius Philippus. Cicero defends Sestius. Int. ~~ 86, 87. 55 52 Coss., Cn. Pompeius Magnus II., M. Licinius Crassus Dives II. Caesar invades Britain. 54 53 Coss., L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Appius Claudius Pulcher. Crassus is defeated by the Parthians. 53 54 Coss., Cn. Domitius Calvinus, M. Valerius Messalla. Cicero is elected Augur in place of Crassus. 52 55 Coss., Cn. Pompeius Magnus III., sole Consul for seven months, then Cn. Pompeius Magnus III., Q. Metellus Scipio. Cicero defends Milo. Int. ~~ 88-90.

Page  53 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. [ABOUT THE TIME OF CICERO S CCNSULSHIP.] IT is assumed that the student has studied some manual of Roman history, and will understand in a general way the terms used without definition in the earlier sections. THE ROMAN PEOPLE. I. CITIZENSHIP. -The official designation of the Roman 1 people was POPULUS ROMANUS QUIRITES or QUIRITIUM, or simply POPULUS ROMANUS. All inhabitants of Italy, excluding women, children, and slaves, were now citizens (cives) of Rome, but their rights and privileges differed. The full rights of citizenship, enjoyed by cives optimo 2 iure only, were as follows: a. Private Rights (privata iura): 1. lus Commercii, right of holding property. 2. lus Couubii, right of contracting a legal marriage. b. Public Rights (publica iura): 1. lus Suffrayii, right of voting. 2. lus Provocationis, right of appeal to the whole people on a criminal charge. 3. lus Honorum, right of holding office. These iura had belonged at first to the Patricians exclu- 3 sively, and were obtained by the Plebs only after a long and bitter struggle, the details of which belong to Roman history. The ius commercii was the first to be granted them; the Servian classification, date uncertain, gave them the suffragium; the lex Valeria (509) gave them the ius provocationis; the lex Canuleia (445), the ius conubii; and the lex Licinia (367) gave them the right to hold the con53

Page  54 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. sulship, and paved the way to unrestricted ius honorum by the year 300. 4 Below the cives optimo iure came a numerous body, who had either never enjoyed full citizenship, or had lost it in whole or in part. Of the former the most important class were the freed slaves (Libertini), who stood to their former masters much as in earlier times the clients had stood to the patricians. They were enrolled as cives, held property and voted, but were practically denied the ius honorum until the taint of their origin had been removed by several generations. 5 There were several ways in which a citizen might lose some or all of his civitas. Conviction for certain offences (infamia), or going into exile to avoid condemnation on a capital charge, involved the loss of certain iura for life; while the censure of the Censors (ignominia) took away certain rights duringtheir term of office. Citizenship was altogether lost by the citizen's transferring his allegiance to another state, or by his being taken captive in war and sold by the enemy into slavery. 6 From the standpoint of a magistrate each citizen was a caput, a political unit, and the loss of citizenship to a less or greater extent was called Deminutio Capitis. Hence such expressions as crimen capitale, iudicium capitis, poena capitis, do not mean a charge, trial, or punishment in which the life of a citizen was at stake, but such a one as involved the whole or partial loss of his civitas. It is very important to remember this when reading of Roman courts. 7 Citizenship was acquired by birth in lawful wedlock of parents having the ius conubii, or was conferred by law, or was (rarely) given by some duly authorized magistrate. A citizen born was enrolled as such on reaching his 17th year, taking at once the class his father had, and thenceforth enjoyed all his rights. These rights were in force wherever in Roman territory he might take up his abode, 8 except that he must be in the city to vote. There were prac

Page  55 THE ROMAN PEOPLE. 55 tically no burdens imposed by citizenship. The citizen was theoretically liable for military duty from his 17th to his 60th year, and to pay a tax if such was found necessary in time of war. Since the time of Marius, however, citizens no longer served in the army against their will, and the rich revenues from the provinces made taxation unnecessary even in time of war. Entirely outside the pale of citizenship, and forming, of 9 course, no part of the Populus Romanus, were two numerous elements in the population of the city, foreigners (Peregrini) and slaves (Servi). The persons and property of the former were secured by law, though they might at any time be removed from the city by vote of the people. Slaves were looked upon as mere property, and had no rights of any sort. II. CLASS DISTINCTIONS. -Although the government of 10 Rome is called republican, and although the old distinction between patricians and plebeians had long since ceased to be of political importance, still there were differences of position between even the cives optimo iure that are entirely foreign to our ideas of republican equality. The govern-11 Inent was really aristocratic; and the preservation of its democratic features was due solely to the fact that there were two aristocracies, one of office-holders and the other of capitalists, which struggled most bitterly with each other during the last years of the Republic. a. The Nobles. - The Roman nobility was now an 12 hereditary rank, based not upon birth but upon the holding of office. Any man who held any curule office, i.e., any dictator, consul, censor, praetor, or curule aedile, secured to his descendants to the last generation the right (ius imaginum) to display in their halls and carry at funerals a wax mask representing his features. The possession of 13 such a mask, or in other words descent from a curule magistrate, was the patent of nobility, and all descendants of curule magistrates were, therefore, nobles (nobiles).

Page  56 56 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. The dignity of a noble depended upon the number of such masks that he could display. 14 Ordo Senatorius. - Sulla had increased the number of senators from 300 to 600 life-members, and had chosen the new members from ex-curule magistrates. He also provided that all holders of curule offices, or even of the quaestorship, should be ipso facto members of the senate. 15 Such proved to be the influence of the senate over the elections that it was able virtually to restrict the holding of office to persons of its own choice. The candidates supported by the senators were naturally members of their own families (therefore nobles), and so it came about that the Senatorial Order and the Nobility were one and the same thing. 16 Of course there might be exceptions. In the first place a man not a noble might be elected to office in spite of the senate. Such men (e.g., Cato the censor, Marius and Cicero) were contemptuously called Homines Novi, "Men without Ancestry," and although their descendants would 17 be nobiles, they were not so themselves. In the second place there were always nobles who had not been elected to office, and were not therefore of the senatorial order. 'But ineh of these two classes were comparatively so few in number that for practical purposes we may consider the Nobilitas and the Ordo Senatorius as identical. The senators wore as insignia the tunica laticlavia (with a broad purple stripe), and those who had also held curule magistracies wore the mulleus, a purple shoe. 18 b. The Knights. - There had grown up since the second Punic war a class of capitalists, bound loosely together by community of interests. These were men who preferred trade and speculation to politics, and had amassed large fortunes by their business ventures. Until the time of Gracchus their position had been ill defined though 19 their influence had been considerable. He won their support by securing the passage of a law by the people giving

Page  57 THE ROMAN PEOPLE. the right of serving on juries, which had formerly belonged to the senatorial order exclusively, to those persons not senators who were worth not less than 400,000 sesterces ($20,000). This gave the state a new order; and the nobles, prevented by law from engaging in trade, found themselves confronted by an aristocracy of wealth, which they in turn excluded from political preferment. To this second 20 order the name Ordo Equester was given, not.that it had anything to do with military service, but because its census (400,000 sesterces) was the same that had in early times entitled a citizen to serve in the cavalry. The insignia of the knights were a gold ring and the tunica angusticlavia (with two narrow purple stripes). c. The Commons. - Below the Nobles and the Knights 21 came the great mass of the citizens, the Commons. They did not really form an order, had no insignia, and no distinctive name. They were called slightingly the Plebs, aad flatteringly the Populus; but there were powerful plebeian families among the knights and nobles, and both these classes were also covered by the name Populus. The 22 condition of the commons in Cicero's time was pitiable. The combinations of capital shut them out of commerce and manufacture, while the competition of slave labor almost closed agriculture and the trades against them. Some found employment in the colonies and provinces, some eked out a scanty living on their farms, some made war their trade; but the idle and degraded flocked into the capital to live on the cheap corn provided by the treasury, and to sell their votes to the highest bidder. It must be remembered, however, that no citizen was 23 absolutely excluded from either of the ordines. The meanest citizen could become a Knight by amassing the required sum of 400,000 sesterces, and the poorest could make himself a senator and his descendants noble by beating the senatorial candidate for a quaestorship, and then gaining a curule office.

Page  58 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. 24 Nothing certain is known of the number of citizens at this time. The census of 241 showed 260,000 citizens of military age (~ 8). That of 70, when the franchise had been extended over all Italy, showed 450,000, but probably only those were counted who presented themselves at Rome for the purpose. These figures would give a total free population of about 780,000 and 1,350,000 respectively for the area covered by each census. The census of 28 gave 4,063,000 for all Italy; but it is a matter of dispute whether this was the sum of the whole population, or of those only of military age. THE ASSEMBLIES. 25 For administrative purposes the citizens were divided into various groups, as are those of all civilized communities to-day. During the regal period when the patricians were the only citizens, they were divided into thirty curiae, "wards." At a later (republican) period all the people of the city and adjacent territory were divided according to locality into tribus, "tribes," which in Cicero's time numbered thirty-five. At a still later date each tribe was subdivided on a basis of wealth and age into ten centuriae, "centuries," making of course three hundred and fifty centuriae for all the people possessing the minimum of property required. 26 Each citizen on being enrolled as such (~ 7) was assigned by the censors to his proper tribe and century, and it was only as a part of such tribe or century that he could exercise that most important of his iura publica (~ 2) the ius suffragii. That is, each ward, or tribe, or century, was counted as a whole, its vote being determined, as is the electoral vote of one of our states, by the majority of the individual votes of the citizens who composed it. 27 In accordance with this triple division of the citizens there were three great popular assemblies (comitia, from

Page  59 THE ASSEMBLIES. cum and eo), known respectively as the Comitia Curiata, Comitia lributa, and Comitia Centuriata. The word comitia is plural in Latin, but is used by English writers as a singular also, equivalent to assembly. I. THE COMITIA CURIATA. -This ancient assembly of 28 the patricians had lost all political power, and was called together merely as a matter of form to confer the imperium upon the consuls, to authorize adoptions, etc. Its authority was so shadowy that the curiae were merely represented by a single delegate each. II. THE COMITIA TRIBUTA. - This had once been an 29 assembly of plebeians only, but had grown in influence until in Cicero's time it was the most important of the comitia, and all legislation had practically passed into its hands. It could be summoned by a consul, praetor, or tribune. Its meetings were held in the forum. It elected tribunes, quaestors, aediles, and petty magistrates. Most of the laws that have come down to us were adopted in this assembly and were called plebiscita. III. THE COMITIA CENTURIATA. -This was the first30 assembly in which the old orders, patricians and plebeians, were associated together. Originally devised by Servius Tullius it had been reconstructed at about the time of the second Punic war. It was composed of the three hundred and fifty centuriae mentioned in ~ 25, formed by dividing each of the thirty-five tribes into five classes, according to wealth, and each of these classes into two centuriae according to age- one of Seniores (above 45), one of Juniores. To these were added eighteen centuriae of young nobles who had not been magistrates (~ 17), and five centuriae of smiths, trumpeters, and citizens (called aerarii) who lacked the property qualification for the regular classes, making a 31 total of three hundred and seventy-three centuriae. This assembly could be summoned by a dictator, consul, or praetor. It met on the Campus Martins. It elected consuls, praetors, and censors. It possessed full rights of

Page  60 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. legislation, but almost never used them. It possessed judicial authority in criminal cases, but had delegated it to the standing courts. It had the power of declaring war, but had allowed the senate to usurp this function. 32 The same method of voting was used in all assemblies. In the comitia tributa the people arranged themselves by tribes in enclosures (saepta) marked off by ropes or other barriers. Each citizen was supplied with tickets marked "for" and " against " when a law was proposed, or with the names of the candidates when an election was in prog33 ress. One tribe (tribus praerogativa) was selected by lot to vote first; and the members of that tribe passed out of the saepta one by one through a narrow opening (pons), each depositing his ticket in a box provided for the pum34 pose. The vote of this tribe was immediately announced to the remaining thirty-four, and (as the gods were supposed to direct the lot) it was usually confirmed by a majority of the others. The rest of the tribes then voted in the same manner as the first, but at the same time, and the matter was decided by a majority (eighteen) of the tribal votes. 35 The comitia centuriata went through similar formalities. The people were arranged, each century to itself, around the sides of the Campus Martius, a large space being left unoccupied in the centre. The seventy centuries of the first and wealthiest class cast lots to see which should vote first (centuria praerogativa), and the result of its vote was 36 announced. Then the remaining centuries of the first class (sixty-nine) and the eighteen centuries of nobles(~ 30) voted at the same time. The other classes followed in order of wealth; but with each of these four classes voted an extra century made up of citizens who had arrived too late to vote with their proper centuries, thus making a total of three hundred and seventy-seven votes, a majority of which decided the matter. 37 None of these assemblies were in any sense deliberative bodies. They could assemble only when called together

Page  61 THE ASSEMBLIES. 61 by the proper magistrate, and then only to vote "Yes" or " No," without the right to debate or amend, upon the question which he put before them, or to elect or reject some candidate whom he nominated to them. They were 38, dissolved at any moment when it was his pleasure to stop their proceedings, and if he saw fit he could annul the election of a successful candidate by simply refusing to officially proclaim the result. Nor were the assemblies at the mercy of the presiding 39 magistrate only. After notice had been given of the meeting of the comitia, it could be countermanded by any magistrate equal or superior in authority to the one appointing it. Even after the voting had begun, it had to be suspended if lightning was seen, or if a storm arose, or if any one present had an epileptic fit, or if a tribune of the people interposed, or if night came on before the business was completed. After any such interruption the pro- 40 ceedings had to be repeated from the very beginningthey could not be resumed at the point where they were discontinued. Thus if at an election of the eight praetors an interruption took place after six had been chosen, their election was null and void; they had to take their chances again with the other two whenever the balloting was renewed. The time required for holding an election was therefore very uncertain, as, by one pretext or another, it might be postponed for weeks and months. As a citizen could vote at the elections only as a mere 41 fraction of a tribe, or ward, or century, and at the cost of a journey to Rome if he lived elsewhere, and at the risk of loss of time by interruptions and postponements, the comitia were, except in times of great excitement, very scantily attended. Sometimes out of an entire century only five citizens would be present, and at all times the assembly was at the mercy of the demoralized rabble of the city (~ 22). CONTIONES. - In the comitia the people met to elect 42 magistrates and enact laws, but in another class of assem

Page  62 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. blies (contiones, from cum and venio) their part was a purely passive one. Any magistrate had a right to get the people together at any convenient time and place for the purpose of informing them about matters in which he or they 43 might be interested. He could address them himself or give any one else the right to speak. These assemblies had no powers of any kind, no resolutions were adopted, no voting was done, no debate was allowed; but they were the one means of acquainting the public, citizens and slaves and foreigners, with public events before the days of Court Journals, Congressional Records, or enterprising newspapers. THE MAGISTRATES. 44 The principal magistrates, with the dates on which their offices were created and thrown open to the plebeians, are shown in the following table:OFFICE. CREATED. OPEN TO PLEBEIANS. Consul 509 367 Dictator 509 356 Censor 443 351 Praetor 366 337 Curule Aedile 365 364 Quaestor 509 421 Tribune of the Plebs 494 Confined to the Plebs. Plebeian Aedile 494 45 These offices are classified in several ways by writers upon Roman history and antiquities. I. (a) Extraordinary: Dictator, with his Master of the Horse. (b) Ordinary: Consul, censor, praetor, tribune, aedile, quaestor. II. (a) With imperium (military power): Dictator, consul, praetor. (b) Without imperium: Censor, tribune, aedile, quaestor.

Page  63 THE MAGISTRATES. 63 III. (a) Major (having the right to take the auspices (~ 87) anywhere): Dictator, consul, censor, praetor. (b) Minor (having the right to take the auspices at Rome only): Tribune, aedile, quaestor. IV. (a) Curule (having an ivory chair): Dictator, consul, censor, praetor, curule aedile. (b) Non-curule: Tribune, plebeian aedile, quaestor. The duties of these magistrates, none of whom received salary, are given below in the order of I. (a) and (b): (a) The EXTRAORDINARY MAGISTRATES. -In times of 46 danger without or of anarchy within the state, the senate might call upon one of the consuls to appoint for six months only an officer called Dictator, who had supreme and absolute authority in all matters concerning the state. The dictator appointed an assistant or vice-dictator, who ranked next to himself in authority and was called magister equitum. After 202 the only dictators were Sulla and 47 Caesar, who entirely changed the character of the office by holding it for life (perpetuus), and doing away with the magister equitum. The word dictator was also applied in a very different sense to a very insignificant person, the chief magistrate of a free town. (b) The ORDINARY MAGISTRATES. -These (excepting 48 the censor, ~ 56) were elected for a term of one year, the consuls, censors, and praetors by the comitia centuriata (~ 31), the others by the comitia tributa (~ 29). All except the tribunes and quaestors entered upon office on the first of January; the official year of the quaestors began December 5th, that of the tribunes December 10th. All 49 were elected in "colleges" or "boards" of two or more — all members of a college having equal authority, and each having the right to veto the official acts of his colleagues. All had civil authority (potestas), sufficient for their several duties, conferred upon them by the comitia at

Page  64 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. 50 their election. This potestas varied in extent with the different offices, but always included the right to make rules for the procedure of the office during the year, the right to punish those who violated these rules, and the right to hold contiones (~ 42). The consuls and praetors had, besides the potestas, imperium, "i military authority," which was conferred upon them subsequent to their inaugu51 ration by the comitia curiata (~ 28). The consuls, censors, and curule aediles wore on ordinary occasions the official toga praetexta, a white toga with purple border; and at public festivities a toga wholly of purple; they also sat upon an official chair made of ivory and called the sells curulis (representing the ancient throne of the kings, whose authority had been divided among these magistrates), and were hence called curule magistrates (magistratus curules). The tribunes, quaestors, and plebeian aediles 52 had no insignia. Magistrates could not be dismissed during their year of office, and were not amenable to the courts while in office, though they were liable to prosecution for bribery at their election before their term began, and for misbehavior in office as soon as their terms expired. Hence no magistrate could be elected to successive terms of the same office. 53 (1) The Consules. - The consulship was the goal of every Roman's ambition, the highest magistracy. The consuls were two in number, and were elected several months before their term began, usually in July, but the precise date was fixed by the senate. They were the ordinary prer siding officers of the senate, directed its deliberations, and executed its orders. They took precedence over all other magistrates in summoning the senate and comitia centuriata, 54 and presided over the latter body at the election of all curule magistrates. They usually took turns in acting as head of the administration, each taking precedence for a month, beginning with the elder. During his month each consul was always attended in public by twelve Lictores, who

Page  65 THE MAGISTRATES. 65 marched before him in single file, each carrying upon his shoulder the fasces, a bundle of rods typifying the consul's right to scourge. Originally an axe had been bound up 55 with the rods, but this was not carried in the city after the granting of the ius provocationis (~ 3). The consuls retained as ex-consuls (consulates) much of their dignity, took precedence of other senators in debate, were alone eligiioe to certain positions of honor, and gave their names to their year of office. (2) The Censores. - The censors were two in number, 56 elected from the consulates (~ 55), originally at the minimum interval of four years, afterwards once in five years - the period called a lustrum - and holding office for eighteen months. Their duties were of three kinds: (a) they took the census, which was a register of the citizens with their families and the amount of their property, fixed, in accordance with this census, the position of each citizen in his tribe, class, and century, and filled vacancies in the senate. (b) They had a general oversight of public morals, 57 and could punish any citizen for scandalous conduct by removing him, if a senator or knight, from his ordo (~~ 14, 20), or if a commoner, to a lower class in his tribe, or even into the ranks of the aerarii (~ 30). (c) They had general oversight of the public finances, collected the revenues 58 by "farming " them to the highest bidders, let out contracts for public works, and superintended their construction. During the interval between the abdication of one board of censors and the election of their successors these last duties were delegated by the senate to the consuls, praetors, aediles, or other magistrates. (3) The Praetores. - The praetors were eight in number, 59 and corresponded to our higher judges, being assigned by lot to the several courts. The one to whom fell jurisdiction in civil cases between Roman citizens was called praetor urbanus; the one having civil jurisdiction between citizens and foreigners (~ 9) was called praetor peregrinus;

Page  66 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. the others had jurisdiction in criminal cases, presiding over six of the quaestiones perpetuae, "standing courts." 60 The praetor urbanus was at the head of the Roman judicial system, and while possessing no more real power than his colleagues was looked upon as of superior dignity. During the absence of both consuls from the city he presided over the senate. All the praetors had the right to summon the senate and comitia, and each was attended in the city by two lictors, without the city by six. 61 (4) Tke Tribuni. - The tribunes of the plebs were ten in number, elected from the plebeians only (but these now practically included the whole populus), by the comitia tributa presided over by an actual tribune. They were the most powerful officers of the state, though their power was of a negative kind, and they had no duties whatever. Their authority was confined to the city itself, and their persons were sacred, i.e., it was death to offer violence to a 62 tribune in the exercise of his authority. They could summon, preside over, and bring business before the senate, and in the right to summon the comitia tributa they took precedence over all other magistrates. But the real source of the tremendous power of the tribunes lay in their unrestricted ius intercedendi, "veto power." They could veto any decree of the senate, any law of the comitia, 63 and in general any public act of any magistrate. They could thus at any time bring about a " deadlock," completely stopping the wheels of government. The only constitutional checks upon the power of a tribune were the veto of his colleagues and the shortness of his term. They had no insignia, but each was attended in public by a single Viator (~ 71). 64 (5) The Aediles. - The aediles were four in number, two curule and two plebeian. Notwithstanding this distinction they were all elected in the comitia tributa and were practically of the same rank, differing but little in their duties. (a) They were the superintendents of the markets, and had

Page  67 THE MAGISTRATES. 67 tribunals in the forum from which they decided petty disputes between buyers and sellers. (b) They superintended the distribution of the grain furnished by the state at a low cost to the needy commons. (c) They had general 65 police duties, including oversight of public order, the water supply, streets and squares, and precautions against fire. (d) They had the management of certain public games. This last function made the office eagerly sought, for the commons took great delight in the shows, and the aedile who gratified them with expensive games would reap his reward when he ran for another office. (6.) The Quaestores. - The quaestors were twenty in 66 number, and had duties connected more or less closely with the treasury. On the first day of their term (~ 48) they determined their respective places by lot. Two, called quaestores urbani, remained in the city, having charge of the treasury (aerarium), and of the laws, decrees of the senate, and other archives which were deposited there for safe keeping. They kept the state accounts, received the taxes, and paid out moneys to the proper officers on order of the senate. Four others were assigned 67 to points in Italy where the public revenues required the presence of state agents. Others accompanied the generals in the field as pay- and quarter-masters, and the rest were sent to the provinces, where their duties resembled those of the city quaestors to whom they rendered their accounts. PETTY MAGISTRATES. —Besides these important magis-68 trates there were several boards of inferior magistrates charged with less extensive duties and elected in the comitia tributa. There was a Board of Ten, plebeian lawyers who advised the tribunes; a Board of Three, who looked after prisons and executions; another Board of Three, who superintended the coinage; a Board of Four, who, under the censors and aediles, cared for the streets of the city; and a Board of Two, who looked after the roads 69 outside of the city. There were also four Praefecti, "circuit

Page  68 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. judges," who represented the praetor in Campania. These petty magistrates are often grouped together under the title Vigintisexviri, "Board of Twenty-six." 70 The CIVIL SERVICE. - For the discharge of public business an army of clerks and other attendants of the magistrates was maintained at public expense. Chief among these were the Scribae, "clerks," whole bureaus of which were kept employed by the senate and all the higher magistrates. They were so numerous and important that they 71 were called collectively the Ordo Scribarum. The Lictores were the attendants of the dictators, consuls, and praetors, executed their orders when force was required, cleared a way for them through the streets, and dispersed disorderly crowds that impeded public business. The Viatores had similar duties and were the attendants especially of the tribunes. Praecones, "criers," were employed on all occasions when it was necessary to make public proclamation by word of mouth. All these officers received pay for their services, and held their places during good behavior. 72 RELATIVE RANK OF THE MAGISTRATES. - It has been said (~ 49) that a magistrate had the right to veto the official acts of a colleague. Besides this a superior magistrate could thus annul any proceedings which had been directed by an inferior magistrate. For the exercise of this veto power the Extraordinary Magistrates were superior to all others. Of the Ordinary Magistrates the tribunes were supreme (~ 62); the consuls were superior to the censors and praetors, but the lower stages are uncertain. 73 PROMAGISTRATES. - The consuls and praetors began their duties with auctoritas only (~ 50), but in case of sudden danger requiring their services in the field they were at once invested with the imperium (~ 28). Otherwise they did not receive it, after Sulla's time, until their year of civil authority had expired, i.e., on Jan. 1st, the day of the inauguration of their successors. They were then sent, under the titles of Pro consule and Pro praetore respect

Page  69 THE MAGISTRATES. 69 ively, to govern the various provinces, and thus their term of office was extended for a year and might be further prolonged. As governors of provinces there was no distinction 74 between the proconsuls and propraetors, but the more lucrative provinces were usually assigned to the former. In his province the governor was supreme, at once commander of the army, chief executive, and judge in both civil and criminal cases. In such a position there was abundant opportunity for gaining immense wealth. In times of peace 75 there were a thousand methods of extortion, and the average governor left none untried; in time of war there were cities to be plundered and captives to be sold as slaves. A provincial governorship was looked upon by Roman nobles as a gold mine from which to pay their debts and buy new pleasures and honors. It was under these promagistrates that the provincial quaestors (~ 67) served, and the relations between them were naturally close and confidential. Under certain circumstances the senate might have the 76 imperium conferred upon inferior magistrates or even private citizens, and send them to the provinces as promagistrates, though they had not filled the magistracies themselves. No person having the imperium was allowed to enter Rome, and promagistrates were not permitted to return from their provinces cum imperio until relieved by their successors. THE CURSUS HONORUM.-The road to the gold mine of 77 the provinces was not, however, a short and easy one. The laws fixed the age at which each magistracy could be held, and provided that they should be taken in regular order. This fixed order was called the cursus honorum; the first step was the quaestorship, legal age thirty; then the praetorship, legal age forty; then the consulship, legal age forty-three. 78 Two years had to elapse after one curule office had been held before the next higher could be taken, no matter what was the age of the candidate. A man standing for (or elected

Page  70 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. to) an office at the earliest date permitted by these rules was said to have stood (or been elected) suo anno. An aspirant for political honors liked to hold the aedileship (see ~ 65 (d)) or the tribuneship between the quaestorship and consulship, but was not required to do so. MINISTERS OF RELIGION. 79 The Roman commonwealth was conceived of as founded by the gods, and continuously and directly dependent upon them. The national religion was a stately ceremonial having little to do with the lives and morals of the citizens, but maintained upon a lavish scale for the purpose of securing the favor of the gods, and with it the perpetuity of the state. 80 These ceremonies were directed by various priests, or colleges of priests, religious guilds and societies. The priests, however, had none of the characteristics which we are accustomed to associate with the word. They did not form an exclusive class or caste, nor did they require preliminary training or education. They were not excluded from other offices; on the contrary, the more important priesthoods were filled by the greatest statesmen and generals -Julius Caesar was Pontifex Maximus while he was fighting in Gaul. 81 THE PONTIFICES. -The most important of the priestly colleges was that of the pontifices, who had the supervision of the whole state religion, including general oversight of all the other ministers of religion, thus exerting a vast political influence. The president of the college was called Pontifex Maximus, and the position was upon the whole the first in dignity and importance in Rome. He was 82 originally chosen by his colleagues, who had formed a selfperpetuating body, but in Cicero's time all were appointed by the vote of seventeen tribes selected by lot from the thirtyfive. He held office for life, lived in the ancient palace of

Page  71 MINISTERS OF RELIGION. 71 the kings, the Regia, appointed the fifteen flamines (priests of particular gods), selected the Vestal Virgins, superintended religious marriages, and other important family ceremonies, and with the aid of his colleagues regulated and published the calendar. THE AUGURES. — Next in dignity came the college of 83 augurs, also fifteen in number, and elected in the same way as the pontifices. They were charged with the interpretation of the auspices (auspicia), which played a very important part in political affairs. The auspices were entirely distinct from omens (omina), being simply answers "Yes " or " No " to questions put to the gods in regard to the propriety of some contemplated act which was distinctly specified. Custom required that the gods should 84 thus be consulted on all important public occasions. Favorable auspices, i. e., the permission of the gods, were required before the comitia could be held, the senate convoked, magistrates inaugurated, battles fought, or any act affecting the commonwealth performed. These questions the gods would only answer when put to them by a duly authorized person, and the answers were given by the peculiar chirp or flight of birds. The right to put the 85 questions for the state (auspicia publica) was invested in each of the higher magistrates, who was said habere auspicia; the interpretation was a science (ius augurium), the special study and care of the augurs. Magistrates and augurs were therefore dependent upon each other, neither alone could get the information desired. For taking the auspices an open space was marked out 86 by the augurs called templum, the original sense of the word not implying at all a sacred building. The proper templum for auspicia publica was the auguraculum upon the Capitol, but for convenience other places, e.g., the Rostra in the forum, the hortus Scipionis in the campus Martins, and the buildings erected as homes of the gods (templa, in our sense), were "inaugurated," but only by

Page  72 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. direct permission of the auspices taken in the auguraculum. 87 Similarly, generals before going on a campaign took the auspices on the Capitol, and were said to "carry their auspices " with them; if they were unsuccessful, they were thought to have "lost their auspices," and had in early days to return to Rome for new ones (auspicia repetere). The inconvenience of this rule led to the invention of a new method of taking auspices, by watching the feeding of sacred chickens which the general took along with him wherever he went. Hence the classification of magistrates in ~ 45, III. 88 To both the augur and the magistrate the auspices were a source of great political power. So minute and intricate were the rules and regulations of augury, that a zealous augur could pick a flaw in almost any auspices, and thus effectually prevent action on the part of magistrate, senate, and people. And besides, it was a principle of augural law, confirmed by statute law, that no action could be taken by a magistrate if he was notified that another was engaged in taking auspices. This was because it was thought 89 that the will of the gods was not yet fully ascertained. If therefore a magistrate gave notice that on a certain day, or series of days, he intended to " watch the heavens " (servare de caelo), none of the acts requiring auspices (~ 84) could be performed on that day or that series of days. This notice was called obnuntiatio, and was frequently employed against an obstinate tribune by magistrates who had other90 wise no power over him (~ 72), as well as by the other magistrates against each other. From this it will be seen that a position in the college of augurs was one to be coveted by men of the greatest dignity and highest rank - Cicero himself became a member of the college ten years after his consulship. The insignia of the office were the toga praetexta, the purple striped tunic (trabea), and a curved staff (lituus). 91 OTHER BOARDS. —Below the augurs were numerous

Page  73 THE SENATE. other boards and guilds. The Quindecemviri Sacris Faciundis had charge of the prophetic books (libri Sibyllin) which the Cumaean Sibyl sold to Tarquinius Superbus. They contained oracles relating to the state, and could be consulted and interpreted by the board only by direct command of the senate. The Haruspices were an unofficial 92 guild, though they were sometimes consulted by the senate when unusual omens or portents were announced. They foretold the future by lightning and the entrails of victims slain in sacrifice, and thus claimed to do much more than the augurs, who could at best only get responses to such questions as could be answered "Yes" or " No." On the other hand, the augurs ridiculed the pretensions of the haruspices, and asserted that they merely worked upon the superstitious fears of the ignorant. THE SENATE. The senate was originally the body of old men (senatus, 93 cf. senex) called upon by the King to advise him when in doubt. It had never acquired any additional rights by law, in fact it had no constitutional powers at all, but it had come to dominate all departments of state, to be in itself the government with the magistrates as its servants. One source of its power was its membership, the ordo 94 senatorius described in ~ 14. All the higher magistrates became members of the senate for life as soon as their term of office ended, and all but the quaestors were senators before their term began. The senate thus contained by indirect election all the picked men of the state. Its leaders were men trained from boyhood in the principles of government, with all the advantages of experience. All great generals, all the men who had acquaintance with foreign countries from having lived in them as governors or ambassadors, all distinguished jurists and economists, all the higher priests even were in the senate. The influence 95

Page  74 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. of such a body was irresistible. It is true that it could not enforce its recommendations, but we can easily see that its advice would not be lightly disregarded, or its good opinion forfeited, by magistrates who for one year only, and with little previous experience, were charged with the enormous responsibility of government. 96 The senate took cognizance of all affairs of administration, but it concerned itself chiefly with foreign affairs, finance, and religion. In these its second source of influence was felt, - its permanence. It was the only organized body in the state that possessed a continuous knowledge 97 of public affairs. To it therefore the foreign nations sent embassies; with it they made treaties. Appointing as it did all promagistrates with imperium (~ 73), it virtually directed war and concluded peace, although constitutionally 98this was the right of the comitia centuriata (~ 31). Its control over the finances was due to the interval between the abdication of one board of censors (~ 56) and the election of their successors. In this period of from two and one half to three and one half years there was at all times money to receive and to pay out on orders and contracts, with which the magistrates for the time had had nothing to do. To the senate, therefore, as the one continuous body, fell the right to direct financial matters during this period (~ 58); and to it the next board would naturally look for advice in all questions of taxation and expendi99 ture. In religious matters its influence was due to the fact that the priests (~ 80), as such, had no magisterial powers, and had to act through the regular magistrates. The influence of the senate over them has been explained 100 in ~ 95. In all these matters, and in the countless others on which the senate acted, it must be remembered that it ruled wholly by moral influence. At any time a magistrate might become recalcitrant, and carry a question, in spite of the senate, to the only constitutionally authoritative bodies, —the comitia. In such a case the senate

Page  75 THE SENATE. could only oppose its influence to his, and, if the people were on his side, either give way, or try to tire out the opposition by the many means of delay that could be practised in the comitia (~~ 39, 89). MEETINGS OF THE SENATE. - The senate came together 101 at the call of any qualified magistrate (consul, praetor, tribune), who, by virtue of having summoned it, was its president for the time. It was the only deliberative assembly in Rome, i.e., the only one in which debate was allowed. Of course it could discuss only such questions 102 as the president laid before it; but among the twenty magistrates who possessed the right, it could always find one who would ask its advice about the business it wished to discuss. The time and place for meeting were always 103 named in the call, which was made either through the praecones (~ 71), or by a written notice posted in the forum. The senate had no fixed hour or place for meeting, although the time was usually early in the day, because sunset put an end to all deliberations, and the place had to be a templum (~ 86). The auspices were always taken before the meeting began (~ 84). The president laid (referre) the matters about which he 104 desired "advice" (~ 102), before the senate in general terms, and in such order as he pleased. No one could make a motion without his permission, and no one could give an opinion unless called upon by him. He might at once demand a vote; but if debate was allowed he called upon the members to express their views in a regular order, sanctioned by ancient custom, giving his own opinion at any point he pleased. The first to be called upon 105 was the Princeps Senatus, an honorary title given by the censors to the senator (generally a patrician) whom they deemed most worthy. After him came the consulares, praetorii, and aedilicii, i.e., such members as sat in the senate by virtue of having held these offices. If, how-106 ever, the debate occurred between the time of the annual

Page  76 THE ROMAN COMMONWEALTH. elections and the inauguration of the successful candi. dates, these magistrates-elect (designati) took precedence over ex-magistrates of the same rank. It is a matter of dispute whether or not the pediarii (those who had held no curule (~ 45, iv. b) office) had the ius sententiae, " right 107 of debate." The president might, however, vary the regular order, and thus honor or slight any senator by calling him out of turn, or by passing him over altogether. As each senator was called upon he could give his opinion in full (sententiam dicere), or simply express his agreement with a previous speaker (verbo assentiri). He might also include in his remarks any other matters that he pleased, and this made it easier than now to prevent action by talking against time (diem dicendo consumere) until sunset 108 (~ 103). The final vote was taken by division (discessio). If several conflicting sententiae had been expressed, the magistrate presiding put such as he pleased to the house, and they were voted upon singly until one received a majority of the members present. All present, except actual magistrates, were obliged to vote, but there was no 109 rule as to a quorum. When a sententia had been adopted, it was written out, after the adjournment of the senate, by the scribae (~ 70), in the presence of the president and of its principal supporters, who attested its genuineness by their signatures. There are frequent complaints of forged sententiae. 110 DECREES OF THE SENATE. -The senate had no power to pass laws: it could merely express its opinion in the form of advice to the magistrate who convoked it. This advice might be rejected by that magistrate, or, even if he adopted it, it might be vetoed by any magistrate equal or superior to him (~ 72). If it successfully ran the gantlet of these vetoes, it was taken for granted that it would find no sufficient opposition in the comitia (where only laws could be passed), and was promulgated as a senatus consultum, 111 "ordinance of the senate." If vetoed by a superior magis

Page  77 THE SENATE. trate, it was put forth as auctoritas senatus, "the deliberate utterance of the senate,? having all the moral weight attaching to such a body as that described in ~ 94, but no binding force with either magistrates or people. If its friends 112 looked upon the opposition to it as capricious or weak, proceeding, e. g., from the personal feeling of the individual who vetoed it, they brought to bear upon him every possible influence and argument to induce him to withdraw his opposition. If he remained firm they might still get a superior magistrate, if there was such, to bring it before the comitia, with the hope of getting it passed by the people as a regular and authoritative law.

Page  78 ABBREVIATIONS AND REFERENCES. ABBREVIATIONS. THE abbreviations are for the most part those with which the student has become familiar in his Caesar. The following may require explanation; Caes. = Caesar de Bello Gallico, cited by book, chapter, and smaller section; Sail. Cat. = Sallusti (86-35) Bellum Catilinae, cited by chapter and smaller section; P. = Preble's revision of the grammar of Andrews and Stoddard; Ep. = epistle, letter; xc. = excursus; Int. = introduction or introductory; Sal. = salutation; 0. 0. = oratio obliqua, indirect discourse; 0. R. = oratio recta, direct discourse. REFERENCES. References to the Grammars ask attention to such parts only of the main article as are followed by a mark of punctuation. E.g., "A. 331, e;" means-read all of article 331 and section e under it; while "A. 331 e;" means- read section e under article 331, but not article 331 itself. References to the Introductory Matter give the sections to be read (marked ~) and the page (p.), on which the section begins. References to the Excursuses give the number of the Excursus and the paragraph (~) to be read. The page may be found from the Table of Contents. References to the Orations give the Title of the oration, the smaller section, and the number of the line of the larger section in which the word in question is found. The title is always abbreviated, I., II., III., IV., meanirtg the first, second, etc., oration against Catilina, Mur., Sull., Sest., Mil., the orations for Murena, Sulla, Sestius, or Milo. E.g., in the note on page 119, line 1 " I. 16. 38 " means - line 38 in paragraph 16 of the first oration against Catilina. In references to words in other chapters of the same oration, the Title is omitted and the sign ~ is put before the number of the paragraph. E.g., in the note on page 82, line 5 "~ 3. 24" means - the 24th line in paragraph 3 of this oration. In references to words in the same chapter (not necessarily in the same paragraph) the Title and paragraph are omitted, and the abbreviation 1. is placed before the number of the line. E.g., in the note on page 80, line 6 " see on 1. 4 " means - read the note on line 4 of this chapter. References to the Letters are made in the same way, except that the lines of each letter are numbered throughout. The Letters are distinguished from the Orations by the abbreviation Ep., and each letter is denoted by its number in this collection, printed in Roman capitals. The shorter letters are not divided into paragraphs, and in such cases, instead of a paragraph number, the abbreviation 1. is placed before the number of the line. 78

Page  [unnumbered] N. S. /I 111, -e — p -111-11 1p e;-)111 ITALIA

Page  [unnumbered] V Ge amalobria utet! 9 0 rzgnr G fe cum AETIA: z j 4L Flae ti, enua L: 0 u 414, arona '01 Aebruls T,11ACIA 1pp' 0 P61 t O '4 ru Rol my PH G 4/ &p" ks 0 M )rdb. Co OA, 811 'Al t S IV uS 9, irta r 1 N U M I,L-Ili Pa I U: 72". n e JR07K A 14, - -PIRS9 IN B. 0. 63. C7 y ROMAN TERRITORY AND PROVINCES. ALLIED STATE& s —.J The Dotted Circle indicates the Limitie of Cicero's Banishment. FVOAAW WIILII* O 'r)o 100 200 Soo 400 Soo EFIGUSH 0 so i0o too Soo 400 Soo. I..- - - I __j

Page  [unnumbered] 4t,!9, INN ~~C 7 ciz

Page  [unnumbered] F ~ROMA e\ R~ egum et reipublicae liberac temporibus ' 4(/Jg Ervci~zae Veiteris.e250 5 \ Ptn.collina p",~tu Fortunae primnigeniae 80 1 Aed alsl t~ PtLS Sanqua~7~ Thealr. porticus et I P L ICL Pta. fo t'lurep' g Ciro. Flamin~ it.f ~ jC1 S n a Esc.s Olp poS. t. il l s Vel PS. m eh ons~e/t S~lf ~:3r ys. ellusor ba ptc. CAPP ON ta.a Naeuian ct A. Am o., R

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] FORUM ROMANUM. I. Centum gradu. i25 pas. 2. Aed. Afeutis et Ven-eris Erycinae 3. Aedes Opts 4. A. Haon'i8 et Virtuo5. Scalae Gemoniae 6. Carcer, Tullhiium 7. Aed. COscordiae 8. lanes Bifroass 9. Graecostaais 10. Tabensaw argestuierae 11. Tabernae veteres 12. La-ems Servillus 13. Rostra

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Page  79 M. TULLI CICERONIS ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA IN SENATU HABITA. I. Quo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia no- 1 stra? quam diu etiam furor iste tuus nos eludet? quem ad finem sese effrenata iactabit audacia? Nihilne te nocturnum praesidium Palati, nihil urbis vigiliae, TITLE.-M. Tulli Ciceronis. the quantity of penult and thus On the three names cf. A. 80 a; determine tense. H. 649; P. 666; on the gen. -i for 2. etiam, 'still,' in temporal -ii. A. 40 b; G. 29 R. 1; H. 51 5; meaning. B. 25 1; Cicero is said to be 3. Nihilne, an emphatic nonne. derived from cicer, 'a small pea.' Note the repetition of the same Decline the three names side by word at the beginning of successide. Oratio: nom., used abso- sive clauses instead of a conneclutely in the title of books, etc. tive: it is called anaphora. in Catilinam, 'against Catilina.' 4. Palati, mons Palatinus. prima: there are four orations con- This hill was the original seat of monly called 'against Catilina.' Rome, and remained a point of in senatu, see p. 31, ~ 50, and great strategic importance, always explain the circumstances under promptly garrisoned when danger which this oration was delivered, within the city was apprehended. On the brow of the hill toward the ~ 1. 1.1. tandem, ' I pray,' in in- Via Sacra stood the temple of Jupiterrogative and imperative sen- terStator,wherethe senate was now tences is the sign of intense feeling. assembled. Point out these objects abutere, 'use up,' 'exhaust' on Plan A. Cicero had increased (not ' abuse,' 'misuse'); observe the guards for political effect. 79

Page  80 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. 5 nihil timor populi, nihil concursus bonorum omnium, nihil hic munitissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum ora voltusque moverunt? Patere tua consilia non sentis, constrictam iam horum omnium scientia teneri coniurationem tuam non vides? Quid proxima, 10 quid superiore nocte egeris, ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, quid consilii ceperis, quem nostrum ignorare 2 arbitraris? O tempora, o mores! Senatus haec intellegit, consul videt; hic tamen vivit. Vivit? immo vero etiam in senatum venit, fit publici consilii parti15 ceps, notat et designat oculis ad caedem unum quemque nostrum. Nos autem fortes viri satis facere rei 5. bonorum, 'loyal men,' the political sense of the word, including all persons in the speaker's party, and excluding all others; opposed to it are the words improbi, perditi. 6. locus, see on 1. 4. Where were the meetings of the senate commonly held? See Int., p. 75, ~103. 7. ora voltusque, 'expression on the faces.' The expression of an idea by two connected nouns instead of by a single modified noun is called hendiadys; quote an example from Caesar 1. 3, ad fin, inter... dant. 8, 9. constrictam teneri, how different in meaning from constrictam esse A. 292 c; G. 230; I. 388 1 note; B. 337 6. Habeo is more common than teneo in this use: quote example from Caesar I. 15, que... habebat. scientia; i.e., is powerless, because every one knows of it. The strength of a conspiracy lies in secrecy. 9-11. Read p. 30, ~ 49, and tell what places, times, and measures are meant. Some of the men called together are named in Sallust's account of the Conspiracy. Among them were ten senators, four knights, and many from places in Italy outside of Rome. 12. arbitraris. In the present indicative of deponent verbs,Cicero writes -ris not -re. What does he write in the future tense? cf. 1. 1. ~ 2. 13,14. immo vero is used to correct a previous statement as either too weak or too strong: which here? Trans. "Lives, did I say? nay, he even, etc." publici consilii, 'a council of the state,' here the senate. The word consilium is used of any organized body taking common action. 16. viri fortes, nom. case, ironical.

Page  81 CAP. 1, ~ 1-3. 81 publicae videmur, si istius furorem ac tela vitemus. Ad mortem te, Catilina, duci iussu consulis iam pridem oportebat, in te conferri pestem, quam tu in nos 19 machinaris. An vero vir amplissumus, P. Scipio, 3 pontifex maximus, Ti. Gracchum mediocriter labefactantem statum rei publicae privatus interfecit; Catilinam orbem terrae caede atque incendiis vastare cupientem nos consules perferemus? Nam illa nimis antiqua praetereo, quod C. Servilius Ahala Sp. Mae- 25 lium novis rebus studentem manu sua occidit. Fuit, fuit ista quondam in hac re publica virtus, ut viri fortes acrioribus suppliciis civem perniciosum quam 17. istius = Catilinae. This is the demonstrative used most frequently of one's opponent in court, debate, etc., and thus it often has a certain contemptuous force. ~ 3. 20. An really introduces the second part of a double direct question, of which in excited speech the first part is often omitted, as here. In translation the omitted part may be supplied from the context: "[Ami I wrong], or did, etc.," or the an may be faintly represented by 'then.' an vero, the words go with both interfecit and perferemus. 21. P. Scipio Nasica was at the head of the optimates who (133) killed Ti. Sempronius Gracchus. Creighton, p. 57; Allen, p. 156; Myers, p. 80; Pennell, p. 96; pontifex maximus, p. 70, ~~ 81, 82. 22. privatus. Nasica held no office at the time of the death of Gracchus. Privatus is opposed in meaning to magistratus. For list of magistrates, see p. 62, ~ 45. 23. orbem terrae, ' the circle of land,' around the Mediterranean, 'the whole earth.' 24. illa, 'the following precedents,' explained by the clause quod... occidit. A. 333; G. 525; H. 540, IV.; B. 299 1, a. The plural is used either to imply that more precedents might be given, or with deliberate exaggeration. 25. Sp.Maelium. Maeliuswas a rich plebeian who sold corn to the poor at low rates during the famine of 439. He was accused of courtingthe favor of the people, with a view to making himself king, and was summoned before the dictator Cincirnatus to answer to the charge. On his hesitating to obey, he was killed by Ahala, the magister equituin, p. 63, ~ 46. 27. ista, 'such,' not used of an opponent here, and so not contemptuous. Note the strict use of the 'demonstrative of the second person': bravery on the part of such men as you (senators), in earlier times.

Page  82 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. acerbissinium hostem coercerent. Habemus senatus 36 consultum in te, Catilina, vehemens et grave, non deest rei publicae consilium neque auctoritas huius ordinis; nos, nos, dico aperte, consules desumus. 4 II. Decrevit quondam senatus, ut L. Opimius consul videret, ne quid res publica detrimenti caperet; nox nulla intercessit; interfectus est propter quasdam seditionum suspiciones C. Gracchus, clarissimo patre, 5 avo, maioribus, occisus est cum liberis M. Fulvius consularis. Simili senatus consulto C. Mario et L. 30. consultum, 'decree.' For the formalities attending the passage of a 'consultum,' and tLe distinction between a consultum and auctoritas, sec p. 76, ~~ 110, 111. For the decree,^ferred to here, see p. 29, ~ 47; for its scope, Sallust Cat. 29 says: Ea potestas per senatum more Romano magistratui maxima permittitur, exercitum parare, bellum gerere, coercere omnibus modis socios atque civis. domi militiaeque imperium atqiue iudicium summum habere: aliter sine populi iussu nullius earum rerum consulifas est. 31. consilium, 'wisdom,' 'advice,' 'statesmanship.' In how many meanings is consilium used in this chapter? Explain the case of patientia 1, nihil 4, senatus 6, nocte 10, consilii, quem 11, tempora 12, consilii 14, viri 16, consules 24; and the mood of ceperis 11. ~ 4. 1-10. Two precedents less remote than that of Ahala. 1. quondam. In 121, Gaius Gracchus, tribune 123-122, had carried a series of measures tending to overthrow the power of the senate. The senate took advantage of a riot to pass the consulturn ultimum, arming L. Opimius, the one consul then at Rome, against the revolutionists. Gracchus himself, his chief supporter M. Fulvius Flaccus, with the latter's young son and three thousand of their followers were killed. Creighton, p. 59 f.; Allen, p. 164; Myers, p. 81; Pennell, p. 97. 4. clarissimo patre, abl. of quality. The construction is slightly irregular. Such an abl., or equivalent gen., or adj., usually modifies a generic noun (homo, vir), in apposition with the proper name; but the generic noun is often omitted as here. Quote examples from Caesar I. 10, ad fin, and I. 18, 3, ad init., and tell whether they illustrate the regular or exceptional construction. 5. liberis. Really but one son was killed in the riot, and the plural is used by rhetorical exaggeration, as illa, ~ 3, 24. 6, 7. C. Mario. What does C.

Page  83 CAP. 1-2, ~ 3-4. 83 Valerio consulibus est permissa res publica; num unum diem postea L. Saturninum tribunum pl. et C. Servilium praetorem mors ac rei publicae poena remorata est? At nos vicesimum iam diem patimur 10 hebescere aciem horum auctoritatis. Habemus enim huiusce modi senatus consultum, verum inclusum in tabulis tamquam in vagina reconditum, quo ex senatus consulto confestim te interfectum esse, Catilina, convenit. Vivis, et vivis non ad deponendam, 15 sed ad confirmandam audaciam. Cupio, patres constand for? Write the full name. 12, 13. huiusce modi, A. 215, Mario et Valerio. During their a; G. 364; H. 396,V.; B. 2031. inconsulship (100) revolutionary clusum in tabulis. What is the measures were proposed by L. decree compared to? tabulae Saturninus and C. Glaucia. In are here the blocks of stone or fear of violence, the senate passed metal on whichl the laws were inthe consultum ultznium; and, in scribed. They were hung up in the conflict that followed, Saturni- public for seventeen days, and nus and his followers were stoned then deposited in the aerarium, to death in the senate house. the public treasury, in the temple Creighton, p. 63; Allen, p. 172; of Saturnus, in care of the Pennell, p. 105. Quaestors, p. 67, ~ 66. 9. mors ac rei p. poena, 'the 14, 15. interfectum esse... death penalty fixed by the State.' convenit. Give the tense and subName the grammatical figure, and ject of convenit. What tense might quote an illustration from ~ 1. have been expected forinterfectumn rei publicae, subjective gen.; the esse? A. 288, a; G. 246, Rein. i. Romans looked upon all punish- (with exs.); H. 537 1; B.2702. mnents (originally fines) as belong- Sometimes witl such verbs as coning to the injured party, to whom venit, oportuit, potui, etc., an apthe fines were in early times given parent perf. passive (not active) as recompense or damages. infin. is found. In such cases the 9, 10. remorata est, 'caused participle is to be regarded as a to wait.' The criminal is repre- predicate adj. (cf. Gallia est omntis sonted as always expecting punish- divisa), and not as forming a true ment, and waiting for it to over- perfect. A. 288 d; G. 275, 1 ad take him. vicesimui in round fin and 2; H. 537 2; B. 270 2 a. numbers. Find the exact num- Quote an example from ~ 2, and ber, reading p. 29, ~ 47, and re- tell which use it illustrates. membering that the Romans 16. patres conscripti. The counted in the starting-point. original members of the senate

Page  84 84 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. scripti, me esse clementem, cupio in tantis rei publicae periculis me non dissolutum videri, sed iam me 5 ipse inertiae nequitiaeque condemno. Castra sunt in 20 Italia contra populum Romanum in Etruriae faucibus conlocata, crescit in dies singulos hostium numerus; eorum autem castrorum imperatorem ducemque hostiunr intra moenia atque adeo in senatu videmus intestinam aliquam cotidie perniciem rei publicae molientem. Si 25 te iam, Catilina, comprehendi, si interfici iussero, credo, erit verendum mihi, ne non potius hoc omnes boni serius a me quam quisquam crudelius factum esse dicat. Verum ego hoc, quod iam pridem factum esse oportuit, certa de causa nondum adducor ut fa30 ciatn. Tum denique interficiere, cum iam nemo tam were all patricians, and were called patres; but, after the expulsion of the kings (509), some of the leading plebeians were admitted to the republican senate under the title of 'conscripti,' ' added to the roll.' The term patres conscripti is therefore shortened from patres et conscripti; but so thoroughly was the origin of the phrase forgotten, that Cicero calls a single senator pater conscriptus. 18. dissolutum, ' radical.' 19. inertiae, case? A. 220; G. 377; H. 409, II.; B. 208 2. ~ 5. 23. atque adeo either corrects a previous statement 'or rather,' or adds to and intensifies it 'and actually'. Which here? What similar phrase in ~ 2? 25. comprehendi, same mood as interflci. si what other conjunction might have been used? See on ~ 1, 3, and quote a parallel from Caes. I. 14, ad fin. iussero, translate a Latin future perfect after si, cum, ubi, by an English present. For the form of the condition, A. 307, 1, a and c; G. 597, 236 2 H. 508, 2; P. 476 (1). 26-28. erit verendum... dicat. credo is parenthetical and ironical. Cicero might fear two opposite criticisms upon his conduct: (a) ne omnes boni seriusfactumr esse dicant. (b) ne quisquam crudelius factum esse dicat. He really fears (a), so when speaking ironically he reverses the case and says: "I shall have to fear, I suppose, not rather (a) than (b)." Trans. the whole: "I shall have to fear, I suppose, not that all loyal men will call my action tardy, but that some one will call it excessively cruel." 29. certa de causa, explained by the rest of the chapter.

Page  85 CAP. 2-3, ~ 4-7. 85 inprobus, tam perditus, tam tui similis inveniri poterit, qui id non iure factum esse fateatur. Quamdiu 6 quisquam erit, qui te defendere audeat, vives, et vives ita, ut vivis, multis meis et firmis praesidiis obsessus, ne commovere te contra rem publicam possis. Mul- 35 torum te etiam oculi et aures non sentientem, sicut adhuc fecerunt, speculabuntur atque custodient. II. Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod iam amplius expectes, si neque nox tenebris obscurare coeptus nefarios nec privata domus parietibus continere voces coniurationis tuae potest, si illustrantur, si erumpunt omnia? Muta iam istam mentem, mihi crede, oblivi- 5 scere caedis atque incendiorum. Teneris undique; luce sunt clariora nobis tua consilia omnia; quae iam mecum licet recognoscas. Meministine me ante diem 7 31. tui similis. In Cicero similis nearly always takes the gen. of nouns and pronouns denoting persons; and with nouns denoting things the gen. is rather more common than the dative. Explain the case of detrimenti 2, Mario 6, diem 10, aciem 11, rei publicae 24, mihi 26, me 27; mood of fateatur 32, audeat 33, possis 35. Give princp. parts of decrevit 1, cupio 16, crescit 21, audeat 33. ~ 6. 1. Etenim quid est, etc., gives the reason for vives, et vives, etc., 1. 33 above, and prepares the way for the general theme 'Leave the city!' 2. coeptus, a very rare noun; the usual word is conatus. a parietibus. Synonyms: murus, wall in general, paries, wall of a house, moenia (cf. munire), walls of a city for defence. 5. mihi crede, 'follow my advice.' A. 227; G. 345; H. 384, I.; B. 187, II., a. 8. licet recognoscas. A. 331 i. note 3; H. 501, I. 1, and 502 1; P. 494, a, and 531 a. What other mood might have been used for recognoscas? Meministine = nonne meministi; -ne is often used for nonne, especially in questions of a rhetorical nature and in colloquial language. It is probable that it had originally a negative force. ante diem xii. Kal. Nov. A. 376, a, b, c, d, and 259 e; G. p. 387; H. 642, in full, and esp. III. 3; B.371, 5, d; cf also Caesar I. 6 ad fin and the note. ante diem is here the idiomatic form for die (abl. of time) ante; what should we expect for the same words In 11. 10 and 16?

Page  86 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. xii Kalendas Novembris dicere in senatu fore in aro0 mis certo die, qui dies futurus esset ante diem VI Kal. Novembris, C. Manlium, audaciae satellitem atque administrum tuae? Num me fefellit, Catilina, non modo res tanta, tam atrox tamque incredibilis, verum, id quod multo magis est admirandum, dies? Dixi 15 ego idem in senatu caedem te optumatium contulisse in ante diem v Kalendas Novembris, tum cum multi principes civitatis Roma non tam sui conservandi quam tuorum consiliorum reprimendorum causa profugerunt. Num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis 20 praesidiis, mea diligentia circumclusum commovere te contra rem publicam non potuisse, cum tu discessu ceterorum nostra tamen, qui remansissemus, caede te 8 contentum esse dicebas? Quid? cum te Praeneste Kalendis ipsis Novembribus occupaturum nocturno ~ 7. 9. xii. here, vi. 1. 10 and 17. sui conservandi, A. 298 a; v. 1. 16, stand for what kind of a G. 429 Rem. i; H. 542 I note 1; numeral? Give each in full. di- B. 339 5. Gender, number and cere represents the imperfect in- case of sui? Is conservandi dicative in 0. R. A. 336 A. note 1; gerund or gerundive? Quote exG. 277, R; H. 537, 1; P. 538 a. amples from Caes. IIL, 6, 1, and What tense should we expect? IV. 13.5. The sentence is bitterly 11. C. Manlium, p. 29, ~~45, 46. ironical, a withering rebuke to the 12. fefellit, from fallo. Its cowardice of the senate. subjects are res and dies, but the 22. nostra... qui. The possessentence should be recast in Eng- sive pronoun nostra (agreeing lish, 'I was not deceived in, etc.' with caede) is equivalent to the 13 res. Think what ' the thing' gen. pl. of ego, and from this gen. meant really is, and translate ac- pl. as its true antecedent qui cordingly, never using the vague takes its gender and number. A..event,' 'fact,' etc., where defi- 99 a, 199 b, note; H. 396, II., nlteness is possible. note; G. 360, R. 1; B. 243 2 and 15. idem, nom. case; A. 195 e; 251 2. G. 296; H.4513; B. 248 1. ~ 8. 23. Quid. This little an16. in ante diem the prep. in ticipatory question draws attengoverns the date as if the latter tion to what follows; its fu eanwere one word. ing is ' What do you think o hat

Page  87 CAP. 3-4, ~ 7-9. impetu esse confideres, sensistine illam coloniam meo 25 iussu meis praesidiis, custodiis, vigiliis esse munitam? Nihil agis, nihil moliris, nihil cogitas, quod non ego non modo audiam, sed etiam videam planeque sentiam. iv. Recognosce tandem mecum noctem illam superiorem; iam intelleges multo me vigilare acrius ad salutern quam te ad perniciem rei publicae. Dico te priore nocte venisse inter falcarios (non agam obscure) in M. Laecae domum; convenisse eodem complures eius- 5 dem amentiae scelerisque socios. Num negare audes? quid taces? Convincam, si negas. Video enim esse hic in senatu quosdam, qui tecum una fuerunt. 0 9 di inmortales! ubinam gentium sumus? in qua urbe vivimus? quam rein publicam habemus? Hic, hic sunt 10 in nostro numero, patres conscripti, in hoc orbis terrae sanctissimo gravissimoque consilio, qui de nostro om I am going to say?' Preeneste, twenty miles south-east of Rome in the Hernican mountains. It had been the last stronghold of the younger Marius in 82, and on its capitulation Sulla had put most of its citizens to death. He subsequently established one of his colonies on its site, and Catilina hoped to use it as a fortified post. 26. praesidiis. S y n o n y m s: praesidia a 'garrison,' on the walls, custodiae the 'sentinels,' at the gates, vigiliae the 'night watch.' Explain case of caedis 6, luce 7, te 19, impetu 25, quod 27; mood of expectes 2, obliviscere 5, futurus esset 10, remansissemus 22, audiam 28. 1. tandem, see on ~ 1. 1. supe riorem noctem = priore nocte, 1. 3, what night? 4, 5. inter falcarios, 'into the street of the scythemakers.' Several streets of Rome were called after the tradesmen who lived upon them. For the prepositional phrase as a name cf. the famous avenue of Berlin 'Unter den Linden.' in M. Laecae domum. When accompanied by a possessive pronoun or a genitive domum (whither) may or may not have a preposition. ~ 9. 9. ubinam gentiu m, 'where in the world.' Case of gentium A. 216, a 4; G. 366, 371 4; H. 397 4; B. 2013. 12. nostro omnium. The adjective agrees with the gen. pl. of the personal pronoun implied in the possessive nostro; see ~ 7, 22, *

Page  88 88 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. nium interitu, qui de huius urbis atque adeo de orbis terrarum exitio cogitent! Hos ego video consul et de 15 re publica sententiam rogo et, quos ferro trucidari oportebat, eos nondum voce volnero! Fuisti igitur apud Laecam illa nocte, Catilina, distribuisti partes Italiae, statuisti, quo quemque proficisci placeret, delegisti, quos Romae relinqueres, quos tecum educeres, 20 discripsisti urbis partes ad incendia, confirmasti te ipsum iam esse exiturum, dixisti paulum tibi esse etiam nune morae, quod ego viverem. Reperti sunt duo equites Romani, qui te ista cura liberarent et 24 sese illa ipsa nocte paulo ante lucem me in meo lectulo 10 interfecturos pollicerentur. Haec ego omnia vixdum etiam coetu vestro dimisso comperi; domum meam maioribus praesidiis munivi atque firmavi, exclusi eos, quos tu ad me salutatum mane miseras, cum illi ipsi and cf. A. 197 e; G. 363 ad fin; H. 398 3; B. 235 c) and cf. 243 3. 13. atque adeo, see on ~ 5, 23. 15. trucidari, regular or irregular tense? See on ~ 4, 14. 16. igitur, 'well then.' In this its so-called ' resuinptive' use iyitur is often employed to pick up the broken thread of a sentence or train of thought. Here it recalls attention to the unanswered challenge num audes ~ 8, 6, the thought having been interrupted by the digression on the senators. 18. quo, interrogative adverb. Give its correlatives, A. 106; G. 107, 1; H. 305 II; B. 140. 23. equites, p. 56 ~~ 18-20. The two men were C. Cornelius and L. Vargunteius. The latter is called a senator by Sallust, Cat. 28, but it is supposed that lie had lost his seat by some judicial proceedings. 24,25. lectulo. For the termination A. 164, a; G. 785, 7 d; H. 321; B. 148 1, interfecturos pollicerentur, ' promised to kill.' For the future inf. with subj. ace. where the English idiom has a present complementary see A. 330 f; G. 424 R. 3; H. 535, I, 2: B.331 1. Could the English idiom have been used? cf. Caesar IV. 21, 5: qui... obtemperare and note. ~ 10. 28. ad me depends on miseras. salutatum, 'to pay their respects,' supine; A. 302; H. 546, 1; G. 436, R. 1; B. 340 1. It was the custom at Rome for prominent men to hold levees in the early morning. Hence the coming of the assassins at that time would excite no suspicion.

Page  89 CAP. 4-5, ~ 9-11. 89 venissent, quos ego iam multis ac summis viris ad me id temporis venturos esse praedixeram. 30 v. Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, perge, quo coepisti, egredere aliquando ex urbe; patent portae; proficiscere. Nimium diu te imperatorem tua illa Manliana castra desiderant. Educ tecum etiam omnes tuos, si minus, quam plurimos; purga urbem. Magno me 5 metu liberabis, dum modo inter me atque te murus intersit. Nobiscum versari iam diutius non potes; non feram, non patiar, non sinam. Magna dis inmortali-11 bus habenda est atque huic ipsi Iovi Statori, antiquissimo custodi huius urbis, gratia, quod hanc tam 10 taetram, tam horribilem tamque infestam rei publicae pestem totiens iam effugimus. Non est saepius in 30. id temporis, 'at that hour.' For case of id cf. nihil ~ 1, 3; for that of temporis cf. gentium ~ 9, 9; the phrase=eo tempore. Explain case of multo 2, sententiam 15, Romae 19, tibi 21, morae 22, cura 23, coetu 26; mood of cogitent 14, placeret 18, viverem 22, pollicerentur 25, venturos esse 30. What part of speech is eodem 5, una 8? 1. quo = (ad eum locum) ad quem. Sc ire. How does this quo differ from the one in ~ 9, 18? 3. Manliana = Manli, cf. Caes. I. 13. 2: bello Cassiano, and explain the adj. 4, 5. Educ. What verbs lose the final -e in this form? si minus, i.e., si minus (= non) omnnes educere poteris, quam plurimos educ. 7, 8. non feram, patiar, sinam. This is not an example of climax, but a device, very common in Latin, for emphasizing an idea by an accumulation of synonymous words. Trans. "I may not, cannot, will not endure it." ~ 11. 9. dis... atque... lovi, 'to (all) the gods, hut especially to, etc." huic. Why is the demonstrative of the first person used? See on ~ 1, 4. Statori '(flight) stayer.' Tradition said that a temple was dedicated to Jupiter under this name by Roimulus for laving stopped the fiilght of the Romans during the decisive battle in the war with the Sabines. Hence antiquissino custodi below. Decline Iovi Statori, A. 60, b; H. 66 3; B. 41. 10,11. hanc tam taetram. The tam is not Jo be translated. When a demonstrative and a positive adjective of quality modify a noun the Latin idiom inserts a tam: so hic tantus (= tam mnag

Page  90 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. uno homine summa salus periclitanda rei publicae. Quamdiu mihi consuli designato, Catilina, insidiatus 15 es, non publico me praesidio, sed privata diligentia defendi. Cum proximis comitiis consularibus me consulem in campo et competitores tuos interficere voluisti, compressi conatus tuos nefarios amicorum praesidio et copiis nullo tumultu publice concitato; denique, 20 quotienscumque me petisti, per me tibi obstiti, quamquam videbam perniciem meam cum magna calamitate 12rei publicae esse coniunctam. Nunc iam aperte rem publicam universam petis, templa deorum inmortalium, tecta urbis, vitam omnium civium, Italiam totam ad 25 exitium et vastitatem vocas. Quare, quoniam id, quod est primum, et quod huius imperii disciplinaeque maiorum proprium est, facere nondum audeo, faciam id, quod est ad severitatem lenius et ad communem salu nus) vir, haec tot (= tam multa) pericula, etc. 13. uno homine = Catilina. summa salus rei p., 'the best interests of the nation,' a very common phrase for which summa res p. is often used with no difference in meaning. 14. consuli designato. A man was consul designatus, 'consul elect,' from his election in July to his inauguration, Jan. 1st; consul during his year of office, and consularis, 'ex-consul,' during the rest of his life: when was Cicero c. designatus? 16. proximis comitiis, ' at the last election.' P. 28, ~~ 42-44. Who presided at this election? Who were the successful competitores P In what comitia were tlhe consuls elected? P. 64, ~~ 53-55. 17. campo, sc. Martio. P. 60, ~ 35. Point it out on Plan A. 19. nullo tumultu publice concitato, ' without an official summons to arms.' publiceshould never be translated by ' publicly.' ~ 12. 26. est primum,' would be obvious' The English idiom would suggest the subjunctive, but in certain short phrases witl adjectives, the indicative is always used in Latin. A. 264 b; H. 476,5; G. 246 R 1; B 271 b. imperil, case? A. 234, d; G. 35(, R. 1; H. 391,II.4; B. 204 2; imperium here means the special powers conferred by the co,,sultum ultimum, see on ~ 3, 30. 28. ad severitatem, 'if you look at severity.' There is no point to the phrase in itself, but it is inserted to balance ad commu-!

Page  91 CAP. 5-6, ~ 11-13. 91 tem utilius. Nam si te interfici iussero, residebit in re publica reliqua coniuratorum manus; sin tu, quod te 30 iam dudum hortor, exieris, exhaurietur ex urbe tuorum comitum magna et perniciosa sentina rei publicae. Quid 13 est, Catilina? num dubitas id me imperante facere, quod iam tua sponte faciebas? Exire ex urbe iubet consul hostem. Interrogas me, num in exilium; non 35 iubeo, sed, si me consulis, suadeo. vi. Quid est enim, Catilina, quod te iam in hac urbe delectare possit? in qua nemo est extra istain coniurationem perditorum hominum, qui te non metuat, nemo, qui non oderit. Quae nota domesticae turpitudinis non 5 nem salutem which is necessary to define utilius. 31. iam dudum moves a present back in time to a perfect, and an imperfect to a pluperf. So also iam diu, iam priderm. A. 276 a;G. 221; H. 467, III., 1 & 2; B. 259 4. 32. sentina rei pub., 'dregs of the state,' forms a single expression upon which depends the explanatory genitive tuorum comitum, 'consisting of your companions.' Notice that the word comnitum denotes the same objects as sentina, but does not agree in case. This use of the genitive (genitivus epexegeticus) in place of an appositive receives little attention in our grammars. A. 214 f; G. 359; H. 396, VI.; B.'202. Good examples in Caes. III. (8. 2, and) 10, 2: iniuriae... Romanorum. ~ 13. 34. faciebas, force of imperfect? A 277 c; G. 224; H. 469, II. 1; B. 2603. 35. num in exilium, sc. te ire iubeam. For num see A. 210 f R. ad fin.; G. 462, 1; H. 529 II. 1 N. 3; B.300,1b); how does it differ from num in 1. 33? 36. si me consulis, 'if you ask my advice.' suadeo. Wliat must be supplied to complete the sentence? Explain case of metu 6, dis 8, praesidio 15, comitiis 16, tumultu 19, tibi 20, me 33. Give principal parts of perge 1, sinam 8, compressi 18, petisti 20, suadeo 36. 4, 5. perditorum, for meaning see on ~ 1,5. hominum, when the word ' man ' is accompanied by an adjective implying reproach homo must be used, by one implying a compliment eitlier homno or (more commonly) vir. Quote an example of tlie latter from ~ 3. oderit, though a different tense, denotes the same time as metlat. A. 279, e; G. 190, 5, 228, R. 1; H. 297, I. 2; B. 133 2. nota, an expression borrowed from slate

Page  92 ORATTO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. inusta vitae tuae est? quod privatarum rerum dedecus non haeret in fama? quae lubido ab oculis, quod facinus a manibus umquam tuis, quod flagitium a toto corpore afuit? cui tu adulescentulo, queln corruptelarum 10 inlecebris inretisses, non aut ad audaciam ferrum aut ad 14lubidinem facem praetulisti? Quid vero? nuper cum morte superioris uxoris novis nuptiis domum vacuefecisses, nonne etiam alio incredibili scelere hoc scelus cumulasti? quod ego praetermitto et facile patior sileri, 15 ne in hac civitate tanti facinoris inmanitas aut extitisse aut non vindicata esse videatur. Praetermitto ruinas fortunarum tuarum, quas omnis inpendere tibi proxumis Idibus senties; ad illa venio, quae non ad privatam life; branding was the regular Quid vero, see on quid, ~ 8, 23. punishment for heinous offences. morte superioris uxoris, p. 21, domesticae turp., 'infamy in ~ 26. The second wife was Aureyour home.' lia Orestilla, a woman of great 6. privatarum rerum, ' private beauty, but infamous life. morte life,' a wider reference than in is intentionally ambiguous; it domesticae turp. above, as it in- might be ablative of time, but eludes his relations with persons Cicero means it to be taken as outside of his own family. means (=nece, caede). 7. haeret in fama, 'is not at- 13. incredibili scelere, the tached to your reputation.' For murder of his son. Orestilla obcase of fama, A. 227 e 3, note; G. jected to marrying a man with 346, R. 2. children. 9, 10. quem...inretisses, 14. praetermitto, etc., a com'whom you had ensnared by the mon rhetorical trick (praeteritio, allurements of your corrupting occultatio), by which the speaker, arts.' Catilina is said to have had affecting forbearance, carefully a wonderful influence over all with says what he pretends to leave whom he came into intimate rela- unsaid. Give example from ~ 3. tions, and especially over t h e 17, 18. prox. Idibus,what davof young. inretisses, subj. of char- the month? Now that Catilina's acteristic. In what does the charac- hopes were blighted, his creditors teristic lie? would not be likely to show fur~ 14. 11, 12. facem, to guide ther forbearance, and the Ides and him to places of dissipation which Kalends were the regular days for would naturally be visited at night. the settlement of accounts.

Page  93 CAP. 6, ~ 13-15. 93 ignominiam vitiorum tuorum, non ad domesticam tuam difficultatem ac turpitudinem, sed ad summam rem 20 publicam atque ad omnium nostrum vitam salutemque pertinent. Potestne tibi haec lux, Catilina, aut huius 15 caeli spiritus esse iucundus, cum scias esse horum neminem, qui nesciat te pridie Kalendas Ianuarias Lepido et Tullo consulibus stetisse in comitio cum telo, manum 25 consulum et principum civitatis interficiendorum causa paravisse, sceleri ac furori tuo non mentem aliquam aut timorem tuum, sed fortunam populi Romani obstitisse? Ac iam illa omitto (neque enim sunt aut obscura aut non multa commissa postea); quotiens tu me designa- 30 tum, quotiens consulem interficere conatus es! quot ego tuas petitiones ita coniectas, ut vitari posse non viderentur, parva quadam declinatione et, ut aiunt, corpore effugi! Nihil adsequeris neque tamen conari 20, 21. difficultatem, 'embar- forum where meetings of the rassment,' i.e., in money matters; people were held, see Plan B. see preceding note. summam cum telo (= telo armatum), a rem. p., what is the fuller ex- legal term implying criminal inpression? See on ~ 11, 13. nos- tent. manum, 'a band,' i.e., of trum, gen. pl. of eqo, denoting desperate men. possession. What is the regular 29. omitto. Name the rhetoriconstruction? See on ~ 7, 22. cal figure, ~ 14, 14. neque enim This use of the genitive is al- sunt, etc. = nam et nota sunt et lowable only when the pronoun mlulta (alia) postea a te cornis accompanied by omnium, and missa sunt. even then the regular construction 32-34. petitiones, the technical is as common. See on ~ 9. 12. term for the thrusts of a gladiator. ~ 15. 23,24. cum, causal, but to ut.. viderentur, 'that it did be trans. 'when.' pridie Kalen- not seem possible to avoid them.' das, A. 207 b: G. p. 387; H. 437. The English idiom requires the 1; B. 144 2. Lepido, etc., cf. impersonal form, though the p. 23, ~ 30. Cicero puts the time Latin prefers the personal. A. one day earlier than other au- 330 b 1; G. 528; H. 534, 1; B. 332 thorities. b). declinatione et corpore. See 25. in comitio. In the singu on ~ 1, 7, and quote two exlar tlh word denotes a part of the armples. ut aiunt, frequently used

Page  94 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. 16 ac velle desistis. Quotiens tibi iam extorta est ista sica 36 de manibus, quotiens excidit casu aliquo et elapsawest! quae quidem quibus abs te initiata sacris ac devota sit, nescio, quod earn necesse putas esse in consulis corpore defigere. vii. Nunc vero quae tua est ista vita? Sic enim iam tecum loquar, non ut odio permotus esse videar, quo debeo, sed ut misericordia, quae tibi nulla debetur. Venisti paulo ante in senatum. Quis te ex hac tanta 5 frequentia, totque tuis amicis ac necessariis salutavit? Si hoc post hominum memoriam contigit nemini, vocis expectas contumeliam, cum sis gravissimo iudicio taciturnitatis oppressus? Quid, quod adventu tuo ista to introduce a proverbial or tech- 35, devota sit 37, esse 38, definical expression, as corpore bor- gere 39. rowed from the prize ring. ~ 16. 35, 36. tibi de manibus, 3. quae nulla, besides the adjs. 'from [you, from] your hands.' of quantity, mnulti, pauci, etc., nulA. 229, b; G. 344, 2, 388; H. 385, 1ls is put in agreement with reII. 2, 413; B. 188 2 d). latives and demonstratives where 37. initiata, etc. The weapons the whole and not a part only is with whicl some successful deed meant. Nullus is then equivalent had been accomplished were often to an emphatic non. What other dedicated to some deity or other. word may be used for non V Cf. ~ 1. 38, 39. quod, there is a slight 4. hac tanta, 'this great,' not ellipsis, as quod gives the reason 'so great.' See on ~ 11. 10. not for the consecration of tle 6, 7. contigit, generally used of weapon, but for Cicero's assertion good fortune, unless accompanied that it had been consecrated: ' (I by a negative, as neinini here; for say you have consecrated it) for bad fortune accidit is the usual you think, etc.' in corpore. word. cum, see on ~ 15. 23, and Why not accusative after de- point out another example in this figere = 'plunge into'? A. 260, cilapter. Read p. 31, ~ 50. a; G. 384, R. 1; H. 380, note; 8. Quid, quod, etc., 'what do B. 228. See also B. App. 351. you tlhnk of this, that, etc.?' For Explain the case of nuptiis 12, quid, see on ~ 8. 23; for quod, on Idibus 18, Lepido 24, consuli- ~ 3. 24. Note that in this use quid bus 25, consulum, civitatis 26, is often followed by a second quesfurori 27, casu 36; mood of tion, here quo tandem animo, etc., possit 3, vacuefecisses 12, vi- 1. 12. ista, see on ~ 3. 27, and exdeatur 16, viderentur 33, velle plain here.

Page  95 CAP. 6-7, ~ 15-17. 95 subsellia vacuefacta sunt, quod omnes consulares, qui tibi persaepe ad caedem constituti fuerunt, simul atque 10 adsedisti, partem istam subselliorum nudam atque inanein reliquerunt, quo tandem animo tibi ferundum putas? Servi mehercule mei si me isto pacto metue-17 rent, ut te metuunt omnes cives tui, domum meam relinquendam putarem; tu tibi urbem non arbitraris? et, si 15 me meis civibus iniuria suspectum tam graviter atque offensum viderem, carere me aspectu civium quam infestis omnium oculis conspici mallem; tu cum conscientia scelerum tuorum agnoscas odium omnium iustum et iam diu tibi debitum, dubitas, quorum mentes sen- 20 9. subsellia, the senators sat 11. adsedisti, ' had taken your on bencheswithout backs, proba- seat;' for the tense, A. 324; G. bly in the order of their rank, 563; 1H. 471 II. 1 (4); B. 287. the consulares together and near ~ 17. 13. mehercule,'by heavthem the praetorii, the class to ens,' the full form, me Hercules which Catilina belonged. What juvet, meant 'so help me Hersort of a seat had the consul? P. cules,' but the idea of invocation 64, ~ 51. shrank with the words to the 10. tibi, agent. What would meaning and form here used. si, be the regular construction? The notice how far it is crowded dative of the ageitt is used by from its proper place (where?) Cicero with the gerundive regu- to make servi emphatic. pacto larly and the perfect participle = modo. metuerent, wlat time frequently, but with no other parts and thought does the imperfect of the verb. A. 232, a; G. 206; H subj. express in conditional sen388 1; B. 189, 1,2. Point out ex- tences? A. 308; G. 599; H. 510, amples of the regular use of tills note 1; B. 304. dative in this chapter. consti- 14. ut, with ind. 'as' or 'when;' tuti fuerunt, not a mere variation which here? So in lines 23 and for constituti stint, though the dis- 35 below. tinction cannot be concisely ex- 16. iniuria, 'without cause,' pressed in English: with fuerunt an abl. of manner; cf. Caes. I. 36. the meaning is 'have been (but 5. tam graviter, there is often a are no longer) doomed;' with sunt slight ellipse with tam,, tot, and the words in parenthesis would not tantus, here, quam tu. necessarily be implied. A. 291 b, 20. dubitas. Where dubitare Rem.; G. 242, Rem.; H. 471 note means'to hesitate' (about a course 1; P. 229 (3), a. of action), and the sentence is

Page  96 96 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. susque volneras, eorum aspectum praesentiamque vitare? Si te parentes timerent atque odissent tui neque eos ulla ratione placare posses, ut opinor, ab eorum oculis aliquo concederes. Nunc te patria, quae com25 munis est parens omnium nostrum, odit ac metuit et iam diu nihil te iudicat nisi de parricidio suo cogitare; huius tu neque auctoritatem verebere nec iudicium 18 sequere nec vim pertimesces? Quae tecum, Catilina, sic agit et quodam modo tacita loquitur: ' Nullum iam 30 aliquot annis facinus exstitit nisi per te, nullum flagitium sine te; tibi uni multorum civium neces, tibi vexatio direptioque sociorum inpunita fuit ac libera; tu non solum ad neglegendas leges et quaestiones, verum etiam ad evertendas perfringendasque valuisti. Supe35 riora illa, quamquam ferenda non fuerunt, tamen, ut potui, tuli; nunc vero me totam esse in metu propter unum te, quicquid increpuerit, Catilinam timeri, nullum negative (or interrogative assum- bold use of language, here tacita ing a negative answer, as here), loquitur. tacita loquitur, the an infinitive regularly follows, as rhetorical figure called oxymoron, vitare, line 21. the use of contradictory words,in 24. aliquo, see on quo ~ 10. 1. the same phrase. A. 386; H. 637, Nunc, 'now, as it is,' not a mere XI., 6; B. 375 2. temporal idea, but serving to in- 31. vexatio, etc. P. 22. ~ 28. troduce an actual fact in contrast 32. fuit, for number cf. Caes. to the supposition si..con-I. 1, 2, atvidit. cederes. 37, 38. quicquid increpuerit, 25. nostrum, see on ~ 14. 21. 'at the slightest sound;' literally? odit ac metuit, tenses? See on quicquid =si quid, A. 309, d, ~ 13. 5. 316; G. 594 1; H. 507 III. 2; 26. parricidio, instead of caede, B. 312 1. increpuerit, A. 342; because the country is our con,- G. 509 4; H. 529, II.; B. 324. munis parens. videri... consilium... posse 27. verebere, in the ind. of = lullum consilium ('plan,' 'dedep. verbs how are the endings -ris sign') videri posse iniri (' formed), and -re used by Cicero? contra me. For English idiom, ~ 18. 29. quodam modo, used see on ~ 15. 32-33. to soften an unusually free or 39. abhorreat, 'is inconsistent *y:,:f:I _ ~ dDD 3

Page  97 CAP. 7-8, ~ 17-19. 97 videri contra me consilium iniri posse, quod a tuo scelere abhorreat, non est ferendum. Quam ob rem discede atque hunc mihi timorem eripe; si est verus, ne oppri- 40 mar, sin falsus, ut tandem aliquando timere desinam.' viii. Haec si tecum, ita ut dixi, patria loquatur, 19 nonne impetrare debeat, etiamsi vim adhibere non possit? Quid, quod tu te ipse in custodiam dedisti, quod vitandae suspicionis causa ad M'. Lepidum te habitare velle dixisti? A quo non receptus etiam ad me venire 5 ausus es atque, ut domi meae te adservarem, rogasti. Cum a me quoque id responsum tulisses, me nullo modo posse isdem parietibus tuto esse tecum, qui magno in with,' subj. of charact. or by at- ing his trial. He usually gave traction. bail for his appearance, though Supply the ellipses with quo sometimes he was put under the debeo, ut misericordia 3, ur- charge of some man of reputation bem 15, ne opprimar 40. Ex- who became responsible for his plain the ablatives misericordia safe keeping; this was called in 3, paulo 4, amicis 5, iudicio 7, custodiam liberam dari. See also adventu 8, animo 12, pacto 13, p. 30, ~ 48. a s p e ct u 17, conscientia 18, 4. ad M'. Lepidum, 'at the ratione 23, te 28, annis 30; the house of Manius Lepidus,' in this infinitives cogitare 26, esse 36, sense of ad the prep. apud is videri, posse 38, timere 41. more common. Lepidus was consul in 66, cf. ~ 15. 24. What do ~ 19. 1, 2. loquatur, what time M., M'. and Main. stand for? and thought does the present subj. 6. domi meae, for case of each express in conditionlal sentences? word, A. 258 d and e; G. 412 R. A. 307, b; G. 598; H. 509, 1 and 3; H. 426, 2; B. 232 2. note 1; B. 303. impetrare ' ob- What other common nouns have tain her wish,' often thus used a locative case? absolutely, cf. Caes. I. 35. 4. 8. parietibus, for meaning, see 3. Quid, quod, see on ~ 16. 8. on ~ 6. 3; for case, A. 258 c. 1. tu te ipse, the Latin idiom con- G. 384; H. 425, I.; B. 228; for nects the intensive pronoun with omission of preposition in, A. the subject rather than the ob- 258 f 2; G. 386, 387; H. 425. 2; ject, even when the latter seems B. 228 1 b). tuto esse, 'be safe.' to us to be the emphatic word. Adverbs are thus used in pred. in custodiam. A citizen was with esse, when (a) esse lias the not ordinarily imprisoned pend- idea of ' living,' 'existing,' 'stay

Page  98 98 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. periculo essem, quod isdem moenibus contineremur, ad 10 Q. Metellum praetorem venisti. A quo repudiatus ad sodalem tuum, virum optumum, M. Metellum, demigrasti; quem tu videlicet et ad custodiendum diligentissimum et ad suspicandum sagacissimum et ad vindicandum fortissimum fore putasti. Sed quam longe 15 videtur a carcere atque a vinculis?besse debere, qui 20 se ipse iam dignum custodia iudicarit! Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, dubitas, si emori aequo animo non potes, abire in aliquas terras et vitam istam multis suppliciis iustis debitisque ereptam fugae solitudinique mandare? 20 ' Refer,' inquis, 'ad senatum'; id enim postulas et, si hic ordo placere decreverit te ire in exilium, optemperaturum te esse dicis. Non referam, id quod abhorret a meis moribus, et tamen faciam, ut intellegas, quid hi de te sentiant. Egredere ex urbe, 25 Catilina, libera rem publicam metu, in exilium, si ing,' etc., or (b) when tle adverbs ~ 20. 16. Quae cum ita sint, indicate (1) general relations of cf. ~ 10. 1, 'under these circumspace, e.g., prope, procul; or (2) stances,' a favorite formula of general relations of quality, e.g., Cicero. Explain the mood of sint ut, sic, ita, aliter, contra; or (3) a and use of the relative. For ita certain state of mind or body, e.g., cf. tuto, ~ 19. 8, b. (2). bene, male, commode, recte, tuto. 17, 18. emori, by the hand of an 11. virum optumum, how executioner or a suicide. abire, used? Cf. virifortes, ~ 2. 16; M. for the mood, see on ~ 17. 20. Metellum, nothing more is known 21. hic ordo, ' this body,' i. e., of him than can be gathered from the senate. placere, 'that its this passage. What? pleasure is ' the subject is te... ire. 12. videlicet, compounded of decreverit (decerno), what mood videre + licet 'one may see,'' evi- and tense in O. R.? How is that dently.' The sentence is ironical. tense to be translated? See on 15. carcere. The Romans did ~ 5. 25. not use the prison as a place of 22. Non referam, his real reapenal confinement, but for merely son was that the senate, not being temporary detention, or as a place a judicial body, had no power to of execution. impose a sentence upon any one;

Page  99 CAP. 8, ~ 19-21. 99 hanc vocem expectas, proficiscere. Quid est, Catilina? ecquid attendis, ecquid animadvertis horum silentium? Patiuntur, tacent. Quid expectas auctoritatem loquentium, quorum voluntatem tacitorum perspicis? 29 At si hoc idem huic adulescenti optimo, P. Sestio, si21 fortissimo viro, M. Marcello, dixissem, iam mihi consuli hoc ipso in templo iure optimo senatus vim et manus intulisset. De te autem, Catilina, cum quiescunt, probant, cum patiuntur, decernunt, cum tacent, clamant, neque hi solum, quorum tibi auctoritas est 35 videlicet cara, vita vilissima, sed etiam illi equites Romani, honestissimi atque optimi viri, ceterique fortissimi cives, qui circumstant senatum, quorum tu et frequentiam videre et studia perspicere et voces paulo ante exaudire potuisti. Quorum ego 40 vix abs te iam diu manus ac tela contineo, eos a fact that Cicero ignored to his cost a little later. 26. hanc vocem, 'this word,' i. e., exilium. After proficiscere, Cicero pauses for a moment; as no one gives any sign of disapproval he proceeds Quid est etc. 27. ecquid case? cf. id. ~ 10. 30; nihil, ~ 1. 3. 28. auctoritatem loquentium cf. vocis contumeliam ~16. 7. ~ 21. 30. optimo, how different in sense from optumum, 1. 11? Show the same variation in the force of an adj. in ch. I. P. Sestio, the friend for whom Cicero a few years later delivered the oration pro Sestio, contained in this book. 31. fortissimo viro: could he have used homini P See on ~ 13. 4. M. Marcello, probably the consul of 51, a bitter foe of Caesar, but pardoned by him after the civil war. dixissem: what time and thought does the p. perf. subj. express in a conditional sentence? A. 308; G. 599; IH. 510, note 1; B. 304. 32-34. vim et manus, 'violent hands,' wl)at figure of speech? quiescunt, probant, etc., oxymoron. See on ~ 18. 29. 35. hi, here, equites, 1. 36 and cives, 1. 38, make the three orders of the Roman state, see p. 65, ~~12, 18,21. auctoritas, see on ~ 3. 30. 36. videlicet, as in 1. 12. cara, explained 11. 21, 22. vilissima, explained by ~ 16. 10, and p. 23. ~ 31. 40. exaudire, ' have heard:' the word means to hear with difficulty, whether owing to distance, noise, or the low tones of the speaker.

Page  100 100 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. dem facile adducam, ut te haec, quae vastare iam pridem studes, relinquentem usque ad portas prosequantur. 22 Ix. Quamquam quid loquor? te ut ulla res frangat, tu ut umquam te corrigas, tu ut ullam fugam meditere, tu ut ullum exilium cogites? Utinam tibi istam mentem di inmortales duint! tametsi video, si mea 5 voce perterritus ire in exilium animum induxeris, quanta tempestas invidiae nobis, si minus in praesens tempus recenti memoria scelerum tuorum, at in posteritatem impendeat. Sed est tanti, dum modo Is the tense regular or irregular? See on ~ 4. 14. 42. haec, 'these things' = 'this city'; it is object of relinquentenm. 43. studes, for tense, see on ~ 12.31. usque ad,' all the way to.' prosequantur, a distinguished man leaving the city was often attended by crowds of citizens to indicate their esteem for him. Cicero speaks ironically here, for Catilina's escort would be of a different character. Explain case of causa 4, te 6, moenibus 9, Metellum 11, custodia 16, animo 17, metu 25, mihi 31, quorum 38, te 42; mood of adservarem 6, essem 9, debere 15, iudicarit 16, optemperaturum esse 22, faciam, intellegas 23, sentiant, Egredere 24, prosequantur 43. After urging Catilina to leave the city because his life in it could not be pleasant (~ 13), and because the country wished him gone (~ 17), Cicero now suggests that by going Catilina would bring unpopularity upon him, the consul, and thus gratify his animosity. ~ 22. 1. Quamquam, and tametsi, 1. 4, at the beginning of a sentence have a 'corrective' force and mean 'and yet.' ut... frangat, 'anything break you down? ' an 'exclamatory question' (A. 332 c; G. 560; H. 486, II., note) with the conscious or unconscious ellipse of fierine potest or somerthing of thVlSr. 3,4. Utinam... duint: On the form of the verb A. 128 e; G. 191 3; H. 240, 3; P. 241 c; for the mood A. 267; G. 253; H. 484, 1; P. 473, a. 5. animum induxeris 'make up your mind,' ' determine.' 6. nobis, number? A. 98 1 b; G. 195 R. 7; H. 446, note 2; P. 443. Note the collocation of the singular possessive mea, 1. 4, witl this plural personal referring to the same person; nostra or mihi would have been better. si minus, 'if not,' from this use of minus ( = non) is derived the English mis-. in praesens tempus, ' for the present.' 7, 8. in posteritatem, the words were prophetic, p. 39, ~ 69 f. tanti, 'it is worth the cost.'

Page  101 CAP. 8-9, ~ 21-24. 101 ista sit privata calamitas et a rei publicae periculis seiungatur. Sed tu ut vitiis tuis commoveare, ut o1 legum poenas pertimescas, ut temporibus rei publicae cedas, non est postulandum. Neque enim is es, Catilina, ut te aut pudor umquam a turpitudin l lt metus a periculo aut ratio a furore revocarl Quam ob23 rem, ut saepe iam dixi, proficiscere ac, Isi mihi ini- 15 mico, ut praedicas, tuo conflare vis invidiam, recta perge in exilium; vix feram sermones hominum, si id feceris, vix molem istius invidiae, si in exilium iussu consulis ieris, sustinebo. Sin autem servire meae laudi et gloriae mavis, egredere cum inportuna scele- 20 ratorum manu, confer te ad Manlium, concita perditos cives, secerne te a bonis, infer patriae bellum, exsulta impio latrocinio, ut a me non eiectus ad alienos, sed invitatus ad tuos isse videaris. Quamquam quid24 ego te invitem, a quo iam sciam esse praemissos, qui 25 A. 252 a; G. 380; H. 404; B. 203 3. 10. commoveare, in the pres. subj. of deponent and.passive verbs, Cicero usually writes -re, very rarely -ris; what in the pres. and fut. ind? 11. temporibus, 'necessities,' 'perils,' a very common meaning in Cicero, in the singular as well as plural. 12. is = talis ' such', when followed by ut and subj. ~ 23. 16. ut, see on ~ 17. 14. recta, 'straightway' (recte = 'correctly '), for the form A. 148, e; G. 90, 3; H. 304, II., 2. Point out another adverb formed in the same way in ~ 8 ad fin. 17. perge, cf. ~ 10. 1. Princi pal parts? For this form of a conditional sentence and especially for the imperative in the apodosis (conclusion) see A. 306, a; G. 597; H. 508, 4; B. 302 4. sermones, ' reproaches.' 18. istius invidiae, 'that [caused by you] unpopularity.' So ista in 1. 9, see on ~ 3. 27. iussu found in abl. only. 23. impio latrocinio, 'treasonable brigandage,' case? A. 245, a 2; G. 407; H. 416; B. 219. Impius is applied to any crime against the gods, the country, or the family. non with eiectus. ~ 24. 24. isse, principal parts? Quamquam, see on 1. 1. 25. invitem, what kind of a question? A. 268; G. 468; H.

Page  102 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. tibi ad Forum Aurelium praestolarentur armati, cui iam sciam pactam et constitutam cum Manlio diem, a quo etiam aquilam illam argenteam, quam tibi ac tuis omnibus contido perniciosam ac funestam 30 futuram, cui domi tuae sacrarium constitutum fuit, sciam esse praemissam? Tu ut illa carere diutius possis, quam venerari ad caedem proficiscens solebas, a cuius altaribus saepe istam impiam dex25 teram ad necem civium transtulisti? x. Ibis tandem aliquando, quo te iam pridem ista tua cupiditas effrenata ac furiosa rapiebat; neque enim tibi haec res adfert dolorem, sed quandam incredibilem voluptatem. 5 Ad hane te amentiam natura peperit, voluntas exer 484, V.; B. 277. a quo= cum a te. A. 320 e, note 1; G. 636; H. 517; B. 283 3. For case of quo, A. 246; G.403; H. 388 2; B. 216. qui = utii. A. 317; G. 545 1; H. 497,1; B. 2822. 26. Forum Aurelium, an unimportant village about fifty miles from Rome on the Aurelian Way. cui = cum tibi; for case see on ~ 16. 10; for mood after it, on quo above. 27. pactam, from paciscor, what might it come from? 28. a quo, as in 1. 25, governing the subj. in 1. 31. aquilam, cf. Caesar IV. 25. 4. C. Marius introduced the emblem, and Sallust, Cap. 59, says of the one mentioned here: quam [aquilam] bello Cimbrico [104-101] C. Marius in exercitu habuisse dicebatur. 30. cui, ind. obj. domi tuae, cases? See on ~ 19. 6. sacrarium, ' a sanctuary.' The eagles of the legion when in camp were kept in a sacred place; see introduction to your Caesar. 31. praemissam agrees with what? ut... possis, see on ~ 22. 1. illa, cf. aspectu, ~ 17. 17. 33. altaribus, ' altar,' more common in the plural than in the singular. Explain the subjunctives impendeat 8, sit 9, commoveare 10, revocarit 14, videaris 24; the datives tibi 3, nobis 6, temporibus 11, inimico 15, laudi 20. Point out four kinds of questions and explain the use of the mood in each. ~ 25. 1-3. tandem aliquando, 'sometime at length' = an impatient 'at last.' So aliquando alone is sometimes used, cf. ~ 10. 2. quo = eo quo, cf. ~ 9, 18 and see on ~ 10.. iam pridem... rapiebat, cf. studes, ~ 21. 43. haec res, 'civil war,' see on ~ 7. 13.

Page  103 CAP. 9-10, ~ 24-26. 103 cuit, fortuna servavit. Numquam tu non modo otium, sed ne bellum quidem nisi nefarium concupisti. Nactus es ex perditis atque ab omni non modo fortuna, verum etiam spe derelictis conflatam inproborum 9 manum. Hic tu qua laetitia perfruere, quibus gau-26 diis exultabis, quanta in voluptate bacchabere, cum in tanto numero tuorum neque audies virum bonum quemquam neque videbis! Ad huius vitae studium meditati illi sunt, qui feruntur, labores tui, iacere humi non solum ad obsidendum stuprum, verum etiam ad l5 facinus obeunduin, vigilare non solum insidiantem sornno maritorum, verum etiam bonis otiosorum. Habes, 6. Numquam... non modo, is tlhe deponent used here? cf. etc. In Latin as in Eiglish two depopulatis agris, Caes. I. 11. negatives are usually equivalent 4. What part of a deponent is to an affirmative, but a general always passive in meaning? What negative (here numquam) is not part is sometimes (frequently) pasdestroyed by a following non sive? qui feruntur, 'boasted,' modo, 'not only,' or ne.. qui- lit. 'which are talked about.' A. dem, 'not even.' Notice that the 201 b; G. 626; H. 453 7; P. 452. verb concupisti goes with both Catilina's physical powers were otium and bellumn. Trans.: 'Not extraordinary, and his followers only have you never desired peace, boasted of his ability to endure but you have not even desired any hunger, cold, fatigue, and loss of war except one. which was in- sleep. Cicero, however, insists famous.' tlat these qualities are virtues only 8. ab... fortuna. The prep. wlen used for good purposes. ab (a) with a passive verb ordina- iacere and vigilare (1. 16) in aprily distinguishes the agent (a per- position to labores. humi, case? son) from the means or instrument See on ~ 19. 6. (a thing). When, as here, the 15, 16. obsidendum stuprep. accompanies a common noun prum, 'watch for an intrigue.' it shows that the thing is person- facinus obeundum, 'commit a ified, a rhetorical figure which is crime,' i.e., theft, robbery, etc. sometimes marked in English by a insidiantem agrees with te to be capital 'by Fortune and by Hope.' supplied with iacere and vigilare. ~ 26. 10. Explain the ablatives 17. somno maritorum balin this line and the next. ances and explains stuprum above, 13, 14. huius vitae, i.e., in a as bonis otiosorum corresponds bandit's camp. meditati. How tofacinus.

Page  104 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. ubi ostentes tuam illam praeclaram patientiam famis, 19 frigoris, inopiae rerum omnium, quibus te brevi tern27 pore confectum esse senties. Tantum profeci tur, cum te a consulatu reppuli, ut exsul potius temptare quam consul vexare rei publicain posses, atque ut id; quod esset a te scelerate susceptum, latrocinium potius quam bellum nominaretur. xi. Nunc, ut a me, patres conscripti, quandam prope iustam patriae querimoniam detester ac deprecer, percipite, quaeso, diligenter, quae dicam, et ea penitus animis vestris mentibusque mandate. Etenim, si mecum 5 patria, quae mihi vita mea multo est carior, si cuncta Italia, si omnis res publica loquatur: 'M. Tulli, quid agis? Tune eum, quein esse hostem comperisti, quem ducem belli futurum vides, quem expectari imperatorem in castris hostium sentis, auctorem sceleris, prin 18. ubi ostentes, 'an opportunity to display.' ubi is here a relative (not interrogative) adverb, and ostentes is therefore subjunctive not of indirect question but of characteristic. 19. quibus, the antecedent is not rerum. ~ 27. 20-22. Tantum profeci.. ut, etc. 'So much I accomplished, viz., that,' etc. turn, cum... reppuli, 'at the time when I kept you from.' He means by his influence in the election of 63. See P. 28, ~ 42. temptare, 'annoy.' vexare, 'harm,' 'ruin.' Point out the correlatives in this chapter. Give the principal parts of rapiebat 3, peperit 5, concupisti, Nactus es (nancis cor) 7, perditis 8, confectum esse 20, reppuli 21. Read P. 16, ~ 10, ad fin. It is probable that Cicero inserted ~~ 27-30, or parts of them, containing an elaborate explanation of his course, at the time he revised the orations for publication, when he felt bitterly the consequences of the illegal punishment of the conspirators. 2. detester ac deprecer, 'avert by entreaty and prayer.' 3-6. quae dicam. quae is a relative, not interrogative will this fact fix the mood of dicam ea penitus... mandate, 'let these words sink deep into.' si... loquatur. The apodosis ought to appear in the present

Page  105 CAP. 10-11, ~ 26-28. cipem coniurationis, evocatorem servorum et civium 10 perditorum, exire patiere, ut abs te non emissus ex urbe, sed immissus in urbem esse videatur? Nonne hunc in vincla duci, non ad mortem rapi, non summo supplicio mactari imperabis? Quid tandem te impedit? 28 mosne maiorum? At persaepe etiam privati in hac 15 re publica perniciosos cives morte multarunt. An leges, quae de civium Romanorum supplicio rogatae sunt? At numquam in hac urbe, qui a re publica defecerunt, civium iura tenuerunt. An invidiam posteritatis times? Praeclaram vero populo Romano 20 subj., but owing to the long quotation Cicero abandons the logical form and leaves the condition incomplete. 10. evocatorem servorum. P. 29, ~ 46. After the war with Spartacus (Creighton, p. 70; Allen, p. 193; Myers, p. 93; Pennell, p. 117), the Romans feared an insurrection of their slaves as they feared no other danger from within or without. The conspirators laid great stress upon the aid they would get from this numerous, strong, and daring class of men. 11, 12. abs. This form of the preposition ab is. found almost exclusively in the phrase abs te. non emissus... sed immissus, ' not sent out of... but let loose against.' Note the play on words, so in exsul and consul above, 1. 21. 13, 14. hunc... duci... imperabis. What is the construction of phrases following iubeo and impero Cicero and Caesar use only the passive infinitive with the latter verb. Quote an exampie from Caes. V. 1. 3. ~ 28. 15. mos maiorum, 'the custom of your ancestors,' the unwritten constitution, to which the Romlans paid as much deference as to the written laws (leges 1. 17). Supply the ellipses with mos here, and leges below. persaepe, an exaggeration; Cicero gives but the one instance of Nasica and Gracchus, ~ 3. 20 and 21. 16. multarunt: 1. fined'; 2. 'punished.' Trace the connection, comparing note on ~ 4. 9. 17. leges, i.e., the laws forbiding magistrates to kill or scourge a citizen before he had been tried and condemned by the people (P. 53, ~ 2 (b) 2). The earliest were the leges Valeriae (509, 449, 300), then the leges Porciae, then the lex Sempronia. Owing to the custom of permitting the accused to anticipate conviction by going into exile the infliction of capital punishment was almost unknown. rogatae, properly meaning 'proposed,' rarely as here means ' passed.' 20,21. Praeclaram refers gra

Page  106 ORATIO IN CAT1LINAM PRIMA. refers gratiam, qui te, hominem per te cognitum, nulla commendatione maiorum tam mature ad summum imperium per omnis honorum'gradus extulit, si propter 24 invidiam aut alicuius periculi metum salutem civium 29 tuorum neglegis. Sed, si quis est invidiae metus, non est vehementius severitatis ac fortitudinis invidia quam inertiae ac nequitiae pertimescenda. An, cum bello vastabitur Italia, vexabuntur urbes, tecta ardebunt, tur te non existumas invidiae incendio conflagraturum?' xII. His ego sanctissimis rei publicae vocibus et eorum hominum, qui hoc idem sentiunt, mentibus pauca respondebo. Ego si hoc optimum factu iudicarem, patres conscripti, Catilinam morte multari, unius usuram 5 horae gladiatori isti ad vivendum non dedissem. Etenim, si summi viri et clarissimi cives Saturnini et tiam, 'You make a line return.' sis to si... loqatur, ~ 27. 4-6; On the adjective cf. fortes, ~ 2. 16, but, by a change in construction and optumum, ~ 19. 11. (anacoluthon), they are put in the 22, 23. tam mature. See p. 14, forim of an independent sentence. ~ 4, ad init. summum imperium 2. pauca, 'briefly.' He spares = consulatum. omnis h. gradus, Catilina's life (1) in order to how many and what? P. 69, ~~ furnish to doubters the clearest 77, 78. proofs of his treasonable designs, ~ 29. 26. sev. ac fort. invidia, (2) in order to get rid of all his 'the unpopularity arising from followers with him. severity and rigor.' What is un- 3-5. hoc optimum factu... derstood after quam? multari. quote a parallel from 27-29. An...non existu- Caes. I., 3.6. iudicarem... demas. See on ~ 3. 20. dissem: for mood, see on ~ 21. 31; Explain case of vita, multo 5, for tense of iudicarem, A. 308 a; Tulli 6, eum 7, te 11, supplicio G. 599 R. 1; H. 510 n. 2; B. 304 2. 14, iura 19, commendatione 22, What tense should we expect? invidiae 25, nequitiae 27; mood gladiatori, 'bully,' a mere term of detester 2, esse 7, videatur of abuse. 12, vastabitur 28. 6, 7. summi viri et cl. cives. By viri he means magistratus, by 1-3. His...respondebo cives, privati: for the plural, cf. Thesewords ought to be the apodo- ~~ 28. 15; 4. 5; 3. 24, and quote

Page  107 CAP. 11-12, ~ 28-30. Gracchorum et Flacci et superioruin complurium sanguine non modo se non contaminarunt, sed etiam honestarunt, certe verendum mihi non erat, ne quid hoc parricida civium interfecto invidiae in posteritatem 10 redundaret. Quodsi ea mihi maxime inpenderet, tamen hoc animo fui semper, ut invidiam virtute partam gloriam, non invidiam putarem. Quamquam non 30 nulli sunt in hoc ordine, qui aut ea, quae inminent, non videant aut ea, quae vident, dissimulent; qui spem 15 Catilinae mollibus sententiis aluerunt coniurationemque nascenteml non credendo corroboraverunt; quorum auctoritate multi non solum improbi, verum etiam inperiti, si in hunc animadvertissern, crudeliter et regie factum esse dicerent. Nunc intellego, si iste, quo in- 20 examples. Sat., Gracch., Placci, 12. fui. There is really a slight see on ~~ 4. 6; 3. 21; 4. 1. Give ellipsis: tamen hoc animo [essem the full names of these men. atque] semperfui, ut, etc. As the 9, 10. mihi, agent with veren- indicative clause expresses a fact dum erat, must be supplied as ind. that is true independently of the obj. with redundaret 11. quid concession, it alone is retained. governs the part. gen. invidiae, 1. partam (pario), 'acquired.' 10. hoc parricida interfecto = ~ 30. 13,14. Quamquam. What si hunc parricidam interfecissemn; is this use of the word called? See for parrioida, see on ~ 17. 26. on ~ 22. 1. non nulli, 'some,' en11. redundaret, metaphor from tirely indefinite, perhaps few, perthe overflowing of a stream, 'that haps many. any flood of unpopularity would 15. Note that qui in line 14 for the future overwhelm me.' has the subj., while qui in line 15 Quodsi, in connection with si, has the indic. The former exthe adverbial accusative quod las presses a characteristic (what is become a mere connective 'but.' it?); the latter is a mere connecmaxime ' ever so much' intensi- tive = ii autem. dissimulent, fies the si. inpenderet, subj. of sc. se videre. concession, as tamen in the next 18, 19. improbi corresponds line shows, not of condition, to qui dissimulent above; inthough this does not affect the periti, to qui non videant. mood. A. 313; G. 605; H. 515, 20. Nunc, see on ~ 17. 24. quo II.; B. 309. What mood ought the (cf. ~ 10. 1) = in quae: what is its verb in the principal clause have? antecedent? iste, see on ~ 2. 17.

Page  108 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. tendit, in Manliana castra pervenerit, neminem tam stultum fore, qui non videat coniurationem esse factam, neminem tam improbum, qui non fateatur. Hoc autem uno interfecto intellego hanc rei publicae pestem paulis25 per reprimi, non in perpetuum comprimi posse. Quodsi se eiecerit secumque suos eduxerit et eodem ceteros undique collectos naufragos adgregarit, extinguetur atque delebitur non modo haec tam adulta rei publicae pestis, verum etiam stirps ac semen malorum omnium. 31 xII. Etenim iam diu, patres conscripti, in his periculis coniurationis insidiisque versamur, sed nescio quo pacto omnium scelerum ac veteris furoris et audaciae maturitas in nostri consulatus tempus erupit. 5 Quodsi ex tanto latrocinio iste unus tolletur, videbimur fortasse ad breve quoddam tempus cura et metu esse relevati, periculum autem residebit et erit inclusum penitus in venis atque in visceribus rei publicae.. Ut saepe homines aegri morbo gravi cum 10 aestu febrique iactantur, si aquam gelidam biberunt, primo relevari videntur, deinde multo gravius vehe25. Note the repetition of the upon a tense? patres conscripletter p in these lines. reprimi.. ti: explain the origin of the comprimi: see on ~ 27. 11. Cicero phrase. is very fond of playing on words (1) 2,3. nescio quo pacto, 'someof the same stem, but compounded how or other.' For pacto, see on with different prepositions, or (2) ~ 17.13. Nescio quis is sometimes of different stems to which the a mere indefinite pronoun without 'same preposition is prefixed. influence upon the rest of the senExplain the case of hominum 2. tence (A. 202 a; G. 469 Rem. 2; morte 4, mihi 11, quae 14, quae H. 191 note; B. 253 6; some15, neminem 23, pestem 24, times the nescio retains its verbal semen 29; mood of multari 4, force, and is followed by the subj. putarem 13, animadvertissem of ind. question; which here? 19, pervenerit 21, fateatur 23, Which in ~ 16. 37-38? eiecerit 26. 5. Compare this whole sentence carefully with ~ 12.29,f. Quodsi, ~ 31. 1. iam diu, has what effect see on ~ 29. 11. latrocinio,' band

Page  109 CAP. 12-13, ~ 30-33. 109 mentiusque adflictantur, sic hic morbus, qui est in re publica, relevatus istius poena vehementius reliquis vivis ingravescet. Quare secedant inprobi, secernant32 se a bonis, unum in locum congregentur, muro deni- 15 que, quod saepe iam dixi, secernantur a nobis; desinant insidiari domi suae consuli, circumstare tribunal praetoris urbani, obsidere cum gladiis curiam, malleolos et faces ad inflammandam urbem comparare; sit denique inscriptum in fronte unius cuiusque, quid 20 de re publica sentiat. Polliceor hoc vobis, patres conscripti, tantam in nobis consulibus fore diligentiam, tantam in vobis auctoritatem, tantam in equitibus Romanis virtutem, tantam in omnibus bonis consensionem, ut Catilinae profectione omnia patefacta, 25 inlustrata, oppressa, vindicata esse videatis. Hisce ominibus, Catilina, cum summa rei publicae33 salute, cum tua peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui se tecum omni scelere parricidioque iun of brigands;' the abstract noun is here used in a collective sense: find examples in ~ 6. ~ 32. 17, 18. tribunal praetoris urbani, see p. 66, ~ 60. The city praetor seems to have had a fixed place for his judgment-seat in the forum, while the other praetors set up their tribunals wherever it was convenient. cum gladiis =? See on ~ 15. 25. Notice in these lines the reference to the three departments of government, - executive, judicial, legislative. 19. malleolos, hammers, the hollow heads of which were filled with tow and pitch. They were thrown upon the roofs while the faces were applied below. 24. bonis, see on ~ 1. 5. Observe how the different orders of the state are mentioned. 25. profectione, case? Cf. Caes. II., 7. 2: quorum adventu. patefacta, etc. The four participles are to be taken in two groups of two each, a very common arrangement in Cicero. This may be brought out in English by inserting 'not only' before patefacta and 'but also' before oppressa. ~ 33. 27. Hisce, form? A. 100 foot note; G. 102 Rem. 1; H. 186 VI. 1; B. 87 f. n. 2. ominibus, explained by the three cum phrases that follow. 29. omni, 'every sort of,' a very

Page  110 ORATIO IN CATILINAM PRIMA. 30 xerunt, proficiscere ad impium bellum ac nefarium. Tu, Iuppiter, qui isdem quibus haec urbs auspiciis a Romulo es constitutus, quem Statorem huius urbis atque imperii vere nominamus, hunc et huius socios a tuis ceterisque templis, a tectis urbis ac moenibus, a 35 vita fortunisque civium arcebis et homines bonorum inimicos, hostis patriae, latrones Italiae scelerum foedere inter se ac nefaria societate coniunctos aeternis suppliciis vivos mortuosque mactabis. common meaning in both singular and plural. 31. Tu, subject of arcebis, 1. 35, and mactabis, 1. 38. Iuppiter: He turns to the statue near him. isdem... auspiciis, for the auspices, see p. 71, ~ 84. Things done 'under the same auspices' must be done at the same time; and the words, therefore, are equivalent to eodem tempore. This is, of course, an exaggeration, as the temple was not vowed, much less built, for years after the founding of the city. See on ~ 11. 9. 32. Statorem, ' stay, support,' in a slightly different sense from its original one; see on ~ 11. 9. Explain the case of patres 1, periculis 2, pacto 3, tempus 4, reliquis 13, domi, consuli 17, consulibus 22, homines 35, suppliciis 38; mood of secedant 14, insidiari 17, videatis 26, proficiscere 30.

Page  111 M. TULLI CICERONIS ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA AD POPULUM. I. Tandem aliquando, Quirites, L. Catilinam furen- 1 ter audacia, scelus anhelantem, pestem patriae nefarie molientem, vobis atque huic urbi ferro flammaque minitantem ex urbe vel eiecimus vel emisimus vel TITLE. Read the notes on I. 3. vobis and urbi are indirect Title. Ad populum. A speech objects, ferro and flamma are delivered adpopulum, 'before the ablatives of instrument; instead of people' was called a contio; and a tle ablatives, accusatives might gathering of the people (see p. 61, have been used: we can say mini~ 42) to hear the speech was called tari alicui aliqua re or minitari by the same name. For the cir- alicui aliquid. cumstances under which this con- 4. vel... vel.. vel, imply tio was delivered, see p. 32, ~. 52. liberty of choice, 'either... or.. or, as you please.' In this Congratulations over Catilina's passage each vel substitutes a departure (~~ 1, 2). milder form of expression for the ~ 1. 1. Tandem aliquando, see preceding, because Cicero does not on I. 25. 1: which word might be yet feel quite sure of the attitude be omitted? Quirites, the formal of the people. He speaks more title of the Roman people when boldly in the third oration. The assembled in their civil capacity sentence may be trans. 'We have and addressed by a Roman. The driven him out, —let him go if derivation and meaning of the word you will, - at least bidden him are uncertain. What is the formal good speed on his voluntary detitle of the senators as a body? parture.' 11I

Page  112 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. 5 ipsum egredientem verbis prosecuti sumus. Abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit. Nulla iam pernicies a monstro illo atque prodigio moenibus ipsis intra moenia comparabitur. Atque hunc quidem unum huius belli domestici ducem sine controversia vicimus. Non enim o0 iam inter latera nostra sica illa versabitur, non in campo, non in foro, non in curia, non denique intra domesticos parietes pertimescemus. Loco ille motus est, cum est ex urbe depulsus. Palam iam cum hoste nullo inpediente bellum iustum geremus. Sine dubio 15 perdidimus hominem magnificeque vicimus, cum illum ex occultis insidiis in apertum latrocinium coniecimus. 2 Quod vero non cruentum mucronem, ut voluit, extulit, quod vivis nobis egressus est, quod ei ferrum e manibus extorsimus, quod incolumes cives, quod stantem 5, 6. ipsum = sua sponte, ultro, as sometimes in colloquial English. verbis prosecuti sumus, ironical; quote a similar ironical expression from I., 21. 43. What are the verba he speaks of? Abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit, the four words are to be taken in two pairs, i.e., with a slight pause after excessit; see on I., 10.8, and quote a parallel from I., 32. 26. There is no climax. Nulla iam, 'no longer,' a little more emphatic than non iam, 1. 9; cf. I., 16. 3. 9. domestici, 'civil.' Do not translate the word by 'domestic.' sine controversia = sile dubio, 'without doubt,' 'undoubtedly,' 'beyond question.' 10, 11. sica illa, the famous,' a common meaning of ille; for sica, cf. I., 16. 35. versabitur. 'be busy.' in campo, what occasion is meant? See on I., 11. 16f. in curia, the Curia Hostilia, the original senate house; see Plan B. It was built by Tullus Hostilius. 12. domesticos parietes, 'the walls of our own houses.' Explain the difference in meaning between parietes and moenibus, 1. 7. Loco motus est, 'he was forced from position (vantage ground )', a phrase borrowed from the gladiators' vocabulary; give two other words from the same source, I., 15. 32-34. 14. bellum iustum, 'regular war,' i.e., against an open and declared enemy, opposed to 'tumultus ' and ' latrocinium.' Sine dubio = what phrase above? ~ 2. 18. nobis, abl. abs. ei... e manibus, cases? See on I., 16. 35.

Page  113 CAP 1-2, ~ 1-3. 113 urbem reliquit, quanto tandem illum maerore esse 20 adflictum et profligatum putatis? Iacet ille nunc prostratus, Quirites, et se perculsum atque abiectum esse sentit et retorquet oculos profecto saepe ad hanc urbem, quam e suis faucibus ereptam esse luget; quae quidem mihi laetari videtur, quod tantam pestem evo- 25 muerit forasque proiecerit. 11. Ac si quis est talis, quales esse omnes oportebat, 3 qui in hoc ipso, in quo exultat et triurnphat oratio mea, me vehementer accuset, quod tam capitalem hostem non comprehenderim potius quam emiserim, non est ista mea culpa, Quirites, sed temporum. Inter- 5 20. quanto tandem, for position of interrogative clause cf. I., 16. 8f., for tandem I., 28.14. 23. retorquet oculos, as a wild beast driven from its prey. The metaphor is continued in the next line. 24-26. quam = et eam. quae quidem, 'but it, on the contrary;' quidem is used in its socalled ' adversative ' sense. quod... proiecerit, cf. quod... extulit, 1. 17. Notice that the two clauses are precisely parallel, each depending upon a word of emotion' or ' feeling' (laetari, 1. 25, and mnaerore, 1. 20), and explain the difference in the moods. A. 321; G. 540, 541; H. 516, I. and II; B. 286 1. foras. This so-called adverb and the related form foris, are really plural cases of the obsolete forae, -arum, meaning probably ' openings;' foras (acc.), therefore answers the question 'whither?' and foris (loc.) the question ' where? ' Explain case of Catilinam 1, verbis 5, monstro 6, moenibus 7, nullo 14, maerore 20, quam 24, mihi 25. Give the principal parts of erupit 6, vicimus 9, pertimescemus, motus est 12, depulsus est 13, geremus 14, perdidimus 15, extulit 17, extorsimus 19, perculsum 22. First Part: Explanation of his conduct in permitting Catilina to escape, ~~ 3-16. ~ 3. 2. in hoc ipso, 'in this very point.' Explained by the clause quod... comprehenderim 1. 3, 4. 4. comprehenderim. What mood should we expect? See on I., 3. 24; why the subj? See on ~ 2. 25. potius quam emiserim; the subj. is due not to the quod but to potius quam, which in Cicero is always followed by the subj. of the act to be avoided, with or (usually) without ut; see A. 332, b; G. 647, R. 4; H. 502 2; B. 284 4. 5, 6. non est ista, slightly ellip

Page  114 114 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. fectum esse L. Catilinam et gravissimo supplicio adfectum iam pridem oportebat, idque a me et mos mnaiorum et luuius imperii severitas et res publica postulabat. Sed quam multos fuisse putatis, qui, quae o0 ego deferrem, non crederent, quam multos, qui etiam defenderent! Ac, si illo sublato depelli a vobis omne periculum iudicarem, iam pridem ego L. Catilinam non modo invidiae meae, verum etiam vitae periculo 4 sustulissem. Sed cum videremn, ne vobis quidem om15 nibus re etiam tur probata si ilium, ut erat meritus, morte multassem, fore ut eius socios invidia oppressus persequi non possem, rem huc deduxi, ut tum palam pugnare possetis, cum hostem aperte videretis. Quem tical; the real apodosis should be 'I tify,' sc. ea qvace deferrem, not reply that;' for a similar ellipsis Catilinam. see on I., 16. 38. Interfectum 12. iudicarem... sustulisesse, regular or irregular tense? sem (1. 14): for tenses, see on I., See on I., 4. 14. et, 'that is,' 29.3. the so-called 'explanatory' use of 1'3. invidiae...vitae periet to define a word or phrase by culo, 'at the risk of unpopularity a more exact term. Here we... at the peril of my life.' There would otherwise have an extreme is a slight change of standpoint; instance of hysteron proteron, a what should we expect for vitae? reversal of the natural order of ~ 4. 14. vobis is contrasted ideas. with multos, 1. 9 and 10, and is 7-9. mos maiorum, see on I., dat. of ind. obj. 28.15. huius imperii: fortrans. 15-17. re... probata 'as see on I., 12. 26. res publica, his guilt was not even then proved 'the p u b li c interests.' This to you either.' si... multassem phrase, as all containing res, must fore ut... non possem: the always be translated according to sentence is thrown into the indirect the context. It seldom means form by cum viderenm, the direct 'republic,' usually 'nation,' 'con- form being si multavero, non stitution,' 'politics,' 'public life,' potero. The change of the protaetc. postulabat, why singular? sis is perfectly regular and that of 10. quae deferrem, 'the facts the apodosis is due to the lack of which I laid before them;' defer- a supine stem in posse; A. 288f; rem is subj. by attraction; what G. 240, 1. 2; H. 537 3, note 1; B. attracts it? 270 3. hue (= ad hoc) is explained.1. defenderent, 'tried to jus- by the clause ut... possetis.

Page  115 CAP. 2-3, ~ 3-5. 115 quidem ego hostem, Quirites, quam vehementer foris esse timendum putem, licet hinc intellegatis, quod 20 etiam illud moleste fero, quod ex urbe parum comitatus exierit. Utinam ille omnis secum suas copias eduxisset! Tongilium mihi eduxit, quem amare in praetexta coeperat, Publicium et Minucium, quorum aes alienum contractum in popina nullum rei publi- 25 cae motum adferre poterat; reliquit quos viros, quanto aere alieno, quam valentis, quam nobilis! in. Itaque ego ilium exercitum prae Gallicanis legi- 5 onibus et hoc dilectu, quem in agro Piceno et Gallico Q. Metellus habuit, et his copiis, quae a nobis cotidie comparantur, magno opere contemno collectum ex sen19. quam vehementer, ironi- the private citizen of full age was cal. foris: why not foras as in notdyed. Nothing more is known ~ 2. 26? of the three men named here. 20. 1i c e t hinc intellegatis: 25. aes alienum, 'debt,' literwhat mood might have been used? ally, 'other people's money.' See on I., 6. 8. hinc (= ex hoc), Explain the subj., accuset 3, explained by the clause quod... crederent 10, sustulissem, vifero; cf. in hoc, 1. 2. derem 14, possem 17, possetis, 21, 22. p a r u m comitatus. videretis 18, putem 20. Sail. Cat. 32, says of Catilina's departure: nocte intempesta curn ~ 5. 1, 2. Gallicanis legionibus. paucis in Manliana castra pro- A small standing army was kept in fectus est. comitatus, voice? Gallia Cisalpina in view of possisee on I., 26.14. exierit, mood? ble danger from the Gauls, and see on ~ 2. 25. omnis, ace. pl. to these troops Quintus MetelNote the other ending in 1. 1. lus (as Praetor, p. 68, ~ 73) 23,24. eduxisset: what kind of was adding reinforcements by a a wish is expressed by the pluper- fresh levy; cf. Caesar I., 10. 3. fect subj.? See on I., 22. 3. mihi, agro Piceno et Gallico: point not to be translated. A. 236; G. out upon Map II. The ager Gal351; H. 389; B. 188 2 b). inprae- licus is the district lying along texta, 'in boyhood.' Theprae- the coast north of Picenum, and texta, or toga praetexta, had a pur- once held by the Galli Senones. ple border, and was worn by boys 4,5. collectum agrees with exuntil about the seventeenth year, ercitiwn in 1. 1. senibus desperaand by magistrates; the toga of tis, the veterans of Sulla (Creigh

Page  116 116 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. 5 ibus desperatis, ex agresti luxuria, ex rusticis decoctoribus, ex iis, qui vadimonia deserere quam ilium exercitum maluerunt; quibus ego non modo si aciem exercitus nostri, verum etiam si edictum praetoris ostendero, concident. Hos, quos video volitare in foro, quos 10 stare ad curiam, quos etiam in senatum venire, qui nitent unguentis, qui fulgent purpura, mallem secum suos milites eduxisset; qui si hic permanent, mementote non tam exercitum ilium esse nobis quam hos, qui exercitum deseruerunt, pertimescendos. Atque hoc 15 etiam sunt timendi magis, quod, quid cogitent, me scire 6 sentiunt neque tamen permoventur. Video, cui sit Apulia adtributa, quis habeat Etruriam, quis agrum Picenum, quis Gallicum, quis sibi has urbanas insidias ton, p. 69), of whom Sall. Cat. 28 do not say... but....' Which says: quibus lubido atque luxu- here? ria ex magnis rapinis nihil reliqui 9. video volitare: translate fecerat. ex agresti luxuria, 'of the infinitive by a present particiboorish high-livers;' for this use ple which might have been used. of the abstract noun, see on I., 31. A. 292 e; G. 527 R. 1; H. 535, I., 5, and give two examples. 4; B. 337 3. volitare in these 6. vadimonia deserere, etc., orations has always a contemptu'to desert their bonds [men] ous force. rather than, etc.' vadimonium 11, 12. Thle use of perfumes was a promise, secured by bail, to and the wearing of colors in pubappear in court on a fixed day, lic excited the contempt of- the and vadimonium deserere = 'to sober-minded Romans. mallem, forfeit bail.' The plural is here often used in wisles instead of a accommodated to that of malue- particle; the tense retains its runt. proper force. A. 267, c; G. 254, 7. quibus ego si = qui, si ego Rem. 2; H. 483; B. 280 2 a. eis; the Latin idiom prefers to eduxisset: A.331 fRem.;G. 546, put the relative in the subordi- Rem. 3; H. 499. 2; B. 296 1 a. nate clause, non modo... ve- suos milites, 'as his own corps,' rum etiam: with these correlatives in apposition to hos, 1. 9. a weaker expression may be fol- ~ 6. 17-19. Sail. Cat. 27: igitur lowed by a stronger (a + B), 'not C. Manlium Faesulas atque in only... but also... ', or a ear partem Etruriae, Septimium stronger by a weaker (A + b), ' I quendam Camertemn [ 'of Cam-.

Page  117 CAP. 3-4, ~ 5-6. 117 caedis atque incendiorum depoposcerit. Omnia superioris noctis consilia ad me perlata esse sentiunt; pate- 20 feci in senatu hesterno die; Catilina ipse pertimuit, profugit; hi quid expectant? Ne illi vehementer errant, si illam meam pristinam lenitatem perpetuam sperant futuramn. iv. Quod expectavi, iam sum adsecutus, ut vos omnes factam esse aperte coniurationem contra rem publicam videretis; nisi vero si quis est, qui Catilinae similis cum Catilina sentire non putet. Non est iam lenitati locus; severitatem res ipsa flagitat. Unum etiam nunc 5 concedam: exeant, proficiscantur, ne patiantur desi erinum'] in agrum Picenum, C. lulium in Apuliam dimisit. In 43 he gives the names of Lentulus, Bestia, Statilius, Gabinius, and Cethegus, as Catilina's agents in the city. Seep. 32, ~ 54. 20. superioris noctis, ' of that former night,' i.e., the night of the meeting at Laeca's. See p. 30, ~ 49. The report of Cicero's first oration had spread so widely through the city that his hearers would readily understand the allusion, ani not take the words in their literal sense, 'night before last.' 22. Ne vehementer errant, etc., ' truly they make a great mistake if, etc.' ne, interjection (not adv. or conj.), in class, prose always at the beginning of the sentence, and always followed by a personal or demonstrative pronoun. Explain case of exercitum 1, agro 2, copiis, nobis 3, exercitum 6, quibus 7, hos 9, quos 10, se 11, nobis 13, hoc 14, sibi 18, die 21. 1, 2. Quod, explained by ut... videretis: give example from ~ 4. expectavi, 'have been waiting for,' not 'have expected;' the three perfects in these lines are 'definite.' aperte modifies videretis, in spite of its position; cf. ~ 4.18. 3. videretis, 'can now see,' A. 287, i: 'when a clause depends upon one already dependent, the sequence becomes secondary as soon as the time is thrown back into the past by any form that represents past time.' nisi vero, the regular phrase to introduce an ironical exception (here to omnes, 1. 1), always takes the indicative. nisi si, cf. Caesar I., 31. 14: the addition of si to nisi gives the latter an adverbial force, 'unless,' 'perhaps.' Catilinae, gen. or dat.? See on I., 5. 31. similis: for case cf. omnis, ~ 4. 22. 6. Exeant, mood? A. 266; G. 256, 3; H. 483, 484, 1; B. 275. So proficiscantur and patiantur.

Page  118 118 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. derio sui Catilinam miserum tabescere. Demonstrabo iter: Aurelia via profectus est; si accelerare volent, 7 ad vesperam consequentur. 0 fortunatam rem pubo1 licam, si quidem hanc sentinam urbis eiecerit! Uno mehercule Catilina exhausto levata mihi et recreata res publica videtur. Quid enim mali aut sceleris fingi aut cogitari potest, quod non ille conceperit? quis tota Italia veneficus, quis gladiator, quis latro, quis 15 sicarius, quis parricida, quis testamentorum subiector, quis circumscriptor, quis ganeo, quis nepos, quis adulter, quae mulier infamis, quis corruptor iuventutis, quis corruptus, quis perditus inveniri potest, qui se cum Catilina non familiarissime vixisse fateatur? quae 20 caedes per hosce annos sine illo facta est, quod nefa8 rium stuprur non per illum? lam vero quae tanta umquam in ullo iuventutis inlecebra fuit, quanta in illo? qui alios ipse ainabat turpissime, aliorum amori flagitiosissime serviebat, aliis fructum lubidinum, aliis 25 mortem parentum non modo inpellendo, verum etiam 7. snl, object. gen.: number? miserum, 'in misery,' to be taken in the predicate with tabescere. 8. Aurelia via, the road along the west coast leading from Rome to Pisa, the direct route to Etruria, the land route to Massilia. ~ 7. 9. ad vesperam, ' by evening,' in this phrase vesperum (vesper) is more common: which is used in Caes. I., 26.2? rem publicam: case? A. 240 d; G. 340;, 381; B. 183. Give examples from I., ~ 2. 10, 11. si quidem, ' at least if,' the restrictive' use of quidem. eiocerit, for tense see on I., 5. 25. sentinam... exhausto: cf. I., 12. 30-32. 20. per hosce annos, 'in all these years:' for the use of per and acc. where we should expect to find tle abl. of 'time within which,' see A. 256, a; G. 337, Rem.; H. 379, 1. hosce for the form, see on I., 33. 27. ~ 8. 21. per illum, 'by his agency.' Iam vero,' now, again,' marks the transition to a new point, so nunc vero, 1. 26. quae tanta, etc.: see on I., 13. 9-10. 23,24. alios, aliorum: silently note the gender. fructum, 'enjoyment,' 'gratification.'

Page  119 CAP. 4-5, ~ 6-9. 119 adiuvando pollicebatur. Nunc vero quam subito non solum ex urbe, verum etiam ex agris ingentem numerum perditorum hominum collegerat! Nemo non modo Romae, sed ullo in angulo totius Italiae oppressus aere alieno fuit, quem non ad hoc incredibile sceleris foedus asciverit. 30 v. Atque ut eius diversa studia in dissimili ratione per- 9 spicere possitis, lemo est in ludo gladiatorio paulo ad facinus audacior, qui se non intimum Catilinae esse fateatur, nemo in scaena levior et nequior, qui se non eiusdem prope sodalem fuisse commemoret. Atque idem 5 tamen stuprorum et scelerum exercitatione adsuefactus 25, 26. non modo... verum I but of the mention of the action.' etiam: see on ~ 5. 7, and give the i formula for this passage. Notice the accumulation of these correlatives in the next few lines. Nunc vero: see above, 1. 21. 28, 29. Nemo non modo Romae, sed, etc., 'there was not only no one at Rome but no one in, etc.;' or, ' there was no one, I don't say at Rome, but in, etc.' Nemo goes with both clauses. See on I., 25. 6. The formula for these correlatives is either a + B or A + b; vhich here? Explain the subjunctives videretis 3, putet 4, exeant, patiantur 6, conoeperit 13, fateatur 19, asciverit 30; the case of desiderio 6, via 8, Catilina 11, mali 12, Italia 14, iuventutis 22, Romae 28. ~ 9. 1, 2. ut... possitis, the sentence is elliptical, and the verb upon which this clause depends must be supplied, 'I tell you this; ' such final clauses are said to denote 'the purpose, not of the action, Cf. the similar ellipses with si, ~ 3. 5, and quod I., 16. 38. dissimili ratione, ' in different directions, lines.' ludo gladiatorio: there were regular training schools for gladiators, some of the most famous at Capua. Gladiators and actors were usually slaves, and held in about as high estimation as prize-fighters and variety dancers now. 3. audacior, 'more reckless' than his fellows: standard of comparison omitted. A. 93, a; G. 312; H. 444, 1; B. 240 1. So levior and nequior. 5. sodalem, 'brother,' a stronger word than intimum, as it signified a fellow member of an (originally religious) order or fraternity. It gradually lost this meaning, and sank (as here) to 'pal,' 'crony.' commemret, 'assert,' always in Cicero a wd of 'saying, never of ' reminding,' or 'remenbering." 6-8. exercitatione adsuefactus, etc.,' trained by his practice of

Page  120 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. frigore et fame et siti et vigiliis perferundis fortis ab istis praedicabatur, cum industriae subsidia atque in9 strumenta virtutis in lubidine audaciaque consumeret. 10 Hunc vero si secuti erunt sui comites, si ex urbe exierint desperatorum hominum flagitiosi greges, o nos beatos, o rem publicam fortunatam, o praeclaram laudem consulatus mei! Non enim iam sunt mediocres hominum lubidines, non humanae ac tolerandae auda15 ciae; nihil cogitant nisi caedem, nisi incendia, nisi rapinas. Patrimonia sua profuderunt, fortunas suas obligaverunt; res eos iam pridem deseruit, fides nuper deficere coepit; eadem tamen illa, quae erat in abundantia, lubido permanet. Quodsi in vino et alea comis20 sationes solurn et scorta quaererent, essent illi quidem desperandi, sed tamen essent ferendi; hoc vero quis ferre possit, inertes homines fortissimis viris insidiari, stultissimos prudentissimis, ebriosos sobriis, dormientis debauchery and crime to bear cold, 'nothing but;' nisi, as a mere etc.,'the ablatives are all of means, connective, takes the same conbut exercitatione is the general one struction after as before it, but cf. modifying the whole phrase adsue- I., 17. 26. factus... perferundis, while the 17. res, 'cash,' is contrasted others are the special ones that ac- with fides 'credit,' asiampridem company adsuefactus. Cf. Caesar ' long ago,' with nuper, ' recently.' IV., 1. 9, nullo officio att disci- nuper, since-? See on I., 14.17. plina assuefacti. G. 403, Rem. 18,19. in abundanta, ' in the 2; cum is concessive. days of their plenty; in this sense 11. o nos, etc.; for this form of abundantia is usually aecompathe apodosis, see on I., 23. 17. nied by rerum. Quodli: see on Give example from ~ 7. I., 29. 11. ~ 10. 14,15. audaciae, 'acts of 20, 21. quidem desperandi, recklessness;' the word in good etc., 'beyond redemption, I admit, writers has almost always a bad but still, etc.,' a good instance of sense. The plural of abstract the 'concessive' use of quidem. nouns may be rendered 'acts of,' What other use in ~ 7? ' instances of,' or the Eng. singu- 23, 24. Notice the asence of; lar may be used. nihil nisi, connectives between the pairs of l *. *** a 7

Page  121 CAP. 5, ~ 19-11. 121 vigilantibus? qui mihi accubantes in conviviis conplexi mulieres inpudicas vino languidi, conferti cibo, 25 sertis redimiti, unguentis obliti, debilitati stupris eructant sermonibus suis caedem bonorum atque urbis incendia. Quibus ego confido impendere fatum ali-11 quod, et poenam iam diu improbitati, nequitiae, sceleri, libidini debitam aut instare iam plane aut certe 30 adpropinquare. Quos si meus consulatus, quoniam sanare non potest, sustulerit, non breve nescio quod tenipus, sed multa saecula propagarit rei publicae. Nulla est enim natio, quam pertimescamus, nullus rex, qui bellum populo Romano facere possit. Omnia 35 sunt externa unius virtute terra marique pacata; domesticum bellum manet, intus insidiae sunt, intus inclusum periculum est, intus est hostis. Cum luxuria nobis, cum amentia, cum scelere certandum est. Huic ego me bello ducem profiteor, Quirites; sus- 40 cipio inimicitias hominum perditorum; quae sanari poterunt, quacumque ratione sanabo, quae resecanda erunt, non patiar ad perniciem civitatis manere. Proinde aut exeant aut quiescant aut, si et in urbe et in eadem mente permanent, ea, quae merentur, expectent. 45 words: this is called asyndeton. quered the east (Creighton, pp. 71 -Give an example from Caes. I., 72; Allen, pp. 195-196; Myers, pp. 20. ad fin. mihi: see on ~ 4. 23. 96-97; Pennell, pp. 120-122). 26. obliti, from oblino: what 38-40. luxuria, amentia, scedoes obliti come from? lere: see on luxuria, ~ 5. 5. Qui~ 11. 30. ant instare, etc., rites: see on ~ 1. 1. 'is either now actually pressing 42. Metaphors f r o m surgery. upon them, or at least nearing quacumque ratione, sc. potero, them.' See on I., 4. 9, 10. ' by any possible means.' 32, 33. n es c i o quod: how 44. in urbe et in, etc., ' in the many uses? See on I., 31. 2. city, and of the same mind.' NoWhich here? propagarit, 'will tice tle literal and metaphorical have added.' rei publicae, dative. uses of in so closely connected. 36. unius. Pompeius, who had Explain mood of fateatur 3, swept the sea of pirates, and con- deficere 18, quaererent 20, ferre

Page  122 122 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. 12 vI. At etiam sunt, qui dicant, Quirites, a me eiectum in exilium esse Catilinain. Quod ego si verbo adsequi possem, istos ipsos eicerem, qui haec locuntur. Homo enim videlicet timidus aut etiam permodestus 5 vocem consulis ferre non potuit; simul atque ire in exilium iussus est, paruit, ivit. Hesterno die, Quirites, cum domi meae paene interfectus essem, senatum in aedem Iovis Statoris convocavi, rem omnem ad patres conscriptos detuli. Quo cum Catilina venisset, quis 10 eum senator appellavit, quis salutavit, quis denique ita aspexit ut perditum civem ac non potius ut importunissimum hostem? Quin etiami principes eius ordinis partem illam subselliorum, ad quam ille accesserat, 13 nudam atque inanem reliquerunt. Hic ego vehemens 15 ille consul, qui verbo civis in exilium eicio, quaesivi 22, insidiari 22, impendere 28, propagarit 33, pertimescamus 34, expeotent 45; case of scaena 4, istis 8, nos 11, consulatus 13, viris 22, sermonibus 27. Having answered the boni, who might think his measures not strong enough (~~ 3-11), Cicero now turns his attention to the improbi, who might think them too strong (~~ 12-16). ~12. 2. Quod ego si: quod is object of adsequi, 'effect;' cf. ~ 6. 1. How does this differ from the use of quod (also with si), in I., 31.5? 4. Homo, slightly contemptuous: cf. ~ 1. 15. 6. iussus est: tense? See on I., 16. 11. Hesterno die really modifies interfectus essem,but byits position is ambiguous; his hearers might connect it with convocavi only; For a similar (intentional?) ambiguity, see on I., 14. 12. paruit, ivit: figure of speech? See on ~ 10. 23-24. 9. Compare with the whole passage, I., ~ 16. quo: part of speech? cf. I., 30. 20. Point out another example in this chapter. 12, 13. Quin etiam, ' Why! even.' In this use of quin (- qui ne 'why not') developed from the interrogative, it is always followed by a startling statement and is exclamatory in nature; cf. the English 'why?' and 'why!' prinoipes eius ordinis omnes Consulares, I., 16. 9. subselliorum: describe them. See on I., 16. 9. ~ 13. 14, 15. Hic,' hereupon:' this adverb is used (a) of place, (b) of time, (c) of circumstances; which here? Give an example of (a) from I., ~ 9. vehemens...

Page  123 CAP. 6, ~ 12-14. a Catilina, in nocturno conventu apud M. Laecam fuisset necne. Cum ille homo audacissimus conscientia convictus primo reticuisset, patefeci cetera; quid ea nocte egisset, quid in proximam constituisset, quem ad modum esset ei ratio totius belli descripta, edocui. 20 Cum haesitaret, cum teneretur, quaesivi, quid dubitaret proficisci eo, quo iam pridem pararet, cum arma, cum secures, cum fasces, cum tubas, cum signa militaria, cum aquilam illam argenteam, cui ille etiam sacrarium 24 domi suae fecerat, scirem esse praemissam. In exilium 14 eiciebam, quem iam ingressum esse in bellum videbam? Etenim, credo, Manlius iste centurio, qui in agro Faesulano castra posuit, bellum populo Romano suo nomine indixit, et illa castra nunc non Catilinam ducem expectant, et ille eiectus in exilium se Massiliam, ut 30 aiunt, non in haec castra conferet. eicio. Cicero quotes ironically modum, 'how.' ei: case? See the charge of the improbi. vehe- on I., 16. 10. ratio totius belli, mens ille consul. The Latin 'the whole campaign.' idiom does not ordinarily connect 22, 23. proficisci: mood? See adjectives of praise and blame on I., 17. 21. cum, causal, with directly with names and titles of -? cum arma, cum secures, persons. Instead, the adjective is cum, etc. What figure of speech? usually separated from the noun by See on I., 1. 3. arma, secures, (a) an appositive (see on I., 4. 4), etc., indicating his usurpation of or (b) ile. civis: case? cf. simi- the consular power. secures, is, ~ 6. 3. verbo, ' a mere word: ' fasces: see p. 64, ~~ 54. 55. what is referred to? 24. aquilam: see on I., 24. 28. 16, 17. a Catilina, 'asked Cat- illam: meaning? See on ~ 1. 10. ilina.' Do not translate a. A. sacrarium: see on I., 24. 30. 239 c, note 1; G. 333, Rem. 2; H. ~ 14. 27. credo, parenthetical 374, note 4; B. 178 a). fuisset and ironical as often (not always): necne, 'whether or not.' A. 211, give an example from I., 5. 26. a; G. 461, 460; H. 353, note 3; iste: meaning here? See onI., B. 162 4. homo: could vir. have 2. 17. been used? See on I., 13. 4. 30. Massiliam: case? A city 18-20. ea nocte, in proxi- (origiially a Greek colony) in the main: see p. 30, ~ 49. quem ad south of Gallia, of considerable

Page  124 124 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. vrr. O condicionem miseram non modo administrandae, verum etiam conservandae rei publicae! Nunc si L. Catilina consiliis, laboribus, periculis meis circumclusus ac debilitatus subito pertimuerit, sententiam 5 mutaverit, deseruerit suos, consilium belli faciendi abiecerit et ex hoc cursu sceleris ac belli iter ad fugam atque in exilium converterit, non ille a me spoliatus armis audaciae, non obstupefactus ac perterritus mea diligentia, non de spe conatuque depulsus, sed indem10 natus innocens in exilium eiectus a consule vi et minis esse dicetur; et erunt, qui ilium, si hoc fecerit, non improbum, sed miserum, me non diligentissimum consulem, sed crudelissimum tyrannum existimari velint! 15 Est mihi tanti, Quirites, huius invidiae falsae atque 15 iniquae tempestatem subire, dum modo a vobis huius size, wealth, and culture, and a two only are connected by et. In favorite refuge for Romans avoid- such enumerations, when the seving punishment by going into eral units are regarded as of equal exile. ut aiunt: p. 31, ~ 51 importance, either (a) the connecad fin. tive is written between each two, Explain mood of dicant 1, pos- or (b) is omitted altogether, or (c) sem, eicerem 3, interfectus -que is attached to the last. When, essem 7, fuisset 17, egisset 19, as here, et (or atque) is placed bescirem 25, aiunt 31. Define the tween the last two, the units are following 'figures of speech,' and not of equal importance, but those give an example of each from before the et'are to be taken collecthese orations: anaphora, asynde- tively (a + b + c + d) + e. This ton, hendiadys, ellipsis. should be carefully indicated by the translation: 'Now, if Catilina... 1-3. condicionem, 'terms,' not only becomes suddenly fright, 'task: case? See on ~ 7. 9. con- ened, changes his mind, deserts his siliis, laboribus, periculis: fig- friends, and gives up his plan of ure of speech? Point out other making war, but also turns, etc.' examples in this chapter. ~ 15. 14. Est tanti: subject of 4-7. pertimuerit... et con- est? Case of tanti See on I., verterit. Note the series of five 22.8. huius invidiae, i.e., arising future perfects, of which the last from excessive rigor, cf. I., 29. 26.

Page  125 CAP. 7, ~ 14-16. 125 horribilis belli ac nefarii periculum depellatur. Dicatur sane eiectus esse a me, dum modo eat in exilium. Sed, mihi credite, non est iturus. Numquam ego ab dis inmortalibus optabo, Quirites, invidiae meae levandae causa, ut L. Catilinam ducere exercitum hostium atque 20 in armis volitare audiatis, sed triduo tamen audietis; multoque magis illud timeo, ne mihi sit invidiosum aliquando, quod ilium emiserim potius quam quod eiecerim. Sed cum sint homines, qui ilium, cum profectus sit, eiectum esse dicant, idem, si interfectus 25 esset, quid dicerent? Quamquam isti, qui Catilinam 16 Massiliam ire dictitant, non tamn hoc queruntur quam verentur. Nemo est istorum tam misericors, qui ilium I non ad Manlium quam ad Massilienses ire malit. Ille/ autem, si mehercule hoc, quod agit, numquam antea 3o cogitasset, tamen latrocinantem se interfici mallet quam exulem vivere. Nune vero, cum ei nihil adhuc praeter ipsius voluntatem cogitationemque acciderit, nisi quod vivis nobis Romna profectus est, optemus potius, ut eat in exilium, quam queramur. 35 16. depellatur: for mood, A. 314; G. 575; H. 513. I.;B. 310 II. 17-19. sane, 'for all I care,' concessive. mihi credite, 'take my word for it;' iI a different sense, I., 6. 5. ab dis optabo, same construction as with some verbs of asking. See on ~ 13. 16. 20, 21. ducere, volitare: for translation, see on ~ 5. 10.' triduo, 'within three days;' ' in two days,' by our reckoning. 22-24. illud, explained by ne.... sit. quod emiserim... eiecerim: mood? See on ~ 2. 25. 25. idem, nom. plural. quid, crowded out of its place before idem; cf. si. I., 17. 13. 26, 27. Quamquam: what is this use called? see on I., 30. 13. isti: cf. ~ 14. 27. dictitant: for form, A. 167 b; G. 787, 1. b; H. 336. II.; B. 155 2. 28-31. It would be better for him to go into exile at Massilia than to meet the fate that will surely be his in war, but his accomplices prefer the latter course for him. mehercule: full form? See on I., 17.13. si... tamen: cf. I., 29. 11-12. 35. queramur: mood? See on emiserim, ~ 3. 4.

Page  126 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. 17 vnII. Sed cur tam diu de uno hoste loquimur, et de eo hoste, qui iam fatetur se esse hostem, et quem, quia, quod semper volui, murus interest, non timeo; de his, qui dissimulant, qui Romae remanent, qui nobiscum 5 sunt, nihil dicimus? Quos quidem ego, si ullo modo fieri possit, non tam ulcisci studeo quam sanare sibi ipsos, placare rei publicae, neque, id quare fieri non possit, si me audire volent, intellego. Exponam enim vobis, Quirites, ex quibus generibus hominum istae o1 copiae comparentur; deinde singulis medicinam consilii atque orationis meae, si quam potero, adferam. Explain case of rei publicae 2, faciendi 5, me 7, armis 8, diligentia, spe 9, me 12, mihi 14, causa 20, triduo 21, multo 22, nobis 34; mood of converterit 7, fecerit 11, velint 13, depellatur 16, sit 22, acciderit 33, optemus 34. Second part: Cicero now (~~ 17 -23) turns his attention from Catilina to his followers in the city. ~ 17. 2-3. quem, quia, quod, etc.: an excellent example of the important principle of ' suspension of clauses.' Any clause, principal or subordinate, is suspended when any subordinate connective appears between the first and last words of that clause; and the rest of the clause does not appear until the whole of the subordinate clause is finished. Here we have three clauses: quem non timeo, quia murus interest, quod semper volui, and the suspension may be indicated best by different types: QUEM, QUIA, quod semper volui, MURUS INTEREST, NON TIMEO. Almost any complex sentence will furnish illustrations. his: the choice of the demonstrative of the first person is explained by the clause qui nobiscum sunt. 4. dissimulant: sc. a clause from line 2. 5, 6. si... studeo: note the subjunctive in protasis and the indicative in apodosis, the idea of contingency being sufficiently indicated by the meaning (not mood) of studeo. So in I., 2. 17: videmur, si vitermus. sibi, 'for their own good,' dat. of reference (dat. commodi). Really of no special point in itself, but inserted for the sake of symmetry to balance rei publicae, 1. 7. Point out another instance in I., 12. 28. 9-11. ex quibus generibus. Cicero divides the followers of Catilina into six classes, and then describes the circumstances and needs of each. singulis,' one by one,' sc. generibus. si quam: sc. adferre. ~ 18. The first class: Rich landholders, but greatly in debt - they

Page  127 CAP. 8, ~ 17-18. 127 Unum genus est eorum, qui magno in aere alieno 18 maiores etiam possessiones habent, quarum amore adducti dissolvi nullo modo possunt. Horum hominum species est honestissima (sunt enim locupletes), volun- 15 tas vero et causa inpudentissima. Tu agris, tu aedificiis, tu argento, tu familia, tu rebus omnibus ornatus et copiosus sis et dubites de possessione detrahere, adquirere ad fidem-? Quid enim expectas? bellum? Quid ergo? in vastatione omnium tuas possessiones 20 sacrosanctas futuras putas? An tabulas novas? Errant, qui istas a Catilina expectant; meo beneficio tabulae novae proferentur, verum auctionariae; neque enim isti, qui possessiones habent, alia ratione ulla salvi esse possunt. Quod si maturius facere voluissent 25 must pay their debts by selling all things,' a very rare use of the adj. or part of their land. as a substantive for omnium rerum. 12. Unum, 'the first.' In A. 188, b; G. 195 Rem. 4; B. 236 2. enumerations unus and alter 21. tabulas novas, 'new ac(alius) are generally used before count books,' the watchword of tertius, quartus, etc., instead of Catilina's needy followers. This the ordinals primus and secundus. expression in a political sense Give an example from Caesar I., always denotes an alteration of 1. 1. est eorum, 'consists of debts in favor of the debtor, those:' case? A. 214, c; G. 365; whether the creditors were comH. 401; B. 197. in aere alieno: pelled by law to sacrifice a part See on ~ 4. 25, the phrase has a only of their claims or the whole, concessive force ' although in-.' as the conspiracy promised. 13-15. possessiones, always of 22, 23. meo beneficio, etc., 'landed property.' species, 'out- 'thanks to me' (lit. 'by my kindward appearance.' voluntas, etc., ness'),' new account books shall be 'intentions and principles.' introduced, but (they shall be) those 16-18. Tu... siset dubites, of the auctioneers.' He means 'would you be...and hesitate?' that he will propose a law compelmood? See on I., 24. 25. He ling these debtors to sell and pay. imagines one of this class before 25, 26, Quod si: case of quod him. argento, 'silver-plate.' See on ~ 12. 2. id quod: A. 200 familia, 'slaves,' never 'family' e; G. 616, Rem. 2; H. 445. 7; B. in the English sense. 2471 b. id is in apposition with 20. omnium, neut. gen., 'all t!ie clause to which the relative

Page  128 128 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. neque, id quod stultissimum est, certare cum usuris fructibus praediorum, et locupletioribus his et melioribus civibus uteremur. Sed hosce homines minime puto pertimescendos, quod aut deduci de sententia 30 possunt aut, si permanebunt, magis mihi videntur vota facturi contra rem publicam quam arma laturi. 19 ix. Alterum genus est eorum, qui quamquam premuntur aere alieno, dominationern tamen expectant, rerum potiri volunt, honores, quos quieta re publica desperant, perturbata se consequi posse arbitrantur. Quibus 5 hoc praecipiendum videtur, unum scilicet et idem quod reliquis omnibus, ut desperent se id, quod conantur, refers; when, as here, the antecedent clause is not a substantive clause, and has no case, we may consider id an adverbial accusative. certare depends upon maluissent to be supplied from voluissent. cum usuris, 'against the payment of interest:' use of cum? A. 248 b; H. 419 III. 1. 2. Give example from ~ 11. 39. 27, 28. fructibu s praediorum, 'the income from their farms.' locupletioribus... uteremur: 'we should find in these men richer and better citizens.' minime, 'the least' (not, 'by no means,' 'very little'), i.e., of the six classes this is least formidable. Compare the adjectives magno 12, honestissima 15, inpudentissima 16, copiosus 18, stultissimum 26. locupletioribus, melioribus 27. they must give up their hopes of power. Sall. Cat. 17: Erantpraeterea complures paulo occultius consili huiusce participes nobiles, quos magis dominationis spes hortabatur quam inopia aut alia necessitudo. 1. Alterum est eorum: see on ~ 18. 12. qui, quamquam, suspension: see on ~ 17. 2. 2, 4. dominationem, 'a despotism,' always the rule of one person. rerumque potiri, ' to get control of the supreme power.' potior always governs the genitive of res in this sense; sometimes too of other words. Give an example from Caesar I., 3, ad fin. What is the regular construction? perturbata, sc. re publica, opposed to quieta above. 5. hoc praecipiendum, 'this warning should be given; ' hoc is explained by ut desperent: give an example from ~ 6. 1. scilicet (= scire licet), 'any one may know,' ' self-evidently:' point out ~ 19. Second Class: Men whose ambition has been disappointed -

Page  129 CAP. 8-9, ~ 18-19. 129 consequi posse; primum omnium me ipsum vigilare, adesse, providere rei publicae; deinde magnos animos esse in bonis viris, magnam concordiam, magnas praeo0 terea militum copias; deos denique inmortalis huic invicto populo, clarissimo imperio, pulcherrimae urbi contra tantam vim sceleris praesentis auxilium esse laturos. Quodsi iam sint id, quod summo furore cupiunt, adepti, num illi in cinere urbis et in sanguine 15 civium, quae mente conscelerata ac nefaria concupiverunt, consules se aut dictatores aut etiam reges sperant futuros? Non vident id se cupere, quod si adepti sint, fugitivo alicui aut gladiatori concedi sit a similar compound in I. ~ 19. quod: case? 7, 8. primum omnium: see on ~ 18. 20. In this phrase the genitive plur. neuter is common as a substantive, the gender being suggested by primum. vigilare, adesse, providere, depend upon a verb of saying to be supplied from the general idea of praecipienduin, 'I warn them that.' 9-11. magnas copias, sc. adesse, are at hand,' from esse, 1. 10, as maluissent from voluissent ~ 18. 25. This use of a verb (esse) with several words (animos, concordiam, copias), to one of which it does not strictly apply, is called zeugma. invicto, ' invincible,' lit. ' unconquered:' the first meaning is an inference only from the second. 12, 13. tantam vim, sc. quanta est: this slight ellipsis after tantus is found in English after 'such' ('such an eloquent address ') and need not be in (licated in the translation. What other words are used in the same way? See on I., 17. 16. praesentis, 'in person,' with deos. Quodsi: how does the quod differ in construction from the quod in quod si, ~ 18. 25? summo furore, abl. of manner. Why may the preposition be here omitted? 14,15. num: be sure to indicate in the translation the answer that is expected. quae, 'things which;' note that the antecedents cinere (cinis), and sanguine are masculine, while the relative is neuter; both antecedents, however, denote things without life, and in such cases a relative (or predicate adj.) may be neuter. 17, 18. non for nonne is used in questions of indignant surprise only. quod si adepti... concedi sit necesse, 'which, if for the moment gained, must be surrendered, etc.:' quod is really object of adepti sint, see note on ~ 5. 7, though the English idiom

Page  130 130 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. 20 necesse? Tertium genus est aetate iam adfectum, sed 20 tamen exercitatione robustum; quo ex genere iste est Manlius, cui nunc Catilina succedit. Hi sunt homines ex iis coloniis, quas Sulla constituit; quas ego universas civium esse optimorum et fortissimorum virorum sentio, sed tamen ii sunt coloni, qui se in insperatis ac 25 repentinis pecuniis sumptuosius insolentiusque iactarunt. Hi dum aedificant tamquam beati, dum praediis lectis, familiis magnis, conviviis apparatis delectantur, in tantum aes alienum inciderunt, ut, si salvi esse velint, Sulla sit iis ab inferis excitandus; qui etiam non nullos 30 agrestis homines tenues atque egentes in eandem illam spem rapinarum veterum impulerunt. Quos ego utrosque in eodem genere praedatorum direptorumque pono, sed eos hoc moneo, desinant furere ac proscriptiones connects it with concedi, etc. fugitivo, 'runaway slave' always; give example from Caes I., 23. 2. Cicero means that if this class should succeed in establishing a new order of things, it would have in turn to yield to a still lower class,-that of mere brute force. ~ 20. Third Class: Veterans of Sulla - they must not hope for a repetition of his reign of terror (Creighton, pp. 68, 69; Allen, pp. 180, 181; Myers, p. 91; Pennell, p. 114). 19-21. aetate adfectum, 'advanced in years.' Manlius is said to have been a centurion in Sulla's army. 22, 23. coloniis: note the difference between this word and colonus, i., 1. 24. quas Sulla constituit. Sulla had assigned land in Italy, especially in Etruria, to 120,000 of his soldiers. universas, 'as a whole.' esse: meaning? cf. ~ 19. 1. 25, 26. sumptuosius insolentius: standard omitted, see on ~ 9. 3. se... iactarunt, 'have plumed themselves: ' for formation of verb, see on ~ 16. 27. beati, 'Irich,' a common meaning in Cicero. 27,28. familiis magnis, 'great numbers of-': see on ~ 18. 17. conviviis apparatis, ' splendid banquets,' with reference both to the choice of dishes, and the style of serving them. salvi, ' solvent: ' cf. ~ 18, 24. 29-32. iis: case? cf. nobis, ~ 11. 39. ab inferis, 'from the dead,' abl. of separation. veterum, ' of former times,' properly 'of long standing.' eodem genere, in the same category: case? See on corpore I., 16. 38.

Page  131 CAP. 9-10 ~ 19-21. 131 et dictaturas cogitare. Tantus enim illorum temporum dolor inustus est civitati, ut iam ista non modo homines, 35 sed ne pecudes quidem mii passurae esse videantur. x. Quartum genus est sane varium et mixtum et 21 turbulentum; qui iam pridem premuntur, qui numquam emergunt, qui partim inertia, partim male gerendo negotio, partim etiam sumptibus in vetere aere alieno vacillant, qui vadimoniis, iudiciis, proscriptione bonorum 5 defetigati permulti et ex urbe et ex agris se in illa castra conferre dicuntur. Hosce ego non tam milites acris quam infitiatores lentos esse arbitror. Qui ho 33, 34. eos hoc moneo, ' I give them this advice:' for case of hoc, A. 238 b, note; G. 331, Rem. 2; H. 375; B. 178 1 d). desinant: mood? See on g 6.6. What other construction possible? Cf. hoc, etc., ~ 19, 5-6. tantus, trans. by adverb 'so deeply is,' etc. 35, 36. inustus est: for the metaphor, see on I., 13. 5. non modo homines, sed ne... quidem: a second non must be supplied with the first clause, 'not only men do not seem, etc., but not even beasts (seem, etc.).' Cicero sometimes writes the full form, non modo non; but when the predicate is common to both clauses he more frequently omits the second non, as here. It makes a neater translation, however, to connect the negative in ne... quidem with the predicate: 'Not only men, but beasts as well, seem to me unlikely to, etc.' Notice the difference between this use of the correlatives and that explained on I., 25. 6. pecudes, typical of patienm suffering; cf. Isaiah, LIII. 7. ~ 21. Fourth Class: Bankrupts of both town and country - their condition is hopeless and will not be improved by a revolution. 1, 2. sane, two meanings (a) intensive, ' wholly,' ' utterly;' (b) concessive, 'for all I care: ' which here? in ~ 15. 17? turbulentur, 'heterogeneous:' the three adj. are synonyms. See on I., 10.8. 4, 5. vetere, in its proper sense, see on ~ 20. 31. vadimoniis... bonorum, ' securities, judgments, execution': the three steps in legal proceedings against debtors: (1) They had to furnish security for their appearance on the day of trial. (2) Judgment was then pronounced against them in due form. (3) By warrant of the court their property was sold. bonorum, substant. neut. pl., causing no difficulty as the two words were a formal legal phrase. See on ~ 18. 20. 6, 8. permulti, 'in large numbers:' force of per- infitiatores lentos, 'shirking default

Page  132 132 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. mines quam primum, si stare non possunt, corruant, o0 sed ita, ut non modo civitas, sed ne vicini quidem proximi sentiant. Nam illud non intellego, quam ob rem, si vivere honeste non possunt, perire turpiter velint, aut cur minore dolore perituros se cum multis, 22 quam si soli pereant, arbitrentur. Quintum genus est 15 parricidarum, sicariorum, denique omnium facinerosorunl. Quos ego a Catilina non revoco; nam neque ab eo divelli possunt et pereant sane in latrocinio, quoniam sunt ita multi, ut eos carcer capere non ~ possit.i Postremum autem genus est non solum numero, 20 verum etiam genere ipso atque vita, quod proprium Catilinae est, de eius dilectu, immo vero de complexu eius ac sinu; quos pexo capillo nitidos aut inberbis ers;' i.e., persons who make all sorts of excuses for not fulfilling p r o m ptly their engagements. Cicero thinks they will shirk their military duties in the same way. 10. non modo... sed ne. quidem: see on ~ 20. 35-36. What must be supplied? In translating connect the neg. with sentiant: 'be ignorant of.' 11. illud, explained by the clauses quam ob rem... velint and cur... arbitrentur; what kind of clauses are these? Point out in ~~ 3 and 6 two appositive clauses of different kinds, and explain each. ~ 22. Fifth Class: Common criminals. Sixth Class: Dissipated young men-good riddance to both t 17. et pereant, 'and (I say this) let them, etc.:' the et is correlative to neque (= et non); and as unlike constructions cannot be connected by co-ordinate conjunctions, we must assume a slight ellipsis. See on ~~ 3. 5; 9. 1, and I., 16. 38. sane: force here? See on ~ 21. 1. 18. career, 'the prison,' not 'a prison.' There was at this time but one prison at Rome, a part of which, called Tuallianum, served for the execution of sentences of death, the rest for temporary detention until sentence was pronounced. The imprisonment of free men as a punishment was absolutely unknown at Rome. See on I., 19. 15. 19,20. Postremum, etc. ' The last class is last, etc.' genere, ' in kind,' ' rank:' give examples from ~~ 20, 21, and 22 of genus in three meanings. quod, conjunction. proprium Catilinae, ' Catilina's own:' case? See on I., 12. 26. 21,22. immo vero: how used? See on I., 2. 13. What other

Page  133 CAP. 10, ~ 21-23. 133 aut bene barbatos videtis, manicatis et talaribus tunicis, velis amictos, non togis; quorum omnis industria vitae et vigilandi labor in antelucanis cenis expromitur. In 23 his gregibus omnes aleatores, omnes adulteri, omnes 26 inpuri inpudicique versantur. Hi pueri tam lepidi ac delicati non solum amare et amari neque saltare et cantare, sed etiam sicas vibrare et spargere venena didicerunt. Qui nisi exeunt, nisi pereunt, etiamsi 30 Catilina perierit, scitote hoc in re publica seminarium Catilinarum futurum. Verum tamen quid sibi isti miseri volunt? num suas secum mulierculas sunt in castra ducturi? Quem ad modur autem illis carere poterunt, his praesertim iam noctibus? Quo autem 35 pacto illi Appenninum atque illas pruinas ac nives phrase might have been used? See on I., 5. 23. pexo (pecto) capillo, abl. of quality (so tunicis, 23), equivalent to an adjective and so parallel with nitidos, etc. All these adjectives denote foppish peculiarities unbecoming the Roman character. 22,23. inberbis aut bene barbatos, 'without (a sign of) beard, or heavily bearded.' The former was due to their effeminacy, in consequence of which they are described as hermaphrodites. The heavy beard was a mark of affectation in Cicero's time, as the Romans were accustomed to shave the beard first on their twentyfirst birthday, and to let it grow afterwards only as a sign of mourning. manicatis ac talaribus: the correct tunic was short and sleeveless. 24. velis, etc., 'wrapped in sails, not togas;' i.e., these fops affected togas of unusual width, which gave them the appearance of ships under full sail. 27, 28. tam lepidi: sc. what? See on I., 17. 16, and cf. ~ 19. 12. amari: see on ~ 8. 23. saltare et cantare, accomplishments which were considered very disgraceful for Roman citizens. 31, 32. scitote: for this apodosis, see on I., 23. 17; for tense, A. 269 e; G. 260, Rem.; H. 487, footnote 1; B. 2811 a. Give example of same tense in ~ 5. hoc, for hos, 'these men,' for gender and number, see A. 195 d; G. 202 Rem. 5; H. 445 4; B. 2465. sibi... volunt, 'mean.' 35. his iam noctibus: at the time when this speech was delivered, the Roman calendar was in great confusion, and it is only by hints such as that in this line that we can even approximately determine the time of year in which this

Page  134 154 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. perferent? nisi idcirco se facilius hiemem toleraturos putant, quod nudi in conviviis saltare didicerunt. 24 xI. O bellum magno opere pertimescendum, cum hanc sit habiturus Catilina scortorum cohortem praetoriam! Instruite nunc, Quirites, contra has tam praeclaras Catilinae copias vestra praesidia vestrosque exercitus. ^ Et primum gladiatori illi confecto et saucio consules imperatoresque vestros opponite; deinde contra illam naufragorum eiectam ac debilitatam manum florem totius Italiae ac robur educite. lam vero urbes coloniarum ac municipiorum respondebunt Catilinae tumulis o1 silvestribus. Neque ego ceteras copias, ornamenta, praesidia vestra cum illius latronis inopia atque ege25 state conferre debeo. Sed si omissis his rebus, quibus particular November came. What season does Cicero seem to mean? 38. saltare: the complementary infinitive frequently follows verbs of knowing in the sense of 'know how,' 'have learned to.' Cf. 1. 29. Explain case of negotio, aere 4, vadimoniis 5, parricidarum 15, eo, latrocinio 17, numero 19, tunicis 23, illis 34; mood of corruant 9, sentiant 11, pereant 14 and 17, possit 19, cantare 29. Third Part, ~~ 24-26: A comparison of the resources of the two parties shows that in open warfare Catilina is not to be feared. ~ 24. 2, 3. cohortem praetoriam, the picked force of veterans and personal friends which, since the time of the younger Scipio, had formed the general's body guard: cf. Napoleon's "Old Guard." has 4, 5. praesidia, as opposed to exercitus, means ' garrisons,' fixed at certain definite places. gladiatori confecto, Catilina; cf. ~ 2. 22, and see on I., 29. 5. 7-9. florem ac robur, 'the strength and might,' a favorite metaphor. urbes coloniarum ac municipiorum, 'cities of the colonies and municipalities.' Originally coloniae were communities of persons who had, and always had had, the Roman or Latin franchise; municipia were communities formed by Italians, who had afterwards been given the franchise. In Cicero's time the distinction was historical only. respondebunt, 'will answer,' metaphorical in English as in Latin. ~ 25. 12. conferre, 'compare,' so contendere, 1. 16. omissis tam praeclaras: use of tam? his rebus, 'saying nothing of.' See on I., 11. 10. Rhetorical figure? See on I., 14.

Page  135 CAP. 10-11, ~ 23-25. 135 nos suppeditamur, eget ille, senatu, equitibus Romanis, urbe, aerario, vectigalibus, cuncta Italia, provinciis omnibus, exteris nationibus, si his rebus omissis causas 15 ipsas, quae inter se confligunt, contendere velimus, ex eo ipso, quam valde illi iaceant, intellegere possumus. Ex hac enim parte pudor pugnat, illinc petulantia; hinc pudicitia, illinc stuprum; hinc fides, illinc fraudatio; hinc pietas, illinc scelus; hinc constantia, 20 illinc furor; hinc honestas, illinc turpitudo; hinc continentia, illinc lubido; denique aequitas, temperantia, fortitudo, prudentia, virtutes omnes certant cum iniquitate, luxuria, ignavia, temeritate, cum vitiis omnibus; postremo copia cum egestate, bona ratio cum perdita, 25 mens sana cum amentia, bona denique spes cum omnium rerum desperatione confligit. In eius modi certamine ac proelio nonne, si hominum studia deficiant, 14. quibus: used in different constructions with suppeditamur, ' with which,' and eget 'of which.' Note the absence of a connective between the verbs: what is it called? Cf. ~ 12. 6. 15-17. si... omissis, 'omitting, I say, etc.,' the words are repeated on account of the long list of ablatives. causas: for meaning, cf. ~ 18. 16. inter se confligunt, 'grapple with each other.' What case should we expect for se See on usuris, ~ 18. 26. For the accusative, see A. 196 f; G. 212; H. 448 note; P. 449, 1. velimus... possumus: for change in mood, see on ~ 17. 6. 18-27. In this long and highly artificial antithesis, the meaning of each word is more accurately defined by the corresponding word in the contrasting clause, and a close attention to this fact will assist in the translation. The first series of qualities, pudor, 1. 18,... lubido, 1. 22, is summed up (denique), in the four so-called cardinal virtues, aequitas. prudentia; the second series of more material qualities, copia, 1. 25,... amentia, 1. 26, is likewise summed up (denique again), in spes... desperatione. Notice then that postremo, 1. 25, is the connecting link between two groups only, and that denique, 1. 22, and denique, 1. 26, are in no way correlative with postrero or each other. 28. nonne: note position in sentence. What words are inmi-:~.: ~

Page  136 136 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. di ipsi inmortales cogant ab his praeclarissimis virtutibus 30 tot et tanta vitia superari? 26 xII. Quae cum ita sint, Quirites, vos, quem ad modum iam antea dixi, vestra tecta vigiliis custodiisque defendite; mihi, ut urbi sine vestro motu ac sine ullo tumultu satis esset praesidii, consultum atque provisum 5 est. Coloni omnes municipesque vestri certiores a me facti de hac nocturna excursione Catilinae facile urbes suas finesque defendent; gladiatores, quam sibi ille manum certissimam fore putavit, quamquam animo meliore sunt quam pars patriciorum, potestate tamen 10 nostra continebuntur. Q. Metellus, quem ego hoc prospiciens in agrum Gallicum Picenumque praemisi, aut opprimet horninem aut eius omnis motus conatusque prohibebit. Reliquis autem de rebus constituendis, maturandis, agendis iam ad senatum referemus, quem 15 vocari videtis. 27 Nunc illos, qui in urbe remanserunt, atque adeo qui larly postponed in ~ 15. 26, and in I., 17. 13? What is your answer to Cicero's question here? 29. ab... virtutibus: why the preposition? See on I., 25. 8. Explain case of bellum 1, gladiatori 5, tumulis 9, inopia 11, rebus, quibus 12, senatu 13, desperatione, modi 27. ~ 26. 1, 2. Quae... sint: see on I., 20. 16. dixi, a slip of the memory; he has said nothing of the sort. vigilis custodiis: distinction? See on I., 8. 26. 3,4. mihi: case? Cf. ei, ~ 13. 20. consultum, etc., 'care has been taken and provision made:' what is the subject? 5. Coloni... vestri, 'your fellow-citizens in the colonies, etc.' 7, 8. quam putavit, 'although he, etc.:' the context gives the concessive force. quamquam, as in ~ 16. 26: the clause is parenthetical, and quamquam is not correlative with tamen, 1. 9. 11. Gallicum, Picenum: see on ~ 5. 3, and point out on Map II. 14, 15. quem vocari: the senators were summoned to important meetings by praecones, ' heralds' (p. 75, ~ 103, cf. our sergeants-atarms), and the people could see these heralds hurrying to and fro. ~ 27. Threats and warnings for the conspirators. 16, 17. illos, subject of monitos

Page  137 CAP. 11-12, ~ 25-27. 137 contra urbis salutem omniumque vestrum in urbe a Catilina relicti sunt, quamquam sunt hostes, tamen, quia sunt cives, monitos etiam atque etiam volo. Mea lenitas adhuc si cui solutior visa est, hoc expectavit, ut 20 id, quod latebat, erumperet. Quod reliquum est, iam non possum oblivisci meam hanc esse patriam, me horum esse consulem, mihi aut cum his vivendum aut pro his esse moriendum. Nullus est portis custos, nullus insidiator viae; si qui exire volunt, conivere 25 possum; qui vero se in urbe commoverit, cuius ego non modo factum, sed inceptum ullum conatumve contra patriam deprehendero, sentiet in hac urbe esse consules vigilantis, esse egregios magistratus, esse fortem senatum, esse arna, esse carcerem, quem vin- 30 dicem nefariorum ac manifestorum scelerum maiores nostri esse voluerunt..... (esse), 1. 19. Its emphatic position may be indicated by translating 'as to those.' atque adeo: meaning here? See on I., 5. 23. vestrum: what should we expect? Cf. I., 9.12. When can the form here found be used? See on I., 14. 21. 19, 20. monitos v olo: for tense, cf. interfectum esse, ~ 3. 5. adhuc modifies mea lenitas,' nmy forbearance up to this point,' a rare use ofhe adverb as an attributive adjective. For its use as a predicate adj., see on I., 19. 8. hoc, explained by ut.. erumperet, cf. ~ 6. 1; for the ellipsis see on ~ 3. 5. 21. Quod reliquum est, ' as to the rest;' for this, see A. 333, a; G. 525, Rem. 2; H. 516 2 note; B. 299. 23. horum, his, the loyal citizens whom he is addressing: in strong contrast to illos, 1. 16. mihi: how does this use of the dative differ from that in ~ 26. 3? 26, 27. q u i = siquis: see on quicquid, I., 18. 37. What kind of a pronoun is qui here, and in 1. 25? non modo... sed: see on ~ 8. 28, and give the formula. 30. carcerem: what function of thle prison is meant? See on ~ 22. 18. In whose charge was the prison? P. 67, ~ 68. 32. voluerunt, 'meant,' 'intended.' Explain case of vigiliis 2, urbi 3, praesidii 4, me 5, animo 8, motus 12, scelerum 31; point out three.expressions for the agent of a passive verb.

Page  138 138 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. 28 xII. Atque haec omnia sic agentur, Quirites, ut maxumae res minimo motu, pericula summa nullo tumultu, bellum intestinum ac domesticum post hominum memoriam crudelissimum et maximum me uno togato 5 duce et imperatore sedetur. Quod ego sic administrabo, Quirites, ut, si ullo modo fieri poterit, ne inprobus quidem quisquam in hac urbe poenam sui sceleris sufferat. Sed si vis manifestae audaciae, si inpendens patriae periculum me necessario de hac animi lenitate 10 deduxerit, illud profecto perficiam, quod in tanto et tam insidioso bello vix optandum videtur, ut neque bonus quisquam intereat paucorumque poena vos 29 omnes salvi esse possitis. Quae quidem ego neque mea prudentia neque humanis consiliis fretus polliceor 15 vobis, Quirites, sed multis et non dubiis deorum inmortalium significationibus, quibus ego ducibus in hanc spem sententiarnque sum ingressus; qui iam non procul, ut quondam solebant, ab externo hoste atque longinquo, sed hic praesentes suo numine atque auxilio ~ 28. Comfort and encouragement for the loyal (~~ 28. 29). 4. me togato. As the toga was the civil dress worn by citizens and magistrates in the city opposed to the sagun and paludamentulm worn by the soldier and the general in the field, we may trans.: 'with me, a civil magistrate, as your only leader and general.' Cicero prided himself especially upon having thwarted the designs of the conspirators without the aid of an armed force. 11,12. vix optandum,'almost beyond hope:' the gerundive approaches dangerously near to the idea of 'possibility;' cf. ~ 10.2 1. neque... paucorumque = neque... neque multorum, a rare variation for neque... et paucorum. Trans. -que by 'but.' Madvig, 433. 2: If a negative proposition is followed by an affirmative in which the same thought is expressed or continued, utie, ac, or et is employed in Latin, where in English we use but. ~ 29. 16. significationibus, 'signs,' 'tokens,' such as earthquakes, unusual thunder and lightning, etc., instances of which, occurring at this time, are given in the third oration.

Page  139 CAP. 13, ~ 28-29. 139 sua templa atque urbis tecta defendunt. Quos vos, 20 Quirites, precari, venerari, implorare debetis, ut, quam urbem pulcherrimam florentissimamque esse voluerunt, hane omnibus hostium copiis terra marique superatis a perditissimorum civium nefario scelere defendant. 23, 24. The emphatic words are me 4, duce 5, modo 6, urbe 7, hostium and civium. terra lenitate 9, poena 12, prudentia marique, loc. ablatives: the regu- 14, hoste 18, auxilio 19, copiis lar prepositions may be omitted 23. Write out an outline of the with these words only when the speech, showing the several parts two words are found together3 as into which it is divided, and giving here. a summary of the arguments emExplain the ablatives motu 2, ployed in each. EXCURSUS I. THE AFFAIR OF THE ALLOBROGES. [Sallust, Cap. 39. 6-41; 44-47. Text of Schmalz.] 39......... 6.. Eisdem temporibus Romae Lentulus, sicuti Catilina praeceperat, quoscumque moribus aut fortuna novis rebus idoneos credebat, aut per se aut per alios sollicitabat, neque solum civis, sed cuiusque modi genus horninum, quodmodo bello usui foret. 40. Igitur P. Umbreno cuidam negotium dat, uti legatos Allobrogum requirat, eosque, si possit, impellat ad societatem belli, existumans publice privatimque aere alieno oppressos, praeterea quod natura gens Gallica bellicosa esset, facile eos ad tale consilium ad duci posse. Umbrenus, quod in 2 Gallia negotiatus erat, plerisque principibus civitatium notus erat atque eos noverat. Itaque sine mora, ubi primum legatos in foro conspexit, percontatus pauca de statu civitatis et quasi dolens eius casum requirere coepit, quem exitum tantis malis sperarent. Post- 3 quam illos videt queri de avaritia magistratuum, accusare senatum quod in eo auxili nihil esset, miseriis suis remedium mortem exspectare, " at ego " inquit " vobis, si modo viri esse voltis, rationem ostendam, qua tanta ista mala effugiatis." Haec ubi dixit, Allo- 4 broges in maxumam spem adducti

Page  140 ORATIO IN CATILINAM SECUNDA. Umbrenum orare, ut sui misereretur: nihil tam asperum neque tam difficile esse, quod non cupidissume facturi essent, dum ea res civitatem aere alieno liberaret. 5 Ille eos in domum D. Bruti perducit, quod foro propinqua erat neque aliena consili propter Seinpronian: nam turn Brutus ab 6 Roma aberat. Praeterea Gabinliulr arcessit, quo maior auctoritas sermoni inesset. Eo praesente coniurationem aperit, nominat socios, praeterea multos cuiusque generis innoxios, quo legatis animus amplior esset. Deinde eos pollicitos operam suam domum dimittit. 41. Sed Allobroges diu in incerto habuere, quidnam consili 2 caperent: in altera parte erat aes alienum, studium belli, magna merces in spe victoriae, at in altera maiores opes, tuta consilia, pro incerta spe certa praemia. 3 Haec illis volventibus, tandem vicit fortuna rei publicae. Itaque Q. 4 Fabio Sangae, cuius patrocinio civitas plurumum utebatur, rem omnem, uti cognoverant, aperiunt. 5 Cicero, per Sangam consilio cognito, legatis praecepit, ut studium coniurationis vehementer simulent, ceteros adeant, bene polliceantur, dentque operam uti eos quam maxume manufestos habeant. 44. Sed Allobroges ex praecepto Ciceronis per Gabinium ceteros conveniunt; ab Lentulo Cethego Statilio, item Cassio postulant ius iurandum, quod signatum ad civis perferant: aliter haud facile eos ad tantum negotium impelli posse. Ceteri nihil suspicantes dant, Cas- 2 sius semet eo brevi venturum pollicetur ac paulo ante legatos ex urbe proficiscitur. Lentulus cum 3 eis T. Volturcium quendam Crotoniensem mittit, ut Allobroges, prius quamr domumr pergerent, cum Catilina data atque accepta fide societatem confirmarent. Ipse Vol- 4 turcio litteras ad Catilinam dat, quarum exemplum infra scripturi est: "Qui sim, ex eo quem ad te misi cognosces. Fac cogites, in 5 quanta calamitate sis, et memineris te virumn esse: consideres quid tuae rationes postulent: auxilium petas ab omnibus, etiam ab infimis." Ad hoc mandata ver- 6 bis dat: cum ab senatu hostis iudicatus sit, quo consilio servitia repudiet? In urbe parata esse quae iusserit: ne cunctetur ipse propius accedere. 45. His rebus ita actis, constituta nocte qua proficiscerentur, Cicero per legatos cuncta edoctus L. Valerio Flacco et C. Pomptino praetoribus imperat, ut in ponte Mulvio per insidias Allobrogum comitatus deprehendant; rem omnem aperit, cuius gratia mittebantur; cetera, uti facto opus sit, ita agant, permittit. Illi, hoini- 2 nes militares, sine tmutltu praesidiis conlocatis, sicuti praeceptun erat, occulte pontemn obsidunt. Postquam ad id loci logati cum 3 Volturcio venerunt et simul utrimque clamor exortus est, Galli cito cognito consilio sine mora praetoribus se tradunt. Voltur- 4 cius primo cohortatus ceteros gladio se a multidine defendit, deinde ubi a legatis desertus est, multa prius de salute sua Pomp

Page  141 EXCURSUS I. 141 tinum obtestatus, quod ei notis erat, postremo tinmidus ac vitae diffidens velut hostibus sese praetoribus dedit. 46. Quibus rebus confectis omnia propere per nuntios consuli de2 clarantur. At illum ingens cura atque laetitia sinul occupavere: nam laetabatur intellegens coniuratione patefacta civitatem periculis ereptam esse, porro autem anxius erat dubitans, in maxumo scelere tantis civibus deprehensis quid facto opus esset: poenam illorum sibi oneri, impunitatem perdundae rei publicae fore crede3 bat. Igitur confirmato animo vocari ad sese iubet Lentulum Cethegum Statilium Gabinium, itemque Caeparium Terracinensem, qui in Apuliam ad con itinere, de litteris, postremo quid aut qua de causa consili habuisset, primo fingere alia, dissimulare de coniuratione: post, ubi fide publica dicere iussus est, omnia uti gesta erant aperit, docetque se paucis ante diebus a Gabinio et Caepario socium adscitum nihil amplius scire quam legatos; tantum modo audire solitum ex Gabinio P. Autronium Ser. Sullam L. Vargunteium, multos praeterea in ea coniuratione esse. Eadem Galli 2 fatentur ac Lentulum dissimulantem coarguunt praeter litteras sermonibus, quos ille habere solitus erat: ex libris Sibyllinis regnum Romae tribus Corneliis portendi; Cinnam atque Sullam antea, se tertium esse, cui fatum foret urbis potiri; praeterea ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumum annum quem saepe ex prodigiis, haruspices respondissent bello civili cruentum fore. Igitur perlectis 3 litteris, cum prius omnes signa sua cognovissent, senatus decernit, uti, abdicato magistratu, Lentulus itemque ceteri in liberis custodiis habeantur. Itaque Lentulus P. 4 Lentulo Spintheri, qui tum aedilis erat, Cethegus Q. Cornificio, Statilius C. Caesari, Gabinius M. citanda servitia proficisci parabat. 4 Ceteri sine mora veniunt, Caeparius, paulo ante domo egressus, cognito indicio ex urbe profugerat. Consul Lentulum, quod praetor erat, ipse manu tenens perducit, reliquos cum custodibus in aedem 5 Concordiae venire iubet. Eo senatum advocat magnaque frequentia eius ordinis Volturcium cum legatis introducit, Flaccum praetorem scrinium cum litteris, quas a legatis acceperat, eodem adferre iubet. 47. Volturcius interrogatus de Crasso, Caeparius (nam is paulo ante ex fuga retractus erat) Cn. Terentio senatori traduntur.

Page  142 M. TULLI CICERONIS PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. 1 I. Quod precatus a dis immortalibus sum, iudices, more institutoque maiorum illo die, quo auspicato TITLE: M. Tulli Ciceronis: see on I. Title. Pro, 'in behalf of.' L. Murena. The plebeian family of which L. Licinius Murena was a member came from Lanuvium, and belonged to the new nobility. It had never boasted a consulship: in fact, Murena's great-grandfather was the first of his line to gain the praetorship, and Murena's father, who had been Sulla's legatus in Greece and Asia, was the most distinguished of the family. Murena's claims for the consulship rested upon his honorable services in the field. On the staff of his father, whom Sulla had left in Asia as propraetor with two legions in 84, he served against Mithradates. At the close of the campaign he returned to Rome, and was elected quaestor along with Servius Sulpicius, his present accuser. Without having distinguished himself in his office, he returned to Asia, and, in 74, took part as legatus of L. Lucullus in the third war with Mithradates. In 65 he gained the praetorship, having Sulpicius again for a colleague, and was so fortunate as to get by lot thejuris dictio urbana, while to Sulpicius fell the irksome task of conducting the inquiries (le peculatu. As praetor urbanus | Murena celebrated with great pomp the ludi Apollinares, -his first opportunity, as he had not been aedile, to thus gain the favor of the people (p. 20, ~ 21). As prcpraetor he went, in 64, to further Gaul, where, by his justice and integrity, he became very popular. In 63 he returned to Rome to canvass for the consulship, having for the third time Sulpicius as one of his competitors. For the result, see p. 28, ~~ 42-44. Oratio: see p. 33, ~ 56. Exordium, ~ 1-10. ~ 1 - ~ 2. 23: The prayer I uttered at the consular elections is still in my thoughts; do you, gentlemen, as representing the gods, protect Murena! 12

Page  143 CAP. 1, ~ 1l 143 comitiis centuriatis L. Murenam consulem renuntiavi, ut ea res mihi, fidei magistratuique meo, populo plebique Romanae bene atque feliciter eveniret, idem 5 precor ab isdem dis imnmortalibus ob eiusdem hominis consulatum una cum salute obtinendum, et ut vestrae mentes atque sententiae cum populi Romani voluntatibus suffragiisque consentiant eaque res vobis populoque Romano pacem, tranquillitatem, otiuin cDn- 1o cordiamque adferat. Quodsi illa sollemnis comitiorum precatio consularibus auspiciis consecrata tantam habet in se vim et religionem, quantam rei publicae dignitas postulat, idem ego sum precatus, ut eis quoque homi~ 1. 1. Quod precatus sum. 3. renuntiavi, 'returned' (cf. One of the consuls, determined by our 'returning board'). After the lot or by mutual agreement, pre- herald had announced the votes sided over the election of the suc- of the single centuries (p. 60, ceeding consuls, and opened it ~~ 35, 36), and the final vote of formally with a solemn sacrifice all, the presiding consul formally and prayer. iudices, 'gentle- named the successful candidates. men.' The jurors were selected 4. mihi, fidei, magistratuique, from citizens of senatorial and an old formula, in which fidei equestrian rank, one-third from seems to mean 'honor,' 'trustthe former, two-thirds from the worthiness.' populo plebique. latter; of the equestrians, however, This phrase, dating from the time one-half had to be tribuni aerarii, when patricians only were full the presiding officers of the thirty- citizens, is found only in prayers, five tribes into which the people oracles, and legal formulas. were divided. 7. ob... obtinendum,' for the 2. die: the precise day is un- purpose of making good.' salute, known, but the consular election 'security,' when used of a defendwas regularly held in July (p. 64, ant almost means 'acquittal.' et ~ 53), and there is no reason to be- ut connects the following clause lieve that it was long postponed on with idem. this occasion, p. 28, ~ 44. aus- 14, 15. idem, nom. sing. me picato, 'after taking the auspices,' rogante: sc. populum, = me coan impers. abl. abs. A. 255, c: mitia habente. The presidingconG. 438, R. 2; H. 431, n 2. On the sul was supposed to ask the people importance of the auspices, see whom they would have to succeed p. 71, ~ 84. him.

Page  144 144 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. 15 nibus, quibus hic consulatus me rogante datus esset, 2 ea res fauste, feliciter prospereque eveniret. Quae cum ita sint, iudices, et cum omnis deorum immortalium potestas aut translata sit ad vos aut certe communicata vobiscurn, idem consulem vestrae fidei 20 commendat, qui antea dis immortalibus commendavit, ut eiusdem hominis voce et declaratus consul et defensus beneficium populi Romani cum vestra atque omnium civium salute tueatur. Et quoniam in hoc officio studium meae defen25 sionis ab accusatoribus atque etiam ipsa susceptio causae reprehensa est, antequam pro L. Murena dicere instituo, pro me ipso pauca dicam, non quo mihi potior hoc quidem in tempore sit officii mei quam huiusce salutis defensio, sed ut meo facto vobis pro30 bato maiore auctoritate ab huius honore, fama fortunisque omnibus inimicorum impetus propulsare possim. 3 ii. Et primum M. Catoni vitam ad certam rationis ~ 2. 18,19. translata sit. The verdict of the jurors will voice the will of heaven. fidei, 'protection.' 22. beneficium, 'favor,' often used as here of a mark of favor, hence 'distinction conferred by,' 'office bestowed by.' Justification of his conduct, 1. 24-~ 10, in defending Murena when his two friends, Cato and qulpicius, were prosecuting him. 24-27. hoc officio, 'this service' to Murena. studium, 'zeal,' 'energy.' non quo... sit, 'not that, etc.' A. 321, R.; G. 541, R. 1; H. 516, II., 2; B. 286 1 b. ~ 3. 1. M. Catoni. M. Porcius Cato, great-grandson of the famous censor of the same name, was born in 95. He was noted for a rugged firmness of character, acquired in early life, but intensified by his strict adherence to the stern principles of the Stoic school. A man whose name stood for uprightness itself, for a narrow but unflinching devotion to duty as he saw it, for morality of life and frugal simplicity, he was feared rather than loved by men of his own party, and hated by his foes. Cicero seems to have valued his worth highly, but to have looked upon 4

Page  145 CAP. 1-2, ~ 1-3. 145 normam derigenti et diligentissime perpendenti momenta officiorum omnium \de officio meo respondebo. Negat fuisse rectum Cato me et consulem et legis ambitus latorem et tam severe gesto consulatu causam 5 L. Murenae attingere. Cuius reprehensio me vehementer movet, non solum ut vobis, iudices, quibus maxime debeo, verum etiam ut ipsi Catoni, gravissimo atque integerrimo viro, rationem facti mei probem. A quo tandem, M. Cato, est aequius consulem o1 defendi quam a consule? Quis mihi in re publica potest aut debet esse coniunctior quam is, cui res publica a me in manum traditur sustinenda magnis m.eis laboribus et periculis sustentata? Quodsi in iis rebus his views as extreme and his plans as unpractical. In 46, after manfully supporting the cause of the republic against Caesar until all was lost, he committed suicide at Utica. rationis, 'system: ' the Stoic philosophy is meant which made virtue the highest good, and regarded all things else as absolutely insignificant. 3, 4. officiorum, officio: the first means ' duties' in general; the second, Cicero's duty towards Murena in particular, hence 'service,' as in ~ 2. 24. negat rectum esse. Cato reproached Cicero for defending Murena on three grounds: 1st. Cicero made his position as consul too prominent in his defence; 2d. Cicero had this very year proposed a stricter law (p. 27, ~ 39) to check bribery, and was now defending a man prosecuted under that law; 3d. Cicero had been very harsh toward other criminals, but was now pleading for Murena. The first charge is answered, 1. 10-~ 5. 38; the second, ~ 5. 1 -~ 6. 8; the third, ~ 6. 8-23. 9. rationem facti probem, 'make good the principles of my conduct.' 12, 13. coniunctior, ' nearer.' traditur: vivid present for more accurate future, because Cicero's term was drawing to a close. 14, 15. in iis rebus repetendis, etc., ' in a suit to recover such things as are transferred by formal sale.' The sale of certain things at Rome was accomplished only with great formality (cf. our transfers of real estate), while mere undisputed possession was sufficient evidence of purchase in others. The formal sale was called mancipium, and the things sold, such as slaves, horses, cattle, etc., were called res mancipi: all other

Page  146 146 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. 15 repetendis, quae mancipi sunt, is periculum iudicii praestare debet, qui se nexu obligavit, profecto etiam rectius in iudicio consulis designati is potissimum consul, qui consulem declaravit, auctor beneficii populi 4 Romani defensorque periculi esse debebit. Ac si, ut 20non nullis in civitatibus fieri solet, patronus huic causae publice constitueretur, is potissimum summo honore adfecto defensor daretur, qui eodem honore praeditus non minus adferret ad dicendum auctoritatis quam facultatis. Quodsi e portu solventibus ii, qui 25iam in portum ex alto invehuntur, praecipere summo studio solent et tempestatum rationem et praedonum et locorum, quod natura fert, ut eis faveamus, qui eadem pericula, quibus nos perfuncti sumus, ingrediantur, quo tandem me esse animo oportet prope 30iam ex magna iactatione terram videntem in hunc, cui video maximas rei publicae tempestates esse things were called res nec (= non) ~ 1. 3. auctor, defensor, esse, mancipi. The formal sale of res 'warrant and ward off;' nouns of mancipi was carried out in the agency with esse should generally presence of five citizens as wit- be translated by the corresponding nesses, and the seller made a show English verbs. For defensor esse of weighing out the property in a (= defendere), 'ward off,' instead balance; while the buyer in turn of 'defend,' cf. the English 'fendwent through the form of paying er.' for it with a small piece of copper, ~ 4. 20-22. civitatibus, e.g., symbolic of the purchase price. Athens. publice: see on I., 11. The seller of res mancipi guaran- 19. adfeoto is dative of ind. teed the title, just as one does now obj. who gives a warranty deed to real 24. facultatis, 'ability.' solestate. Thus if A transferred a ventibus (sc. ancoram or navem), horse to B, and C claimed it as 'setting out.' his, A (not B) had to make good 26, 27. rationem, 'condition the title against C. Cicero here of,' 'how it is with.' fert, ut, compares himself with A, Murena 'prompts us to.' with B, and the prosecutors with C. 31. rei publicae, 'political:' 18,19. deolaravit = renuntiavi see on II., 3. 8.

Page  147 CAP. 2-3, ~ 3-6. 147 subeundas? Quare, si est boni consulis non solum videre, quid agatur, verum etiam providere, quid futurum sit, ostendam alio loco, quantum salutis communis intersit duos consules in re publica Kalendis 35 Ianuariis esse. Quod si ita est, non tam me officium 5 debuit ad hominis amici fortunas quam res publica consulem ad communem salutem defendendam vocare. in. Nam quod legem de ambitu tuli, certe ita tuli, ut earn, quam mihimet ipsi iam pridem tuleram de civium periculis defendendis, non abrogarem. Etenim, si largitionem factam esse confiterer idque recte factum esse defenderem, facerem improbe, etiamsi alius legem tu- 5 lisset; cum vero nihil commissum contra legem esse defendam, quid est, quod meam defensionem latio legis impediat? At negat esse eiusdem severitatis Catilinam 6 exitium rei publicae intra moenia molientem verbis et paene imperio ex urbe expulisse et nunc pro L. to Murena dicere. Ego autem has partis lenitatis et misericordiae, quas me natura ipsa docuit, semper egi libenter, illam vero gravitatis severitatisque personam non appetivi, sed ab re publica mihi impositam sustinui, sicut huius imperii dignitas in summo periculo 15 ~ 5. 36. me: emphatic, and in strong opposition to consulem below. 1-3. quod... tuli, 'as to my having proposed;' for the clause, see on II., 27. 21. ita ut non abrogarem, 'without repealing,' a very common way of rendering this verbal phrase in Latin. earn (legem), 'principle,' so fixed by habit that it has become a 'law' of his being. 5. defenderem: when followed by an inf. and ace., defendere means to 'say (in one's defence),' 'maintain.' ~ 6. 11-14. partis egi, 'I have played the part:' in this sense pars is always plural. This metaphor and that in personam appetivi are taken from the 'stage. ab re publica, 'by the public interests:' on the use of the prep., cf. II., 25. 29. 15, 18. h u i us imperil, the office of consul: cf. I., 12. 26, where it also has the idea of the

Page  148 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. civium postulabat. Quodsi tur, cum res publica vim et severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam et tam vehemens fui, quam cogebar, non quam volebam, nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam atque ad humani0o tatem vocent, quanto tandem studio debeo naturae meae consuetudinique servire? Ac de officio defensionis meae ac de ratione accusationis tuae fortasse etiam alia in parte orationis dicendum nobis erit. 7 Sed me, iudices, non minus hominis sapientissimi 25 atque ornatissimi, Ser. Sulpici, conquestio quam Catonis accusatio commovebat, qui gravissime et acerbissime ferre se dixit me familiaritatis necessitudinisque oblitum causam L. Murenae contra se defendere. Huic ego, indices, satis facere cupio vosque adhi extraordinary power conferred by the consultum ultimum. cum: see on I., 15. 23. 23. alia parte. Chap. 32 and 37. ~ 7. 1. 24-~ 10. 37: Reply to Sulpicius, who complained of a breach of friendship on Cicero's part in opposing him in this case. 25. Servius Sulpicius Rufus (105-43) was the leading jurist of his time, and a respectable but by no means distinguished advocate. He was quaestor in 74, and praetor in 65 with Murena, and in 63 his rival for the consulship. The odds were in favor of Murena (see on Title) because Sulpicius had had no opportunity to win favor by games and shows; besides, a a report was circulated before the election that he had given up hope of beating Murena, but intended to prosecute him for bribery with a view to securing the vacant place, as Torquatus had secured Sulla's (p. 23, ~ 30, and p. 40, ~ 72). His canvass was therefore carried on with little vigor, and he was unsuccessful also in the suit. He finally gained the consulship in 51. During the civil war he sided with Caesar, but took the part of the republic against the second triumvirate. He was a warm friend of Cicero until his death, which occurred shortly before Cicero's in 43. 27, 28. familiaritatis necessitudinisque, ' friendship and intimacy:' the words differ little in meaning, and may be here a hendiadys. causam defendere,' take the side.' 29, 30 adhibere a r b i t r os, 'call you in to decide:' nouns of agency, when used as appositives or in predicate, are often best

Page  149 CAP. 3-4, ~ 6-8. 149 bere arbitros. Nam cum grave est vere accusari in 30 amicitia, turn, etiam si falso accuseris, non est neglegendum. Ego, Ser. Sulpici, me in petitione tua tibi omnia studia atque officia pro nostra necessitudine et debuisse confiteor et praestitisse arbitror. Nihil tibi consulatunm petenti a me defuit, quod 35 esset aut ab amico aut a gratioso aut a consule postulandum. Abiit illud tempus; mutata ratio est. Sic existimo, sic mihi persuadeo, me tibi contra honorem L. Murenae, quantum tu a me postulare ausus sis, tantum debuisse, contra salutem nihil debere. 40 Neque enim, si tibi tur, cum peteres consulatum, 8 adfui, nunc cum Murenam ipsum petas, adiutor eodern pacto esse debeo. Atque hoc non modo laudari, sed ne concedi quidem potest, ut amicis nostris accusantibus non etiam alienissimos defendamus. 45 IV. Mihi autem cum Murena, indices, et magna et vetus amicitia est, quae in capitis dimicatione a Ser. Sulpicio non idcirco obruetur, quod ab eodem in honoris contentione superata est. Quae si causa translated by the infinitives of the corresponding Englisl verbs. Cf. the note on ~ 3. 18. 31. accuseris: for mood, A. 309 a: G. 597. 3; H. 508. 5 (2); B. 302 2; for the termination, -ris, see I., 22. 10, and tell whether this is an illustration of, or exception to, the rule. 33, 34. studia atque officia, 'zealous services,' lit. 'acts of zeal and service': see on II., 10. 14 and I., 1. 7. debuisse, 'owed.' 36. gratioso, made a substantive by its proximity to amico and consule: otherwise the use would be very harsh. ~ 8. 42,43. adiutor esse: translate as directed on ~ 3. 18. non modo sed, etc.: see on II., 20. 35-36. 2. capitis dimicatione, 'in a struggle for his civil existence.' For this sense of caput, see p. 54, ~ 6. Cicero's law imposed as a penalty such a capitis deminutio by providing that the criminal if convicted be degraded from the senate (partial loss), and banished (total loss) for ten years, the latter penalty being an innovation. 4. in honoris contentione, 'in a struggle for honor.' Quae,

Page  150 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. 5 non esset, tamen vel dignitas hominis vel honoris eius, quem adeptus est, amplitudo summae mihi superbiae crudelitatisque famam inussisset, si hominis et suis et populi Romani ornamentis amplissimi causam tanti periculi repudiassem. Neque enim 10 iam,mihi licet neque est integrum, ut meum laborem hominum periculis sublevandis non impertiam. Nam cum praemia mihi tanta pro hac industria sint data, quanta antea nemini, ea, cum adeptus sis, deponere, 9 esset hominis et astuti et ingrati. Quodsi licet desinere, 15 si te auctore possum, si nulla inertiae, nulla superbiae, nulla inhumanitatis culpa suscipitur, ego vero libenter desino. Sin autem fuga laboris desidiam, repudiatio supplicum superbiam, amicorum neglectio improbitatem coarguit, nimirum haec causa est eius modi, quam nec 20 industrius quisquam nec misericors nec officiosus deserere possit. Atque huiusce rei coniecturam de tuo ipsius studio, Servi, facillime ceperis. Nam si tibi necesse putas etiam adversariis amicorum tuorum de iure consulentibus respondere, et si turpe existimas te 25 advocato ilium ipsum, quem contra veneris, causa cadere, noli tam esse iniustus, ut, cum tui fontes vel si causa 'If this (i.e., my old friendship with Murena) were not the cause (i.e., of my defending him).' 7-10. famam, in bad sense: for the metaphor, see on I., 13. 5. integrum, 'open to me,' 'an open question.' 12, 13. praemia tanta, etc.; p. 17, ~ 12. quanta antea nenini. p. 26, ~ 37, ad fin. adeptus sis: sc. haec tanta praemia; for mood, cf. accuseris, ~ 7. 31. ~ 9. 21, 22. coniecturam ce peris, 'draw an inference,' 'get an idea.' studio: 'profession.' 24-26. respondere, a technical word used of jurisconsults, who gave (free) advice on points of law to all who consulted them. Servius seems to have made it a point of honor to put his great legal learning at the service of even those who, he knew, would use it against him in some particular case in which they would oppose him. causa cadere, 'be nonsuited;' i.e., have his case dis

Page  151 CAP. 4-5, ~ 8-11. 151 inimicis tuis pateant, nostros etiam amicis putes clausos esse oportere. Etenim, si me tua familiaritas ab hac 10 causa removisset, et si hoc idem Q. Hortensio, M. Crasso, clarissimis viris, si item ceteris, a quibus intellego 30 tuam gratiam magni aestimari, accidisset, in ea civitate consul designatus defensorem non haberet, in qua nemini umquam infimo maiores nostri patronum deesse voluerunt. Ego vero, iudices, ipse me existimarem nefarium, si amico, crudelem, si misero, superbum, si 35 consuli defuissem. Quare, quod dandum est amicitiae, large dabitur a me, ut tecum agam, Servi, non secus ac si mehs esset frater, qui mihi est carissimus, isto in loco; quod tribuendum est officio, fidei, religioni, id ita moderabor, ut meminerim me contra amici stu- 40 dium pro amici periculo dicere. v. Intellego, iudices, tris totius accusationis partis 11 fuisse, et earum unam in reprehensione vitae, alteram in contentione dignitatis, tertiam in criminibus ambitus esse versatam. Atque harum trium partium prima illa, quae gravissima debebat esse, ita fuit infirma et 5 levis, ut illos lex magis quaedam accusatoria quam missed by the presiding judge, owing to some defect in the form of the papers; causa is abl. of separation. ~ 10. 29-31. Hortensio, Crasso: p. 33, ~ 56 ad fin. magni, for case cf. I., 22. 8. 37-39. ut... agam: see on II, 9. 1. isto loco: position of prosecutor. officio... religioni: note the fine climax. 41. pro amici perioulo (= pro amico in periculis versato),' for a friend in danger.' Refutatio, ~~ 11-83. ~~ 11-14. First part of Cicero's reply, in which he answers Cato's reflections on Murena's past life. See note on Title. ~ 11 1-3. tris partis: the three heads of his opponents' argument against Murena are here briefly stated; they are taken up one by one in Cicero's reply. unam, alteram, tertiam: see on II., 18. 12. contentione dignitatis, 'comparison of worth,' i.e., of Murena and Sulpicius. 6. illos, more respectful than

Page  152 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. vera male dicendi facultas de vita L. Murenae dicere aliquid coegerit. Obiecta est enim Asia; quae ab hoc non ad voluptatem et luxuriam expetita est, sed in 10 militari labore peragrata. Qui si adulescens patre suo imperatore non meruisset, aut hostem aut patris imperium timuisse aut a parente repudiatus videretur. An, cum sedere in equis triumphantium praetextati potissirnum filii soleant, huic donis militaribus patris 15 triumphum decorare fugiendum fuit, ut rebus communiter gestis paelle simul cum patre triumpharet? 12 Hic vero, iudices, et fuit in Asia et viro fortissimo, parenti suo, magno adiumento in periculis, solacio in laboribus, gratulationi in victoria fuit. Et si habet 20 Asia suspicionem luxuriae quandam, non Asiam numquam vidisse, sed in Asia continenter vixisse laudandum est. Quam ob rem non Asiae nomen obiciendum Murenae fuit, ex qua laus familiae, memoria generi, honos et gloria nomini constituta est, sed aliquod aut 25 in Asia susceptum aut ex Asia deportatum flagitium istos: see on I., 2. 17. lex accusatoria, 'fixed habit, regular custom, of accusers:' see on earn (legem) ~ 5. 2. 8-10. Asia, briefly put for vita in Asia turpiter acta. quae, adversative = ea autem. peragrata, in allusion to Murena's several campaigns. 11. meruisset, 'served:' the full phrase is stipendia m. (cf. 1. 26);for a similar omissioni of the object in a stereotyped phrase, cf. solventibus, ~ 4. 24. 13, 14 Cato seems to have reproached Murena with too much parade on the occasion of his father's triumph. In the triumph the general wore an embroidered toga (t. picta), and was drawn in a car by four horses. Beside him sat his younger children; on the horses rode his sons who were still praetextati (see on II., 4.24), while those who had assumed the toga virilis followed on other horses. d o n i s militaribus, 'trophies won in war,' such as collars, crowns, bracelets, etc., given by the commander for conspicuous bravery. ~ 12. 19. h abe t, 'involves,' 'awakens,' 'suggests,' according to the context.

Page  153 CAP. 5-6, ~ 11-13. 153 ac dedecus. Meruisse vero stipendia in eo bello, quod turn populus Romanus non modo maximum, sed etiam solum gerebat, virtutis, patre imperatore libentissime meruisse pietatis, finem stipendiorum patris victoriam ac triumphun fuisse felicitatis fuit. Maledicto quidemn 30 idcirco nihil in hisce rebus loci est, quod omnia laus occupavit. VI. Saltatorem appellat L. Murenam Cato. Maledic- 13 tur est, si vere obicitur, vehementis accusatoris, sin falso, maledici conviciatoris. Quare, cum ista sis auctoritate, non debes, Marce, arripere maledictum ex trivio aut ex scurrarum aliquo convicio neque temere consu- 5 lem populi Romani saltatorem vocare, sed circumspicere, quibus praeterea vitiis adfectum esse necesse sit eum, cui vere istud obici possit. Nemo enim fere saltat sobrius, nisi forte insanit, neque in solitudine neque in convivio moderato atque honesto. Tempestivi con- 10 26-28. bello, quod maximum.. solum: in translating put the adjectives in the principal clause with bello. 29, 30. finem fuisse, in the same construction as meruisse, 11. 26 and 29. quidem, as in II., 2. 25. ~ 13. 1. Saltatorem, 'professional dancer,' ' harlequin.' There is no reference to a general dance in which both sexes or a whole company participated, but to a pantomimic dance performed by one person only. Such dancers were common enough at Greek dinner parties, but were usually professional artists hired for the occasion. Among the dissipated young men of Rome, such a performance by one of the company was not unknown. See on II., 23. 28. 3, 4. maledici conviciatoris, 'abusive calumniator.' Marce: the use of the praenomen here implies good-natured familiarity. 10. Tempestivi c o n v ivii, 'protracted banquet; ' lit. 'early banquet,' which would give a wrong sense. The customary hour for dinner. (cena) at Rome was three in the afternoon, and banquets which were begun earlier only that they might last longer were naturally in bad repute, so that the phrase tempestivum convivium has often the sense of 'a debauch.'

Page  154 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. vivii, amoeni loci, multarum deliciarum comes est extrema saltatio. Tu mihi arripis hoc, quod necesse est omnium vitiorum esse postremum, relinquis illa, quibus remotis hoc vitium omnino esse non potest? Nullum 15 turpe convivium, non amor, non comissatio, non libido, non sumptus ostenditur, et, cum ea non reperiantur, quae voluptatis nomen habent, quamquam vitiosa sunt, in quo ipsam luxuriam reperire non potes, in eo 14 te umbram luxuriae reperturum putas? Nihil igitur 20 in vitam L. Murenae dici potest, nihil, inquam, omnino, iudices. Sic a me consul designatus defenditur, ut eius nulla fraus, nulla avaritia, nulla perfidia, nulla crudelitas, nullum petulans dictum in vita proferatur. Bele habet; iacta sunt fundamenta defensionis. Non25 dum enim nostris laudibus, quibus utar postea, sed prope inimicorum confessione virum bonum atque integrum hominem defendimus. Quo constituto facilior est mihi aditus ad contentionem dignitatis, quae pars altera fuit accusationis. 15 vii. Summam video esse in te, Ser. Sulpici, dignitatem generis, integritatis, industriae ceterorumque ornamentorum omnium, quibus fretum ad consulatus peti 11, 12. comes est extrema, 'dancing is the last accompaniment.' mihi, ethical dative: see on II., 4. 23. 19. umbram luxuriae, 'that inseparable attendant of high living;' i.e., dancing, which has just been called comes. In English, too, 'shadow' has often this meaning. ~ 14. 21. Sic, 'under such circumstances.' 26, 27. virum, hominem: the former (= civem) refers to the public life, the latter to the private life of Murena. defendimus, 'call him (in our defence)': see on~ 5. 5. ~~ 15-53. Second part of Cicero's reply, in which he contrasts the claims of Murena and Sulpicius to the suffrages of the citizens, and shows that the former's success is not so strange as to raise a presumption of bribery. ~ 15. 1-4. dignitatem generis, 'worth based upon family, etc.'

Page  155 CAP. 6-7, ~ 13-16. 155 tionem adgredi par est. Paria cognosco esse ista in L. Murena, atque ita paria, ut neque ipse dignitate a 5 te vinci potuerit neque te dignitate superarit. Contempsisti L. Murenae genus, extulisti tuum. Quo loco si tibi hoc sumis, nisi qui patricius sit, neminem bono esse genere natum, facis, ut rursus plebes in Aventinum sevocanda esse videatur. Sin autem sunt am- 10 plae et honestae familiae plebeiae, et proavus L. Murenae et avus praetor fuit, et pater cum amplissime atque honestissime ex praetura triumphasset, hoc faciliorem huic gradum consulatus adipiscendi reliquit, quod is iam patri debitus a filio petebatur. Tua vero 15 nobilitas, Ser. Sulpici, tametsi summa est, tamen ho- 16 minibus litteratis et historicis est notior, populo vero fretum agrees with the unexpressed subject, 'a man,' of adgredi (1. 4); such an omission of an indefinite subject is not common. 6, 7. Contempsisti, 'slighted,' ' made light of;' the word is hardly ever so strong as our 'despise,' which is commonly used to translate it. genus: see on Title. 8-10. si tibi hoc sumis, 'if you take it upon yourself (to assert) this, viz.:' hoc is explained by the clause nisi... natum. plebes... videatur, 'it will seem necessary to, etc.:' see on I., 15. 33. in Aventinum. The first secession (494) of the plebeians (Creighton, p. 12; Allen, p. 43; Myers, p. 23; Pennell, p. 20) is meant, which was really to the 'Sacred Hill,' though some authorities told the story of mons Aventinus. 11,12. et... e t. There is really a slight ellipsis after the conditional clause as in II., 3. 5. '(I tell you this, that,) both, etc." 13. ex p r aetura, 'after his, etc.' The praetorship is mentioned because active or past consuls and praetors only had a right to the triumph. Pompeius was the first to receive the honor without having held either office. ~ 16. 16,17. summa est. The gens Sulpicia was one of the most ancient patrician gentes, most of which had now died out, and not more than twelve of which survived the republic. The most famous families of this gens were the Camerini, Galbae, and Rufi: to the last belonged Servius. litteratis et historicis, ' bookworms and antiquarians,' not ' historians,' which means 'writers of history.'

Page  156 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. et suffragatoribus obscurior. Pater enim fuit equestri loco, avus nulla inlustri laude celebratus. Itaque 20 non ex sermone hominum recenti, sed ex annalium vetustate eruenda memoria est nobilitatis tuae. Quare ego te semper in nostrum numerum adgregare soleo, quod virtute industriaque perfecisti, ut, cum equitis Romani esses filius, summa tamen amplitudine 25 dignus putarere. Nec mihi umquam minus in Q. Pompeio, novo homine et fortissimo viro, virtutis esse visum est quam in homine nobilissimo, M. Aemilio. Etenim eiusdem animi atque ingenii est posteris suis, quod Pompeius fecit, amplitudinem nominis, quam 30 non acceperit, tradere et, ut Scaurus, memoriam prope intermortuam generis sua virtute renovare. 17 VIII. Quamquam ego iam putabam, iudices, multis viris fortibus ne ignobilitas generis obiceretur, meo 18, 19. suffragatoribus, 'canvassing agents.' equestri loco: he had held none of the offices conferring a seat in the senate, p. 57, ~ 23. 20. ex annalium vetustate, 'from old records,' =ex vetustis annalibus. This use of a noun and genitive instead of adjective and noun is very common, but may here be owing to imitation of the preceding phrase. 22. nostrum numerum = hominum novorum (p. 56, ~ 16) numerum. 25, 26. Q. Pompeius Rufus was consul in 141, the first of the plebeian, gens Pompeia to gain this honor. He fought without particular success in Spain, and was colleague of Q. Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus in the censorship of 131. homine, viro: see on I., 13. 4. 27. Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, consul in 115 and 107, censor in 109, was the first of his family, although the gens A emilia was patrician, to gain distinction for four generations. 30, 31. a cc e p e ri t, tradere, have unexpressed and indefinite subjects: see on adgredi, ~ 15. 4. intermortuam, 'almost extinct.' ~ 17. 2. ne... obiceretur, result clause, subject of perfectum esse. Madvig 456, obs. 4: "ut ne (occasionally ne), signifying 'so that,' is used when precaution, forethought, or restriction is to be indicated."

Page  157 CAP. 7-8, ~ 16-18. 157 labore esse perfectum, qui non modo Curiis, Catonibus, Pompeiis, antiquis illis fortissimis viris, sed his recentibus, Mariis et Didiis et Caeliis, commemorandis 5 iacebant. Cum vero ego tanto intervallo claustra ista nobilitatis refregissem, ut aditus ad consulatum posthac, sicut apud maiores nostros fuit, non magis nobilitati quam virtuti pateret, non arbitrabar, cum ex familia vetere et inlustri consul designatus ab equitis Romani 10 filio consule defenderetur, de generis novitate accusatores esse dicturos. Etenim mihi ipsi accidit, ut cum duobus patriciis, altero improbissimo atque audacissimo, altero modestissimo atque optimo viro, peterem; superavi tamen dignitate Catilinam, gratia Galbam. Quodsi 15 id crimen homini novo esse deberet, profecto mihi neque inimici neque invidi defuissent. Omittamus igitur de 18 3,4. Curiis... commemorandis, ab. abs., denoting concession = quamvis Curios conmemorarent: the gerundive differs in this use from the participle (commemoratis), by implying a repeated action. Curiis: this gens was made illustrious by M' Curius Dentatus, conqueror of the Samnites and (275) of Pyrrhus. Catonibus: the family of the Catones made the gens Porcia famous. t Pompeiis: see on ~ 16. 25. his recentibus, i.e., these will impress you more because their services are not yet forgotten. 5. Mariis, a common name in the municipia of Italy, but first made historical by C. Marius who was seven times consul. Didiis. T. Didius, consul 98, celebrated two triumphs. Caeliis: C. Cae lius Caldus was consul in 94. iacebant, 'were kept down.' 6-8. claustra... refregissem. It was less Cicero's virtus (1. 9), however, than the general dread of Catilina (p. 26, ~ 37) that made the former consul. apud maiores, i.e., since 366, when the consulship was opened to the plebeians (Creighton, p. 19; Allen, p. 75; Myers, p. 35; Pennell, p. 29). 12,13. cum duobus patriciis. Besides Cicero there were six candidates for the consulship of 63: two patricians, Catilina and P. Sulpicius Galba, and four plebeians, Antonius, L. Cassius Longinus, Q. Cornificius, and C. Licinius Sacerdos. Of the four plebeians, the first two were nobles. Cicero alone was of equestrian rank; cf. 1. 11. 16. id, i.e., the having beaten

Page  158 158 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. genere dicere, cuius est magna in utroque dignitas, videamus cetera. 20 ' Quaesturam una petiit, et sum ego factus prior.' Non est respondendum ad omnia. Neque enim vestrum quemquam fugit, cum multi pares dignitate fiant, unus autem primum locum solus possit obtinere, non eundem esse ordinem dignitatis et renuntiationis, prop25 terea quod renuntiatio gradus habeat, dignitas autem sit persaepe eadem omnium. Sed quaestura utriusque prope modum pari mnomento sortis fuit. Habuit hic lege Titia provinciam tacitam et quietam, tu illam, cui, cum quaestores sortiuntur, etiam adclamari 30 solet, Ostiensem, non tam gratiosam et illustrem a patrician, as Murena beat Sulpicius. ~ 18. 19. cetera, 'the other points.' These are (1) the quaestorship, ~ 18; (2) presence and absence, peace and war, ~~ 19-34; (3) the praetorship, ~~ 35-42; (4) the canvass for the consulship, ~~ 43-53. 20. una, sc. mecum a direct quotation from Sulpicius. sum factus = quaestor creatus sum. prior: the balloting was repeated until the required number of candidates had each received the necessary majority (18 out of 35 tribal votes); and as each successful candidate received this majority, he was announced without waiting for the others to be selected. (See, however, p. 61, ~40.) 27, 28. pari momento sortis, 'without distinction of fortune;' lit. 'of equal importance of for tune: i.e., neither had an opportunity to win fame or favor in his quaestorship. lege Titia: from the context it is evident that this law had something to do with the assignment of quaestors to their posts, but we know nothing more of it. 29. cum quaestores sortiuntur. The quaestors were assigned to duty by lot: see p. 67, ~ 66. adclamari, 'hooted at,' always in bad sense in Cicero. How is the verb used here? 30. Ostiensem, etc. Besides the two quaestores urbani, four of the college were assigned' to posts in Italy. These four provinciae quaestoriae were Ostiensis (the most important and burdensome, owing to its being at the mouth of the Tiber, where the supplies for the capital were received), Calena (probably meant in 1. 29), Gallica and Baiana or aquaria.

Page  159 CAP. 8-9, ~ 18-20. quam negotiosam et molestam. Consedit utriusque nomen in quaestura. Nullum enim vobis sors campum dedit, in quo excurrere virtus cognoscique posset. IX. Reliqui temporis spatium in contentionem voca- 19 tur. Ab utroque dissimillima ratione tractatum est. Servius hic nobiscum hanc urbanam militiam respondendi, scribendi, cavendi plenam sollicitudinis ac stomachi secutus est; ius civile didicit, multum vigilavit, 5 laboravit, praesto multis fuit, multorum stultitiam perpessus est, adrogantiam pertulit, difficultatem exorbuit; vixit ad aliorum arbitrium, non ad suum. Magna laus et grata hominibus unum hominem elaborare in ea 9 scientia, quae sit multis profutura. Quid Murena in- 20 terea? Fortissimo et sapientissimo viro, summo imperatori legatus, L. Lucullo, fuit; qua in legatione duxit 31. Consedit, 'rested,' 'had a breathing space,' a metaphor from the race-track continued in the next lines. ~ 19. 1. Reliqui temporis, i.e., after the quaestorship, from which Cicero passes (~ 35) to the praetorship, because neither of the opponents had filled either the tribunate (to which Sulpicius, as a patrician, was not eligible) or the aedileship. Neither office was a necessary step toward the consulship, though it was usual for an aspirant for the highest honors to fill at least one of the two. See p. 69, ~ 78. We are first told how the rivals spent the intervening tim'e (~~ 19-34). 3, 4. militiam: a jest at the humdrum life of Sulpicius, as compared with Murena's campaigns. respondendi: see on ~ 9. 24. scribendi: drawing up legal documents, wills, contracts, etc. cavendi: guarding a client against mistakes of ignorance. These were the three chief duties of a lawyer of that time. 5,6. ius civile didicit: so had Cicero (p. 17, ~ 12. ad fin.), but merely as an adjunct to oratory, while Sulpicius put law first and oratory second. vigilavit,. laboravit: asyndeton (see on II., 10. 23-25) with two words occurs in Cicero only (1) where the two words express closely related ideas, or (2) form part of some old formula. Which here i 7-9. difficultatem exorbuit, 'swallowed their unreasonableness;' so we speak of 'swallowing' an insult. laus, 'merit,' service.' ~ 20. 12. legatione, 'position

Page  160 160 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. exercitum, signa contulit, manum conseruit, magnas copias hostium fudit, urbes partim vi, partim obsidione 15 cepit, Asiam istam refertam et eandem delicatam sic obiit, ut in ea neque avaritiae neque luxuriae vestigium reliquerit, maximo in bello sic est versatus, ut hic multas res et magnas sine imperatore gesserit, nullam sine hoc imperator. Atque haec quamquam 20 praesente L. Lucullo loquor, tamen ne ab ipso propter periculum nostrum concessam videamur habere licentiam fingendi, publicis litteris testata sunt omnia, quibus L. Lucullus tantum huic laudis impertit, quantum 24 neque ambitiosus imperator neque invidus tribuere 21 alteri in communicanda gloria debuit. Summa in utroque est honestas, summa dignitas; quam ego, si mihi per Servium liceat, parem atque in eadem laude ponam. Sed non licet; agitat rem militarem, insectatur totam hanc legationern, assiduitatis et operarum 30 harum cotidianarum putat esse consulatum. 'Apud exercitum mihi fueris,' inquit, ' tot annos, forum non as legatus:' so in ~ 21. 29. L. Licinius Lucullus (110-57?), consul in 74, conquered Mithradates, and was famous as a patron of arts and letters. His last years he spent aloof from public affairs, and the luxury of his life, especially his magnificent palace and gardens, were almost proverbial. He was one of Cicero's most valued friends, though their intercourse was formal rather than familiar. 15. Asiam istam, 'that Asia you speak of;' for this use of iste, see on I., 3. 27. refertam ' rich,' and so tempting to avarice. et eandem, 'and.. at that,' a common meaning of the phrase. delicatam, 'enervating,' and so inviting to luxury. 21, 22. nostrum, videamur: he identifies his client's interest and his own. publicis litteris, ' official despatches,' to the senate. testata sunt, passive: see on I., 26. 14. ellipse cf, ~ 10, 37. ~ 21. 28-30. non licet: sc. from 1. 27, per Servium, and from this take a nominative for agitat, etc. agitat, 'harps on.' legationem, as in ~ 20. 12. assiduitatis... esse consulatum, 'he thinks that the consulship is (the reward) of constant presence and these daily toils.' 31-34. mihi, as in ~ 13. 12.

Page  161 CAP. 9, ~ 20-22. 161 attigeris; afueris tam diu et, cum longo intervallo veneris, cum his, qui in foro habitarint, de dignitate contendas?' Primum ista nostra assiduitas, Servi, nescis quantum interdum adferat hominibus fastidii, 35 quantum satietatis. Mihi quidem vehementer expediit positam in oculis esse gratiam; sed tamen ego mei satietatem magno meo labore superavi et tu item fortasse; verum tamen utrique nostrum desiderium 39 nihil obfuisset. Sed ut hoc omisso ad studiorum 22 atque artium contentionem revertamur, qui potes dubitare, quin ad consulatum adipiscendum multo plus adferat dignitatis rei militaris quam iuris civilis gloria? Vigilas tu de nocte, ut tuis consultoribus respondeas, ille, ut eo, quo intendit, mature cum exercitu perve- 45 niat; te gallorum, illum bucinarum cantus exsuscitat; tu actionenm instituis, ille aciem instruit; tu caves, ne tui consultores, ille, ne urbes aut castia capiantur; ille tenet, ut hostium copiae, tu, ut aquae pluviae arceantur; ille exercitatus est in propagandis finibus, 5o tu in regendis. Ac nimirum (dicendum est enim, quod sentio) rei militaris virtus praestat ceteris omnibus. fueris: dubitative question, past time, see on I., 24. 25. So attigeris and afueris. assiduitas: the prominent position of the subject may be brought out by translating: 'as to our constant presence, etc.' 36. Mihi expediit. See p.18, ~ 17; and p. 21, ~ 24 ad fin. ~ 22. 41. qui, 'how,' abl. sing. neut., used adverbially. A. 104 c; G. 103 R.; H. 187. 1; P. 184 c. 44. de nocte. 'before daybreak.' 48, 49. capiantur, 'be taken unawares:' see on ~ 19. 3-4. tenet = scit. ut, interrogative, 'how.' aquae pluviae: if a man drained the surface water from his land in such a way as to injure his neighbor's, the neighbor might seek redress through the courts by an 'actio aquae pluviae arcendae,' hence the play on arceantur. 50, 51. propagandis finibus.. regendis, 'extending the bounds (of the republic), accurately fixing (those of a client).' Ac nimirum, 'and really.'

Page  162 162 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. x. Haec nomen populo Romano, haec huic urbi aeternam gloriam peperit, haec orbem terrarum parere huic imperio coegit; omnes urbanae res, omnia haec nostra praeclara studia et haec forensis laus et industria latent 5 in tutela ac praesidio bellicae virtutis. Simul atque increpuit suspicio tumultus, artes ilico nostrae conticescunt. 23 Et quoniam mihi videris istam scientiam iuris tamquam filiolam osculari tuam, non patiar te in 10 tanto errore versari, ut istud nescio quid, quod tanto opere dilexisti, praeclarum aliquid esse arbitrere. Aliis ego te virtutibus, continentiae, gravitatis, iustitiae, fidei, ceteris omnibus, consulatu et omni honore semper dignissimum iudicavi; quod quidem ius civile 15 didicisti, non dicam operam perdidisti, sed illud dicam, nullam esse in ista disciplina munitam ad consulatum viam. Omnes enim artes, quae nobis populi Romani studia concilient, et admirabilem dignitatem et pergratam utilit.tem debent habere. 24 xi. Summa dignitas est in iis, qui militari laude antecellunt; omnia enim, quae sunt in imperio et in statu 4. praeclara studia, 'glorious pursuits:' when praeclara is ironical, as here, it always precedes its noun. Cf. I., 28, 20. 6. increpuit, 'has been whispered of.' tumultus is technically a war in Italy only, and is strictly used here because the cessation of all business referred to in the next line, and called iustitium, could be proclaimed only when the enemy was actually in Italy. ~ 23. 10. istud nescio quid, 'that hobby of yours.' nescio quid is used contemptuously and as a substantive. 12, 13. virtutibus, instrument, consulatu, honore, governed by dignissimun; a rare combination of ablatives of different kinds in the same sentence. Cf. II., 9.6, 7. continentiae: we should expect the abl.; see on I., 12. 32. 14. quidem, as in ~ 12. 30. 16. disciplina, 'profession.' munitam viam, etc., 'no path is paved to, etc.;' i.e., that profession does not lead to the consulship. munitam, correctly applied,

Page  163 CAP. 10-11, ~ 22-25. 163 civitatis, ab his defendi et firmari putantur: summa etiam utilitas, siquidem eorum consilio et periculo cum re publica, turn etiam nostris rebus perfrui possumus. 5 Gravis etiam illa est et plena dignitatis facultas, quae saepe valuit in consule deligendo, posse consilio atque oratione et senatus et populi et eorum, qui res iudicant, mentes permovere. Quaeritur consul, qui dicendo non numquam comprimat tribunicios furores, qui conci- 10 tatum populum flectat, qui largitioni resistat. Non mirum, si ob hanc facultatem homines saepe etiam non nobiles consulatum consecuti sunt, praesertim cum haec eadem res plurimas gratias, firmissimas amicitias, maxima studia pariat. Quorum in isto vestro arti- 15 ficio, Sulpici, nihil est. Primum dignitas in tam tenui 25 scientia non potest esse; res enim sunt parvae, prope ill singulis litteris atque interpunctionibus verborum occupatae. Deinde, etiamsi quid apud maiores nostros as it is used of military works, and provided for three classes of jurors the great roads of Italy were (see on ~ 1. 1), and this arrangestrictly military. ment held until Caesar, in 46, suppressed the third class, consisting ~ 24. 7, 8. posse, in app. with of tribuni aerarii. facultas, 'the power of being 11-14. largitioni resistat: he able.' qui res iudicant, 'who is thinking of his own resistance act as jurors.' Down to 122 the to the distribution of land by the iudices were exclusively senators. law of Rullus (p. 27, ~ 39). praeIn that year C. Gracclhus trans- sertim cum,' especially as.' graferred the privilege to tlhe equites. tias, 'acts of favor:' see on II., After some abortive efforts to 10. 14. change the law (106, 104, 91), a ~ 25. 16-19. tenui, 'hair splitlex Plazutia (89) decreed that each ting.' res, 'the subject matter.' of the thirty-five tribes should fur- litter is, interpunctionibus, nish fifteen jurymen, from whiich 'questions of spelling and dividthe various juries should be se- ing words;' such as whether a lected. In 82 Sulla restored the man should be buried in culto privilege to the senators, but loco or inculto loco. occupa. added three hundred equites to tae, 'busied with' perhaps here = the senate. The lex Aurelia (70) 'confined to.'

Page  164 164 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. 20 fuit in isto studio admirationis, id enuntiatis vestris mysteriis totum est contemptum et abiectum. Posset agi lege necne, pauci quondam sciebant; fastos enim vulgo non habebant. Erant in magna potentia, qui consulebantur; a quibus etiam dies tamquam a Chal25 daeis petebatur. Inventus est scriba quidam, Cn. Flavius, qui cornicum oculos confixerit et singulis diebus ediscendis fastos populo proposuerit et ab ipsis capsis iurisconsultorum sapientiam compilarit. Itaque irati illi, quod sunt veriti, ne dierum ratione pervulgata et 30 cognita sine sua opera lege agi posset, verba quaedam composuerunt, ut omnibus in rebus ipsi interessent. 26 xII. Cum hoc fieri bellissime posset: 'Fundus 20. In the early days of the struggle between the patricians and plebeians, one great source of the power of the former was their hold upon the administration of justice. The laws were merely a collection of precedents, and these were known to patricians only. Then the calendar indicated the days on which the judges might sit (dies fasti) and might not sit (d. nefasti), and this was kept carefully secret by the patrician pontifices (p. 71, ~ 82, ad fin.). Finally, the Romans were great sticklers for forms of procedure, and these forms, too, were the possession of the patricians. Under these circumstances the jurisconsults had naturally great influence until the 'mysteries' of the law were revealed. In 450 the laws were codified, and published under the name of the Twelve Tables; and in 304 Cn. Flavius, a scribe, made public the calendar and the forms of action. 21, 22. Posset agi lege, 'whether an action at law could be brought (on a particular day).' fastos, 'the calendar.' 24. Chaldaeis: the Chaldeans were in great repute as astrologers, and to the astrologers resorted the superstitious to learn their lucky and unlucky days. 26. cornicum, etc., 'sewed up the crows' eyes;' a proverbial expression equivalent to our 'catch a weasel asleep,' i.e., deceive the most cunning. diebus, dative. ~ 26. In the next two paragraphs Cicero jests at the unmeaning formalities and cunning evasions practised by Roman lawyers. He first describes the steps preliminary to determining the ownership of a farm. It had once been necessary for the praetor (p. 65,

Page  165 CAP. 11-12, ~ 25-26. 165 Sabinus meus est.' 'Immo meus,' deinde iudicium, noluerunt ' FUNDUS,' inquit, 'QUI EST IN AGRO, QUI SABINUS VOCATUR.' Satis verbose; cedo quid postea? 'EUM EGO EX IURE QUIRITIUM MEUM ESSE AIO.' Quid 5 turn? 'INDE IBI EGO TE EX IURE MANUM CONSERTUM voco.' Quid huic tam loquaciter litigioso responderet ille, unde petebatur, non habebat. Transit idem iuris ~ 59), to accompany the holder and the claimant to the piece of property in dispute, and for them to make a show of a struggle for the property in his presence. Then they returned to his tribunal, the praetor stated the case in the approved form, appointed a index or arbiter, and the real trial began. In Cicero's time the extent of Roman territory was too great for the praetor to visit the contested estates, but the form was kept up. The litigants brought with them a clod from the ground in dispute, put it down at a little distance from the tribunal, and on the order of the praetor marched off to it, and went through the form of the struggle. Theabsurd phraseology of the courts also is dwelt upon with good-natured ridicule. 1, 2. He first shows how simply the question might be stated were it not for the lawyers. bellissime, 'nicely,' a colloquialism. 3, 4. noluerunt, sc. iurisconsulti, who insisted on the strict forms. FUNDUS, etc., i.e., the farm must be more precisely described; both relatives refer to fundus. S a t i s verbose, etc., 'words enough! Tell us, what next?' cedo, an old imperative, 2(d. sing. whose plural is cette: A. 144 f; G. 190 4; H. 297 III.; B. 137 3. 5, 6. EX IURE QUIRITIUM, 'in accordance with the law governing Roman citizens.' QUIRITIUM: see on II., 1. 1. aio, 'I affirm,' the opposite of nego. INDE IBI, ' from this place (i.e., the court), at that place (i.e., the farm, symbolized by the clod).' EX IURE, 'away from the court,' the same words as in line 5, but in a different sense; here they refer to the visit to the farm, unless the holder now gave up his title without further ado. MANUM CONSERTUM, 'to join battle:' consertum is the supine, see on I., 10. 28; it is rarely used with do, voco, colloco (Caes. I., 18. 8). 7, 8. Q ui d responderet... non habebat, 'was in doubt (habeo = scio, cf. teneo, ~ 22. 49), what to answer.' Quod instead of quid would change the sense to: 'did not have any answer to make.' ille, unde petebatur, 'the holder,' lit. 'the one from whom it (the farm) was demanded.' unde = ex quo as often. transit, 'passes over to him;'

Page  166 166 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. consultus tibicinis Latini modo. 'UNDE TU ME,' in10 quit, 'EX IURE MANUM CONSERTUM VOCASTI, INDE IBI EGO TE REVOCO.' Praetor interea ne pulchrum se ac beatum putaret atque aliquid ipse sua sponte loqueretur, ei quoque carmen compositum est cum ceteris rebus absurdum, tum vero in illo: 'Suis UTRISQUE 15 SUPERSTITIBUS PRAESENTIBUS ISTAM VIAM DICO; ITE VIAM.' Praesto aderat sapiens ille, qui inire viam doceret. 'REDITE VIAM.' Eodem duce redibant. Haec iam turn apud illos barbatos ridicula, credo, videbantur, homines, cum recte atque in loco constitissent, iuberi 20 abire, ut, unde abissent, eodem statim redirent. Isdem ineptiis fucata sunt illa ornnia: 'QUANDO TE IN IURE CONSPICIO et haec: ' ANNE TU DICIS, QUA EX CAUSA VINDICAVERIS?' Quae dum erant occulta, necessario ab eis, qui ea tenebant, petebantur; postea 25 vero pervulgata atque in manibus iactata et excussa inanissima prudentiae reperta sunt, fraudis autem et the lawyer who has been prompting the claimant now helps the holder out. 9-12. tibicinis Latini modo, as a flute player accompanies first one singer, then another. These flute players formed a regular guild or corporation at Rome, and were originally Latins, not Romans. See on II., 23. 28. UNDE.. REvoco: the holder asserts the justice of his title, and announces his willingness to fight it out (symbolically) on the very ground. The re- in revoco here means 'in (my) turn.' pulchrum ac beatum, ' a fine lucky fellow.' 13-15. carmen, 'set form.' SUIS SUPERSTITIBUS, 4 each having his witnesses present.' utrisque is dative, superstitibus is ab. abs, ISTAM VIAM, i.e., to the clod as representing the farm. 16. VIAM, cognate acc. sapiens ille, the lawyer. 18. barbatos, 'ancients,' because it was not until 300 that the custom of shaving off the beard was introduced into Italy from Sicily. For the fashion in Cicero's time, see on II., 22. 23. 21, 22. IN IURE, ' in the court:' cf. 11. 6 and 10. ANNE TU, etc., ' Won't you tell on what grounds you have claimed it?' a formal question put by the claimant to the holder. 24 f. Cicero now turns to the

Page  167 CAP. 12, ~ 26-27. stultitiae plenissima. Nam, cum permulta praeclare 27 legibus essent constituta, ea iure consultorum ingeniis pleraque corrupta ac depravata sunt. Mulieres omnes propter infirmitatem consilii maiores in tutorum pote- 30 state esse voluerunt; hi invenerunt genera tutorum, quae potestate mulierum continerentur. Sacra interire evasions of the spirit of the law for the sake of the letter, on which Mr. Geo. Long has said: 'It is the fate of all written law to become a text for knaves to evade and ingenious fools to pervert.' ~ 27. 28. iure consultorum, a very rare variation for the regular iuris consultorum, ~~ 25. 28; 26. S. 29-31. Un d e r Roman law women occupied a very dependent position. The patria potestas, which gave the father the same rights over his children as over his slaves, ceased for the woman only when she was married, and then she passed as absolutely into the power of her husband. In case she was then left a widow, guardians were set over her who might control her property and actions as strictly as her father or husband had done. Several means were devised to release woman from this slavery, by giving her the privilege of selecting guardians who at least would not be distasteful to her. Thus the husband might leave in his will permission for his widow to select her own guardian (tutor). Or, if no such provision had been made, she might get permission from her guardian to make a coemptiofiduciae causa, 'a sale under trust,' by which she passed as a piece of property under the control of a second person; he now made her over to a third person of her own selection, and this third person manumitted her. hi, the lawyers; illi, below, refers to the 'ancients.' 32. sacra interire, etc. It had been a custom in the early days of Rome for persons to provide in their wills for certain honors to be paid in perpetuity to the family gods, and to secure the performance of the ceremonies they went with the property; i.e., whoever acquirej the property had to perform the ceremonies. These sacra were often very costly and burdensome, and the heirs evaded them by very ingenious devices; the one alluded to here was practised by women. One burdened by an inheritance encumbered with these sacra would select an old and childless man without property, and have herself made over to him by coemptio under the terms of a carefully arranged agreement. She and all her property were now his by Roman law, and upon him devolved the sacra which she had inherited. By the terms of the agreement, however, he now manumitted her, and transferred to her all her property in the form of gifts. On her part she paid him a liberal pension for life to cover the cost of the sacra (hence her choice of an old man) which

Page  168 168 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. illi noluerunt; horum ingenio senes ad coemptiones faciendas interimendorum sacrorum causa reperti sunt. 35 In omni denique iure civili aequitatem reliquerunt, verba ipsa tenuerunt, ut, quia in alicuius libris exempli causa id nomen invenerant, putarunt omnes mulieres, quae coimptionem facerent, ' Gaias' vocari. Iam illud mihi quidem mirum videri solet, tot homines tam 40 ingeniosos post tot annos etiam nunc statuere non potuisse, utrum 'diem tertium' an 'perendinum,' iudicem' an 'arbitrum,' 'rem' an 'litem ' dici oporteret. 28 xIi. Itaque, ut dixi, dignitas in ista scientia consularis numquam fuit, q'uae tota ex rebus fictis commenticiisque constaret, gratiae vero multo etiam minus. Quod enim omnibus patet et aeque promptum he had to keep up as long as he lived. At his death, as he left no property and no heirs, the sacra lapsed forever. 33, 34. coemptiones faciendas. The coemptio was the conveyance of a woman to a man according to the technical procedure in the sale of res mancipi: see on ~ 3. 14. The sale might be matrimonii causa or fiduciae cansa; the former was the regular form of the civil marriage at Rome, the latter was for some definite purpose as explained in the notes on 11. 30-32. interimendorum s a c r o r um. Cicero came gradually to avoid this use of the gen. pl. of the noun and gerundive in his orations. While instances are pretty frequent in his earlier speeches, this is the only one in this oration, and none are found in the speeches of later date. 36, 37. ut, 'for example.' alicu i us l i b r i s, some forgotten lawyer's treatise on coemptio. exempli causa, ' used as an example,' not our 'for example,' 'e.g.,' wlich in good Latin is ut (1. 36), or velut. 38. Gaias. In old formulas for the ceremony of coemptio the man is denoted by Gaius and the woman by Gaia. Other names used in legal forms to distinguish the sex are Titius and Titia, Seius and Seia. Give English examples. 40. statuere non potuisse: the reference is to the heaping up of synonymous or nearly synonymous words in legal documents, for the purpose, of course, of preventing mistakes, a custom that still obtains in our English legal papers. ~ 28. 1. ut dixi, in. 25 16.

Page  169 CAP. 13, ~ 28. 169 est mihi et adversario meo, id esse gratum nullo 5 pacto potest. Itaque non modo beneficii collocandi spem, sed etlam illud, quod aliquando fuit,' LICET CONSULERE? ' iam perdidistis. Sapiens existimari nemo potest in ea prudentia, quae neque extra Romam usquam neque Romae rebus prolatis quicquam valet. 10 Peritus ideo haberi nemo potest, quod in eo, quod sciunt omnes, nullo modo possunt inter se discrepare. Difficilis autem res ideo non putatur, quod et perpaucis et minime obscuris litteris continetur. Itaque, si mihi, homini vehementer occupato, stomachum mo- 15 veritis, triduo me iuris consultum esse profitebor. Etenim, quae de scripto aguntur, scripta sunt omnia, neque tamen quicquam tam anguste scriptum est, quo ego non possim 'QUA DE RE AGITUR' addere; quae consuluntur autem, minimo periculo respondentur. Si 20 id, quod oportet, responderis, idem videare respondisse quod Servius; sin aliter, etiam controversum ius nosse 7, 8. illud modifies the phrase licet consulere. aliquando, i.e., before the time of Cn. Flavius: see on ~ 25. 20. LICET CONSULERE, 'may I ask your advice?' a question, says Cicero, jestingly, that is no longer put to you lawyers, now that the 'mysteries' are revealed. 10. rebus prolatis, 'when business is over,' when courts are adjourned,' i.e., during the public games, on dies nefasti (see on ~ 25. 20), and during a iustitium (see on ~ 22. 6). 14. litteris, 'books.' Cicero is speaking of the ius privatum, which was contained in the Twelve Tables (see on ~ 25. 20), a very few statutes, and the edicts of the praetors: a knowledge of the forms of actions would also be needed by the lawyer. 17, 18. quae de scripto aguntur, 'matters of (written) formulae.' These had already been published, and could be found easily enough by any one who cared to look them up. quo, adv. = ad quod. 19, 20. QUA DF RE AGITUR. Cicero means that this phrase is so ridiculously common that it might be safely added to any law paper. quae consuluntur, 'matters of verbal advice,' opposed to quae de scripto aguntur, 1. 17. 22, 23. quod Servius, a grace

Page  170 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. 29 et tractare videare. Quapropter non solum illa gloria militaris vestris formulis atque actionibus anteponenda 25 est, verum etiam dicendi consuetudo longe et multum isti vestrae exercitationi ad honorem antecellit. Itaque mihi videntur plerique initio multo hoc maluisse, post, cum id adsequi non potuissent, istuc potissimum sunt delapsi. Ut aiunt in Graecis artificibus eos 30 auloedos esse, qui citharoedi fieri non potuerint, sic nos videmus, qui oratores evadere non potuerint, eos ad iuris studium devenire. Magnus dicendi labor, magna res, magna dignitas, summa autem gratia. Etenim a vobis salubritas quaedam, ab iis, qui dicunt, salus 35 ipsa petitur. Deinde vestra responsa atque decreta et evertuntur saepe dicendo et sine defensione oratoris firma esse non possunt. In qua si satis profecissem, parcius de eius laude dicerem; nunc nihil de me dico, sed de iis, qui in dicendo magni sunt aut fuerunt. 30 xiv. Duae sunt artes, quae possint locare homines in amplissimo gradu dignitatis, una imperatoris, altera ful compliment to his opponent, as it is implied that the views of Servius are always correct. controversum... tractare, 'to know of a disputed point in the law, and to be handling (examining) it.' Princp. parts of nosse? ~ 29. 26, 27, ad honorem, 'if you look at office,' 'for attaining office,' a meaning of the preposition more common with adjectives than verbs; cf. I., 12. 28. multo, not multum (1. 25.), because of the comparative idea in maluisse (= magis voluisse). hoc, 'this of mine,' i.e., the power of speaking. 28, 29. id: notice that it refers to the same thing as hoc above. istuc, 'that of yours,' i.e., a knowledge of the law. delapsi, 'sank.' in, ' in the case of.' 31. evadere, 'turn out,' ' prove to be.' 34. salubritas, 'comfort.' salus, 'safety:' see on ~ 1. 7. 37, 38. In qua, not quite accurately expressed, as qua must refer to defensione oratoris, while Cicero means the whole ars dicendi. si... dicerem, an expression of modesty which his hearers would take at its full value. parcius, ' less fulsomely.' laude, as in ~ 19. 9. nunc: see on I., 17. 24.

Page  171 CAP. 13-14, ~ 29-31. 171 oratoris boni. Ab hoc enim pacis ornamenta retinentur, ab illo belli pericula repelluntur. Ceterae tamen virtutes ipsae per se multum valent, iustitia, 5 fides, pudor, temperantia; quibus te, Servi, excellere omnes intellegunt. Sed nunc de studiis ad honorem adpositis, non de insita cuiusque virtute disputo. Omnia ista nobis studia de manibus excutiuntur, simul atque aliqui motus novus bellicum canere coegit. 10 Etenirn, ut ait ingeniosus poeta et auctor valde bonus, 'proeliis promulgatis pellitur e medio' non solunl ista vestra verbosa simulatio prudentiae, sed etiam ipsa illa dolnina rerum, 'sapientia; vi geritur res, spernitur orator' non solum odiosus 15 in dicendo ac loquax, verum etiam 'bonus; horridus miles amrratur,' vestrum vero studium totum iacet. 'Non ex iure manum consertum, sed ferro,' inquit, 'rem repetunt.' Quod si ita est, cedat, opinor, Sulpici, forum castris, otium militiae, stilus 20 gladio, umbra soli; sit denique in civitate ea prima res, propter quam ipsa est civitas omnium )princeps. Verum haec Cato nimium nos nostris verbis magna 31 facere demonstrat et oblitos esse bellumr illud omne Mithridaticum cum mulierculis esse gestum. Quod 25 ~ 30. 8, 9. adpositis = ap- taken. Cicero intersperses them tis, idoneis. nobis... de mani- with comments of his own, and to bus: see on I., 16. 35, 36. get their meaning they should first 10, 11. bellicum canere, cog- be read by themselves as a connate accusative. po e t a. Q. nected whole. au c t o r, 'auEnnius, born 239 at Rudiae in thority.' Apulia, was one of the earliest of 17, 18. iacet, as in ~ 17. 6. tlhe Roman poets, and was particu- ex iure, etc.: sc. vocant, and see larly admired by Cicero. He wrote on ~ 26. 6. comedies, tragedies, satires, and a 21. umbra soli = vita in umhistory of Rome in 18 books called bra acta vitae in sole actae: see Annales from which these lines are on Asia, ~ 11. 8; the life of the

Page  172 172 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. ego longe secus existimo, iudices; deque eo pauca disseram; neque enim causa in hoc continetur. Nam si omnia bella, quae cum Graecis gessimus, contemnenda sunt, derideatur de rege Pyrrho triumphus M'. 30 Curi, de Philippo T. Flaminini, de Aetolis M. Fulvi, de rege Perse L. Pauli, de Pseudophilippo Q. Metelli, de Corinthiis L. Mummi. Sin haec bella gravissima victoriaeque eorum bellorum clarissimae fuerunt, cur Asiaticae nationes atque ille a te hostis contemnitur? 35 Atqui ex veterum rerum monumentis vel maximum bellum populum Romanum cum Antiocho gessisse video; cuius belli victor L. Scipio aequa parta cum P. fratre gloria, quam laudem ille Africa oppressa cogno39 mine ipso prae se ferebat, eandem hic sibi ex Asiae 32 nomine adsumpsit. Quo quidem in bello virtus enituit lawyer in retirement is not to be compared with the life of the soldier in the heat of battle. ~ 31. 26, 27. -que, 'but,' after the negative implied in Quod... existimo: see on II., 28. 11. pauca, 'briefly.' causa, etc.: 'our case does not turn on this point.' Nam connects its clause with Quod... existimo, 1. 26. 28. contemnenda sunt, derideatur: for the change of moods, see on II., 17. 6; for meaning of contemnenda, see on ~ 15. 6. 29-32. triumphus M' Curi: see on ~ 17. 4. T. (Quincti) Flaminini, 194, after the victory at Cynoscephalae (197). M. Fulvi (Nobilioris), 188. L. (A e m i 1 i) Pauli, 167, after the battle at Pydna (168). Q. (Caecili) Metelli, 146. L. Mummii, 145, after the taking of Corinth (146). 34, 35. Asiaticae nationes. He means the nations of Asia Minor, where there were many Greek colonies, and where the Greek language prevailed; otherwise his conclusion would be illogical. ille h o s t is, Mithradates. vel. maximum, 'the very greatest:' with superlatives vet has an intensive force not unlike that of quam. A. 93 b; G. 317; H. 554 II. 2; B. 240 3. 37-39^ 'I. S c i pio, Asiaticus. ille refers to Publius, and hic (1. 39), to Lucius, because Lucius as subject of the sentence is more prominent in Cicero's thought. cognomine ipso, Africanus. prae se ferebat, 'boasted.' ~ 32. 41, 42. M. Catonis, the famous censor (Creighton, p. 53; Allen, p. 139). tui: he is addressing Cato (Uticensis); cf. 1. 23.

Page  173 CAP. 14-15, ~ 31-33. 173 egregia M. Catonis, proavi tui; quo ille, cum esset, ut ego mihi statuo, talis, qualem te esse video, numquam esset profectus, si cum mulierculis bellandum arbitraretur. Neque vero cum P. Africano senatus egisset, ut legatus fratri proficisceretur, cum ipse paulo ante 45 Hannibale ex Italia expulso, ex Africa eiecto, Carthagine oppressa maximis periculis rem publicam liberasset, nisi illud grave bellum et vehemens putaretur. xv. Atqui si diligenter, quid Mithridates potuerit et quid effecerit et qui vir fuerit, consideraris, omnibus regibus, quibuscum populus Romanus bellum gessit, hunc regem nimirum antipones; quem L. Sulla maximo et fortissimo exercitu, pugnax et acer et non rudis im- 5 perator, ut aliud nihil dicam, cum bello invectum totam in Asiarn cum pace dimisit; quem L. Murena, pater huiusce, vehementissime vigilantissimeque vexatum repressum magna ex parte, non oppressum reliquit; qui rex sibi aliquot annis sumptis ad confirmandas 10 rationes et copias belli tantum spe conatuque valuit, ut se Oceanum curn Ponto, Sertori copias cum suis coniuncturum putaret. Ad quod bellum duobus con-33 quo, as in ~ 28. 18. ut... statuo, 'as I picture him to myself.' talis... video, a compliment to Cato, as to Sulpicius ~ 28. 22. 43, 45. arbitraretur: for the tense, see on iudicarem I., 29. 3. legatus fratri: the dative usually follows legatus by analogy with the verb in the phrase alicui legari, ' to be appointed legatus to some one.' 6, 7. ut... dicam: cf. ut... aga ~ 10. 37. cum pace dimisit, i.e., failed to conquer. L. Murena, pater: see on Title; the elder Murena had been unsuccessful, and Cicero has to pass over him as lightly as possible. 10-12. aliquot, seven. rationes, ' preparations.' Oceanum cum ponto, the Atlantic with the Euxine. Sertori, then fighting in Spain (Creighton, p. 69; Allen, p. 191; Myers, p. 93; Pennell, p. 116); but the alliance amounted to nothing, ~ 33. 13. duobus consulibus, L. Lucullus (~ 20. 12) and M. Aurelius Cotta. For the third Mithradatic war, see Creighton,

Page  174 174 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. sulibus ita missis, ut alter Mithridatem persequeretur, 15 alter Bithyniam tueretur, alterius res et terra et mari calamitosae vehementer et opes regis et nomen auxerunt; L. Luculli vero res tantae extiterunt, ut neque maius bellumn commemorari possit neque maiore consilio et virtute gestunr. Nam, curn totius impetus belli 20 ad Cyzicenorun moenia constitisset eamque urbem sibi Mithridates Asiae ianuain fore putasset, qua effracta et revulsa tota pateret provincia, perempta ita a Lucullo haec sunt omnia, ut et urbs fidelissimorum sociorum defenderetur et omnes copiae regis diuturnitate obses25 sionis consumerentur. Quid? illam pugnam navalem ad Tenedum, cum contento cursu acerrimis ducibus hostium classis Italiam spe atque animis inflata peteret, mediocri certamine et parva dimicatione commissam arbitraris? Mitto proelia, praetereo oppugnationes op30 pidorum; expulsus regno tandem aliquando tantum tamen consilio atque auctoritate valuit, ut sibi rege Armeniorum adiuncto novis opibus copiisque bellum renovarit. xvi. Ac, si mihi nunc de rebus gestis esset nostri exercitus imperatorisque dicendum, plurima et maxima proelia conimemorare possem; sed non id agi34 mus. Hoc dico: Si bellum hoc, si hic hostis, si ille rex p. 70; Allen, p. 195; Myers, p. 97; constitisset, ' had been concenPennell, p. 121. The first alter trated.' refers to Lucullus; the second, and 26. ad Tenedum, 'off Tenealterius also, to Cotta. dos.' contento c u r s u, 'with 15. Bithyniam, a district of eager haste.' ducibus, said to Asia Minor on the shores of the have been furnished by Sertorius. Euxine. See Map I. These places are shown on Map I. 19, 20. impetus, 'fury.' Cy- 31. rege Armeniorum, Tizicenorum, 'the people of Cyzi- granes, brother-in-law of Mithracos,' a city on the Propontis, dates. which, for its loyalty to the Ro- ~ 34. 4. hoc...hic.. ille: mans, was made a libera civitas. hoc and hic are used because the

Page  175 CAP. 15-16, ~ 33-34. 175 contemnendus fuisset, neque tanta cura senatus et pop- 5 ulus Romanus suscipiendurn putasset neque tot annos gessisset neque tanta gloria L. Lucullus, neque vero eius belli conficiendi negotium tanto studio populus Romanus ad Cn. Pompeium detulisset. Cuius ex omnibus pugnis, quae sunt innumerabiles, vel accerrima 10 mihi videtur illa, quae cum rege commissa est et summa contentione pugnata. Qua ex pugna cum se ille eripuisset et Bosphorum confugisset, quo exercitus adire non posset, etiam in extrema fortuna et fuga nomen tamen retinuit regium. Itaque ipse Pompeius 15 regno possesso ex omnibus oris ac notis sedibus hoste pulso tamen tantum in unius anima posuit, ut, cum omnia, quae ille tenuerat, adierat, sperarat, victoria possideret, tamen non ante, quam ilium vita expulit, bellum confectum iudicarit. Hunc tu hostem, Cato, 20 contemnis, quocum per tot annos tot proeliis tot imperatores bella gesserunt, cuius expulsi et eiecti vita tanti aestimata est, ut morte eius nuntiata denique bellum confectum arbitraretur? Hoc igitur in bello L. war was still in progress, and the kingdom. adierat, the Roman enemy (Asiaticae nationes, ~ 31, possessions in Asia. sperarat, 34) unsubdued; ille, because Mi- sovereignty over the eastern thradates was now dead. world. 9-11. ad Pompeium, p. 20, 21-23. tot, tanti: see on I., ~ 23. cum rege: the battle by 17. 16; for case of tanti, cf. ~ 10. the Euphrates in 66 is meant. 31 and see.on I., 22. 8. denique, 13. Bosphorum, i.e., the Ci- though going with the finite verb, inerian Bosporus, the straits be- may in translation be connected tween the sea of Azov and the with the ab. abs.: 'not until his Black Sea. The omission of the death was announced was, etc.' preposition (in, ad), is occasion- 24. arbitraretur is here pasally found in prose with Greek sive, a very rare use of the deponames of places not towns in -us. nent, not to be confused with that 17, 18. in... posuit, 'at- noted on ~ 20. 22. igitur, as in I., tached so much importance to.' 9. 16; here carrying the thought quae t e n u e r a t, his ancestral back to ~ 30 ad fin.

Page  176 176 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. 25 Murenam legatum fortissimi animi, summi consilii, maximi laboris cognitum esse defendimus, et hanc eius operam non minus ad consulatum adipiscendum quam hanc nostram forensem industriam dignitatis habuisse. 35 xvII. At enim in praeturae petitione prior renuntiatus est Servius. Pergitisne vos tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum populo, ut, quem locum semel honoris cuipiam dederit, eundelm reliquis honoribus debeat? 5 Quod enim fretum, quem Euripum tot motus, tantas, tarn varias habere putatis agitationes commutationesque fluctuun, quantas perturbationes et quantos aestus habet ratio comitiorunm? Dies intermissus aut nox interposita saepe perturbat omnia, et totam opinionem o0 parva non numquam commutat aura rumoris. Saepe etiam sine ulla aperta causa fit aliud, atque existimaris, ut non numquam ita factum esse etiam po36pulus admiretur, quasi vero non ipse fecerit. Nihil est incertius vulgo, nihil obscurius voluntate hominurn, 15 nihil fallacius ratione tota comitiorum. Quis L. Philippum summo ingenio, opera, gratia, nobilitate a M. ~ 35. 1-3. At enim introduces abruptly the objection of an opponent; so also at alone and at vero. Pergitis, in reference to ~ 18. ex syngrapha, 'as if you had a written contract.' quem locum: see on ~ 18. 20. 5-9. E u r i p u m, the channel between Boeotia and Euboea. quantas... habet: in translating insert a verb and a relative: ' as are the... which, etc.' ratio comitiorum, 'system of elections'' (cf. ~ 4. 26), differs little from comitia alone. Dies... interposita, 'the loss of a day or coming of a night.' A. 292 a; G. 667 R. 2; H. 549 N. 2; B. 337 5. 10, 11. parva aura, abl. case: { the subject of commutat is dies aut nox. aliud atque: A. 247 d; G. 646, R. 2; H. 459 2; P. 562 (3) b. ~ 36. 15-17. L (Marcium) Philippum, candidate for the consulship of 93, elected two years later. Q. (Lutatium) Catulum, candidate for 105. He was successful for 102, and had Marius as his colleague. The latter got most of the credit for the former's great victory over the Cimbri in 101.

Page  177 CAP. 16-18, ~ 34-37. -17 Herennio superari posse arbitratus est? quis Q. Catulum humanitate, sapientia, integritate antecellentem a Cn. Mallio? quis M. Scaurum, hominem gravissimum, civem egregium, fortissimum senatorem, a Q. Maximo? 20 Non modo horum nihil ita fore putatum est, sed ne cum esset factum quidem, quare ita factum esset, intellegi potuit. Nam, ut tempestates saepe certo aliquo caeli signo commoventur, saepe improviso nulla ex certa ratione obscura aliqua ex causa excitantur, 25 sic in hac comitiorum tempestate populari saepe intellegas, quo signo commota sit, saepe ita obscura est, ut casu excitata esse videatur. xvIII. Sed tamen 37 si est reddenda ratio, duae res vehementer in praetura desideratae sunt, quae ambae in consulatu multun Murenae profuerunt, una expectatio muneris, quae et rumore non nullo et studiis sermonibusque competi- 5 torum creverat, altera, quod ii, quos in provincia ac legatione omnis et liberalitatis et virtutis suae testis habuerat, nondum decesserant. Horum utrumque ei fortuna ad consulatus petitionem reservavit. Nam et 19. M. Scaurum (~ 16. 27), candidate for 116. There is nothing to be said of the successful competitors mentioned here, as Cicero has selected them as insignificant nobodies. 21-24. horum: see on II., 18. 20. caeli signo, 'constellation,' a superstition confined in our time to the ignorant. 27. obscura est: sc. tempestas commota, 'the cause of the storm:' see on Dies... int, ~ 35. 8. ~ 37. 2. ratio, 'explanation;' i.e., why Murena was returned (see on ~ 18. 21) after Sulpicius. 4, 5. muneris, 'show,' 'entertainment.' studiis, 'partisanship.' Murena's competitors, by trying to ridicule the idea of games to be given by him, had made them the talk of the town. 6-8. ii, quos... omnis: trans. as suggested on ~ 12. 26-28. decesserant, when he was candidate for praetor. This is the regular verb to denote the act of leaving a province for Rome. Horum utrumque: they are taken up in inverse order in the next sentence.

Page  178 178 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. 10 L. Luculli exercitus, qui ad triumphum convenerat, idem comitiis L. Murenae praesto fuit, et munus amplissimum, quod petitio praeturae desiderarat, prae38tura restituit. Num tibi haec parva videntur adiumenta et subsidia consulatus, voluntas militum? quae 15 cum per se valet multitudine, cum apud suos gratia, tur vero in consule declarando multum etiam apud universum populun Romanum auctoritatis habet suffragatio militaris; imperatores eniim comitiis consularibus, non verborum interpretes deliguntur. Quare 20 gravis est illa oratio: 'Me saucium recreavit, me praeda donavit; hoc duce castra cepimus, signa contulimus; numquam iste plus militi laboris imposuit, quam sibi sumpsit ipse, cum fortis, tur etiam felix.' Hoc quanti putas esse ad famarn hominum ac volun25 tatem? Etenim, si tanta illis comitiis religio est, ut adhuc semper omen valuerit praerogativum, quid mirum est in hoc felicitatis famam sermonemque valuisse? xix. Sed si haec leviora ducis, quae sunt gravissima, et hanc urbanam suffragationem militari anteponis, 10, 11. convenerat, i.e., for Lucullus' triumph. He had returned to Rome in 66, but owing to his personal and political unpopularity, his triumph was not granted until 63. comitiis: sc. consularibus (63), abl. of time. Murenae is dative. munus, the ludi Apollinares: see on Title ad fin. ~ 38. 14-16. voluntas m i itur ought to be followed immediately by a similar reference to the games, but this is reserved for ch. xix., and is then put in a dif ferent form. quae is taken up with emphasis by suffragatio militaris at the end of the sentence. cum... cum... tur, 'both...and... and,' correlatives for which Cicero also uses cum... turnm. tum. A. 208 d; G. 589; H. 554, I. 5; B. 341 3. 20. illa oratio, 'arguments like the following,' i.e., of the soldiers to their friends in the city and to each other. 25, 26. religio, ' superstition.' praerogativum: see on p. 60, ~~ 33. 35.

Page  179 CAP. 18-19, ~ 37-40. noli ludorum huius elegantiam et scaenae magnificentiam valde contemnere; quae huic admodum profuerunt. Nam quid ego dicam populum ac vulgus imperitorum 5 ludis magno opere delectari? Minus est mirandum. Quamquam huic causae id satis est; sunt enim populi ac multitudinis comitia. Quare, si populo ludorum magnificentia voluptati est, non est mirandum ear L. 9 Murenae apud populum profuisse. Sed si nosmet ipsi, 39 qui et ab delectatione communi negotiis impedimur et in ipsa occupatione delectationes alias multas habere possumus, ludis tamen oblectamur et ducimur, quid tu admirere de multitudine indocta? L. Otho, vir fortis, 40 meus necessarius, equestri ordini restituit non solum 15 dignitatem, sed etiam voluptatem. Itaque lex haec, quae ad ludos pertinet, est omnium gratissima, quod honestissimo ordini cum splendore fructus quoque iucunditatis est restitutus. Quare delectant homines, mihi crede, ludi, etiam illos, qui dissimulant, non solum 20 2,3. urbanam, 'civilian.' ludorum et scaenae: the former refers to the games of the circus, chiefly horse-racing and athletic games; the latter to stage performances, at this time largely spectacular. 6, 7. Minus, explained by ~ 39. 11. causae, as in ~ 31. 27. populi, etc.: elections are a question of numbers, not of taste and culture. ~ 39. 10. nosmet ipsi, i.e., men of refinement. For the intensive, -met, see A. 99f; G. 100 Rem. 1; H. 184 3; P. 179 b. 14. admirere: for mood, see on fueris, ~ 21. 31; the conditional sentence does not affect it. ~ 40. 14. L. (Roscius) Otho had, as tribune of the people in 67, carried a law assigning to the equites fourteen rows of seats in the theatre, next to those reserved for the senators. Some such privilege had probably been secured for the equites by Gracchus, and revoked by Sulla, hence restituit, 1. 15. 17. gratissima: the law was really very unpopular, but Cicero speaks of it in as complimentary terms as possible, because he was of equestrian family himself (p. 16, ~ 11), and was just at this time trying to bring the equites and senators together politically, in order to resist the growing power

Page  180 180 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. eos, qui fatentur; quod ego in mea petitione sensi. Nam nos quoque habuimus scaenam competitricem. Quodsi ego, qui trinos ludos aedilis feceram, tamen Antoni ludis commovebar, tibi, qui casu nullos feceras, 25 nihil huius istam ipsam, quam inrides, argenteam scaenam adversatam putas? 41 Sed haec sane sint paria omnia, sit par forensis opera militari, militaris suffragatio urbanae, sit idem magnificentissimos et nullos umquam fecisse ludos; 30 quid? in ipsa praetura nihilne existimas inter tuam et huius sortem interfuisse? xx. HIuius sors ea fuit, quam omnes tui necessarii tibi optabamus, iuris dicundi; in qua gloriam conciliat magnitudo negotii, gratiam aequitatis largitio; qua in sorte sapiens prae5 tor, qualis hic fuit, offensionem vitat aequabilitate decernendi, benivolentiam adiungit lenitate audiendi; egregia et ad cAnsulatum apta provincia, in qua laus aequitatis, integritatis, facilitatis ad extremum ludorum 42 voluptate concluditur. Quid tua sors? Tristis, atrox, of the Democrats (p. 39, ~ 70 ad fin). 22, 23. scaenam competitricem: trans. as suggested on ~ 7. 29. trinos, 'three sets of,' not tres, as the plural of ludus has a different sense from the singular. aedilis, in 68, p. 20, ~ 21. 24-26. Antoni ludis, given three years after Cicero's, when Antonius was praetor, and on a very lavish scale (p. 25, ~ 35). casu nullos: the lot had given the superintendency of the games to Murena when the two were praetors. argenteam scaenam; i.e., the silver had been used lavishly upon stage decorations, costumes, etc. ~ 41. 27. Sed haec, recapitulation of the argument from ~ 19. 2. iuris dicundi,' declaring the law,' 'holding court.' For dicundi = dicendi, A. p. 89, foot note 2; G. 151 5; H. 239; B. 116 2. For the duties of the praetors, see p. 65, ~ 59 f. Murena became praetor urbanus, while to Sulpicius fell the 'court of embezzlement' (quaestio de peculatu). 7. provincia, 'sphere of activity,' 'duty,' 'function.' This is the original sense of the word, from which was derived the later one of 'an administrative district' having definite boundaries,

Page  181 CAP. 19-20, ~ 40-42. quaestio peculatus ex altera parte lacrimarum et 1l squaloris, ex altera plena catenarum atque indicum; cogendi iudices inviti, retinendi contra voluntatem; scriba damnatus, ordo totus alienus; Sullana gratificatio reprehensa, multi viri fortes et prope pars civitatis offensa; lites severe aestimatae; cui placet, 15 obliviscitur, cui dolet, meminit. Postremo tu in provinciam ire noluisti. Non possum id in te reprehendere, quod in me ipso et praetore et consule probavi. Sed tamen L. Murenae provincia multas bonas gratias cum optima existimatione attulit. Habuit proficiscens dilec- 20 turn in Umbria; dedit ei facultatem res publica liberalitatis, qua usus multas sibi tribus, quae municipiis Umbriae conficiuntur, adiunxit; ipsa autem in Gallia ut nostri homines desperatas iam pecunias exigerent, aequitate diligentiaque perfecit. Tu interea Romae 25 scilicet amicis praesto fuisti; fateor; sed tamen illud subject to direct taxation, and ruled by a Roman governor. ~ 42. 10. quaestio peculatus. Nothing more than can be guessed from the name (see above) is known of this court. We are therefore entirely in the dark as to the unpopular acts of Sulpicius hinted at in 11. 12-15. 13. scriba damnatus. These were three classes, the scribae quaestorii, aedilicii, and tribunicii; the other officers had none assigned to them by the state, but employed such as they needed. ordo: sc. scribarum. The more respectable scribes, those of the quaestors and aediles, were free horn, and voted accordinaly in the ~omitia. Sullana gratificatio: See on II., 20. 22-23. 15. lites, 'damages.' cui placet, 'who is satisfied.' 18, 19. praetore et consule, p. 21, ~ 24 ad fin, p. 28, ~ 42. provincia, 'the governing of a province:' cf. Asia, ~ 11. 8, and tumbra, ~ 30. 21.. bonas gratias: this adj. is often joined with gratia; for the plural, cf. ~ 24. 14. 20, 21. proficiscens, 'on his journey.' res publica, 'the condition of the state' did not make it necessary to be unduly strict in raising troops. 24. nostri homines, especially the ptblicani and the capitalists, who had at that time large enterprises in Gaul, and frequently loaned money to tribes as well as to individuals. 26. scilicet; see on II. 19, 5.

Page  182 182 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. cogita, non nullorum amicorum studia minui solere in eos, a quibus provincias contemni intellegant. 43 xxi. Et quoniam ostendi, iudices, parem dignitatem ad consulatus petitionem, disparem fortunam provincialium negotiorum in Murena atque in Sulpicio fuisse, dicam iam apertius, in quo meus necessarius fuerit infe5 rior, Servius, et ea dicam vobis audientibus amisso iam tempore, quae ipsi soli re integra saepe dixi. Petere consulatum nescire te, Servi, persaepe tibi dixi; et in iis rebus ipsis, quas te magno et forti animo et agere et dicere videbam, tibi solitus sum dicere magis te 10 fortem accusatorem mihi videri quam sapientem candidatum. Primum accusandi terrores et minae, quibus tu cotidie uti solebas, sunt fortis viri, sed et populi opinionem a spe adipiscendi avertunt et amicorum studia debilitant. Nescio quo pacto semper hoc fit 15 (neque in uno aut altero animadversum est, sed iam in pluribus), simul atque candidatus accusationem meditari visus est, ut honorem desperasse videatur. 44 Quid ergo? acceptam iniuriam persequi non placet? Immo vehementer placet; sed aliud tempus est petendi, 20 aliud persequendi. Petitorem ego, praesertim consulatus, magna spe, magno animo, magnis copiis et in 27. non nullorum, especially plaints in the senate about election those who had hoped for positions intrigues, and his preparations to under him in his province,- posi- impeach his successful rivals. tions usually very profitable. Cf. 13. opinionem... avertunt, p. 19, ~~ 19. 20; p. 69, ~~ 74, 75. i.e., they take from the people the idea that the one who makes such ~ 43. 2. provincialium, in the threats has any hope of his own sense of provincia ~ 41. 7. election. 6. re integra, 'undecided,' i.e., 17. ut... videatur, in appowhile Sulpicius might have prof- sition with hoc, 1. 14. ited in his canvass by the warn- ~ 44. 21. copiis, used of the ing. crowds of friends who accompa8. iis rebus refers to his com- nied the candidates.

Page  183 CAP. 20-22, ~ 42-45. 183 forum et in campum deduci volo; non placet mihi inquisitio candidati praenuntia repulsae, non testium potius quam suffragatorum comparatio, non minae magis quam blanditiae, non denuntiatio potius quam 25 persalutatio, praesertim cum iam hoc novo more omnes fere domos omnium concursent et ex vultu candidatorum coniecturan faciant, quantum quisque animi et facultatis habere videatur. 'Videsne tu ilium tristem, 45 demissum? iacet, diffidit, abiecit hastas.' Serpit hic 30 rumor. ' Scis tu ilium accusationem cogitare, inquirere in competitores, testis quaerere? Alium faciam, quoniam sibi hic ipse desperat.' Eius modi de candidato rumore amici intimi debilitantur, studia deponunt; aut statim rem abiciunt aut suam operam et gratiam 35 iudicio et accusationi reservant. xxii. Accedit eodem, ut etiam ipse candidatus totum animum atque omnem curam, operam diligentiamque suam in petitione non possit ponere. Adiungitur enim accusationis cogitatio, non parva res, sed nimirum omnium maxima. Magnum 5 est enim te comparare ea, quibus possis hominem e civitate, praesertim non inopem neque infirmum, exturbare, qui et per se et per suos et vero etiam per 23. inquisitio, 'searching for proof,' against a competitor. 25, 26. denuntiatio: sc. accusandi. persalutatio, 'greeting on all sides.' 27,28. omnium: sc. candidatoruml. coniecturam, as in ~ 9.21. ~ 45. 29, 30. facultatis, 'means' to secure his election. abiecit hastas, 'he has thrown down his weapons,' ' given up the.fight.' 32. alium faciam: sc. consu lem, or magistratum in general; in this phrase facere means 'to vote for.' 1, 2. accedit eodem, ut, 'to this is added that, etc.,' 'besides.' accedere is used as an impersonal passive of addo. 6, 7. te is indefinite, as often in English, = a man.' possis exturbare, an allusion to one of the penalties of the lex Tullia: see on ~8. 2.

Page  184 184 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. alienos defendatur. Omnes enim ad pericula propul10 sanda concurrimus et, qui non aperte inimici sumus, etiam alienissimis in capitis periculis amicissimorum 46officia et studia praestamus. Quare ego expertus et petendi et defendendi et accusandi molestiam sic intellexi, in petendo studium esse acerrimum, in defendendo 15 officium, in accusando laborem. Itaque sic statuo, fieri nullo modo posse, ut idem accusationem et petitionem consulatus diligenter adornet atque instruat. Unum sustinere pauci possunt, utrumque nemo. Tu cum te de curriculo petitionis deflexisses animumque 20 ad accusandum transtulisses, si existimasti te utrique negotio satis facere posse, vehementer errasti. Quis enim dies fuit, posteaquam in istam accusandi denuntiationem ingressus es, quem tu non totum in ista ratione consumpseris? xxrII. Legem ambitus flagitasti, quae tibi non deerat; erat enim severissime scripta Calpurnia. Gestus est mos et voluntati et dignitati tuae. Sed tota 11. ai e n i s s i m i s, 'utter Calpurnia. By the lex Corneliastrangers;' dative case, and used Baebia, 181, it had been provided substantively. that a candidate found guilty ~ 46. 14, 15. studium esse ac- of illegal canvassing should, in errimum, 'the most enthusiastic addition to the fine imposed by zeal is necessary.' officium, ' de- earlier laws, lose for ten years the votion.' right to hold office. To this pun21. Quis dies. We should ex- ishment the lex Calpurnia, 67, pect qui dies, but no sound rule added expulsion from the senate can be laid down for quis and qui (see on 1. 7) and loss of all politiused adjectively. cal rights, though the criminal might still live at Rome. It also 1. Legem ambitus, the lex provided for the punishment of Tullia, proposed by Cicero, in the agents who distributed the order to prevent Catilina's in- bribe, and for rewarding the prosetrigues for the consulship of 62 cutor. Finally, the lex Tullia of (p. 28, ~ 43). this year (63) added exile for ten 2. erat, 'there was already,' years to these increasingly severe' not to be connected with scripta. penalties.

Page  185 CAP. 22-23, ~ 45-47. 185 illa lex accusationem tuam, si haberes nocentem reum, 4 fortasse armasset; petitioni vero refragata est. Poena 47 gravior in plebem tua voce efflagitata est; commoti animi tenuiorum. Exilium in nostrum ordinem; concessit senatus postulationi tuae, sed non libenter duriorem fortunae communi condicionem te auctore constituit. Morbi excusationi poena addita est; volun- 10 tas offensa multorum, quibus aut contra valetudinis commodum laborandum est aut incommodo morbi etiam ceteri vitae fructus relinquendi. Quid ergo? haec quis tulit? Is, qui auctoritati senatus, voluntati tuae paruit, denique is tulit, cui minime proderant. Ilia, quae mea 15 sunmma voluntate senatus frequens repudiavit, mediocriter adversata tibi esse existimas? Confusionem suffragiorum flagitasti, perrogationem legis Maniliae, ~ 47. 6. in plebem, 'the lower classes,' those who took the bribe: the same persons are meant by tenuiorum (1. 7). 7-9. nostrum ordinem = ordinem senatorium: see p. 56, ~~ 14, 15. No instances of illegal canvassing for the quaestorship are known to us. fortunae communi, i.e., to which all members of the senate were liable: a singular way of speaking of a crime! 10. Morbi excusationi, defendants who were designati (perhaps also such of their friends as were summoned to testify against them or were drawn as jurors) frequently pleaded ill-health, in order to delay the trial until after their terms of office had begun, during which they could not be prosecuted (p. 64, ~ 52). 12. laborandum e s t, ' m u t struggle' through the discomforts of the trial, if they obeyed the summons. incommodo morbi, etc., 'together with (= besides) the distress of illness must lose, etc.,' if they disregarded the summons. In both these cases Cicero assumes that the plea is an honest one. 13,14. haec, 'these penalties;' almost = hanc legem. is qui, Cicero, who is trying to give the impression that he proposed the law in deference to the wishes of Sulpicius and other senators, but against his own better judgment. 15, 16. cui proderant, i.e., as he had filled all the offices he was not cbncerned about illegal canvassing! For his real motive, see on ~ 46. 1. summa voluntate, 'with my full approval.' 1!7. confusionem suffragio

Page  186 186 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. aequationem gratiae, dignitatis, suffragiorum. Graviter 20 homines honesti atque in suis vicinitatibus et municipiis gratiosi tulerunt a tali viro esse pugnatum, ut omnes et dignitatis et gratiae gradus tollerentur. Idem editicios iudices esse voluisti, ut odia occulta civium, quae 24 tacitis nunc discordiis continentur, in fortunas optimi 48 cuiusque erumperent. Haec omnia tibi accusandi viam muniebant, adipiscendi obsaepiebant. Atque ex omnibus illa plaga est iniecta petitioni tuae non tacente me maxima, de qua ab homine ingeniosissimo et copiosissimo, Q. Hortensio, multa gra30 vissime dicta sunt. Quo etiam mihi durior locus est dicendi datus, ut, cum ante me et ille dixisset et vir summa dignitate et diligentia et facultate dicendi, M. Crassus, ego in extremo non partem aliqualn agerem causae, sed de tota re dicerem, quod mihi videretur. 35 Itaque in isdem rebus fere versor et, quoad possum, rum, 'mass-voting.' Sulpicius was in favor of doing away with the votes by centuries and tribes, a change analogous to substituting the 'popular vote,' for the electoral votes of the States in our presidential elections. 18. legis Maniliae. This idea had already been suggested by C. Manilius, tribune of the plebs (67), and embodied in a law which the senate had annulled. Cicero therefore accuses Sulpicius of trying to carry through the senate by indirect means what had once been fairly rejected. This lex Manilia must not be confused with that mentioned, p. 20, ~ 22, ad fin. 20, 21. vicinitatibus... gratiosi, small politicians (' bosses') who would, of course, lose most of their importance if mass-voting were adopted. esse pugnatum. 'an effort had been made.' 22, 23. e d i ti c i o s iudices. These were jurors selected by the prosecution, in opposition to those drawn by lot; the defendant had merely a limited number of challenges. The plaintiff would naturally select men with a personal bias against the defendant. ~ 48. 27. ex omnibus, to be taken with maxima. plaga, explained (1. 3, below) by cum. adduxisti. 29-31. Q. Hortensio: p.33, ~ 56, ad fin. locus: p. 16, ~ 9. ut... dicerem (1. 34), explaining locus. 35, 36. isdem... versor, 'I am dwelling on almost the same points (as they).' occurro, etc.,

Page  187 CAP. 23-24, ~ 47-49. 187 iudices, occurro vestrae satietati. xxiv. Sed tamen, Servi, quam te securim putas iniecisse petitioni tuae, cum populum Romanum in eum metum adduxisti, ut pertimesceret, ne consul Catilina fieret, dum tu accusationem comparares deposita atque abiecta petitione? 5 Etenim te inquirere videbant, tristem ipsum, maestos 49 amicos; observationes, testificationes, seductiones testium, secessiones subscriptorum animadvertebant, quibus rebus creta ipsa candidatorum obscurior evadere solet; Catilinam interea alacrem atque laetum, stipatum 10 choro iuventutis, vallatum indicibus atque sicariis, inflatum cum spe militum, tum collegae mei, quem ad modum dicebat ipse, promissis, circumfluentem colonorum Arretinorum et Faesulanorum exercitu; quam turbam dissimillimo ex genere distinguebant homines 15 'I anticipate your being tired,' in this case Cato and the two uni.e., will be as brief as possible. known men Rufus and Postumius. 9. creta... obsourior, ' the 1. Bed tamen, 'but putting white robes of the candidates lose that aside,' resumes the inter- their lustre.' The reference is to rupted thought of 1. 27. the regular garb of candidates, the ~ 49. 6. inquirere: sc. in com- toga candida, whitened with chalk petitores, and see on ~ 44. 23. For (creta), and here used emblematthe infinitive, a participle might ically of the candidate's hopes. have been used: see on II., 5. 9. evadere, as in ~ 29. 31. 7, 8. The plurals of these ab- 11, 12. indicibus, 'professional stract nouns mark the repetition informers,' who made a business of the act denoted by each. ob- of bringing false charges against servationes, watching rivals, to innocent men. collegae mei (= see that they do nothing illegal. Antoni), goes with promissis. testificationes, getting together 13. colonorum; read II., ~ 20; of depositions, to prove illegal Arretium was an important town practices. seductiones testium, of Etruria, s. e. of Faesulae (p 29, taking them aside, to question ~ 45. 46). See Map II. them anxiously as to their evi- 15, 16. turbam... genere, dence. secessiones subscrip- 'motley crowd;' see on II., 17. torum, going aside for consulta- 9-11. distinguebant, 'lent distion. Subscriptores were t h e tinction to,' as being more reassistants of the principal counsel; spectable. homines perculai, fol

Page  188 188 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. perculsi Sullani temporis calamitate. Vultus ipsius erat plenus furoris, oculi sceleris, sermo arrogantiae, sic ut ei iam exploratus et domi conditus consulatus videretur. Murenam contemnebat, Sulpicium accusa20 torem suum numerabat, non competitorem; ei vim 50 denuntiabat, rei publicae minabatur. xxv. Quibus rebus qui timor bonis omnibus iniectus sit quantaque desperatio rei publicae, si ille factus esset, nolite a me commoneri velle; vosmet ipsi vobiscum 5 recordamini. Meministis enim, cum illius nefarii gladiatoris voces percrebuissent, quas habuisse in contione domestica dicebatur, cum miserorum fidelem defensorem negasset inveniri posse nisi eum, qui ipse miser esset; integrorum et fortunatorum promissis o0 saucios et miseros credere non oportere; quare, qui consumpta replere, erepta recuperare vellent, spectalowers of Marius who had been ~ 48. 1. gladiatoris, 'ruffian,' a driven from their farms to make term of abuse applied to Catilina places for Sulla's veterans. also in II. 24. 5. voces, ' words,' 17, 18. sermo arrogantiae. 'a speech.' habuisse, 'uttered,' P. 28, ~ 44. ei... exploratus, 'delivered.' contione domes'assured,' 'a sure thing,' the tica, 'meeting at his house,' p. 28, common meaning in Cicero. ~ 43. contio means (1) a meetdomi conditus (condo), 'stored ing; (2) a speech delivered at a up,' 'under lock and key, at his meeting; (3) the platform from house.' which this speech was delivered. 20. ei = Sulpicio. For the contiones as distinguished from the comitia, see p. 61, ~~ 42. ~ 50. 3, 4. factus esset: sc. 43. consul, and cf. ~ 18. 20. nolite 8. Catilina's speech is outlined.. velle, 'do not wish,' an odd (oratio tbliqua) in 11. 8-14; he is but common phrase = ne volueri- suggesting himself as leader for tis, which seems to have been his new following. P. 27, ~~ 40, avoided. 41. 5-7. Meministis: the object 11, 12. consumpta replere is not expressed until ~ 51. 15, (= reparare), the veterans of where, owing to the length of the Sulla: cf. II. ~ 20. erepta resentence, the verb is repeated; cf. cuperare, the ruined followers of

Page  189 CAP. 24-26, ~ 49-52. 189 rent, quid ipse deberet, quid possideret, quid auderet; minime timidum et valde calamitosum esse oportere eum, qui esset futurus dux et signifer calamitosorum 14 - tur igitur, his rebus auditis, meministis fieri senatus 51 consultum referente me, ne postero die comitia haberentur, ut de his rebus in senatu agere possemus. Itaque postridie frequenti senatu Catilinam excitavi atque eum de his rebus iussi, si quid vellet, qlae ad me adlatae essent, dicere. Atque ille, ut semper fuit apertissimus, 20 non se purgavit, sed indicavit atque induit. Tur enim dixit duo corpora esse rei publicae, unum debile infirmo capite, alterum firmum sine capite; huic, si ita de se meritum esset, caput se vivo non defuturum. Congemuit senatus frequens neque tamen satis severe 25 pro rei indignitate decrevit; nan partim ideo fortes in decernendo non erant, quia nihil timebant, partim, quia timebant nimium. Erupit e senatu triumphans gaudio, quem omnino vivum illinc exire non oportuerat, praesertim cum idem ille in eodem ordine 3o paucis diebus ante Catoni, fortissimo viro, iudicium minitanti ac denuntianti respondisset, si quod esset in suas fortunas incendium excitatum, id se non aqua, sed ruina restincturum. xxvi. His tur rebus commo- 52' \ Marius, ~ 49. 16. spectarent, subj. for imperative of oratio recta. ipse, the leader of such a following. ~ 51. 15, 16. fieri consultum. P. 28, ~ 43 ad fin. 20, 21. apertissimus, 'unreserved.' indicavit... induit, ' gave evidence against himself, and put the noose around his neck.' 25, 26. neque d e c r e v i t. Cicero had probably hoped that the senate would postpone the election for a considerable time, or even pass the consultum ultimum, but he was disappointed. partim... partim = alii... alii. 30. eodem ordine = in senatu. 34. ruina, 'general destruction.' When other means of extinguishing a fire had failed, it was customary then as now to pull down the buildings in its way.

Page  190 190 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. tus, et quod homines iam tur coniuratos cum gladiis in campum deduci a Catilina sciebam, descendi in campum cum firmissimo praesidio fortissimorum viro5 rum et cum illa lata insignique lorica, non quae me tegeret (etenim sciebam Catilinam non latus aut ventrem, sed caput et collum solere petere), verum ut omnes boni animadverterent et, cum in metu et periculo consulem viderent, id quod est factum, ad opem o1 praesidiumque concurrerent. Itaque, cum te, Servi, remissiorem in petendo putarent, Catilinam et spe et cupiditate inflammatum viderent, omnes, qui illam ab re publica pestem depellere cupiebant, ad Murenam se 53 statim contulerunt. Magna est autem comitiis consuls laribus repentina voluntatum inclinatio, praesertim cum incubuit ad virum bonum et multis aliis adiumentis petitionis ornatum. Qui cum honestissimo patre atque maioribus, modestissima adulescentia, clarissima legatione, praetura probata in iure, grata 20 in munere, ornata in provincia petisset diligenter, et ita petisset, ut neque minanti cederet neque cuiquam minaretur, huic mirandum est magno adiumento Catilinae subitam spem consulatus adipiscendi fuisse? 54 Nunc mihi tertius ille locus est reliquus orationis 25 de ambitus criminibus perpurgatus ab his, qui ante ~ 52. 2, 3. iam tum coniura- ~ 53. 14. Magna est (= multos. It is evident from this clause turn valet), 'has great force.' that Catilina did not have his con- 16. aliis, i.e., than being a good spiracy formed until after the elec- man; they are briefly recapitulated tion of 63 (p. 28, ~ 44). campum in 11. 17-22. = c. Martium where the consular 21-23. minanti: sc. Sulpicio, elections were held. whose threats of impeachment 8, 9. boni: see on I. 1. 5. id had not deterred Murena from his quod est factum goes with con- canvass. cuiquam minaretur, currerent: for case of id, see on as Sulpicius had lost votes by II. 18. 26. doing. huic... fuisse, 'is it

Page  191 CAP. 26-27, ~ 52-55. 191 me dixerunt, a me, quoniam ita Murena voluit, retractandus; quo in loco C. Postumo, familiari meo, ornatissimo viro, de divisorum indiciis et de deprehensis pecuniis, adulescenti ingenioso et bono, Ser. Sulpicio, de equitum centuriis, M. Catoni, homini in omni vir- 30 tute excellenti, de ipsius accusatione, de senatus consulto, de re publica respondebo. xxvII. Sed pauca, 55 quae meum animum repente moverunt, prius de L. Murenae fortuna conquerar. Nam cur saepe antea, iudices, ex et aliorum miseriis et ex meis curis laboribusque cotidianis fortunatos eos homines iudicarem, 5 qui remoti a studiis ambitionis otium ac tranquillitatem vitae secuti sunt, turn vero in his L. Murenae tantis tamque improvisis periculis ita sum animo adfectus, ut non queam satis neque communem omnium nostrum condicionem neque huius eventum fortu- 10 strange that Catilina's sudden hope of gaining the consulship was a great help to Murena?' ~~ 54-83. 'Third Part of Cicero's Reply; the Charge of Bribery. ~ 54. 26. a me... retractandus. This use of the ablative for the dative of the agent with the gerundive is not uncommon, and is usually a mere whim of the writer, although in some instances it may be due to a desire for uniformity (cf. ab his, 1. 25) or to an effort to avoid ambiguity. 27-29. C. Postumo, one of the subscriptores: nothing more is known of him. divisorum, 'bribery agents,' were the persons employed to distribute the money given for votes. deprehensis pecuniis, money found in the hands of the divisores. Ser. Sulpicio, the third subscriptor, otherwise unknown. 30-32. de... centuriis, in ~ 73. de... consulto, in ~ 67. de republica, 'on the political situation,' in ~ 74 foll. ~ 55. 3-7. cum iudicarem... tur. When the clauses connected by cum and turn have different verbs, the first is often found in the subj., there being usually a thought of concession or comparison present; cf., however, ~ 38. 16. otium.. vitae: see on ~ 16. 20. 9, 10. non queam. Cicero does not use the first person of the verb nequire, though he uses the others freely. omnium nostrum, ' us public men.'

Page  192 192 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. namque miserari; qui primurm, dum ex honoribus continuis familiae maiorumque suorum in hunc ascendere gradum dignitatis conatus est, venit in periculum, ne et ea, quae ei relicta, et haec, quae ab ipso parta 15 sunt, amittat, deinde propter studium novae laudis 56 etiam in veteris fortunae discrimen adducitur. Quae cum sunt gravia, iudices, turn illud acerbissimum est, quod habet eos accusatores, non qui odio inimicitiarum ad accusandum, sed qui studio accusandi ad inimicitias 20 descenderint. Nam ut omittam Servium Sulpicium, quem intellego non iniuria L. Murenae, sed honoris contentione permotum, accusat paternus amicus, C. Postumus, vetus, ut ait ipse, vicinus ac necessarius, qui necessitudinis causas compluris protulit, simultatis 25 nullam commemorare potuit; accusat Ser. Sulpicius, sodalis filius, cuius ingenio paterni omnes necessarii munitiores esse debebant; accusat M. Cato, qui cum a Murena nulla re umquam alienus fuit, turn ea condicione erat in hac civitate natus, ut eius opes et inge. 30 nium praesidio multis, etiam alienissimis, exitio vix 11, 12. honoribus continuis, 'uninterrupted honors:' see ~ 15. 14. ea... relicta = familia praetoria and locus senatorius. haec... parta, his honorable name as soldier and administrator. 15,16. deinde, correlative to primum (I. 11), but introducing merely a rhetorical variation of the primum clause. veteris fortunae discrimen: see on ~ 8. 2. ~ 56. 18, 19. non qui... sed qui, the regular order in Latin where we should expect qui non. sed; so with ut non. odio inimicitiarum, 'the hatred arising from personal enmity,' a motive considered perfectly propel by the Romans. Explain the genitive. 20. Servium Sulpicium, the iuris consultus. 25-27. Ser. Sulpicius, the subscriptor. sodalis filius, i.e., his father had belonged to the same sodalitas (fraternity, generally political, though originally religious), as Murena, the members of which were expected to support eacl other, and transmitted the obligation to their children. munitiores esse = potius defendi. 28-30. ea condicione...

Page  193 CAP. 27-28, ~ 55-58. 193 cuiquam inimico esse deberet. Respondebo igitur Pos- 57 tumo primum, qui nescio quo pacto mihi videtur praetorius candidatus in consularem quasi desultorius in quadrigarum curriculum incurrere. Cuius competitores si nihil deliquerunt, dignitati eorum concessit, cum 35 petere destitit; sin autem eorum aliquis largitus est, expetendus amicus est, qui alienam potius iniuriam quam suam persequatur. DE POSTUMI CRIMINIBUS, DE SERVI ADULESCENTIS. xxvII. Venio nunc ad M. Catonem, quod est fir- 58 mamentum ac robur totius accusationis; qui tamen ita gravis est accusator et vehemens, ut multo magis eius auctoritatem quam criminationem pertimescam. In quo ego accusatore, iudices, primum illud depreca- 5 bor, ne quid L. Murenae dignitas illius, ne quid expectatio tribunatus, ne quid totius vitae splendor et gravitas noceat, denique ne ea soli huic obsint bona M. natus, 'whom fate made a citizen 37. expetendus, etc., 'he (Posof Rome for this purpose, etc.' tumus) is a friend worth seeking, alienissimis, as in ~ 45. 11. as he, etc.' The point lies in the ~ 57. 33. desultorius: sc. ironical expetendus amicus, as equus. The desultor was a circus Postumus, who ought to have performer who rode two horses, been a warm friend of Murena leaping from one to another while (~ 56, 22-25), has gone out of his at full speed. The performance way to prosecute him. est, indewas considered inferior to chariot pendent verb: cf. erat, ~ 46. 2. racing, and the horse of the desul- 39. D E... ADULESCENTIS. tor is represented as trying to get Part of the oration is omitted out of his class. Cicero means here in which Cicero answered the that Postumus, a candidate for an charges of the subscriptores Suloffice inferior to the consulship, picius and Postumus: see p. 16, had better have left the candidates ~ 10, ad fin. for the latter to settle their own differences. ~ 58. 1, 2. quod... qui: for 34-36. Cuius competitores, gender, A. 199; G. 616 3, II; H. i.e., for the praetorship. petere 445 4; P. 343 a. destitit, gave up his canvass,' 5-7. deprecabor as in I. 27. 2. 'withdrew his name.' expectatio tribunatus. Cato

Page  194 194 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. Catonis, quae ille adeptus est, ut multis prodesse posset. o1 Bis consul fuerat P. Africanus et duos terrores huius imperii, Carthaginem Numantiamque, deleverat, cum accusavit L. Cottam. Erat in eo summa eloquentia, summa fides, summa integritas, auctoritas tanta, quanta in imperio populi Romani, quod illius opera tenebatur. 15 Saepe hoc maiores natu dicere audivi, hanc accusatoris eximiam dignitatem plurimum L. Cottae profuisse. Noluerunt sapientissimi homines, qui tur rem illam iudicabant, ita quemquam cadere in iudicio, ut nimiis 59 adversarii viribus abiectus videretur. Quid? Ser. 20 Galbam (nam traditum memoriae est) nonne proavo tuo, fortissimo atque florentissimo viro, M. Catoni, incumbenti ad eius perniciem populus Romanus eripuit? Semper in hac civitate nimis magnis accusatorum opibus et populus universus et sapientes ac 25 multum in posterum prospicientes iudices restiterunt. Nolo accusator in iudicium potentiam adferat, non vim maiorem aliquam, non auctoritatem excellentem, non niniam gratiam. Valeant haec olmnia ad salutem was now tribune-elect, and would enter upon office on the 10th of December. 10-12. Bis consul in 147 and 134. cum accusavit. L. Aurelius Cotta, consul 144, was prosecuted for extortion by Africanus, between the years 133 and 129. The trial was seven times interrupted, but he was finally acquitted, we are elsewhere told, by bribery. 17,18. qui iudicabant, as in ~ 24. 8. ~ 59. 19, 20. Quid: see on I. 8.23. Ser. Galba, prosecuted in 149 by the tribune C. Scribonius Libo, with Cato the elder (~ 32. 41) as subscriptor, for breach of faith with the Lusitani. He escaped conviction by working on the feelings of the people. traditum memoriae, 'handed down for the recollection of posterity.' 26. Nolo... adferat: for omission of the conjunction, see on eduxisset, II. 5. 12. non vim, etc.: the negative is repeated for emphasis before each accusative, as if volo non, not nolo, had preceded potentiam. 28-30. This principle had

Page  195 CAP. 28-29, ~ 58-61. 195 innocentium, ad opem impotentium, ad auxilium calamitosorum, in periculo vero et in pernicie civium 30 repudientur. Nam si quis hoc forte dicet, Catonem 60 descensurum ad accusandum non fuisse, nisi prius de causa iudicasset, iniquam legem, iudices, et miseram condicionem instituet periculis hominum, si existimabit iudicium accusatoris in reum pro aliquo praeiudicio 35 valere oportere. xxIX. Ego tuum consilium, Cato, propter singulare animi mei de tua virtute iudicium vituperare non possum; non nulla forsitan conformare et leviter emendare possim. 'Non multa peccas,' inquit ille fortissimo viro senior magister, 's e d p e c c a s; te 5 re ge re p o s su m.' At ego non te; verissime dixerim peccare te nihil neque ulla in re te esse huius modi, ut corrigendus potius quam leviter inflectendus esse videare. Finxit enim te ipsa natura ad honestatem, gravitatem, temperantiam, magnitudinem animi, iusti- 1o tiam, ad omnes denique virtutes magnum hominem et excelsum. Accessit istuc doctrina non moderata nec mitis, sed, ut mihi videtur, paulo asperior et durior, quam aut veritas aut natura patitur. Et quoniam non 61 caused Cicero to prefer defending to a presumption against the acto prosecuting: see p. 17, ~ 14; for cused.' an exception, p. 19, ~ 19. 4, 5. possim: for mood, A. ~60. 32. descensurum, prob- 311 a 3; G. 459 R. ad fin; H. p. ably with a touch of contempt: 267 foot n. 1; B. 280. inquit, in cf. ~~ 56. 19 and 29. 32. some old and unknown play. viro, 33. iudicasset, i.e., made up Achilles. magister, Phoenix. his mind that the accused was 9. Pinxit, 'has fashioned.' ad, guilty. 'with a view to.' 34. periculis hominum, 'for 12. Accessit: see on ~ 45. 1. men in danger,' cf. ~ 10. 41; an istuc, 'that natural character of idiom similar to that noted in ~ 16. yours.' doctrina, 'a creed,' i.e., 20. si, etc., 'if he thinks that an the rigid views of the Stoics: see opinion of the prosecutor amounts on ~ 3. 1.

Page  196 196 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. 15 est nobis haec oratio habenda aut in imperita multitudine aut in aliquo conventu agrestium, audacius paulo de studiis humanitatis, quae et mihi et vobis nota et iucunda sunt, disputabo. In M. Catone, iudices, haec bona, quae videmus divina et egregia, ipsius scitote 20 esse propria; quae non numquam requirimus, ea sunt omnia non a natura, verum a magistro. Fuit enim quidam summo ingenio vir, Zeno, cuius inventorum aemuli Stoici nominantur. Huius sententiae sunt et praecepta eius modi: sapientem gratia numquam mo25 veri, numquam cuiusquam delicto ignoscere; neminem misericordem esse nisi stultum et levem; viri non esse neque exorari neque placari; solos sapientes esse, si distortissimi sint, formosos, si mendicissimi, divites, si servitutem serviant, reges; nos autem, qui sapientes 30 non sumus, fugitivos, exules, hostis, insanos denique esse dicunt; omnia peccata esse paria; omne delictum scelus esse nefarium, nec minus delinquere eum, qui gallum gallinaceum, cum opus non fuerit, quam eum, qui patrem suffocaverit; sapientem nihil opinari, nul35 lius rei paenitere, nulla in re falli, sententiam mutare 62 numquam. xxx. Haec homo ingeniosissimus, M. Cato, auctoribus eruditissimis inductus arripuit, neque disputandi causa, ut magna pars, sed ita vivendi. Petunt ~ 61. 15. i m p e r i t a multitu- 29. servitutem serviant, the dine, a compliment to the jury. so-called figura etymologica, or 19,20. bona, quae divina: connection of noun and verb of see on ~ 12. 26-28. requirimus, same root. The phrase is a little 'miss,' 'would fain see otherwise.' stronger than the verb alone. 22, 23. Zeno of Cyprus taught 34. opinari, ' surmise,' 'conat Athens in the fourth century jecture.' B.C.; from the Greek word for ' porch,' where he lectured, his ~ 62. 2, 3. disputandi, vivenfollowers (aemuli) were called di, i.e., theory and practice. PeStoics. sententiae, 'maxims.' tunt = si petunt. A. 310 c; G.

Page  197 CAP. 29-30, ~ 61-63. 197 aliquid publicani; 'cave quicquam habeat momenti gratia.' Supplices aliqui veniunt miseri et calamitosi; 5 sceleratus et nefarius fueris, si quicquam misericordia adductus feceris.' Fatetur aliquis se peccasse et eius delicti veniam petit; 'nefarium est facinus ignoscere.' 'At leve delictum est.' 'Omnia peccata sunt paria.' Dixisti quippiam; 'fixum et statutum est.' Non re 10 ductus es, sed opinione; 'sapiens nihil opinatur.' Errasti aliqua in re; male dici putat. Hac ex disciplina nobis illa sunt: ' Dixi in senatu me nomen consularis candidati delaturum.' Iratus dixisti. 'Numquam,' inquit, 'sapiens irascitur.' At temporis causa. 'Impro- 15 bi,' inquit, 'hominis est mendacio fallere; mutare sententiam turpe est, exorari scelus, misereri flagitium.' Nostri autem illi (fatebor enim, Cato, me quoque in 63 adulescentia diffisum ingenio meo quaesisse adiumenta doctrinae), nostri, inquam, illi a Platone et Aristotele, 20 moderati homines et temperati, aiunt apud sapientem valere aliquando gratiam; viri boni esse misereri; distincta genera esse delictorum et dispares poenas; 600; H. 507 III. 1; B. 305. The conclusion is unexpressed (see on ~ 15. 11-12), and may be supplied: 'Cato will say.' 9, At leve, etc.: see on ~ 35. 1; the objection of the penitent to Cato's 'nefarium... ignoscere.' 13,14. nobis, ethical dative. Dixi, etc., p. 33, ~ 56. Iratus dixisti: the remark of some one trying to turn Cato from his purpose. 15. At temporis causa: sc. dixisti, 'to suit the times,' i.e., when you hoped by the threat to deter the candidates from illegal practices. ~ 63. 18, Nostri: sc. magistri, of the academic school, which taught no complete philosophical system, but selected from other systems whatever seemed probably right. An idea of its teachings may be had from this section. 20. illi a Platone, etc., 'the followers of Plato and Aristotle,' the former the Academics and the latter the Epicureans. There was not much difference between the moral views of the Stoics and Epicureans, except that the latter school attached less importance to virtue in comparison with other things.

Page  198 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. esse apud hominem constantem ignoscendi locum; 25 ipsum sapientem saepe aliquid opinari, quod nesciat, irasci non numquam, exorari eundem et placari, quod dixerit, interdum, si ita rectius sit, mnutare, de sententia decedere aliquando; omnis virtutes mediocritate 64 quadam esse moderatas. xxxr. Hos ad magistros si qua te fortuna, Cato, cum ista natura detulisset, non tu quidem vir melior esses nec fortior nec temperantior nec iustior (neque enim esse potes), sed paulo ad leni5 tatem propensior. Non accusares nullis adductus inimicitiis, nulla lacessitus iniuria pudentissimum hominem summa dignitate atque honestate praeditum; putares, cum in eiusdem anni custodia te atque L. Murenam fortuna posuisset, aliquo te cum hoc rei publicae vin10 culo esse coniunctum; quod atrociter in senatu dixisti, aut non dixisses aut, si posuisses, mitiorem in partem 65 interpretarere. Ac te ipsum, quantum ego opinione auguror, nunc et animi quodam impetu concitatum et vi naturae atque ingenii elatum et recentibus praecep15 torum studiis flagrantem iam usus flectet, dies leniet, aetas mitigabit. Etenim isti ipsi mihi videntur vestri praeceptores et virtutis magistri fines officiorum paulo 28,29. mediocritate quadam, 'mean, so to speak.' quidam is frequently used to indicate that the word to which it is attached does not quite express the writer's meaning, and to soften a bold or unusual use of language. See on I. 18. 29. Here Cicero attaches to mediocritas the idea of our 'golden mean.' 8. in... custodia,' in charge of,' 'to watch over.' Cato would be tribune (~ 58. 6) during Murena's consulship. 11. posuisses, 'asserted,' lit. 'laid down,' as a proposition. mitiorem, etc., 'you would have put a milder interpretation upon it,' would not have pushed it to extremes. ~ 65. 15. iam, 'presently,' 'soon,' its common meaning with a future tense. ~ 64. 3. quidem, concessive, as often. Cf. II. 10. 20.

Page  199 CAP. 30-31, ~ 63-66. 199 longius, quam natura vellet, protulisse, ut, cum ad ultimum animo contendissemus, ibi tamen, ubi oporteret, consisteremus. 'Nihil ignoveris.' Immo aliquid, non 20 omnia. ' Nihil gratiae concesseris.' Immo resistito gratiae, cum officium et fides postulabit. 'Misericordia commotus ne sis.' Etiam, in dissolvenda serveritate; sed tamen est laus aliqua humanitatis. 'In sententia permaneto.' Vero, nisi sententiam sententia aliqua 66 vicerit melior. Huiusce modi Scipio ille fuit, quem 26 non paenitebat facere idem, quod tu, habere eruditissimum hominem Panaetium domi; cuius oratione et praeceptis, quamquam erant eadem ista, quae te delectant, tamen asperior non est factus, sed, ut accepi a senibus, 30 lenissimus. Quis vero C. Laelio comior, quis iucundior eodem ex studio isto, quis illo gravior, sapientior? 18-20. ut... consisteremus. The Stoics, thoroughly understanding human weakness, which always falls a little short of what it aims at, have demanded more than is necessary, in order that man may do all that is necessary. 'Nih il ignoveris:' the quoted words are the injunctions of the Stoic school represented by Cato, the answers are tlose of common sense, represented by Cicero. 21. resistito, the rarer form of the imperative, A. 269 d 3; G. 262; H. 487 2, (2); B. 281 1 a). 23. commotus sis shows the mood and tense of ignoveris, 1. 20, and concesseris, 1. 21. Etiam, 'yes,' in answers, the negative being non; for etiam we often find vero, 'gladly,' as in 1. 25. ~ 66. 26. Scipio ille: see on ~ 58.10, and II. 1. 10. The men named in 11. 28-33 were all mern bers of the famous 'Scipionic Circle,' which had for its avowed object the mellowing of Roman austerities by the influence of Greek culture. 27, 28. quod tu. Cato had induced the aged Stoic philosopher, Athenodorus of Pergamus, to come to Rome and live at his house. Panaetium of Rhodes, the most famous Stoic of his time. 30. accepi a senibus: as Scipio was murdered in 129, and Cicero was born in 106, the latter may well have talked with old men who had known Scipio in their youth. 31. lenissimus: sc. erat from factus est. C. Laelio, the intimate friend and adviser of Scipio, consul in 140, and called sapiens, 'the wise.' To him more than to any one else was due the introduction of Greek culture into Rome.

Page  200 200 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. Possum de L. Philo, de C. Galo dicere haec eadem, sed te domum iam deducam tuam. Quemquamne existi35 mas Catone, proavo tuo commodiorem, communiorem, moderatiorem fuisse ad omnem rationem humanitatis? De cuius praestanti virtute curn vere graviterque diceres, domesticuin te habere dixisti exemplum ad imitandum. Est illud quidem exemplum tibi propositum 40 domi, sed tamen naturae similitudo illius ad te magis, qui ab illo ortus es, quam ad unum quemque nostrum pervenire potuit, ad imitandum vero tam mihi propositum exemplar illud est quam tibi. Sed si illius comitatem et facilitatem tuae gravitati severitatique 45 asperseris, non ista quidem erunt meliora, quae nunc sunt optima, sed certe condita iucundius. 67 xxxr. Quare, ut ad id, quod institui, revertar, tolle mihi e causa nomen Catonis, remove auctoritatem, quae in iudiciis aut nihil valere aut ad salutem debet valere, congredere mecum criminibus ipsis. Quid accusas, Cato, 5 quid adfers ad iudicium, quid arguis? Ambitum accusas; non defendo. Me reprehendis, quod idem defendam, quod lege punierim. Punivi ambitum, non innocentiam; 33. L. (Furio) Philo, consul 136, one of the most refined and accomplished men of the time. C. (Sulpicio) Galo, consul in 166, famed for his knowledge of astronomy, and the first Roman to predict an eclipse. 40, 41. sed tamen, etc., 'but notwithstanding that likeness to him in temperament comes more (easily) to you, his descendant, than to any of us, still that pattern has been set up for my imitation as well as yours.' illius, masc. gend. ab illo: with names of remote ancestors a preposition is used. 45, 46. asperseris, c o n d i t a, metaphor frolm use of spice in cooking. Give princp. parts of condita here, and of conditus, ~ 49. 18. ~ 67. 1, 2. revertar: cf. dicam, ~ 32. 7; again, ~ 10. 37. nomen Catonis = nomen Catonein: see on continentiae, ~ 23. 12. 4. congredere mecum criminibus, 'confront me with the mere charges;' for mecum see on II. 18. 26.

Page  201 CAP. 31-32, ~ 66-68. 201 ambitum vero ipsum vel tecum accusabo, si voles. Dixisti senatus consultum me referente esse factum, si mercede obviam candidatis issent, si conducti sectarentur, 10 si gladiatoribus locus tributim et item prandia si vulgo essent data, contra legem Calpurniam factum videri. Ergo, ita senatus si iudicat, contra legem facta haec videri, si facta sint, decernit, quod nihil opus est, dum candidatis morem gerit; nam, factunm sit necne, vehementer 15 quaeritur; si factum sit, quin contra legem sit, dubitare nemo potest. Est igitur ridiculum, quod est dubium, 68 id relinquere incertum, quod nemini dubium potest esse, id iudicare. Atque id decernitur omnibus postulantibus candidatis, ut ex senatus consulto neque, cuius intersit, 20 neque, contra quem sit, intellegi possit. Quare doce a L. Murena illa esse commissa; tum egomet tibi contra legem commissa esse concedam. 9, 10. senatus consultum: its i.e., the resolution was a mere provisions are given in oratio form. vehementer quaeritur, obliqua, 11. 10-12, si... videri, 'is the urgent question,' 'I ask and were afterwards embodied in urgently.' the lex Tullia. These provisions ~ 68. 17-19. Est... ridicuCicero comments upon one by one. lum, i.e., if, as Cato asserts, the si: sc. qui as subject of issent. resolution is aimed at Murena. mercede, 'for hire,' is the em- quod est dubium, whether or not phatic word, as is conducti, Murena has been guilty of corrupt 'hirelings' in the next clause. practices. relinquere, 'to leave 11, 12. gladiatoribus, 'at the unmentioned;' the subject is senaprize fights:' for case, see on comi- turn. quod nemini dubium, tiis, ~ 37. 11. tributim, 'by that the practices named are ille(whole) tribes' emphatic, and so gal. iudicare, 'to declare in set vulgo, 'generally.' legem Cal- terms.' purniam: see on ~ 46. 2. 20. Neither can the mere pass13-16. ita, 'thus,' 'this only.' ing of such a resolution be taken quod nihil opus est: for it is as a reflection upon Murena, for merely a reiteration of the Calpur- he as well as the other candidates nian law, which is in full opera- asked for it. tion anyway. dum... gerit, 21-23. doce.. tum conce'while it gratifies the candidates; ' dam. When the protasis of a

Page  202 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. xxxiii. ' Multi obviam prodierunt de provincia decedenti.' Consulatum petenti solet fieri; eccui autem non proditur revertenti? ' Quae fuit ista multitudo? ' Primum, si tibi istam rationem non possim reddere, 5 quid habet admirationis tali viro advenienti, candidato consulari, obviam prodisse multos? quod nisi esset 69 factum, magis mirandum videretur. Quid? si etiam illud addam, quod a consuetudine non abhorret, rogatos esse multos, num aut criminosum sit aut mirandum, 10 qua in civitate rogati infimorum hominum filios prope de nocte ex ultima saepe urbe deductum venire soleamus, in ea non esse gravatos homines prodire hora tertia in campum Martium, praesertim talis viri nomine rogatos? Quid? si omnes societates venerunt, quarum conditional sentence is expressed the demonstrative; so here istam by an imperative (doce see refs. on stands for istius rei or de ista re. ~ 62. 3), the English idiom inserts quid habet: cf. ~ 12. 19. 'and,' but no conjunction is used ~ 69. 8. rogatos, 'have been in Latin, though We sometimes invited' to meet him; not paid to find an adverb tum (as here) or do so. iam (as I. 8. 2). 10. filios. It was customary for young men who had just assumed 1-3. Multi, etc.: cf. the first the toga virilis to be attended by clause si... issent in the sena- all the friends of their families on tus consultum above. Cato insinu- the occasion of their first visit to ates that they were hired to meet the forum, and this ceremony Murena for political effect. Cicero took place at a very early hour. rejoins that every prominent man 11. de nocte: cf. ~ 22. 44. is met by his friends on his return deductum, supine; this verb is from abroad, and no significance regularly used of escorting a percan be attached to their thus meet- son from his home to the forum, ing Murena. See on I. 21. 43. for the escort homewards redudecedenti: see on ~ 37. 8. pro- cere. ditur, impers. 13. in campum M., when the 4, 5. istam rationem, 'an ex- people assembled to greet those replanation of that fact,' a very turning from the provinces. talis: common attraction of the demon- sc. qualis est Murena. strative to the case of a noun that 14. societates: sc. publicanoshould be modified by res and rum, 'corporations' of wealthy

Page  203 CAP. 33-34, ~ 68-70. 203 ex numero multi sedent iudices; quid? si multi homines 15 nostri ordinis honestissimi; quid? si illa officiosissima, quae neminem patitur non honeste in urbem introire, tota natio candidatorum, si denique ipse accusator noster Postumus obviam cum bene magna caterva sua venit, quid habet ista multitudo admirationis? Omitto 20 clientes, vicinos, tribules, exercitum totum Luculli, qui ad triumphum per eos dies venerat; hoc dico, frequentiam in isto officio gratuitam non modo dignitati nullius umquam, sed ne voluntati quidem defuisse. At secta- 70 bantur multi. Doce mercede; concedam esse crimen. 25 xxxiv. Hoc quidem remoto quid reprehendis? 'Quid opus est,' inquit, 'sectatoribus?' A me tu id quaeris, quid opus sit eo, quo semper usi sumus? Homines tenues unum habent in nostrum ordinem aut promerendi aut referendi beneficii locum, hanc in nostris 5 petitionibus operam atque adsectationem. Neque enim fieri potest neque postulandum est a nobis aut ab equitibus Romanis, ut suos necessarios adsectentur totos dies; a quibus si domus nostra celebratur, si equites who 'farmed' the revenues of Rome. 16-17. illa... n a t i o, 'that whole toadying set of office-seekers.' neminem, i.e., no matter how insignificant. non honeste, 'without (isplay,' 'quietly.' 21. exercitum totum L.: see on ~ 37. 10. As a matter of fact not more than 1,600 soldiers of Lucullus' old army were furloughed by Pompeius to attend upon the triumph of their old commander. 23. gratuitam, emphatic as the whole point turns on mercede of ~ 67. 10. non modo, etc.: see on II. 20. 35, 36. ~ 70. 24. At sectabantur: sc. in comitia, the second clause in the senatus consultum, ~ 67. 10. For at, see on ~ 35. 1. 4. unum... locum, 'but the one opportunity;' to express our ' only one,' the Romans use unus alone; our ' only' is omitted in many expressions in Latin. 7. fieri is inserted with potest, to express the English impersonal 'it is possible,' as potest is almost never impersonal in Cicero. 9. a quibus goes with celebratur, ' is crowded,' though the English idiom would prefer to connect

Page  204 204 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. 10 interdum ad forum deducimur, si uno basilicae spatio honestamur, diligenter observari videmur et coli; tenuiorum amicorum et non occupatorum est ista adsiduitas, quorum copia bonis viris et beneficis deesse non solet. 71 Noli igitur eripere hunc inferiori generi hominum fructum 15 officii, Cato; sine eos, qui omnia a nobis sperant, habere ipsos quoque aliquid, quod nobis tribuere possint. Si nihil erit praeter ipsorum suffragium, tenue est, nihil valent gratia; ipsi denique ut solent loqui, non dicere pro nobis, non spondere, non vocare domum suam possunt 20 atque haec a nobis petunt omnia neque ulla re alia, quae a nobis consecuntur, nisi opera sua compensari putant posse. Itaque et legi Fabiae, quae est de numero sectatorum, et senatus consulto, quod est L. Caesare consule factum, restiterunt. Nulla est enim poena, quae possitobservan25 tiam tenuiorum ab hoc vetere instituto officiorum exclu72 dere. At spectacula sunt tributim data et ad prandium vulgo vocati. Etsi hoc factum a Murena omnino, iudices, non est, ab eius amicis autem more et modo factum est, tamen admonitus re ipsa recordor, quantum hae con30 questiones in senatu habitae punctorum nobis, Servi, it with observari, inserting 'by them' in the subordinate clause. 'See on II. 5.7; 19. 17. 10. uno... spatio, 'by a single length of a public hall.' The basilicae were buildings on the forum, or near it, used for halls of justice, exchanges, etc. ~ 71. 15. sine (verb), 'permit.' 22. legi Fabiae, mentioned here only, perhaps a supplement to the lex Calpurnia ~ 46. 2. 23, 24. L. (Julio) Caesare, consul in 64; that consul only is mentioned who presided over the senate when the consultum in question was passed. See p. 64, ~ 54. restiterunt, 'ignored.' observantiam, ' deference.' ~ 72. 26. spectacula, temporary stands from which the sights could be seen. 28. more et modo, 'according to custom and with moderation,' i.e., not vulgo, as Cato asserted. 29, 30. admonitus re ipsa, 'reminded by the mere mention of it.' quantum punctorum, 'how many votes.' At an election of magistrates a ticket (tabella) containing the names of all the candidates was given to

Page  205 CAP. 34-35, ~ 70-73. 205 detraxerint. Quod enim tempus fuit aut nostra aut patrum nostrorum memoria, quo haec, sive ambitio est sive liberalitas, non fuerit, ut locus etin circo et in foro daretur amicis et tribulibus? xxxv. Haec omnia sec- 73 tatorum, spectaculorum, prandiorum crimina multitudine invita tua nimia diligentia, Servi, conlecta sunt; in quibus tamen Murena senatus auctoritate defenditur. Quid enim? senatus num obviam prodire crimen putat? 5 Non, sed mercede. Convince. Num sectari multos? Npn, sed conductos. Doce. Num locum ad spectandum dare aut ad prandium invitare? Minime, sed volgo. Quid est volgo? Universos. Non igitur, si L. Natta, summo loco adulescens, qui et quo animo iam sit et 10 qualis vir futurus sit, videmus, in equitum centuriis voluit esse et ad hoc officium necessitudinis et ad reliquum tempus gratiosus, id erit eius vitrico fraudi aut crimini, nec, si virgo Vestalis, huius propinqua et necessaria, locum suum gladiatorium concessit huic, 15 each voter, and he indicated his choice for eacl office by putting a mark (punctum), at the name of the man lie voted for. Hence, punctum came to mean vote. habitae: for meaning cf. ~ 50. 6. 32, 33. haec refers to the clause ut... daretur, but is attracted to the gender of the predicate nouns. non fuerit, 'did not take place,' 'was not allowed.' in foro, where the prize fights took place before the days of amphitheatres. ~ 73. 2-4. multitudine invita: the people did not approve of Sulpicius' over-watchfulness (diligentia). auctoritate: see on I. 3. 30, here used slightingly of the consultum of ~ 67, which he now interprets from the standpoint of the defence. 9. L. (Pinarius) Natta, stepson of Murena. He did not justify Cicero's complimentary language, for in 58, yielding to the influence of his brother-in-law Clodius, he consented to the destruction of Cicero's house on the Palatine. 10-13. et... et, 'both... and.' ad, 'with a view to.' officium necessitudinis, ' the service natural to this relationship.' reliquum tempus, i.e., not merely to forward Murena's canvass, but for his own interests afterwards. fraudi, 'injury,' dat. of purpose. 14,15. virgo Vestalis, name unknown. locum suum: the ves

Page  206 206 PIRO I.. MURENA ORATIO. non et illa pie fecit et hic a culpa est remotus. Omnia haec sunt officia necessariorum, commoda tenuiorum, munia candidatorum. 74 At enim agit mecum austere et Stoice Cato, negat 20 verum esse allici benivolentiam cibo, negat iudicium hominum in magistratibus mandandis corrumpi voluptatibus oportere. Ergo, ad cenam petitionis causa si quis vocat, condemnetur? 4 Quippe,' inquit; 'tu mihi summum imperium, summam auctoritatem, tu guber25 nacula rei publicae petas fovendis hominum sensibus et deleniendis animis et adhibendis voluptatibus? Utrum lenocinium,' inquit, 'a grege delicatae iuventutis an orbis terrarum imperium a populo Romano petebas?' Horribilis oratio; sed earn usus, vita, mores, 30 civitas ipsa respuit. Neque tamen Lacedaemonii, auctores istius vitae atque orationis, qui cotidianis epulis in robore accumbunt, neque vero Cretes, quorum nemo gustavit umquam cubans, melius quam Romani homines, qui tempora voluptatis laborisque disper tals had seats of honor reserved for 1 30. tamen, 'aside from this,' them at all public games. 18. munia, a very rare word, found in but one other passage in the orations. ~ 74. 23, 24. Quippe, 'of course,' in replies. mihi, ethical dat. gubernaoula, in this metaphorical meaning the word is always plural. 25, 27. petas: for mood, cf. fueris, ~ 21. 31. lenocinium, 'a position as panderer.' 29. Horribilis, 'awful.' usus, etc. '(our) experience, the life and character (of the people), and (the spirit of) the state.' our experience, etc. He takes the Lacedaemonians and Cretans as examples of austerity, to show that such austerity is no safeguard against national weakness. 31, 32. cotidianis epulis, the common meal of which all citizens partook in public. robore, hard oaken benches. The Romans reclined on cushioned couches. 33, 34. cubans: the Cretans sat at meals, the custom of the heroic age and of the Romans in very early times. dispertiunt, i.e., know how to enjoy luxury without becoming slaves to it.

Page  207 CAP. 35-36, ~ 73-75. 207 tiunt, res publicas suas retinuerunt; quorum alteri uno 35 adventu nostri exercitus deleti sunt, alteri nostri imperii praesidio disciplinam suam legesque conservant. xxxvI. Quare noli, Cato, maiorum instituta, quae 75 res ipsa, quae diuturnitas imperii comprobat, nimium severa oratione reprehendere. Fuit eodem ex studio vir eruditus apud patres nostros et honestus homo et nobilis, Q. Tubero. Is, cum epulum Q. Maxi- 5 mus P. Africani patrui sui, nomine populo Romano daret, rogatus est a Maximo, ut triclinium sterneret, cum esset Tubero eiusdem Africani sororis filius. Atque ille, homo eruditissimus ac Stoicus, stravit pelliculis haedinis lectulos Punicanos et exposuit vasa 10 35, 36. alteri: the Cretans, Fabius Maximus, and the younger, conquered in 68-67 by Q. Caecilius the famous Publius Scipio AfriMetellus, who received the sur- canus Minor, by P. Cornelius name Creticus. deleti, rhetorical Scipio, son of the conqueror of exaggeration for devicti. Hannibal. 37. praesidio. The Lacedae- 6, 7. nomine, ' in the name of,' monians were nominally free, but 'in honor of.' triclinium sterreally dependent upon Rome. neret, 'to spread the couches,' included the providing of everything ~ 75. 2, 3. res ipsa, 'their very in the way of furniture used at the r e s u 1 t s.' comprobat, 'vindi- banquet, e.g., couches, coverings, cate.' eodem ex studio, as in tables, dishes, etc. ~ 66. 32. 10. Tubero's lack of refinement 5. Q. (Aelius) Tubero, a grand- (inhumanitas, ~ 76. 23) led to three son of L. Aemilius Paulus by his blunders: he covered the couches daughter Aemilia, and a pupil of with goat-skins instead of rugs or Panaetius (~ 66. 28), exhibited in cushions (see on ~ 74. 32); he prohis daily life all the strictness and vided wooden sofas of the plain austerity of the Stoics. epulum, Punic style, instead of Roman 'a funeral banquet.' Q. (Fabius) couches with supports of silver or Maximus (Allobrogicus), consul bronze; and finally his dishes were 121, also a grandson of L. Aemil- the cheap earthen ones imported ius Paulus. The two sons of from Samos, instead of silver plate Paulus passed by adoption into or Corinthian bronzes. pelliculis, the gens Fabia and gens Cornelia, lectulos: the diminutives imply the elder being adopted by Q. contempt.

Page  208 208 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. Samia, quasi vero esset Diogenes Cynicus mortuus et non divini hominis Africani mors honestaretur; quem cum supremo eius die Maximus laudaret, gratias egit dis immortalibus, quod ille vir in hac re publica 15 potissimum natus esset; necesse enim fuisse ibi esse terrarum imperium, ubi ille esset. Huius in morte celebranda graviter tulit populus Romanus hanc per76 versam sapientiam Tuberonis, itaque homo integerrimus, civis optimnus, cum esset L. Pauli nepos, P. Africani, 20 ut dixi, sororis filius, his haedinis pelliculis praetura deiectus est. Odit populus Romanus privatam luxuriam, publicam magnificentiam diligit; non amat profusas epulas, sordes et inhumanitatem multo minus; distinguit ratione officiorum ac temporum vicissitu25 dinem laboris ac voluptatis. Nam quod ais nulla re allici hominum mentes oportere ad magistratum mandandum nisi dignitate, hoc tu ipse, in quo summa est dignitas, non servas. Cur enim quemquam, ut studeat tibi, ut te adiuvet, rogas? Rogas tu me, ut 30 mihi praesis, ut committam ego me tibi. Quid tandem? istuc me rogari oportet abs te an te potius a me, ut 77 pro mea salute laborem periculumque suscipias? Quid, 11. Diogenes, the famous phi- ~ 76. 24. r a t i o n e, 'by the losopher of the tub, whose one claims of;' for the whole thought, aim was to show how little man cf. ~ 74. 34. really requires. 20, 30. studeat, adiuvet, i.e., 13-15. supremo die, used both in the canvass for the tribunate, of the day of death and day of Cato had just been elected triburial; here in the latter sense. bune, and Cicero jests at his methlaudaret: the funeral train halted ods of getting votes. ut mihi in the forum, and the son, or some praesis, ' that (as tribune) you near relative of the dead man, de- may guide me,' i.e., you ask for livered a eulogy (laudatio fune- my vote, I suppose, as a favor to bris) from the rostra. potissi- me not to you! mum, 'rather than anywhere else.' 31. abs te: see on I. 27. 11.

Page  209 CAP. 36-37, ~ 75-78. 209 quod habes nomenclatorem? in eo quidem fallis et decipis. Nam, si nomine appellari abs te civis tuos honestum est, turpe est eos notiores esse servo tuo 35 quam tibi. Quid, quod, cum admoneris, tamen, quasi tute noris, ita salutas? Quid, quod, posteaquam es designatus, multo salutas neglegentius? Haec omnia ad rationemr civitatis si derigas, recta sunt; sin perpendere ad disciplinae praecepta velis, reperiantur 40 pravissima. Quare nec plebi Romanae eripiendi fructus isti sunt ludorum, gladiatorum, conviviorum, quae omnia maiores nostri comparaverunt, nec candidatis ista benignitas adimenda est, quae liberalitatem magis significat quamn largitionern. 45 xxxVIi. At enim te ad accusandum res publica ad-78 duxit. Credo, Cato, te isto animo atque ea opinione venisse; sed tu imprudentia laberis. Ego quod facio, iudices, cum amicitiae dignitatisque L. Murenae gratia facio, turn me pacis, otii, concordiae, libertatis, salutis, 5 vitae denique omnium nostrum causa facere clamo atque testor. Audite, audite consulem, iudices, nihil dicam ~ 77. 33. nomenclatorem. state,' i.e., the result of your canCandidates were accustomed to vass (your election) was for the take the voter by the hand (pren- public good, but, etc. perpensare) when they asked for his sup- dere: cf. ~ 3. 2. disciplinae, port, and this show of familiarity 'the (Stoic) school.' and cordiality made it necessary for them to know at least his ~ 78. 1-3. res publica, 'the name. They had, therefore, with interests of the state;' this was them slaves (nomenclatores), with the reason assigned by Cato for a talent for remembering names acting as subscriptor. ea = ista, and faces, who prompted them in often used thus to take up and a whisper when they addressed carry on a preceding Aic, iste, strangers. Plutarch, however, or ilie; cf. id, ~ 29. 28. opiniexpressly denies that Cato em- one, a sly thrust at Cato, who ployed such a slave. acknowledged no 'opinions': cf. 39, 40. ad rationem civitatis, ~ 61. 34. imprudentia, 'lack of 'according to the interests of the foresight;' i.e., the real needs of

Page  210 210 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. arrogantius, tantum dicam, totos dies atque noctes de re pUblica cogitantem! Non usque eo L. Catilina 10 rem publicam despexit atque contempsit, ut ea copia, quam secum eduxit, se hanc civitatem oppressurum arbitraretur. Latius patet illius sceleris contagio, quam quisquam putat, ad plures pertinet. Intus, intus, inquam, est equus Troianus; a quo numquam me 79 consule dormientes opprimemini. Quaeris a me, ec16 quid ego Catilinam metuam. Nihil, et curavi, ne quis metueret, sed copias illius, quas hic video, dico esse metuendas; nec tam timendus est nunc exercitus L. Catilinae quam isti, qui ilium exercitum deseruisse 20 dicuntur. Non enim deseruerunt, sed ab illo in speculis atque insidiis relicti in capite atque in cervicibus nostris restiterunt. Hi et integrum consulem et bonum imperatorem et natura et fortuna cum rei publicae salute coniunctum deici de urbis praesidio et 25 de custodia civitatis vestris sententiis deturbari volunt. the state require two consuls in office on the 1st of January: see on ~ 79. 32. 10. ea copia, used rarely thus in the sing. with the meaning of the plural, which follows in 1. 17. 14. equus Troianus: the wellknown stratagem by which, after ten years of unsuccessful effort against the walls of Troy, the Greeks gained admittance to the city while the Trojans were asleep (dormientes, 1. 15). ~ 79. 18. timendus est: cf. II., ~ 5 ad fin. 21. in capite atque in cervicibus, 'hanging over our heads and necks.' In such phrases, with noster or an equivalent poss. gen. pl., the singular of the noun (capiti) is regularly used; cervicibus is not an exception to the rule, for it is singular in meaning, the singular form not being used by Cicero, Caesar, or Sallust. For the repetition of the preposition (in) with two nouns connected by et or atque, no rule can be given; we can only say that it is a little more emphatic than if the second were omitted. 23. natura, 'disposition.' fortuna, 'social position,' as implying influence and a conservative tendency. 25, 26. sententiis, 'verdict,' a mere majority of votes was necessary. campo: see ~ 52.

Page  211 CAP. 37-38, ~ 78-81. 211 Quorum ego ferrum et audaciam reieci in campo, debilitavi in foro, compressi etiam domi meae saepe, iudices, his vos si alterum consulem tradideritis, plus multo erunt vestris sententiis quam suis gladiis consecuti. Magni interest, iudices, id quod ego multis 30 repugnantibus egi atque perfeci, esse Kalendis Ianuariis in re publica duos consules. Non lex improba, non 80 perniciosa largitio, non auditum aliquando aliquod malum rei publicae quaeritur. Inita sunt in hac civitate consilia, iudices, urbis delendae, civium trucidandorum, 35 nominis Romani extinguendi. Atque haec cives, cives, inquam, si eos hoc nomine appellari fas est, de patria sua et cogitant et cogitaverunt. Horum ego cotidie consiliis occurro, audaciam debilito, sceleri resisto. Sed moneo, indices: In exitu iam est meus consulatus; 40 nolite mihi subtrahere vicarium meae diligentiae, nolite adimere eum, cui rem publicam cupio tradere incolumem ab his tantis periculis defendendam. xxxvII. Atque ad haec mala, indices, quid accedat 81 aliud, non videtis? Te, te appello, Cato; nonne prospicis tempestatem anni tui? Iam enim hesterna contione 27, 28. in foro... saepe. Cicero seems to allude here and elsewhere (cf. I. ~ 11) to repeated attempts upon his life in the forum and at his home. We know, however, of but one such attempt (p. 31, ~ 49 ad fin.), and it is possible that his language is simply rhetorical exaggeration. his vos si = hi, si vos eis: see on ~ 70. 9. 31, 32. egi atque p e r f e ci, 'aimed at and accomplished.' duos consules: this argument, clinched in ~ 85, secured the acquittal of Murena, as Cicero elsewhere tells us. ~ 80. 40, 41. moneo: the warning is expressed abruptly in the indicative (est), and is thus more emphatic than if accommodated to moneo (esse). In exitu: see on traditur, ~ 3. 13. vicarium diligentiae, 'the one who is to succeed to my watchfulness.' For trans., see on ~ 3. 18. 42, 43. incolumem... defendendam, 'to be kept unharmed from, etc.' 2. non=nonne; see on II. 19.17. ~ 81. 3. annitui: sc. tribunicii, and see on ~ 64. 8.

Page  212 212 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. intonuit vox perniciosa designati tribuni, collegae tui; 5 contra quem multum tua mens, multum omnes boni providerunt, qui te ad tribunatus petitionem vocaverunt. Omnia, quae per hoc triennium agitata sunt, iam ab eo tempore, quo a L. Catilina et Cn. Pisone initum consilium senatus interficiendi scitis esse, in hos dies, 82 in hos menses, in hoc tempus erumpunt. Qui locus 11 est, iudices, quod tempus, qui dies, quae nox, cum ego non ex istorum insidiis ac mucronibus non solum meo, sed multo etiam magis divino consilio eripiar atque evolem? Neque isti me meo nomine interficere, 15 sed vigilantem consulem de rei publicae praesidio demovere volunt; nee minus vellent, Cato, te quoque aliqua ratione, si possent, tollere; id quod, mihi crede, et agunt et moliuntur. Vident, quantum in te sit animi, quantum ingenii, quantum auctoritatis, quan20 turn rei publicae praesidii; sed, cum consulari auctoritate et auxilio spoliatam vim tribuniciam viderint, tur se facilius inermem et debilitatum te oppressuros arbitrantur. Nam, ne sufficiatur consul, non timent. Vident in tuorum potestate collegarum fore; sperant 25 sibi D. Silanum, clarum virum, sine collega, te sine consule, rem publicam sine praesidio obici posse. 83 His tantis in rebus tantisque in periculis est tuum, 4. designatitribuni, Q. Metel- sake,' a metaphor from booklus Nepos, Cicero's personal enemy. keeping, where the 'account' of 8, 9. a Catilina, etc., the so- the person would be kept under called First Conspiracy, p. 23, his name (nomen). ~~ 30-32. in, 'upon,' not 'in.' 18. agunt et moliuntur, 'are ~ 82. 12, 13. non solum... aim ing and working at;' cf. ~ 79.31. sed etiam. ' I do not say by my 24, 25. fore: sc. hoc = ne suffi-... but far more by the...' ciatur consul. D. Silanum, MuSee on II. 5. 7. rena's colleague, p. 33, ~ 56. 14. meo nomine = mea causa, ~ 83. 27. est tuum, 'it is your 'on my account,' 'for my own duty.'

Page  213 CAP. 38-39, ~ 81-84. 213 M. Cato, qui mihi non tibi, sed patriae natus esse videris, videre, quid agatur, retinere adiutorem, defensorem, socium in re publica, consulem non cupidum, 30 consulem, quod maxime tempus hoc postulat, fortuna constitutum ad amplexandum otiumn, scientia ad bellum gerendum, anirno et usu, ad quod velis negotium. xxxix. Quamquam huiusce rei potestas omnis in vobis sita est, iudices; totam rem publicam vos in hac causa tenetis, vos gubernatis. Si L. Catilina cum suo consilio nefariorum hominum, quos secum eduxit, hac de re posset iudicare, condemnaret L. Murenam, si in- 5 terficere posset, occideret. Petunt enim rationes illius, ut orbetur auxilio res publica, ut minuatur contra suum furorem imperatorum copia, ut maior facultas tribunis plebis detur depulso adversario seditionis ac discordiae concitandae. Idemne igitur delecti ex amplissimis 10 ordinibus honestissimi atque sapientissimi viri iudicabunt, quod ille importunissimus gladiator hostis rei publicae iudicaret? Mihi credite, iudices, in hac causa 84 non solum de L. Murenae, verum etiam de vestra salute sententiam feretis. In discrimen extremum venimus; 15 nihil est iam, unde nos reficiamus aut ubi lapsi resistamus. Non solum minuenda non sunt auxilia, quae habemus, sed etiam nova, si fieri possit, comparanda. Hostis est enim non apud Anienem, quod bello Punico 28. natus esse: ef. ~ 56. 29. Mihi credite: see on II. 15. 18. Peroratio: Appeal to the Jury. 16-19. ubi = in quo, join with 4-6. consilio: see on I. 2. 14. resistamus, 'regain our footing.' rationes, 'interests ' cf. ~ 77. 39. apud Anienem, etc. In 211 10, 11. amplissimis ordini- Hannibal tried to draw the Roman bus: see on iudices, ~ 1. 1. army from the siege of Capua by ~ 84. 13. iudicaret: sc. the a sudden march towards Rome, omitted protasis si iudez esset. advancing as far as the Anio,

Page  214 214 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. 20 gravissimum visum est, sed in urbe in foro (di immortales! sine gemitu hoc dici non potest); non nemo etiam in illo sacrario rei publicae, in ipsa, inquam, curia non nemo hostis est. Di faxint, ut meus collega, vir fortissimus, hoc Catilinae nefarium latrocinium armatus 25 opprimat! ego togatus vobis bonisque omnibus adiutoribus hoc, quod conceptum res publica periculum parturit, 85 consilio discutiam et comprimam. Sed quid tandem fiet, si haec elapsa de manibus nostris in eum annum, qui consequitur, redundarint? Unus erit consul, et is 30 non in administrando bello, sed in sufficiendo collega occupatus. Illa pestis immanis prorumpet, in agros suburbanos repente advolabit; versabitur in rostris furor, in curia timor, in foro coniuratio, in campo exercitus, in agris vastitas; omni autem in sede ac loco 35 ferrum flammamque metuemus; quae iam diu comparantur; eadem ista omnia, si ornata suis praesidiis erit res publica, facile et magistratuum consiliis et privatorum diligentia conprimentur. 86 XL. Quae cum ita sint, iudices, primum rei publicae causa, qua nulla res cuiquam potior debet esse, vos pro mea summa et vobis cognita in re publica diligentia moneo, pro auctoritate consulari hortor, pro magnituwhich he crossed by the bridge (unda), not very well suited to five miles from the city. elapsa de manibus above. 23. Di faxint: for this form of 31. pestis, used also of Catifacio, found in Cicero in invoca- lina in II. 2. 25. prorumpet, tions and legal formulae only, from the fastnesses of the Apsee A. 128 e, 3; G. 191, 5; H. 240, penines, where he was now in4; B. App. 219. collega... trenched. 'opprimat, p. 32, ~ 53. 35, 36. quae: for gender, see 25, 26. togatus: see on II. 28.4. on II. 19. 1~. suis, ' its own' = hoc, quod conceptum: cf. ~ 12. "its fitting." 26. ~ 85. 29. redundarint, meta- ~ 86. 1. Quae cum ita sint: phor from overflow of a stream see on I. 20. 16.

Page  215 CAP. 39-40, ~ 84-87. 215 dine periculi obtestor, ut otio, ut paci, ut saluti, ut vitae 5 vestrae et ceterorum civium consulatis; deinde ego idem vos defensoris et amici officio adductus oro atque obsecro, indices, ut ne hominis miseri et cum corporis morbo, tur animi dolore confecti, L. Murenae, recentem gratulationem nova lamentatione obruatis. Modo max- 10 imo beneficio populi Romani ornatus fortunatus videbatur, quod primus in familiam veterem, primus in municipium antiquissimum consulatum attulisset; nunc idem squalore et sordibus confectus, lacrimis ac maerore perditus vester est supplex, iudices, vestram fidem 15 obtestatur, vestram misericordiam implorat, vestram potestatem ac vestras opes intuetur. Nolite, per deos 87 immortales!.iudices, hac eum cum re, qua se honestiorem fore putabit, etiam ceteris ante partis honestatibus atque omni dignitate fortunaque privare. Atque 20 ita vos L. Murena, iudices, orat atque obsecrat, si iniuste neminem laesit, si nullius auris voluntatemve violavit, si nemini, ut levissime dicam, odio nec domi nec militiae fuit, sit apud vos modestiae locus, sit demisso animo perfugium, sit auxilium pudori. Miseri- 25 cordiam spoliatio consulatus magnam habere debet, iudices; una enim eripiuntur cum consulatu omnia; 8, 9. corporis morbo, an at- 22, 23. neminem... nullius tempt to arouse the sympathies of... nemini: the lacking genitive the jury by a reference to the law and ablative of nemo are supplied (~ 47. 10) requiring the presence of from nullus. Decline! ut levisthe defendant, even though sick. sime dicam, 'to put it very 11. beneficio: see on ~ 2. 22. mildly.' odio: the (lacking) pas12, 13. familiam veterem: cf. sive of odi is supplied by the ~ 15. 10. municipium: Lanuvium, phrase odio esse, in which odio is near the via Appia, 23 miles south- dat. of purpose; so also a passive east of Rome. See on II. 24. 8. is obtained for utor by usui esse: ~ 87. 18, 19. hac re, the consul- cf. Caes. IV. 31. 2. ship. honestatibus,'distinctions;' 26. habere: for meaning cf. in this sense here only in plural. ~~ 12. 19; 68. 5; 69. 20.

Page  216 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. invidiam vero his temporibus habere consulatus ipse nullam potest; obicitur enim contionibus seditiosorum, 30 insidiis coniuratorum, telis Catilinae, ad omne denique periculum atque ad omnem iniuriam solus opponitur. 88 Quare quid invidendum Murenae aut cuiquam nostrum sit in hoc praeclaro consulatu, non video, iudices; quae vero miseranda sunt, ea et mihi ante oculos versantur ). et vos videre et perspicere potestis. XLI. Si, quod Iuppiter omen avertat! hunc vestris sententiis adflixeritis, quo se miser vertet? domumne? ut earn imaginem clarissimi viri, parentis sui, quam paucis ante 6 diebus laureatam in sua gratulatione conspexit, eandem deformatam ignominia lugentemque videat? An ad matrem, quae misera modo consulemn osculata filium suum nunc cruciatur et sollicita est, ne eundem paulo bo post spoliatum omni dignitate conspiciat? Sed quid 10 ego matrem eius aut domum appello, quem nova poena legis et domo et parente et omnium suorum consuetudine ~ conspectuque privat? Ibit igitur in exilium miser? Quo? ad orientisne partis, in quibus annos multos legatus fuit, exercitus duxit, res maximas gessit? At 15 habet magnum dolorem, unde cum honore decesseris, eodem cum ignominia reverti. An se in contrariam ~ 88. 33. praeclaro: see on imaginum into the family, and the ~ 22. 4. masks in Murena's hall could not therefore be very numerous. 1, 2. quod omen, 'an omen laureatam, 'wreathed with which:' the ominous word is laurel,' an honor conferred upon adflixe'itis to which omen is in those who had celebrated a apposition; for its position in the triumph: see ~~ 11, ad fin, and relative clause, A. 201 d; G. 618; 15. 13. H. 445 9; B. 251 4 b). ~ 89. 10. nova poena: see on 3-5. imaginem. For the ius ~ 8. 2 ad fin. imaginum, see on p. 55, ~~ 12. 13. 16, 17. in contrariam partem Murenh2as great-grandfather (see abdet: for the ace. where we on Title) had brought the ius should expect the abl. of place cf.

Page  217 CAP. 40-41, ~ 87-90. 217 partem terrarum abdet, ut Gallia Transalpina, quem nuper summo cum imperio libentissime viderit, eundem lugentem, maerentem, exulem videat? In ea porro provincia quo animo C. Murenam fratrem suum aspiciet? 20 Qui huius dolor, qui illius maeror erit, quae utriusque lamentatio, quanta autem perturbatio fortunae atque sermonis, cum, quibus in locis paucis ante diebus factum esse consulem Murenam nuntii litteraeque celebrarint et unde hospites atque amici gratulatum Romam 25 concurrerint, repente existet ipse nuntius suae calamitatis! Quae si acerba, si misera, si luctuosa sunt, 90 si alienissima a mansuetudine et misericordia vestra, iudices, conservate populi Romani beneficium, reddite rei publicae consulem, date hoc ipsius pudori, date 30 patri mortuo, date generi et familiae, date etiam Lanuvio, municipio honestissimo, quod in hac tota causa frequens maestumque vidistis. Nolite a sacris patriis Iunonis Sospitae, cui omnes consules facere necesse est, domesticum et suum consulem potissimum avellere. 35 Caes. I. 12. 3. Gallia Transalpina: see on Title, ad fin. Cicero elsewhere writes G. ulterior or Gallia alone. 18, 20. summo cum imperio, as propraetor: see ~ 42.19f. The phrase with cum is equivalent to a participle (praedituin) with the abl. (see on I. 15.25), and is therefore strictly parallel with lugentem, 1. 19. C. Murenam had been left in Gaul as legatus by his brother when the latter returned to Rome in 63 to conduct his canvass. 21. dolor, maeror. Synonyrms: dolor is grief as felt in the heart, maeror as expressed by the condition or action of the suf ferer, e.g., by the gloom on his countenance. 24-26. celebrarint, 'spread far and wide.' nuntius, in apposition with ipse: translate as suggested on ~ 7. 30. ~ 90. 29. beneficium: for meaning cf. ~ 86. 11. 34. Iunonis Sospitae: the worship of Juno as the ' Deliverer' originated at Lanuvium, and was brought thence to Rome in 338, and ranked among the most important in the city. cui facere: sc. sacra, from 1. 33, though facere is sometimes used absolutely = rem divinamfacere, sacrfilcare. omnes consules: the consuls

Page  218 218 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. Quem ego vobis, si quid habet aut momenti commendatio aut auctoritatis confirmatio mea, consul consulem, iudices, ita commendo, ut cupidissimum otii, studiosissimul bonoruin, acerrimum contra seditionem, for40 tissimum in bello, inimicissimum huic coniurationi, quae nunc rem publicam labefactat, futurum esse promittam et spondeam. once a year made a formal and from Lanuvium, such an official official sacrifice to Juno Sospita, sacrifice in his consulship would who had two temples at Rome. be doubly grateful to the ancient 35. suum: as Murena came deity of that municipium. EXCURSUS II. ROMAN CRIMINAL TRIALS. AT the conclusion of the speech for Murena, it may be well in preparation for those for Sulla, Milo, and Sestius, to give in connected form an outline of the procedure in the criminal courts in Cicero's time. ~ 1. I. All criminal cases were tried by the standing courts (quaestiones perpetuae), as remodelled by Sulla. We know of six of these, de repetundis (misgovernment), de sicariis et veneflcis (murder), de ambitu (illegal canvassing), de peculatu (embezzlement), de maiestate (treason), de falso (forgery), but there were probably others. ~2. Cases submitted to these courts were tried by a judge and jury. The official title of the judge was quaesitor; the jury as a body was termed consilium, while the individuals composing it were called iudices. Whenever, therefore, the plural iudices occurs in a phrase relating to a criminal trial it must be translated 'jurors' or 'jury,' never 'judges.' ~ 3. II. The praetors, eight in number, were the Roman judges; but as two of these, the praetor urbanus and praetor peregrinus, were engaged with civil cases, six only were free to preside over the criminal courts, and to these six were assigned by lot the six courts men~ 4. tioned by name above. Over the remaining courts presided specially appointed officers (usually ex-aediles), who had the special title iudex

Page  219 EXCURSUS II. 219 quaestionis as well as the general one quaesitor. The duty of the judge was merely that of a presiding officer. He was bound to see that the provisions of the law were strictly complied with, but was not allowed to direct or control the decision, which rested entirely with the iudices. II. The jurors were Roman citizens living in the city itself, or in ~ 5. its immediate vicinity, and serving without pay. No one was eligible for jury duty who was invested with any of the higher offices of state, or who had ever been convicted of any offence affecting his standing as a citizen of full rights (civis optimo iure, p. 53, ~ 2). A list of men eligible for jury duty (album iudicum) was made up by the praetor urbanus at the beginning of his term, and was valid for the year. Of the jurors one-third had to be senators and two-thirds equestrians: ~ 6. of the latter class, one-half (i.e., one-third of the whole number) had to be tribuni aerarii, district presidents. Not much is known about these, but, as they were elected by the tribes, one-third of the jury was indirectly, at least, elective. iv. A suit was begun by the accuser making application to the ~ 7. judge of the proper court for leave to bring the charge. As two or more persons might desire to prosecute the same man on the same charge, it was sometimes necessary for the judge to decide who should be the chief accuser (accusator), and who the supporters (subscriptores). When this had been determined by due inquiry (divinatio), the chief accuser made the formal charge (nornen detulit); and the judge, having first notified the accused (reus), and made sure that the accuser was a Roman citizen, duly registered the case (nomen recepit) upon his docket. He then fixed the day of trial, usually at an interval of ten days, and had the accused arrested and held for trial, or admitted him to bail. v. On the day of trial the proper number (unknown to us) of ~8. jurors was chosen by lot from those not already engaged in other trials, but the accuser and accused had the privilege of challenging (reiectio) a certain number without assigning any cause. The remaining (consilium iudicum) were sworn, and the trial commenced. If it was not finished on the first day, the court adjourned to the next but one (perendie), and so on until the arguments of the counsel (altercatio) were finished, and the evidence was all in. The judge ~ 9. then called upon the jurors for their verdict, and apparently renewed their oaths. Each juror wrote his decision (sententia) secretly upon a tablet in one of three forms: A. (absolvo), 'not guilty;' C. (condemno), 'guilty;' or N. L. (non liquet), 'not proven.' The verdict was determined by a majority of votes, or, if there was a tie, the verdict was given in favor of the defendant. If the majority voted N. L., the case was tried again; otherwise, there was no appeal from the judgment of a quaestio.

Page  220 220 PRO L. MURENA ORATIO. ~ 10. VI. It will be noticed immediately that this procedure differs widely from ours. There was no professionally trained judge to sift the evidence, and sum it up for the jury. The quaesitores were changed from year to year, and the praetors at least were more apt to ~ 11. be skilful politicians than learned jurists. There was no class of professional advocates taking fees and living by their profession. Any citizen might accuse or defend any other, and, as a high reputation as a successful pleader helped a man to political distinction, many did so. Thus the relations of counsel to clients rested more than now,12. upon the grounds of personal feeling. Again it not infrequently happened that collusion existed between the accuser and the accused. The former frequently played into the hands of the latter by suppressing evidence, and conducting the case without energy (praevaricatio), and hence the chief security for an honest prosecution lay in ~ 13. the personal hostility of the two. Then no bounds were set to the matter of an advocate's speech. The time might be limited by the judge or by agreement, but the only measure of relevancy was the patience of the jury. It is safe to say that a modern judge would not allow half of any of Cicero's speeches to reach the ears of the jury. Lord Brougham declares that not one-sixth of the oration for Archias would be admissible in an English court. Great importance was therefore attached to an advocate's skill as an orator, and as much, perhaps, to his personal influence with the jury, and his posi~ 14. tion in the state. Other means, too, were employed to work upon the feelings of the jury. The accused was attended by crowds of friends; his wife, children, and parents surrounded him, and he and they wore old and filthy garments as a sign of mourning. Influential men were secured to testify in general terms to his character, memorials were presented from distant communities, and deputations were often ~ 15. present throughout the trial. Finally, bribery was too common to excite surprise, and was made all the easier because the jury was accessible to the agents of both parties instead of being kept apart as now. We may therefore conclude that while the Roman criminal law was administered more expeditiously than ours, it was not free from objectionable features.

Page  221 M. TULLI CICERONIS ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA AD POPULUM. I. Rem publicam, Quirites, vitamque omnium ves- 1 trum, bona, fortunas, coniuges liberosque vestros atque hoc domicilium clarissumni imperii, fortunatissimam pulcherrimamque urbem, hodierno die deorum inmortalium summo erga vos amore, laboribus, consiliis, periculis 5 meis e flamma atque ferro ac paene ex faucibus fati ereptam et vobis conservatam ac restitutam videtis. Et si non minus nobis iucundi atque inlustres sunt ii 2 dies, quibus conservamnur, quam illi, quibus nascimur, quod salutis certa laetitia est, nascendi incerta con- 10 TITLE: Tertia: read p. 34, ~~ 58-60; review p. 31, ~~ 50-55. AD POPULUM; see on Title of the Second Oration. Exordium ~ 1-~ 3. 24: You are rejoicing over the safety of the city, and waiting to hear how that safety has been assured. ~ 1. 1, 4. Quirites: see on II. 1. 1. hodierno die = hodie; for date, see p. 35, ~ 59 ad fin. 7, videtis: a general idea of the events of tlhe morning and preceding night had spread through the city, but particulars were wanting. 8. Et si: as often the conditional clause cannot be distinguished in sense from a causal (quod, quia), so in English. ~ 2. 10. nascendi condicio, 'the terms of birth;' i.e., the lot into which we are born. 121

Page  222 222 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. dicio, et quod sine sensu nascimur, cum voluptate servamur, profecto, quoniam illum, qui hanc urbemn condidit, ad deos inmortalis benivolentia famaque sustulimus, esse apud vos posterosque vestros in honore 15 debebit is, qui eandem hanc urbem conditam amplificatamque servavit. Nam toti urbi, templis, delubris, tectis ac moenibus subiectos prope iam ignis circumdatosque restinximus, idemque gladios in rem publicam destrictos rettudimus mucronesque eorum a iugulis 3 vestris deiecimus. Quae quoniam in senatu inlustrata, 21 patefacta, comperta sunt per me, vobis iam exponam breviter, Quirites, ut, et quanta et quam manifesta et qua ratione investigata et comprehensa sint, vos, qui et ignoratis et expectatis, scire possitis. 25 Principio ut Catilina paucis ante diebus erupit ex 11. sensu, 'consciousness.' voluptate, 'a sense of pleasure,' the so-called 'pregnant' use of a word, the sense requiring an extension of its strict meaning; for English examples, see Webster under 'pregnant.' 12,13. ilium, qui: Romulus, deified under the name of Quirinus, and honored with a yearly festival on the 17th of February. benivolentia famaque, ' affection and praise,'perhaps hendiadys. 15, 16. is, qui, Cicero. templis, delubris, 'temples and shrines:' in this phrase the distinction is merely of size, though strictly the delubrum differed from the templum in being dedicated to a particular divinity and implying always a building, or at least a shrine. 19, 20. rettudimus, d e i e c i mus, 'beaten down, turned aside,' fencing terms. inlustrata, etc.: the three participles are arranged in the order of their importance in Cicero's mind; in the order of time the series would be comperta, patefacta, in senatu inlustrata. ~ 3. 21-23. per me, 'by my agency,' a little more modest than a me or mihi. quanta... comprehensa sint: quanta is the subject of the two passive verbs, not of sint, to be supplied from them, but as this accumulation of interrogatives cannot be literally trans., turn thus: 'the importance, completeness, and method of these discoveries and proofs.' Part first of the speech: the story of the arrest, 1. 25-~ 15. See p. 34, ~~ 58, 59. 25-27. ut, in temporal meaning,

Page  223 CAP. 1-2, ~ 2-4. 223 urbe, cum sceleris sui socios huiusce nefarii belli acerriinos duces Romae reliquisset, semper vigilavi et providi, Quirites, quern ad modum in tantis et tam absconditis insidiis salvi esse possemus. It. Nam turn, cum ex urbe Catilinam eiciebam (non enim iam vereor huius verbi invidiam, cum illa magis sit timenda, quod vivus exierit), sed turn, cum ilium exterminari volebam, aut reliquam coniuratorum manum simul 5 exituram aut eos, qui restitissent, infirmos sine illo ac debiles fore putabam. Atque ego ut vidi, quos 4 maximo furore et scelere esse inflammatos sciebam, eos nobiscum esse et Romae remansisse, in eo omnes dies noctesque consumpsi, ut, quid agerent, quid moli- o1 rentur, sentirem ac viderem, ut, quoniam auribus vestris propter incredibilem magnitudinem sceleris minorem fiderm faceret oratio mea, rem ita comprehenderem, ut turn demum animis saluti vestrae provideretis, cum oculis maleficium ipsum videretis. Itaque, 15 ut comperi legatos Allobrogum belli Transalpini et so in ~ 4. 7 and 16. paucis ante diebus: how long before? See p. 31, ~ 51 ad fin. duces: name them, p. 32, ~ 54. 3. huius verbi invidiam, 'tlhe prejudice aroused by this word,' i.e., eiciebam: see on II. 1. 4. illa (invidia), explained by quod... exierit. 4. sed, resumptive: what other word might have been used? See I. 9. 16. exterminari, 'put out (of the state),' ' banished;' the meaning 'exterminated' is not found in classical Latin. ~ 4. 7. ego... consumpsi (1. 10), an excellent example of suspension of clauses: see on II. 17. 2. 9, 10. in eo ut, ' in the effort to.' agerent, molirentur: cf. Mur. 82. 18. 13. minorem... oratio, ' my words gained less credence' than they deserved (see on II. 9. 3), or ' too little credence.' 14, 15. ut... videretis: while the meaning is plain, a more logical arrangement would have been, ut oculis maleficium videretis quoniam turn demum (i.e., cum... videretis) animis saluti vestrae provideretis. 16. belli, tumultus: for distinction see on Mur. 22. 6.

Page  224 224 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. tumultus Gallici excitandi causa a P. Lentulo esse sollicitatos, eosque in Galliam ad suos civis eodemque itinere cum litteris mandatisque ad Catilinam esse 20 missos, comitemque iis adiunctum esse T. Volturcium, atque huic esse ad Catilinam datas litteras, facultatem mihi oblatam putavi, ut, quod erat difficillimum, quodque ego semper optabam ab dis inmortalibus, ut tota res non solum a me, sed etiam a senatu et a vobis 5 manifesto deprehenderetur. Itaque hesterno die L. 26 Flaccum et C. Pomptinum praetores, fortissimos atque amantissimos rei publicae viros, ad me vocavi, rem exposui, quid fieri placeret, ostendi. Illi autem, qui omnia de re publica praeclara atque egregia sentirent, 30 sine recusatione ac sine ulla mora negotium suscepe 17. P. Lentulo: see p. 32, ~ 54. 19. cum litteris mandatisque, 'with a letter and verbal directions.' Cicero exaggerates here. The only letter addressed to Catilina was written by Lentulus, and carried by Volturcius (1. 20): the three letters carried by the Allobroges were written by Cethegus, Lentulus, and Statilins, and addressed to the senate and people of the Allobroges. Litterae may denote a single epistle or several. 23. ut tota: this ut is merely a repetition for the sake of clearness of the ut, 1. 22, a very common occurrence after intervening clauses. ~5. 25-27. hesterno die heri, what day? L. (Valerium) Placcum, after the expiration of his praetorship, went as propraetor (see p. 68, ~~ 73-75) to Asia, and, on his return, was successfully defended by Cicero in 59, when prosecuted for misgovernment. C. Pomptinum, two years later, as propraetor of farther Gaul, quelled an uprising of these same Allobroges, whose services to the state at this crisis had secured them no relief from the rapacity of the Roman governors. praetores: these officers were selected, because they had the imperium: see p. 68, ~ 73; for their regular duties, p. 65, ~~ 59, 60. amantissimos rei publicae: one word in English. 28, 29. qui = cum ii. This causal relative clause, if unaccompanied by quippe, ut or utpote to mark its meaning, stands in classical prose before the principle verb. omnia = nihil nisi, 'nothing but;' in this place ' all' would not give the sense.

Page  225 CAP. 2-3, ~ 4-6. 225 runt et, cum advesperasceret, occulte ad pontem Mulvium pervenerunt atque ibi in proximis villis ita bipertito fuerunt, ut Tiberis inter eos et pons interesset. Eodem autem et ipsi sine cuiusquam suspicione multos fortis viros eduxerant, et ego ex praefectura Reatina 35 complures delectos adulescentes, quorum opera utor adsidue in rei publicae praesidio, cum gladiis miseram. Interim tertia fere vigilia exacta cum iam pontem 6 Mulvium magno comitatu legati Allobrogum ingredi inciperent unaque Volturcius, fit in eos impetus; 40 educuntur et ab illis gladii et a nostris. Res praetoribus erat nota solis, ignorabatur a ceteris. Ir. Tur interventu Pomptini atque Flacci pugna, quae erat commissa, sedatur. Litterae, quaecumque erant in eo comitatu, integris signis praetoribus traduntur; ipsi 31. advesperasceret: wha t Reate was an ancient town of the kind of a verb? A. 167, a; G. Sabines, n. e. of Rome, which had 152, V; H. 337; B. 1551. pontem lost its independence in the third Mulvium, a bridge over the Tiber Sabine war. Cicero was its patrotwo miles from Rome at the be- nus, and so could confidently rely ginning of the via Flaminia. It upon the devotion of its people. was built by M. Aenlilius Scaurus 36. opera, first declension, not in his censorship (109), and the from opus. name Mulvius may be a vlllgar ~ 6. 38. tertia vigilia: what contraction for Aemilius. time? cf. Caes. I. 12. 2. 32, 33. b i p e r t ito fuerunt, 40, 41. unaque = et una cum 'staid in two divisions;' for the eis: cf. Mur. 18. 20. Res, 'my adverb with esse, see on I. 19. 8. plan.' Tiberis et pons interesset: ex- Explain the subjunctives in 11. plain the singular verb. inter 10-15. eos; i.e., Flaccus and Pomptinus, who took positions on oppo- 2. erat commissa: insert site sides of the river. 'already ' in the translation. 35. praefectura Reatina, 'the - 4. integris signis, ' seals unprefecture of Reate.' Aprae- broken,' proving that tlme Allobrofectura was a provincial town, ges had not tampered with the letgoverned by a magistrate (prae- ters. ipsi, in opposition to litterae, fectus), sent yearly from Rome. means the legates and Volturcius.

Page  226 226 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. 5 comprehensi ad me, cum iam dilucesceret, deducuntur. Atque horum omnium scelerum improbissimum machinatorem, Cimbrum Gabinium, statim ad me nihildum suspicantem vocavi; deinde item accersitus est L. Statilius et post eum C. Cethegus; tardissime autem o1 Lentulus venit, credo quod in litteris dandis praeter 7 consuetudinem proxima nocte vigilarat. Cum summis et clarissimis huius civitatis viris, qui audita re frequentes ad me mane convenerant, litteras a me prius aperiri quam ad senatum deferri placeret, ne, si nihil 15 esset inventum, temere a me tantus tumultus iniectus civitati videretur, negavi me esse facturum, ut de periculo publico non ad consilium publicum rem integram deferrem. Etenim, Quirites, si ea, quae erant ad me delata, reperta non essent, tarnen ego non ar20 bitrabar in tantis rei. publicae periculis esse mihi nimiam diligentiam pertimescendam. Senatum fre 5. dilucesceret: cf. ~ 5. 31. 7, 8. Cimbrum Gabinium, etc.: on these persons see p. 33, ~ 55. vocavi: the consul had the right to summon (ius vocationis) citizens to his presence, using force if necessary (ius prehensionis). 10. credo: ironical (see on II. 14. 27), as the letter he had lost so much rest in writing is barely four lines long. ~ 7. 11,12. summis viris, summoned to act as witnesses, as at a similar crisis, before: cf. I. 10. 29-30. frequentes, 'in large numbers.' 13-15. prius quam deferri, 'before being laid before.' The regular construction with prius quam would here require the subjunctive (deferrentur or active deferrein), but sometimes the comparative idea prevails and the infinitive follows, as here. A. 336 c. n 2, p. 373; G. 647, 4 ad fin.; H. 524 1, (2); B 314 4. nihil, i. e., incriminating, treasonable. temere, 'causelessly.' tumultus, 'excitement,' not as in ~ 4. 17. 16,17. facturum, ut non deferrem = non delaturum. A. 332 e; G. 557 2 finer print; H. 498 II. n. 2. consilium publicum: see on I. 2. 14. integram, 'untampered with,' ' unprejudiced.' 18,19. si ea... tamen: what force has si? Cf. II. 16. 30; I. 29. 11. 21, 22. nimiam diligentiam,

Page  227 CAP. 3-4, ~ 6-9. 227 quentem celeriter, ut vidistis, coegi. Atque interea 8 statirn admonitu Allobrogum C. Sulpiciun praetorem, fortem virum, misi, qui ex aedibus Cethegi, si quid telorum esset, efferret; ex quibus ille maximum sica- 25 rum numerum et gladiorum extulit. Iv. Introduxi Volturcium sine Gallis; fidem publicam iussu senatus dedi; hortatus sum, ut ea, quae sciret, sine timore indicaret. Tum ille dixit, cum vix se ex magno timore recreasset, a P. Lentulo se habere ad Catilinam mandata et litteras, ut servorum praesidio 5 uteretur, ut ad urbem quam primum cum exercitu accederet; id autem eo consilio, ut, cum urbem ex omnibus partibus, quem ad modum discriptum distributumque erat, incendissent caedemque infinitam civium fecissent, praesto esset ille, qui et fugientis exciperet et se cum 10 his urbanis ducibus coniungeret. Introducti autem 9 Galli ius iurandum sibi et litteras ab Lentulo, Cethego, 'the reproach of excessive diligence:' pregnant, see on ~ 2. 11. Senatum frequentem, 'a full senate.' Cicero elsewhere calls an attendance of 417 senators frequentissimus. coegi: the place of meeting was the temple of Concordia, between the forum and the capitol, see p. 75, ~ 103, and Plan B. ~ 8. 23, 24. C. Sulpicium, not elsewhere mentioned. aedibus: for distinction in meaning between sing. and pi. see vocab. Mention two other words with the same peculiarity. Explain the subjunctives in 11. 13-17. 1, 2. Volturcium sine Gallis: so witnesses are often examined separately now. Why? fidem publicam, 'protection on the part of the state,' i.e., Volturcius turned states-evidence. i u s s u senatus: because the consul could not do this unless authorized by the senate. 5. mandata et litteras: cf. ~ 4. 19, where the mandata are assigned to the Allobroges. 7, 8. id, in apposition to the clause ut... accederet. consilio, 'plan,' defined by ut... esset (1. 10). omnibus partibus, 'on all sides;' in twelve places according to Sallust, one hundred according to Plutarch. 9, 10. erat, a remark of Cicero, not part of what Volturcius said. A. 336 b, p. 372; G. 630 R. 1; H. 524 2 (1); B.3143. qui. exciperet, 'to cut off.'

Page  228 228 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. Statilio ad suam gentem data esse dixerunt, atque ita sibi ab his et a L. Cassio esse praescriptum, ut equita15 turn in Italiam quam primum mitterent; pedestres sibi copias non defuturas. Lentulum autem sibi confirmasse ex fatis Sibyllinis haruspicumque responsis se esse tertium illum Cornelium, ad quem regnum huius urbis atque imperium pervenire esset necesse; Cinnam ante 20 se et Sullam fuisse. Eundemque dixisse fatalem hunc annum esse ad interitum huius urbis atque imperii, qui esset annus decimus post virginum absolutionem, post ~ 9. 13, 14. data: for gender, see on II. 19. 15. L. Cassio: p. 32, ~ 54; the praenomen, omitted with the other names, is given because this is Cicero's first mention of him. esse praescriptum, one of three clauses (besides data esse) depending upon dixerunt, each of which has a clause dependent upon it (wheel within a wheel), thus: a. (l. 14), ita sibi ab his et a Lucio Cassio esse praescriptum. b. (1. 16), Lentulum autem sibi ex fatis, etc. confirmasse... c. (. 20),eundem dixisse ut equitatum mitterent; [pedestres sibi copias non defuturas.] I se esse illum... Sullam fuisse. < fatalem h u n c esse... vicesimus. 16,17. copias defuturas '(adding that) forces, etc.,' dependent upon a verb of saying to be supplied from the general idea of praescripturn: cf. 11. 19. 8. Sibyllinis: see p. 73, ~ 91. The original books had been burned in 83, see on 1. 23, but a new collection had been made from various sources, to which the same authority was ascribed as to the old. haruspicum responsis: see p. 73, ~ 92. For Lentulus' superstition see p. 32, ~ 54. 18-20. Cornelium: his full name was P. Cornelius Lentulus Sura; Cinna's was L. Cornelius Cinna; Sulla's, L. Cornelius Sulla Felix. fatalem, 'set by fate,' 'fated,' not 'fatal.' 22. virginum: sc. Vestalium. The Vestals (called by Cicero virgines and virgines Vestales, but never Vestales alone) were the six virgin priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the city hearth. They were bound by vow to chastity while serving in the temple of Vesta, and kept constantly burning the 'eternal flame' upon her altar, which, instead of a statue, From this arrangement it will be easily understood that the reflexive pronoun in each dependent clause refers to the subject of the verb upon which its clause directly depends.

Page  229 CAP. 4-5, ~ 9-10. 229 Capitoli autem incensionem vicesimus. Hanc autem 10 Cethego cum ceteris controversiam fuisse dixerunt, quod Lentulo et aliis Saturnalibus caedem fieri atque 25 urbem incendi placeret, Cethego nimium id longum videretur. v. Ac ne longum sit, Quirites, tabellas proferri iussimus, quae a quoque dicebantur datae. Primo ostendimus Cethego; signum cognovit. Nos linum was the symbol of the deity. The confusion incident to such a time order was older than the republic, of good fellowship - to which our and special honors and privileges Christmas festivities go back - the were granted to it; one is men- conspirators hoped to find a favortioned Mur. 73. 15. absolutio- able opportunity for carrying out nem: we do not know what 'ac- their plans. quittal' is referred to. The sins 26. Cethego. Sallust says of of the Vestals which were looked him: natura ferox, vehemens, upon as national calamities, and manu promptus erat, maximum were expiated by state sacrifices, bonum celeritate putabat. longwere (1) violation of the vow of um, 'too distant altime.' chastity, termed incest, and punished by burying the offender alive 1. ne longum sit, 'not to be in the forum, and (2) allowing the tedious:' for the clause, cf. II. sacred fire to go out, punished by 9. 1. tabellas, 'letters,' really scourging. pairs of thin boards, with one side 23. C a p it oli incensionem: covered with wax and surrounded from some unknown cause in the by a raised edge. Upon the wax consulship of L. Cornelius Scipio the letter was written with a and C. Norbanus, 83. The capitol pointed instrument (stilus) of was looked upon as the symbol of metal or ivory. The two pieces the perpetuity of the state, and its were then put together face to burning as most ominous. face, the raised edges preventing ~ 10. 25. Saturnalibus: 'the the wax surfaces from touching, feast of Saturn,' Dec. 19th, extend- and were wrapped with thread ing sometimes over several days, (linum). This was tied and sealed and celebrated In remembrance of in the same way that express packthe Golden Age of the world, when ages now are. proferri: Flaccus Saturnus reigned in heaven. All (~ 5. 26) had the letters in his business was suspended, distinc- keeping: cf. Exc. I. 46. 5. tions of class were forgotten, the 3. signum cognovit, 'he acrich feasted the poor, friends ex- knowledged the seal,' a very imchanged presents, and masters portant point, as the letters were waited upon their slaves. In the often written by slaves from dicta

Page  230 230 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. incidimus, legimus. Erat scripturm ipsius manu Allo5 brogum senatui et populo sese, quae eorum legatis confirmasset, facturum esse; orare, ut item illi facerent, quae sibi eorum legati recepissent. Turn Cethegus, qui paulo ante aliquid tamen de gladiis ac sicis, quae apud ipsum erant deprehensa, respondisset dixissetque o0 se semper bonorum ferramentorum studiosum fuisse, recitatis litteris debilitatus atque abiectus conscientia repente conticuit. Introductus est Statilius; cognovit et signumr et manum suam. Recitatae sunt tabellae in eandem fere sententiamn; confessus est. Turn ostendi 15 tabellas Lentulo et quaesivi, cognosceretne signum. Adnuit. 'Estvero', inquam, 'notum quidem signum, imago avi tui, clarissimi viri, qui amavit unice patriam et cives suos; quae quidem te a tanto scelere etiam 11 m u ta r e v o c a r e d e b u i ' Leguntur eadem ratione tion, and the seal was the only tive phrases are usually connected means for identifying the writer. 4ith their nouns by a participle So in opening the letter, the cord (here we should expect scriptae) was cut, and the seal preserved or a relative clause. entire with the tabellae. 17. imago, i.e., the head only; 7, 8. sibi, the writer. recepis- the son of the elder Scipio had also sent, 'promised.' quae: for gen- such a signet ring, on which his der see on II. 19. 15. father's head was cut. avi tui. 10. bonorumferramentorum, Lentulus' grandfather, P. Corne'good cutlery:' the word is chosen lius Lentulus, was consul in 162. to imply that it was the quality of 18, 19. unice, 'to the exclusion the weapons, not the use for which of all else,' ' with his whole heart.' they were designed, that secured quae etiam muta, figure of them a place in his 'collection.' speech? See on I. 18. 29. re13,14. manum, 'handwriting;' vocare debuit: for tenses see I. so also in colloquial English. 4.14, first ref. tabellae, 'his letter;' so in 1. 15: ~ 11. 20, 21. eadem ratione see on ~ 4. 19. in eandem sen- (= in eandem sententiam, ~ 10. tentiam, 'to the same purport,' 14), abl. of quality, to be joined, an adjective phrase to be joined despite its position, with litterae. directlyto tabellae. Suchattribu- ad... populum: see on in

Page  231 CAP. 5, ~ 10-12. 231 ad senatum Allobrogum populumque litterae. Si quid 21 de his rebus dicere vellet, feci potestatem. Atque ille primo quidem negavit; post autem aliquanto, toto iam indicio exposito atque edito, surrexit; quaesivit a Gallis, quid sibi esset cum iis, quam ob rem domum suam 25 venissent, itemque a Volturcio. Qui cum illi breviter constanterque respondissent, per quem ad eum quotiensque venissent, quaesissentque ab eo, nihilne securn esset de fatis Sibyllinis locutus, tum ille subito scelere demens, quanta conscientiae vis esset, ostendit. Nam, 30 cum id posset infitiari, repente praeter opinionem omnium confessus est. Ita eum non modo ingenium illud et dicendi exercitatio, qua semper valuit, sed etiam propter vim sceleris manifesti atque deprehensi inpudentia, qua superabat omnis, inprobitasque defecit. 35 Volturcius vero subito litteras proferri atque aperiri 12 iubet, quas sibi a Lentulo ad Catilinam datas esse dice sententiam, ~ 10. 14; here we should expect datae. 24. indicio exposito, edito, 'the evidence having been arranged and put in form.' The stories of the Gauls and Volturcius, and the letters of the three conspirators, agreed in general with some repetitions and minor differences. After all had been written down by the clerks, the several parts were carefully coinpared, the facts were arranged in their proper order, and the whole was then copied out in a connected and coherent form. Exposito refers to the sifting and arranging; edito, to the drawing up in form. It was the completeness and straightforwardness of the com bined evidence that broke Lentulus down. surrexit (surgo), 'leaped to his feet.' 25. quid sibi esset cum iis, etc., 'what business he had with them to bring them to his house.' quam ob rem, relative, not interrogative clause. 27. constanter,' consistently;' i.e., all told the same story. per quem, p. 34, ~ 58. 28-30. secum, 'to them,' the regular construction with loquor. quanta... esset, 'how great. is;' a general truth is put in the present tense in English, but in Latin follows the sequence. ~ 12. 36. litteras. Sallust gives the letter in a slightly different form: see Exc. I. 44. 5.

Page  232 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. bat. Atque ibi vehementissime perturbatus Lentulus tamen et signum et manum suam cognovit. Erant 40 autem sine nomine, sed ita: ' Q u i s sim, scies ex eo, quem ad te misi. Cura, ut virsis, et cogita, quem in locum sis progressus. Vide, ecquid tibi iam sit necesse, et cura, ut omnium tibi auxilia adiungas, etiam infi45 m o r u m.' Gabinius deinde introductus cum primo impudenter respondere coepisset, ad extrenmum nihil ex iis, 13 quae Galli insimulabant, negavit. Ac mihi quidem, Quirites, cum illa certissima visa sunt argumenta atque indicia sceleris, tabellae, signa, manus, denique unius 50 cuiusque confessio, turn multo certiora illa, color, oculi, voltus, taciturnitas. Sic enim obstupuerant, sic terram intuebantur, sic furtim non numquam inter sese aspiciebant, ut non iam ab aliis indicali, sed indicare se ipsi viderentur. vi. Indiciis expositis atque editis, Quirites, senatum consului, de summa re publica quid fieri placeret. Dictae sunt a principibus acerrimae ac fortissimae sententiae, quas senatus sine ulla varietate est secutus. Et 40. sine n o m i n e, 'without ora: the comparative here denotes signature.' The Romans corn- a higher degree of the quality than menced their letters with our tle superlative: in what sense, society form: Mr. John Doe pre- therefore, is the latter used? sents his compliments to Mr. 52. inter sese: cf. Caes. I. 3. 8; Richard Roe. This line had been IV. 25. 5, and explain the phrase. omitted by Lentulus. Give the construction of the ab41. eo, who? Cur, verb. vir, latives in 11. 4, 8, 11, 19, 26, 29, implying the qualities summed up 33, 37, 53. in virtus. 45, 46. primo... coepisset, 1, 2. expositis, editis: see on a common pleonasm. ~ 11. 24. summa re publica: see ~ 13. 48-50. illa, 'the follow- on I. 11. 13. ing.' A. 102 b ad fil.; G. 292, 4; 3, 4. principibus, 'the leading H. 450 3. certissima.. certi- senators,' all who were called upon

Page  233 CAP. 5-6, ~ 12-14. 233 quoniam nondum est perscriptum senatus consultum, 5 ex memoria vobis, Quirites, quid senatus censuerit, exponam. Primum mihi gratiae verbis amplissimis agun- 14 tur, quod virtute, consilio, providentia mea res publica maximis periculis sit liberata. Deinde L. Flaccus et C. Pomptinus praetores, quod eorum opera forti fidelique o1 usus essem, merito ac iure laudantur. Atque etiam viro forti, collegae meo, laus inpertitur, quod eos, qui huius coniurationis participes fuissent, a suis et a rei publicae consiliis removisset. Atque ita censuerunt, ut P. Lentulus, cum se praetura abdicasset, in custodiam tradere- 15 tur; itemque uti C. Cethegus, L. Statilius, P. Gabinius, qui omnes praesentes erant, in custodiam traderentur; atque idem hoc decretum est in L. Cassiuin, qui sibi procurationem incendendae urbis depoposcerat, in M. Ceparium, cui ad sollicitandos pastores Apuliam attri- 20 butam esse erat indicatum, in P. Furium, qui est ex iis to speak. For order in debate, see p. 75, ~~ 104-109. Who were the consules designati when this oration was delivered? sine ulla varietate, 'unanimously.' ~ 14. 10-12. opera forti fidelique, a common phrase in official documents. usus essem: note the change from the primary tense, 1. 9, the historical presents admitting either sequence. collegae: Antonius, who had probably already left Rome (p. 32, ~ 53). 13, 14. suis, rei publicae, 'personal and political.' removisset, very faint praise. It seemed necessary to say something about Antonius, and not much more could have been said. Why had he turned his back upon Catilina? P. 28, ~ 42 ad fin. 15. se praetura abdicasset, ' lad resigned the praetorship.' No Roman magistrate could be punished, or even tried, while in office (see p. 64, ~ 52), and there was no constitutional means of removing a man from office, although it was customary for one to resign when pressure was put upon him. custodiam, sc. liberam: see on I. 19. 3. 18-20. L. Cassium: the resolution was of no effect against Cassius, Furius, Annius, and Umbrenus, because they were warned in time to make good their escape. Ceparius, too, tried flight, but was overtaken and brought back. pastores, 'cow boys,' a wild and lawless class of men, always ready for brigandage.

Page  234 234 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. colonis, quos Faesulas L. Sulla deduxit, in Q. Annium Chilonem, qui una cum hoc Furio semper erat in hac Allobrogum sollicitatione versatus, in P. Umbrenum, 25 libertinum hominem, a quo primum Gallos ad Gabinium perductos esse constabat. Atque ea lenitate senatus est usus, Quirites, ut ex tanta coniuratione tantaque hac multitudine domesticorum hostium novem hominum perditissimorum poena re publica conservata reliquorum 15 mentes sanari posse arbitraretur. Atque etiam sup31 plicatio dis inmortalibus pro singulari eorum merito meo nomine decreta est, quod mihi primum post hane urbem conditam togato contigit, et his decreta verbis est, 'quod urbem incendiis,caede civis, Ital35 iam bello liberassem.' Quae supplicatio si cum ceteris supplicationibus conferatur, hoc interest, quod ceterae bene gesta, haec una conservata re publica constituta est. Atque illud, quod faciundum primum fuit, factum atque transactum est. Nam P. Lentulus, 27-29. coniuratione: cf. luxu- Mur. 75. 6. mihi... togato, ria, II. 5. 5; how is the abstract i.e., this was the only instance on noun used here? novem, assumn- record of a supplicatio in honor of ing that all named in the decree a citizen not holding a military would be arrested. How many es- command. togato: see on II. caped? poena, taken for granted, 28. 4. though it was not yet fixed. 36. conferatur... interest: ~ 15. 30. supplicatio, for difference in mood see on I. 'thanksgiving.' The word initself 29. 12.; here the strictly logical is neutral in meaning, and some- form would be: 'if... should times denotes a period of humilia- be compared, [it would be noticed tion in time of disaster ('day of that] there is, etc.' fasting and prayer'), but more 37, 38. gesta, with re publica, often a thanksgiving for victory as is also conservata. ceterae (cf. Caes. IV. 38 ad fin. ), and was... haec una... constituta est: then to the victorious general an for number of verb cf. ~ 5. 33. honor inferior to a triumph only, 39. factum transactum, a which it frequently preceded. proverbial phrase, implying that 32, 33. meo nomine: see on the action is final.

Page  235 CAP. 6-7, ~ 14-16. 235 quamquam patefactis indiciis, confessionibus suis, iudi- 40 cio senatus non modo praetoris ius, verum etiam civis amiserat, tamen magistratu se abdicavit, ut, quae religio C. Mario, clarissimo viro, non fuerat, quo minus C. Glauciam, de quo nihil nominatim erat decretum, praetorem occideret, ea nos religione in privato P. 45 Lentulo puniendo liberaremur. vII. Nunc quoniam, Quirites, consceleratissitni peri-16 culosissimique belli nefarios duces captos iam et comprehensos tenetis, existurare debetis omnis Catilina copias, omnis spes atque opes his depulsis urbis periculis concidisse. Quem quidem ego cum ex urbe pelle- 5 bam, hoc providebam animo, Quirites, remoto Catilina non mihi esse P. Lentuli somnum nec L. Cassi adipes nec C. Cethegi furiosam temeritatem pertimescendam. Ille erat unus timnendus ex istis omnibus, sed tam 41, 42. praetoris ius, ' rights Allen, p. 171-2;.Creighton, p. 63f; of a praetor;' i.e., exemption from Pennell, p. 105. Cicero distorts prosecution. tamen... abdi- the facts for the sake of his argucavit, pregnant, 'was allowed to ment. resign,' instead of being killed while in office, as was Glaucia, Second Part: Importance of 1. 44. ut... liberaremur (1. 46), what has been accomplished. 'in order that we in punishing P. ~ 16-17. Lentulus as a private citizen ~ 16. 1-3. Nunc (cf. nunc vero, might be relieved of that scruple II. 8. 26), marks the transition to (i.e., about punishing a magis- a new point. captos et comp. trate), which Gaius Marius... tenetis: for the participles see had not had to keep him from on I. 1. 8. killing Gaius Glaucia while prae- 4. c o p i as.. concidisse tor.' quae religio, the common said merely to encourage the peorepetition of the antecedent, 1. 45. ple; Cicero knew that the danger Mario, dat. of possessor. was by no means over. urbis = 43, 44. quo minus. occi- urbanis, 'within the city.' deret, dependent upon the idea of 9. sed introduces a limitahindrance in religio. C. Glau- tion of the preceding thought. ciam, the supporterof Saturninus, tam diu, 'only so long:' see on and killed with him by the mob. Mur. 70. 4.

Page  236 236 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. 10 diu, dum urbis moenibus continebatur. Omnia norat, omnium aditus tenebat; appellare, temptare, sollicitare poterat, audebat. Erat ei consilium ad facinus aptum, consilio autem neque manus neque lingua deerat. Iam ad certas res conficiendas certos homines delectos ac 15 descriptos habebat. Neque vero, cum aliquid mandarat, confectum putabat; nihil erat, quod non ipse obiret, occurreret, vigilaret, laboraret; frigus, sitim, famem 17 ferre poterat. Hunc ego hominem tam acrem, tam audacem, tam paratum, tam callidum, tam in scelere 20 vigilantem, tam in perditis rebus diligentem nisi ex domesticis insidiis in castrense latrocinium compulissem (dicam id, quod sentio, Quirites), non facile hanc tantam molem mali a cervicibus vestris depulissem. Non ille nobis Saturnalia constituisset neque tanto ante 25 exitii ac fati diem rei publicae denuntiavisset neque commisisset, ut signum, ut litterae suae testes manifesti 10, 11. dum... contine- gested on I. 32. 25, and point out batur: notice the tense. dum, a similar set of words in the next 'while,' takes the historical pres- paragraph. ent; dum, 'as long as,' takes any ~ 17. 18-20. tam: see on I. tense required by the sense. om- 17. 16. paratum, here used abnium aditus tenebat, 'he knew solutely = promptur. nisi: note how to approach [the approaches how far it is crowded from its to] all men;' for tenere = scire: proper position; give examples cf. Mur. 22.49. What is the quan- from II. 15. 26; I. 17. 13. tity of i in aditus, and why? 22, 23. hanc tantam: see on I. 14, 15. ad certas res, etc.,' for 11. 10: so haec tanta, 1. 29. moaccomplishing definite purposes he lem... cervicibus: the metahad selected and marked out defi- phor is of a yoke. For plural cernite men.' delectos... habe- vicibus see on Mur. 79. 21. bat: cf. above 1. 2. 24. Saturnalia, i.e., he would 16, 17. quod... laboraret, not have waited so long. tanto: a good example of zeugma: see on see on II. 19. 12; so in 11. 35, 36. II. 19. 9-11; what case each constituisset: supply the protasis would be required by occurreret, si in urbe remansisset. vigilaret, laboraret? obiret 26, 27. commisisset ut...... laboraret: group as sug- deprehenderentur, 'would not

Page  237 CAP. 7-8, ~ 16-18. 237 sceleris deprehenderentur. Quae nunc illo absente sic gesta sunt, ut nullum in privata domo furtum umquam sit tam palam inventum, quam haec tanta in re publica coniuratio manifesto inventa atque deprehensa est. 30 Quodsi Catilina in urbe ad hanc diem remansisset, quamquam, quoad fuit, omnibus eius consiliis occurri atque obstiti, tamen, ut levissime dicam, dimicandum nobis cum illo fuisset, neque nos umquam, cum ille in urbe hostis esset, tantis periculis rem publicam tanta 35 pace, tanto otio, tanto silentio liberassemus. vIII. Quamquam haec omnia, Quirites, ita sunt a 18 me administrata, ut deorum inmortalium nutu atque consilio et gesta et provisa esse videantur. Idque cum coniectura consequi possumus, quod vix videtur humani consilii tantarum rerum gubernatio esse potuisse, 5 tum vero ita praesentes his temporibus opem et auxilium nobis tulerunt, ut eos paene oculis videre possemus. Nam ut illa omittam, visas nocturno tempore ab occihave allowed his seal, etc., to be in- be used to attach them to the cause tercepted.' nunc, see on I. 17. 24. of the senate. 33-36. ut... dicam: for mean 3-5. id... c o n s e q u i, 'we ing see on Mur. 87.23; for mood cf. can reach this conclusion by rea~ 10. I. pace, otio: the former ap- soning.' cum... tur (see on plies to a public enemy (hostis), the Mur. 38. 16), connect possumus latter to a personal foe (inimicus). and tulerunt, 1. 7. videtur... gubernatio esse potuisse: for Part Third. The gods have been the personal construction, where with us. ~~ 18-25. the English idiom prefers the ~ 18. 1. Q u a m q u am: how impersonal, see on I. 15. 32. huused? cf. II. 26. 8. Here it cor- mani consilii: see on II. 18. 12. rects the personal exultation in the 8. ut... omittam: for rhetoripreceding paragraphs. It is not to cal figure see I. 14. 14; for mood be supposed, from what follows, cf. ~ 17. 33. illa, 'the following:' that Cicero believed in the mani- see on ~ 13. 48; why neuter? ab festations of the gods that he here occidente, ' in the west,' an undescribes, but he felt that the su- favorable direction in augury. For perstition of the multitude might ab cf. a dextro cornu, etc.

Page  238 238 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. dente faces ardoremque caeli, ut fulminum iactus, ut o1 terrae motus relinquam, ut omittam cetera,, quae tam multa nobis consulibus facta sunt, ut haec, quae nunc fiunt, canere di inmortales viderentur, hoc certe, quod sum dicturus, neque praetermittendum neque relin19 quendum est. Nam profecto memoria tenetis Cotta et 15 Torquato consulibus complures in Capitolio res de caelo esse percussas, cum et simulacra deorum depulsa sunt et statuae veterum hominum deiectae et legum aera liquefacta et tactus etiam ille, qui hanc urbem condidit, Romulus, quem inauratuin in Capitolio parvumn atque 20 lactentem uberibus lupinis inhiantem fuisse meministis. Quo quidem tempore cum haruspices ex tota Etruria 12, 13. canere (= praedicare), that of Saturnus, called the aera'foretell,' a meaning derived from rium, see on I. 4. 12. In whose the lit. 'sing' from the fact that keeping were they? ille... the seers anciently uttered their Romulus: see on ~ 2. 12; the god prophecies in verse. praetermit- is here put for the statue. tendum, relinquendum: both 19. quem... inhiantem: such verbs mean 'to pass over,' the for- representations of the infant Rommer by negligence, ' overlook,' the ulus and his nurse must have been latter on purpose, 'leave unmenl- common. In the Capitoline Mutioned.' seum at Rome there is a bronze ~ 19. 14, 15. Cotta et To r- figure of a wolf giving suck to the quato consulibus: see p. 23, ~ twins Romulus and Remus, which 30. When the names of the con- Mommsen thinks is identical with suls are put in the abl. abs. to fix the one mentioned here. the year they are always connected 20. fuisse meministis. Both by a conjunction when the praeno- the present and perfect infinitive mina are not given; when the are used with memini, and as all praenomina are given the con- rernembered actions are past, it is junction is regularly omitted. de evident that the ordinary rules for caelo, the regular phrase for light- the tenses do not apply. If the nings and other supernatural man- person who remembers was an eyeifestations. witness of the fact remembered, 17, 18. veterum, as in II. 20. he uses either the present (I. 7. 9), 31; is this the proper meaning of or perfect (as here); if he was not the word? legum aera, ' the an eye-witness he uses the perfect. brazen tablets of the laws,' regu- 21. haruspices: cf. ~ 9. 17. larly kept in temples, especially in They were frequently summoned

Page  239 CAP. 8, ~ 18-20. 239 convenissent, caedes atque incendia et legum interitum et bellum civile ac domesticum et totius urbis atque imperii occasum adpropinquare dixerunt, nisi di inmortales omni ratione placati suo numine prope fata ipsa 25 flexissent. Itaque illorum responsis turn et ludi per20 decem dies facti sunt, neque res ulla, quae ad placandos deos pertineret, praetermissa est. Idemque iusserunt simulacrum Iovis facere maius et in excelso conlocare et contra, atque antea fuerat, ad orientem convertere; 30 ac se sperare dixerunt, si illud signum, quod videtis, solis ortum et forum curiamque conspiceret, fore ut ea consilia, quae clam essent inita contra salutem urbis atque imperii, inlustrarentur, ut a senatu populoque Romano perspici possent. Atque illud signum collo- 35 candum consules illi locaverunt; sed tanta fuit operis by the senate to explain such entirely indefinite ('any one'). prodigies as these, in order to Under which head is the omitted quiet the superstitious fears of the subject in Caes. II. 5. 6? conignorant multitude. tra, atque: see on Mur. 35. 11. 25. omni ratione, 'in every 32-34. curiam: the curia Hosway,' 'entirely.' prope (= paene tilia, the original senate house, dixi) excuses the impossible idea said to have been built by Tullus that follows. fata ipsa, 'fate Hostilius, the third King of Rome, itself,' to which the gods were and situated near the comitium. conceived of as subject, though As the forum stretched south-east they could by their power (numine) from the capitol, a statue erected delay its decrees. on the latter, and facing the east, ~ 20. 26. ludi: for their nature, would overlook the objects mensee on Mur. 38. 3. All the public tioned here: see Plan B. fore ut games were of religious origin, and... inlustrarentur, the common national guilt was commonly ex- periphrasis for the little used, fut. piated in this way. inf. pass.; how does this differ 29, 30. facere: the passive in- from its use in II. 4. 16-17? finitive would be more natural, 35, 36. signum collocandum but the omission of the subject of locaverunt, ' contracted for the the active with iubeo is not uncom- erection of the statue;' for the mon when it can easily be supplied gerundive, see A. 294 d; G. 431. from the context (as here), or is H. 544 n 2; B. 337 7 b), 2. loco

Page  240 240 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TEITIA. tarditas, ut neque superioribus consulibus neque nobis 21 ante hodiernum diem collocaretur. ix. Hie quis potest esse, Quirites, tam aversus a vero, tam praeceps, tanm mente captus, qui neget haec omnia, quae videmus, praecipueque hanc urbem deorum inmortalium nutu ac 5 potestate adminjstrari? Etenim, cum esset ita responsum, caedes, inlcendia, interitum rei publicae comparari, et ea per cives, quae turn propter magnitudinem scelerumn non nullis incredibilia videbantur, ea non modo cogitata a nefariis civibus, verum etiam suscepta esse 10 sensistis. Illud vero nonne ita praesens est, ut nutu Iovis optimi maximi facturn esse videatur, ut, cum hodierno die mane per forum meo iussu et coniurati et eorum indices in aedem Concordiae ducerentur, eo ipso tempore signum statueretur? Quo collocato atque ad (lit. 'to place out') is used of the person having the work done; conduco of the contractor. consules: who? The censors were the directors of public works (see p. 65, ~ 58); but those of 65, Q. Lutatius Cattlus and M. Licinius Crass us, had resigned without action, and their duties devolved upon the consuls. 37, 38. superioribus consulibus: those for 65 (1. 36) and 64, L. Julius Caesar and C. Marcius Figtilus. ante hodiernum diem; the work was probably carefully timed by Cicero; if not, he shows great dexterity in using for his own ends the accidental completion of the work on the day of the arrest. ~ 21. 1-3. Hio: see on II. 13. 14. mente captus, 'infatuated,' lit. 'stricken in mind.' haec omnia, quae videmus, i.e., the visible universe: for a different sense of haec see on I. 21. 42. videmus: for mood see on erat, ~8,9. 5-7. ita and sic are often used thus to prepare the way for a following clause, the construction of which depends upon the verb with ita: cf. ~ 14. 14. et el (sc. comparari), 'and by citizens at that:' cf. Mur. 20. 15. 10,11. praesens, 'timely,' 'opportune.' ut... videatur, ut... statueretur (1. 14): the first clause is adverbial, the second is substantive, explaining illud 'the following fact.' optimi maximi, 'all-good, all-powerful:' for the asyndeton see on Mur. 19. 5. 12-14. hodierno die mane, 'this morning.' per forum...

Page  241 CAP. 8-9, ~ 20-22. 241 vos senatumque converso omnia quae erant contra salu- 15 tem omnium cogitata, inlustrata et patefacta vidistis. Quo etiam maiore sunt isti odio supplicioque digni, qui 22 non solum vestris domiciliis atque tectis, sed etiam deorum templis atque delubris sunt funestos ac nefarios ignes inferre conati. Quibus ego si me restitisse dicam, 20 nimium mihi sumam et non sinm ferendus; ille, ille Iuppiter restitit; ille Capitoliun, ille haec templa, ille cunctam urbem, ille vos omnis salvos esse voluit. Dis ego inmortalibus ducibus hanc mentem, Quirites, voluntatemque suscepi atque ad haec tanta indicia perveni. 25 lam vero ab Lentulo ceterisque domesticis hostibus tam dementer tantae res creditae et ignotis et barbaris commissaeque litterae numquam essent profecto, nisi ab dis in aedem Concordiae. The conspirators had been summoned at an early hour to Cicero's house (~ 6. 7) on the Palatine hill (p. 31, ~ 50) and were thence taken directly across the forum to the temple of Concord (~ 7. 21): see Plan B. aedem: see on ~ 8. 24. eorum indices, 'the witnesses against them.' eo ipso tempore: see on ~ 20. 38. ut (1. 11)... statueretur: what mood and what particle should we expect? see on I. 3. 24; for change from primary sequence see on II. 6. 3. Notice that the appositive clause frequently takes the construction of a preceding verb (here factum esse) on which the word explained does not depend. 15. ad... converso, etc.: cf. ~ 20. 30. ~ 22. 17-19. Quo, odio, supplicio: explain the case. sup plicio from same root (' a bending down') as supplicatio, the former bending to receive punishment, the latter to praise or pray. templis atque delubris: cf. ~ 2. 16. 20-22. si dicam... sumam: for the mood see on I. 19. 1. restitisse from resisto: what other verb would furnish the same form? non ferendus as in II. 10. 21. ille, ille Iuppiter, with a gesture toward the statue. What pronoun was used with luppiter in I. 11. 9, and why? 24, 25. mentem voluntatemque, ' disposition and purpose.' Quirites: cf. ~ 1. haec tanta: cf. ~ 17. 22, 29. 27, 28. tantae res, etc.; 'such confidence would never have been reposed, and the letters would never have been intrusted by Lentulus, etc., so rashly, had not, etc.' tantae as in ~ 17. 24. litterae

Page  242 242 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. inmortalibus huic tantae audaciae consilium esset erep30 turn. Quid vero? ut homines Galli ex civitate male pacata, quae gens una restat, quae bellum populo Romano facere et posse et non nolle videatur, spem imperii ac rerum maxumarum ultro sibi a patriciis hominibus oblatam neglegerent vestramque salutem 5 suis opibus anteponerent, id non divinitus esse factum putatis, praesertim qui nos non pugnando, sed tacendo superare potuerint? 23 x. Quam ob rem, Quirites, quoniam ad omnia pulvinaria supplicatio decreta est, celebratote illos dies curn commissae, the great blunder of the conspirators. ab dis: Cicero generally writes ab (not a) before dis; which in II. 15. 18? 29, 30. audaciae: use of the abstract noun? cf. II. 5. 5. Quid vero: more emphatic than the simple quid (see on I. 8. 23), and always followed by another question. ex civitate, i.e., Allobrogica. male, 'hardly,' as often = non satis. 31, 32. pacata. The limits of Transalpine Gaul were not yet accurately defined, and more or less serious disturbances were frequent until Caesar's subjugation (when?) of the whole country. gens: we should expect civitas (see on religio ~ 15. 43), but the place of the repeated antecedent is often taken by a noun of like meaning. Civitas is used for gens in Caes. I. 10. 1. non nolle: see p. 34, ~ 58, and on ~ 5. 26. 33. imperil ac rerum, 'independence and great advantages.' u 1 t r o, 'spontaneously,' ' unsought; ' the conspirators had made the first advances. patri ciis: Catilina, Lentulus, and Cethegus were patricians. The patricii had long since lost all political superiority over the plebeians, but their pride of long descent ought to have revolted against the idea of appealing to barbarians against their country. 35-37. ut (1. 30)... anteponerent, in apposition to id, the regular construction, quite unlike that with illud, 1. 10. Explain the mood. divinitus, one of the rare adverbs in -us. praesertim qui, 'especially as they' = praesertim cum ii (the Gauls). superare potuerint: for tenses cf. ~ 10. 20. ~ 23. 1, 2. pulvinaria, ' shrines,' lit. 'couches.' Many of the temples contained these couches or sofas, and in seasons of great exultation or depression the senate (see p. 74, ~~ 96, 99) sometimes ordered the statues of some or all of these deities to be laid in pairs upon the couches, and food to be served up to them. Such a cere

Page  243 CAP. 9-10, ~ 22-24. 243 coniugibus ac liberis vestris. Nam multi saepe honores dis inmortalibus iusti habiti sunt ac debiti, sed profecto iustiores numquam. Erepti enim estis ex crudelis- 5 simo ac miserrimo interitu; sine caede, sine sanguine, sine exercitu, sine dimicatione togati me una togato duce et inlperatore vicistis. Etenim recordamini, Quirites, 24 omnis civiles dissensiones, non solum eas, quas audistis, sed eas, quas vosmet ipsi meministis atque vidistis. L. 0o mony was called a lectisternium, and was frequently combined, as here, with a supplicatio (see on ~ 15. 30). celebratote, the rarer ('future') form of the imperative, which differs from the more common ('present') form in-te only by implying more formality; there is no distinction of time at all. Slightly peculiar uses of this form have been noticed on II. 23. 31, and Mur. 65. 21. 4, 5. iusti... debiti, 'have been paid, which were just and due.' iustiores: sc. 'than these,' i.e., the lectisternium and supplicatio just mentioned. 7. togati... togato: see on II. 28. 4. ~ 24. 9,10. non solum.. sed, 'I do not say... but merely,' the formula is A+b. quas audistis: strictly we should have de quibus, but with audio, lego, loquor the ace. (especially of things) is often put for the abl. with de; quote examples from Caes. II. 12. 5, and III. 27. 1. vidistis, because all the civil commotions now to be mentioned had occurred within the last 25 years. They will be best explained together: In 88 Sulla was consul, and had just ended the Social War. P. Sulpicius made certain proposals in the interests of the democratic party, one of which was to transfer the command against Mithradates of Pontus from Sulla to Marius. Sulla marched on Rome; Sulpicius with a few adherents was killed; Marius escaped with difficulty. Sulla thereupon departed for the east. In 87 Cinna, as consul, revived the schemes of Sulpicius. His colleague Octavius drove him from the city; he collected an army, was joined by Marius, and effected his return by force. A reign of terror followed, during which many aristocrats were killed. Marius died in 86; Cinna was killed in a mutiny two years later. In 82 Sulla came back from the East, defeated the younger Marius (in alliance with the Samnites) at the Colline gate, and was created 'dictator constituendae reipublicae.' As such he issued a proscription list ordering the execution of most of the democratic leaders. Having reformed the constitution in the interest of the optimates, he resigned his power.

Page  244 244 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. Sulla P. Sulpicium oppressit; C. Marium, custodem huius urbis, multosque fortis viros partim eiecit ex civitate, partim interemit. Cn. Octavius consul armis expulit ex urbe collegam; omnis hic locus acervis corporum et 15 civium sanguine redundavit. Superavit postea Cinna cum Mario; turn vero clarissimis viris interfectis lumina civitatis extincta sunt. Ultus est huius victoriae crudelitatem postea Sulla; ne dici quidem opus est, quanta deminutione civium et quanta calamitate rei 20 publicae. Dissensit M. Lepidus a clarissimo et fortissimo viro, Q. Catulo; attulit non tam ipsius interitus 25 rei publicae luctum quam ceterorum. Atque illae tamen omnes dissensiones erant eius modi, quae non ad delendam, sed ad commutandam rem publicarn perti25 nerent. Non illi nullam esse rein publicam, sed in ea, quae esset, se esse principes, neque hane urbem con In 78 (Sulla died in 78) the consul M. Lepidus tried to reverse the acts of Sulla, but was driven from the city by his colleague Q. Catulus. He raised an army, and tried to effect his return by force, as Cinna had done, but was defeated by Catulus at the Mulvian bridge in 77. He escaped to Sardinia, where he died. 11-13. custodem: he had saved Rome by defeating the Teutones, and Cimbri in 102 and 101. Creighton, p. 63; Allen, p. 169; Myers, p. 84; Pennell, p. 103. partim... partim = aut... aut, or alios... alios, as in Mur. 51. 26. 14-16. acervis... sanguine redundavit: cf. Mur. 85. 29; the verb can be connected with acervis here only by zeugma. cla rissimis viris, among them M. Antonius, the great orator, and Q. Scaevola, the pontifex maximus (p. 17, ~ 12). 19, 20. quanta deminutione: 5,000 were put to death in Sulla's proscription, to say nothing of those who perished in the field. It is estimated that the civil wars of Marius and Sulla cost the republic over 150,000 lives. Dissensit a, 'quarrelled with.' 21, 22. interitus ipsius. Lepidus died in Sardinia, of chagrin. quam ceterorum: sc. interitus; i.e., it was not the fate of Lepidus himself that excited sympathy, but that of those who were involved in it. ~ 25. 23, 24. eius modi: for case see on I. 4. 12. quae=? pertinerent, mood?

Page  245 CAP. 10-11, ~ 24-26. 245 flagrare, sed se in hac urbe florere voluerunt. Atque illae tamen omnes dissensiones, quarum nulla exitium rei publicae quaesivit, eius modi fuerunt, ut non reconciliatione concordiae, sed internecione civium diiudicatae 30 sint. In hoc autem uno post hominum memoriam maximo crudelissiroque bello, quale bellum nulla umquam barbaria cum sua gente gessit, quo in bello lex haec fuit a Lentulo, Catilina, Cethego, Cassio constituta, ut omnes, qui salva urbe salvi esse possent, in 35 hostium numero ducerentur, ita me gessi, Quirites, ut salvi omnes conservaremini, et, cum hostes vestri tantur civium superfuturum putassent, quantum infinitae caedi restitisset, tantum autem urbis, quantum flamma obire non potuisset, et urbem et civis integros incolu- 40 mesque servavi. XI. Quibus pro tantis rebus, Quirites, nullum ego a26 vobis praemium virtutis, nullum insigne honoris, nullum monumentum laudis postulo praeterquam huius 29-32. reconciliatione concordiae, 'the restoration of good feeling.' uno maximo, 'the very greatest;' the superlative is often intensified by unus (as by quam and vel, see on Mur. 31. 35), which is not to be translated. A. 93 b; G. 317. quale bellum, 'such a war as.' 33-35. bello: see on religio, ~ 15. 43. fuit constituta: see on I. 16. 10. salva urbe salvi, etc., 'who could be solvent in a safe condition of the city.' Cicero plays on the ordinary meaning of salvus in salva urbe and salvi, 1. 37, and the special meaning in 8alvi here, which has been explained on II. 20. 28. He means that the anarchists intended to put to death all who owned property. 37-39. tantum civium (= tot cives), 'only so many citizens;' for this sense cf. tam diu, ~ 16. 9, and unum, Mur. 70.4. restitisset is from resto; the subjunctive is due to the indirect discourse. Peroratio. ~ 26. 1-3. tantis, as in ~ 22. 29: what represents the necessary demonstrative? praemium, insigne, monumentum, synonymous, or nearly so: see on I. 10. 8. He means that he does not care for ordinary complimentary decorations, titles, crowns, statues,.

Page  246 246 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. diei memoriam sempiternam. In animis ego vestris 5 omnes triumphos meos, omnia ornamenta honoris, monumenta gloriae, laudis insignia condi et collocari volo. Nihil me mutum potest delectare, nihil tacitum, nihil denique eius modi, quod etiam minus digni adsequi possint. Memoria vestra, Quirites, nostrae res 10 alentur, sermonibus crescent, litterarum monumentis inveterascent et corroborabuntur; eandemque diem intellego, quam spero aeternam fore, propagatam esse et ad salutem urbis et ad memoriam consulatus mei, unoque tempore in hac re publica duos civis extitisse, 15 quorum alter finis vestri imperii non terrae, sed caeli regionibus terminaret, alter eiusdem imperii domi27 cilium sedesque servaret. xII. Sed quoniam earum 4, 5. memoriam, governed by postulo, as praeterquam (= nisi) is a mere connective. triumphos, i.e., triumphal processions, not 'victories': see on Mur. 11. 13, 14. 8. minus digni, 'the less worthy:' there is no idea of comparison, the words being merely a polite form of indigni. In Cicero's time honors went by intrigue rather than by merit: cf. the granting of triumphs to the elder Murena and to Lucullus (Mur. 37. 10, note). 10, 11. litterarum monumentis, 'history.' inveterascent et corroborabuntur, 'will gather strength and vigor.' eandem diem, etc. I know that one and the same term —a term which I hope will have no end - has been extended to the safe existence of the state and to the recollection of my consulship.' diem (note the gender) means 'time,' ' term,' 'period.' Cicero means that he las preserved the state for an unlimited period and that so long as the state endures his fame will last. The idea might have been more clearly expressed thus: ad eandem diem propagatas esse et salutem urbis et memoriam, etc. 14-16. duos civis, Pompeius and Cicero. alter... terminaret, Pompeius had fought successfully against Sertorius in Spain and Mithradates in Asia, thus giving Cicero opportunity for a most extravagant compliment which he knew would please the people. terrae: join with regionibus not finis. ~ 27. 1. Sed quoniam marks a transition to a new point, as et quoniam, ~ 13. 4. What other words are used for the same purpose in II. 8.26; II. 8.21?

Page  247 CAP. 11-12, ~ 26-28. 247 rerum, quas ego gessi, non eadem est fortuna atque condicio quae illorum, qui externa bella gesserunt, quod mihi cum iis vivendum est, quos vici ac subegi, illi hostes aut interfectos aut oppressos reliquerunt, vestrum 5 est, Quirites, si ceteris facta sua recte prosunt, mihi mea ne quando obsint, providere. Mentes enim hominum audacissimorum sceleratae ac nefariae ne vobis nocere possent, ego providi, ne mihi noceant, vestrum est providere. Quamquam, Quirites, mihi quidem ipsi o0 nihil ab istis iam noceri potest. Magnum enim est in bonis praesidium, quod mihi in perpetuun comparatum est, magna in re publica dignitas, quae me semper tacita defendet, magna vis conscientiae, quam qui neglegunt, curn me violare volent, se ipsi indica- 15 bunt. Est enim in nobis is animus, Quirites, ut non28 modo nullius audaciae cedamus, sed etiam oninis inprobos ultro semper lacessamus. Quodsi omnis impetus domesticorum hostium depulsus a vobis se in me unum convorterit, vobis erit videndum, Quirites, 20 3. condicio, as in ~ 2. 10. quae, 'as:' sc. fortuna atque condicio. 5, 6. vestrum est: cf. tuum est, Mur. 83. 27. sua refers to ceteris, 'which is the logical, though not the grammatical subject: ' if others are benefited, as is right, by their deeds.' A. 196 c; G. 295 R 1; H. 449. 3; B. 244 4. recte (= merito) is introduced expressly to show that he has no feeling of envy for them. mihimea. Latin writers have a fondness for putting together different pronouns or different forms of the same pronoun: see 11. 14. 15. 11,12. nihil, as in I. 1. 3. noceri: intransitive verbs are how used in the passive? Magnum... praesidium. 'Thedefence of loyal men counts for much,' so magna est below: cf. Mur. 53. 14. bonis, as in I. 1. 5. 14, 15. vis conscientiae, i.e., the inner consciousness or conviction that Cicero had really saved the state. quam qui = et, si qui earnm; for qui = si quis: cf. II. 27. 26. se ipsi: for case of the intensive see on I. 19. 3. ~ 28. 16-18. is, as in I. 22. 12. inprobos: see on I. 1. 5 ad fin.; give a synonym. ultro, 'unprovoked:' cf. ~22.33. Quodsi: cf. Mur. 40. 23. 20. erit videndum; i.e., if they deserted him, no one would

Page  248 248 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. qua condicione posthac eos esse velitis, qui se pro salute vestra obtulerint invidiae periculisque omnibus; mihi quidem ipsi quid est quod iam ad vitae fructum possit adquiri, cum praesertim neque in honore vestro 25 neque in gloria virtutis quicquam videam altius, quo 29 mihi lubeat ascendere? Illud perficiam profecto, Quirites, ut ea, quae gessi in consulatu, privatus tuear atque ornem, ut, si qua est invidia in conservanda re publica suscepta, laedat invidos, mihi valeat ad gloriam. 30 Denique ita me in re publica tractabo, ut meminerim semper, quae gesserim, curemque, ut ea virtute, non casu gesta esse videantur. Vos, Quirites, quoniam iam est nox, venerati lovem ilium, custodem huius urbis ac vestrum, in vestra tecta discedite et ea, quamquam 35 iam est periculum depulsum, tamen aeque ac priore nocte custodiis vigiliisque defendite. Id ne vobis diutius faciundum sit, atque ut in perpetua pace esse possitis, providebo. dare thereafter to defend their 30. me... tractabo, 'I shall interests at the risk of his own. 23-25. vitae fructum, 'life's rewards.' cum praesertim has the same meaning as praesertim cum: cf. Mur. 24. 13. honore vestro, 'the distinctions within your gift;' honor is regularly used of 'offiee,' and Cicero means that, having held the highest office, there was nothing more lie could aspire to. quo, as in Mur. 28.18. What is its antecedent here? ~29. 27, 28. ut... ornem, 'that I shall support and dignify.' The clause is in apposition to illud. How does it differ from ut... statueretur, ~ 21. 10-14? from ut... anteponerent, ~ 22. 30-35? privatus,' in private life.' so conduct myself in political life.' Point out a synonym for tractabo in ~ 25 ad fin. 32-34. iam est nox: see p. 35, ~ 59 ad fin. vestrum, probably the rare poss. gen. plur. of tu, but possibly from vester: see on I. 14. 21. 35-38. est depulsum: for mood A. 313, e; G. 607; II. 515 I.; B. 309 2. aeque ac. A. 156 a ad fin.; G. 646; H. 554 I. 2. note; B. 341 1 c); cf. on Mur. 35. 11. priore nocte, the night of the arrest. custodiis vigiliisque: for distinction see on I. 8. 26. providebo, a hint at the action yet to be taken in regard to the prisoners.

Page  249 EXCURSUS III. 249 EXCURSUS III. CAESAR'S SPEECH IN THE SENATE. [Sallust, Cap. 51. Text of Schmalz.] 51. " Omnis homines, patres conscripti, qui de rebus dubiis consultant, ab odio amicitia, ira atque misericordia vacuos esse decet. 2 Haud facile animus verum providet, ubi illa officiunt, neque quisquam omniurn lubidini simul et 3 usui paruit. Ubi intenderis ingenium, valet: si lubido possidet, ea dominatur, animus nihil valet. 4 Magna mihi copia est memorandi, patres conscripti, qui reges atque populi ira aut misericordia impulsi male consuluerint: sed ea malo dicere, quae maiores nostri contra lubidinem anirni sui recte atque 5 ordine fecere. Bello Macedonico, quod cum rege Perse gessimus, Rhodiorunm civitas magna atque magnifica, quae populi Romani opibus creverat, infida et advorsa nobis fuit; sed postquam bello confecto de Rhodiis consulturn est, maiores nostri, ne quis divitiarumn magis quam iniuriae causa bellum inceptum diceret, impuni6 tos eos dimisere. Item bellis Punicis omnibus, cumn saepe Carthaginienses et in pace et per indutias multa nefaria facinora fecissent, numquam ipsi per occasionem talia fecere: magis quid se dignum foret, quam quid in illos jure fieri posset 7 quaerebant. Hoc item vobis providendum est, patres conscripti, ne plus apud vos valeat P. Lentuli et ceterorum scelus quam vostra dignitas, neu ma gis irae vostrae quam famae consulatis. Nam si digna poena pro 8 factis eorum reperitur, novum consilium approbo: sin magnitudo sceleris omnium ingenia exsuperat, iis utendum censeo, quae legibus comparata sunt. Plerique 9 eorum, qui ante me sententias dixerunt, composite atque magnifice casum rei publicae miserati sunt: quae belli saevitia esset, quae victis acciderent, enumeravere: rapi virgines pueros, divelli liberos a parentum complexu, matres familiarum pati quae victoribus conlubuissent, fana atque domos spoliari, caedem, incendia fieri, postremo armis cadaveribus, cruore atque luctu omnia compleri. Sed, per deos immortalis, quo illa 10 oratio pertinuit? An uti vos infestos coniurationi faceret? scilicet quem res tanta et tamr atrox non permovit, eum oratio accendet. Non ita est, neque cuiquam 11 mortalium iniuriae suae parvae videntur; multi eas gravius aequo habuere. Sed alia aliis licentia est, 12 patres conscripti. Qui demissi in obscuro vitam habent, si quid iracundia deliquere, pauci sciunt; fama atque fortuna eorum pares sunt: qui magno imperio praediti in excelso aetatem agunt, eorum facta cuncti mortales novere. Ita 13 in maxumna fortuna minuma licentia est; neque studere neque odisse, sed minume irasci decet: quae apud 14

Page  250 ORATIO IN CATILINAM TERTIA. alios iracundia dicitur, ea in imperio superbia atque crudelitas ap15 pellatur. Equidem ego sic existumo, patres conscripti, omnnis cruciatus minores quam facinora illorum esse: sed plerique mortales postrema meminere et in hominibus impiis sceleris eorum obliti de poena disserunt, si ea paulo severior fuit. D. Silanum, virum fortem atque 16 strenuum, certo scio quae dixerit studio rei publicae dixisse, neque illum in tanta re gratiam aut inimicitias exercere: eos mores eamque 17 modestiam viri cognovi. Verum sententia eius mihi non crudelis - quid enim in talis homines crudele fieri potest?- sed aliena a re pub18lica nostra videtur. Nam profecto aut metus aut iniuria te subegit, Silane, consulem designatum genus poenae novom decernere. 19 De timore supervacaneum est disserere, cum praesertim diligentia clarissumi viri consulis tanta prae20 sidia sint in armis. De poena possum equidem dicere, id quod res habet, in luctu atque miseriis mortern aerumnarum requiem, non cruciatum esse, earn cuncta mortalium mala dissolvere, ultra neque curae neque gaudio locum esse. 21 Sed, per deos immortalis, quamobrem in sententiam non addidisti, uti prius verberibus in eos ani22 madvorteretur? An quia lex Porcia vetat? At aliae leges item condemnatis civibus non animam eripi, sed exsilium permitti iubent. 23 An quia gravius est verberari quam necari? Quid autem acerbum aut nimis grave est in hom24 ines tanti facinoris convictos? Sin quia levius est, qui convenit in minore negotio legem timere, cum earn in maiore neg-25 legeris? At enim quis reprehendet, quod in parricidas rei publicae decretum erit? Tempus dies fortuna, cuius lubido gentibus moderatur. Illis merito accidet, quicquid even- 26 erit; ceterum vos, patres conscripti, quid in alios statuatis considerate. Omnia mala exerm-27 pla ex bonis orta sunt; sed ubi imperium ad ignaros eius aut minus bonos pervenit, novorl illud exeniplum ab dignis et idoneis ad indignos et non idoneos transfertur. Lacedaemonii devictis Athe- 28 niensibus triginta viros imposuere, qui rein publicam eorum tractarent. Ei primo coepere pessumum 29 quemque et omnibus invisum indemnatum necare: ea populus laetari et merito dicere fieri. Post, 30 ubi paulatim licentia crevit, iuxta bonos et malos lubidinose interficere, ceteros metu terrere: ita31 civitas servitute oppressa stultae laetitiae gravis poenas dedit. Nostra memoria victor Sulla cum 32 Damasippum et alios eius modi, qui malo rei publicae creverant, iugulari iussit, quis non factum eius laudabat? homines scelestos et factiosos, qui seditionibus rem publicam exagitaverant, merito necatos aiebant. Sed ea res magnae 33 initium cladis fuit. Nam uti quisque domum aut villam, postremo vas aut vestimentum alicuius concupiverat, dabat operam, ut is in proscriptorum numero esset. Ita 34 illi, quibus Damasippi mors laetitiae fuerat, paulo post ipsi trahebantur, neque prius finis iugulandi fuit, quam Sulla omnis suos divitiis explevit. Atque ego haec non 35

Page  251 EXCURSUS III. in M. Tullio neque his temporibus vereor: sed in magna civitate 36 multa et varia ingenia sunt. Potest alio tempore, alio consule, cui item exercitus in manu sit, falsum aliquid pro vero credi: ubi hoc exemplo per senatus decretum consul gladium eduxerit, quis illi finem statuet aut quis moderabitur? 37 Maiores nostri, patres conscripti, neqre consili neque audaciae umquam eguere, neque illis superbia obstabat, quo minus aliena instituta, si modo proba erant, 38 imitarentur. Arma atque tela militaria ab Samnitibus, insignia magistratuum ab Tuscis pleraque sumpserunt; postremo quod ubique apud socios aut hostis idoneum videbatur, cum summo studio domi exsequebantur: imitari quam invidere bonis malebant. 39Sed eodem illo tempore Graeciae moremi imitati verberibus animadvortebant in civis, de condemnatis summum supplicium sumebant. Postquam res publica adolevit et 40 multitudine civium factiones valuere, circumveniri innocentes, alia huiuscemodi fieri coepere, turn lex Porcia aliaeque leges paratae sunt, quibus legibus exsilium damnatis permissum est. Hanc ego causam, 41 patres conscripti, quo minus novom consilium capiamus, in primis magnam puto. Profecto 42 virtus atque sapientia maior illis fuit, qui ex parvis opibus tanturn imperium fecere, quam in nobis, qui ea bene parta vix retinemus. Placet igitur eos dimitti et augeri 43 exercitum Catilinae? Minume. Sed ita censeo: publicandas eorum pecunias, ipsos in vinculis habendos per municipia, quae maxume opibus valent: neu quis de eis postea ad senatum referat, neve cum populo agat: qui aliter fecerit, senatum existumare eum contra rem publicam et saluter omnium facturum."

Page  252 M. TULLI CICERONIS IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA HABITA IN SENATU. 1 i. Video, patres conscripti, in me omnium vestrum ora atque oculos esse converses, video vos non solum de vestro ac rei publicae, verum etiam, si id depulsum sit, de meo periculo esse sollicitos. Est mihi iucunda 5 in malis et grata in dolore vestra erga me voluntas, ied ear, per deos inmortales, deponite atque obliti salutis meae de vobis ac de vestris liberis cogitate. Mihi si T T LE. Oratio Quarta. Read p. 35, ~~ 61-67. It will be very helpful to the student to read the speech of Caesar printed here as an excursus to the Third Oration. If there is not time for this to be taken as a regular part of the work, it may be read at sight in the classroom, or even by the teacher to the class. Exordium: This is no time to think of a consul's safety... the state itself is in danger (~~ 1-3). ~ 1. 1-3. omnium vestrum: see on I. 14. 21, and point out in III. ~ 29 a possible exception to the rule there given. conversos: for the situation at this point see p. 38, ~ 67. vestro, withpericulo, 1. 4. depulsum sit: the mood is due to the indirect statement. 4, 5. iucunda, grata: the former is used of anything causing pleasure, the latter of anything exciting gratitude. 6. sed deponite, put briefly for sed imploro ut deponatis: see on II. 22.17. obliti, from obliviscor: how does it differ from oblWti in II. 10. 26? salutis: for case, A. 219; G. 375; H. 406 II; B. 205, 206 b. 52

Page  253 CAP. 1, ~ 1-2. haec condicio consulatus data est, ut omnis acerbitates, omnis dolores cruciatusque perferrem, feram non solum fortiter, verum etiam lubenter, dum modo meis labori- to bus vobis populoque Romano dignitas salusque pariatur. Ego sum ille consul, patres conscripti, cui non 2 forum, in quo omnis aequitas continetur, non campus consularibus auspiciis consecratus, non curia, summuil auxilium omnium gentium, non domus, comnune per- 15 fugium, non lectus ad quietem datus, non denique haec sedes honoris umquam vacua mortis periculo atque insidiis fuit. Ego multa tacui, multa pertuli, multa concessi, multa meo quodam dolore in vestro timore sanavi. Nunc si hunc exitum consulatus mei di inmor- 20 tales esse voluerunt, ut vos populumque Romnanum ex caede miserrima, coniuges liberosque vestros virginesque Vestales ex acerbissima vexatione, templa atque delubra, hanc pulcherrimam patriam omnium nostrum ex foedissima flamma, totam Italiam ex bello et vasti- 25 8-11. condicio consulatus: crated for the time by the taking cf. III. 27. 3; 2. 10. Turn in of the auspices: see p. 71, ~ 84. English: 'if the consulship has curia... auxilium, because the been given me on these terms,' etc. senate had charge of all foreign laboribus, vobis: explain their affairs. case. pariatur: for mood see on 16-19. haec sedes, the curule II. 15. 16. chair (p. 64, ~ 51). vacua... ~ 2. 12-15. cui with vacua... insidiis: see on Mur. 79. 27. fuit, 1. 18, dat. of reference. multa... concessi: the referforum... aequitas, because the ences are too vague to be fully praetors' courts were held in the understood, but see in general, forum or in adjacent buildings. p. 28, ~~ 42. 48. meo quodam campus... consularibus: see dolore, 'with pain so to speak on Mur. 52. 3, and notice that the to myself: ' see on Mur. 63. 29. campus Martius was not a ter- 22-24. virgines Vestales: see plum, i.e., a consecrated place (see on III. 9. 22. vexatione: there p. 71, ~ 86), but on the occasion of may be a hint at the charge against each consular election the part Catilina, mentioned p. 22, ~ 27. used for the purpose was conse- omnium nostrum: what might

Page  254 254 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. tate eriperem, quaecumque mihi uni proponetur fortuna, subeatur. Etenim, si P. Lentulus suum nomen inductus a vatibus fatale ad perniciem rei publicae fore putavit, cur ego non laeter meum consulatum 30 ad salutem populi Romani prope fatalem extitisse? 3 i. Quare, patres conscripti, consulite vobis, prospicite patriae, conservate vos, coniuges, liberos fortunasque vestras, populi Romani nomen salutemque defendite; mihi parcere ac de me cogitare desinite. Nam primum 5 debeo sperare omnis deos, qui huic urbi praesident, pro eo mihi, ac mereor, relaturos esse gratiam; deinde, si quid obtigerit, aequo animo paratoque moriar. Nam neque turpis mors forti viro potest accidere neque immatura consulari nec misera' sapienti. Nec tamen o1 ego sum ille ferreus, qui fratris carissimi atque amantissimi praesentis maerore non movear horumque om nium lacrumis, a quibus be substituted for the personal pronoun here? 27-30. subeatur, laeter: these subjunctives are not due to the conditional sentence at all (see on I. 23. 17), but are to be explained independently; for the former see on II. 6. 6; for the latter on I. 24. 25. prope, as in III. 19.25; here perhaps because fatalis is generally used in a bad sense. ~ 3. 1. consulite vobis, 'consult for yourselves,' i.e., for your own interests: note the other meaning and construction of this verb in I. 13. 36. vobis is dat. of reference. 6, 7. pro eo ac mereor, 'according to my deserts.' pro eo ac for ut occurs here only in the ora me circumsessum videtis. tions but is common in the letters; the lit. is ' in proportion to this as etc.' relaturos gratiam, 'will repay,' 'requite;' used of either good or evil as in English: which here? si quid obtigerit, 'if anything happens;' a euphemism as in English for 'if I die,' in which meaning accidit is more common. 8-10. immatura consulari: see on III. 28. 25 ad fin. misera sapienti, a maxim of the Stoic philosophy which Cicero held up for ridicule in the speech for Murena. ille ferreus, 'that man of flint,' i.e., that the Stoics look upon as their ideal. fratris, Q. Cicero, at this time praetor designatus. 11-13. omnium, those sena

Page  255 CAP. 1-2, ~ 2-4. 255 Neque meam mentem non domum saepe revocat exanimata uxor et abiecta metu filia et parvulus filius, quem mihi videtur amplecti res publica tamquam ob- 15 sidem consulatus mei, neque ille, qui expectans huius exitum diei stat in conspectu meo, gener. Moveor his rebus omnibus, sed in earn partem, uti salvi sint vobiscum omnes, etiamsi me vis aliqua oppresserit, potius, quam et illi et nos una rei publicae peste 20 pereamus. Quare, patres conscripti, incumbite ad 4 salutem rei publicae, circumspicite omnes procellas, quae inpendent, nisi providetis. Non Ti. Gracchus, quod iterum tribunus plebis fieri voluit, non C. Gracchus, quod agrarios concitare conatus est, non L. Sa- 25 tors who were most friendly to strument. We should say: 'in him. lacrumis: both Greeks and the general (una = communi) deRomans were accustomed to give struction.' pereamus: for mood way to their emotions with a free- see on II. 3. 4. incumbite, naudom entirely inconsistent with our tical metaphor. ideas of manly dignity. non ~ 4. Propositio: (a) The manisaepe = minime saepe, Caes. I. 1. fest guilt of the prisoners (~~ 4-6). 3. Neque non saepe may there- 23. Non Ti. Gracchus: the fore be translated, ' and often.' negatives go closely with the 14. uxor, Terentia, married nouns, and the tense of adducitur about 77. filia, the dearly loved (1. 27) is emphatic: 'It is not a Tullia, now about 13 years old. Tiberius Gracchus, for having, parvulus filius, Marcus, about etc., not a Gaius Gracchus, for 2 years old: the diminutive here having, etc., that is now brought, expresses tenderness. What did etc.' it express in Mur. 75. 10? 24, 25. iterum: in the time of 16, 17. ille... gener, C. Cal- the elder Gracchus a tribune could purnius Piso, Tullia's husband; not legally succeed himself, and Tibut the date of their marriage is berius, tribune in 133, was killed unknown. Piso was not a sena- while trying to secure his re-elector, and so must have been one of tion for the following year (Creighthe guard of equites who sur- ton, p. 58; Allen, pp. 156, 157; rounded the temple in arms, and Myers, p. 80; Pennell, p. 96). were visible through the open C. Gracchus: see on I. 4. 1. doors. agrarios, 'those interested in the 20, 21. una peste, abl. of in- distribution of the public lands.'

Page  256 256 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. turninus, quod C. Memmium occidit, in discrimen aliquod atque in vestrae severitatis iudicium adducitur; tenentur ii, qui ad urlis incendium, ad vestram omnium caedem, ad Catilinam accipiendum Romae resti30 terunt, tenentur litterae, signa, manus, denique unius cuiusque confessio; sollicitantur Allobroges, servitia excitantur, Catilina accersitur; id est initum consilium, ut interfectis omnibus nemo ne ad deplorandum quidem 34 populi Romani nomen atque ad lamentandam tanti 5 imperii calamitatem relinquatur. In. Haec omnia indices detulerunt, rei confessi sunt, vos multis iam iudiciis iudicavistis, primuin quod mihi gratias egistis singularibus verbis et mea virtute atque diligentia 5 perditorum hominurn coniurationem patefactam esse decrevistis, deinde quod P. Lentulum se abdicare praetura coegistis, tum quod eum et ceteros, de quibus iudicastis, in custodiar dandos censuistis, maximeque quod meo nomine supplicationem decrevistis, qui honos This was a part, but a part only, of the programme of the younger Gracchus. L. Saturninus; see refs. on III. 15. 44 ad fin. 26, 27. C. Memmium, a popular leader at the time of the Jugurthine war. He changed sides and was murdered by Saturninus and Glaucia (cf. III. 15. 44) while opposing the latter in the consular election for 99. in... iudicium, 'before the bar of your severity.' 28, 29. vestram omnium: explain the use of the possessive (see I. 9. 12), and substitute a personal pronoun for it (cf. ~~ 1. 1; 2. 24). Romae: case? 31-33. servitia, 'bands of slaves.' What kind of a noun is servitium? How used here? cf. audaciae, III. 22. 29. id... consilium sums up the preceding statements, the passion of which is shown by the asyndeton. nemo ne... quidem, 'no one... even:' see on I. 25. 6 ad init. Give the gen. and abl. of nemo: cf. Mur. 87. 22. ~ 5. 2, 3. rei, 2d. decl. iudiciis iudicavistis, 'have decided by judicial decisions,' a skilful turn of expression covertly reminding the senate that it is bound in its judgmnent by its decrees of the last two days, a hint which he repeats in 11. 7 and 14. For the rhetorical figure see on Mur. 61. 29.

Page  257 CAP. 2-3, ~ 4-6. 257 togato habitus ante me est nemini; postremo hesterno 10 die praemia legatis Allobrogum Titoque Volturcio dedistis amplissima. Quae sunt omnia eius modi, ut ii, qui in custodiam nominatim dati sunt, sine ulla dubitatione a vobis dainnati esse videantur. Sed ego institui referre ad vos, patres conscripti, tam- 6 quam integrum, et de facto quid iudicetis, et de poena 16 quid censeatis. Illa praedicam, quae sunt consulis. Ego magnum in re publica versari furorem et nova quaedam misceri et concitari mala iam pridem videbam, sed hanc tantam, tam exitiosam haberi coniurationem a 20 civibus numquam putavi. Nunc quicquid est, quocumque vestrae mentes inclinant atque sententiae, statuendum vobis ante noctem est. Quantum facinus ad vos delatum sit, videtis. Huic si paucos putatis adfines esse, vehementer erratis. Latius opinione disseminatum 25 10, 11. hesterno die, the 4th of Dec. What was done at this meeting beyond the fixing of rewards, as mentioned here, we do not know. praemia, the rewards actually given are unknown. According to Sall. 30, the senate had offered to any slave giving information concerning the conspiracy his freedom and $5,000; to a free man, impunity and $10,000. 13, 14. in custodiam: cf. III. 14. 15. Sallust gives the names of their sureties: see Exc. I. 47. 4. sine ulla dubitatione goes closely with damnati; to bring this out clearly, turn the clause into the active voice. ~ 6. 15-17. institui, 'I lave begun.' tamquam integrum, 'as if it were still an open question,' referring to Quae. vide antur above. What does integrum agree with? praedicam, ' I will first state,' a rare use of the word. 18,19. Ego videbam, 'I had long seen that a dangerous madness was abroad, and that evils of an unheard-of kind were seething and stirring in the state.' iam pridem has what effect upon the tense? See on I. 12. 31. 23-25. ante noctem, because the safety of the state admits of no longer delay. There may be also an allusion to the fact that a decree of the senate was not valid unless passed before sunset: see p. 75, ~ 103. Huic adfines,' are privy to it:' the gen. is also found with this adj. Latius opinione, 'more widely than you think.' A. 247 b; G. 399 R. 1; H. 417 n. 5; B. 217 4.

Page  258 258 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. est hoc malum; manavit non solum per Italiam, verum etiam transcendit Alpes et obscure serpens multas iam provincias occupavit. Id opprimi sustentando aut prolatando nullo pacto potest; quacumque ratione placet, 30 celeriter vobis vindicandum est. 7 iv. Video duas adhuc esse sententias, unam D. Silani, qui censet eos, qui haec delere conati sunt, morte esse multandos, alteram C. Caesaris, qui mortis poenam removet, ceterorum suppliciorum omnis acerbitates 5 amplectitur. Uterque et pro sua dignitate et pro rerum magnitudine in summa severitate versatur. Alter eos, qui nos omnis vita privare conati sunt, qui delere imperium, qui populi Romani nomen extinguere, punctum temporis frui vita et hoc communi spiritu non putat 10 oportere atque hoc genus poenae saepe in inprobos civis in hac re publica esse usurpatum recordatur. Alter 27-29. mu 1t as provincias, rhetorical exaggeration. Catilina had hoped for aid from Piso in Spain (p. 29, ~ 46), and, according to Sall., from Mauretania. nullo pacto: cf. I. 17. 13. Propositio: (b) The Two Proposals (~~ 7-10). ~7. 1,2. duas sententias, p. 37, ~ 66. D. Silani, the consulelect. For order in debate see p. 75, ~ 105 f. censet, 'proposes,' ' votes,' not ' thinks.' haec, as in I. 21. 42. What is its meaning in III. 21. 3? conati sunt: for mood cf. III. 21. 3; 8. 9. 3, 4. alteram, given in full in Excursus III. C. Caesaris, at this time praetor designatus: what was his nomen? Give the name of one of his colleagues. removet, 'puts aside,' 'rejects;' the strictly accurate phrase would be removendam censet, but in such summaries the shorter (pregnant) form is common. acerbitates: cf. Exc. III., ~~ 8, 15, 26. 5, 6. amplectitur, 'adopts,' for the omission of the connective see on II. 10. 23. When, as here, the omitted conjunction is 'but,' the asyndeton is called adversative. pro... magnitudine, etc., 'as his own high character, etc., demand.' in... versatur, 'exhibits.' 9-11. spiritu, as in I. 15. 23. saepe: see on multas provincias, ~ 6. 27. recordatur, 'remembers.' Cicero suggests that the recollection influenced Silanus, but does not assert that he actually mentioned the precedents.

Page  259 CAP. 3-4, ~ 6-8. 259 intellegit mortem ab dis inmortalibus non esse supplicii causa constitutam, sed aut necessitatem naturae aut laborum ac miseriarum quietem esse. Itaque eam sapientes numquam inviti, fortes saepe etiam lubenter 15 oppetiverunt. Vincula vero, et ea sempiterna, certe ad singularem poenarn nefarii sceleris inventa sunt. Municipiis dispertiri iubet. Habere videtur ista res iniquitatem, si imperare velis, difficultatem, si rogare. Decernatur tamen, si placet. Ego enim suscipiam et, 8 ut spero, reperiam, qui id, quod salutis omnium causa 21 statueritis, non putent esse suae dignitatis recusare. Adiungit gravem poenam municipiis, si quis eorum vincula ruperit; horribiles custodias circumdat et dignas scelere hominum perditorum; sancit, ne quis eorum 25 poenam, quos condemnat, aut per senatum aut per populum levare possit; eripit etiam spem, quae sola homines in miseriis consolari solet. Bona praeterea publicari iubet, vitam solam relinquit nefariis hominibus; quam si eripuisset, multos una dolores animi atque corporis et 30 omnis scelerum poenas ademisset. Itaque ut aliqua 12. mortem, etc. The view that death was either the natural end common to all men, or sought by individuals (i.e., suicides) to escape the greater ills of life, was held by the Epicureans, a school of philosophy to which Caesar adhered. Cf. Exc. III. ~ 20. 16-18. et ea: cf. III. 21. 7. Municipiis... iubet: see Exc. III. ~ 43. Habere, as in Mur. ~~ 87, 28 and 26; 68. 5; 12. 19; in this sense often accompanied by in se. 19, 20. velis: for mood see on Mur. 7. 31, and notice that neither Caesar nor the senate is addressed. Decernatur: for mood cf. subeatur, ~ 2. 28. tamen refers to diffcultatem and iniquitatem, 1. 19: ' in spite of this fact.' ~ 8. 22. dignitatis: for case, A. 214 d; G. 365, R. 1 ad fin; H. 401 n 2; B. 1983. What is the subject of esse P 25, 26. sanclt, ' ordains,' under penalties. eorum, not partitive: how in 1. 23? per senatum, etc., i.e., either by an executive decree (see on I. 3. 30) or by a formal law passed by the comitia.

Page  260 260 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. in vita formido inprobis esset posita, apud inferos eius modi quaedam illi antiqui supplicia impiis constituta esse voluerunt, quod videlicet intellegebant his remotis 35 non esse mortem ipsam pertimescendarn. 9 v. Nunc, patres conscripti, ego mea video quid intersit. Si eritis secuti sententiam C. Caesaris, quoniam hanc is in re publica viam, quae popularis habetur, secutus est, fortasse minus erunt hoc auctore et cogni5 tore huiusce sententiae mihi populares impetus pertimescendi; sin illam alteram, nescio an ainplius mihi negotii contrahatur. Sed tamen meorum periculorum rationes utilitas rei publicae vincat. Habetnus enim a 32-34. in vita, 'on earth.' inprobis, 'the wicked,' not in the political sense of ~ 7. 10; II. 28. 6. ill i antiqui, 'the well-known (writers) of old.' voluerunt, ' would have it,' 'asserted,' ' pretended,' a common meaning of the word. videlicet: see on I. 19.12. 35. non... pertimescendam: contrast this language with that of III. 18. 2, addressed to the people. In Cicero's time the higher classes were losing all faith in the national religion, which was maintained largely for political purposes: see p. 70, ~ 79. ~ 9. 1-3. Nunc, as in ~ 2. 20. mef: for case, A. 222, a; G. 381; I. 408, 2; B. 211 1 a; it should stand after quid, but is placed next to ego for the reason given on III. 27. 6. in re publica, as in III. 29.30; the phrase goes closely with viam; see on III. 10. 14. popularis, 'democratic,' not 'popular.' 4. cognitore,' voucher,' advo cate,' properly used of one who acts for anotler in a lawsuit. The meaning is that if the senate adopts Caesar's opinion he will have to defend it whenever it is attacked. 6. illam(not hanc), because the proposal of Silanus was first mentioned (~ 7. 1), A. 102 b; G. 292 Rem. 1; H. 450, 2; B. 246 1; for the less common use cf. Mur. 31. 38. alteram: sc. sententiam secuti eritis. nescio an, lit. 'I don't know whether,' is used affirmatively by Cicero in the sense of 'probably,' and is followed by the subj. of indirect question. 7, 8. Sed tamen, 'But, notwithstanding all this, let, etc.' rationes, ' considerations.' vincat, ' outweigh.' Habemus enim, 'We have, I say.' With these words Cicero goes back to sententiam (1. 2), and resumes the discussion of Caesar's proposal; enim is often thus used to introduce a narrative or discussion of a point: cf. I. 4. 11.

Page  261 CAP. 4-5, ~ 8-10. 261 Caesare, sicut ipsius dignitas et maiorum eius amplitudo postulabat, sententiam tamnquam obsidem perpetuae in 10 rem publicam voluntatis. Intellectum est, quid interesset inter levitatem contionatorum et animum vere popularem saluti populi consulentem. Video de istis, 10 qui se populares haberi volunt, abesse non neminem, ne de capite videlicet civiumn Romanorum sententiam ferat. 15 Is et nudius tertius in custodiam cives Romanos dedit et supplicationem mihi decrevit et indices hesterno die maximis praemiis adfecit. lam hoc nemini dubium est, qui reo custodiam, quaesitori gratulationem, indici 9. maiorum... amplitudo: which Cicero expected that these Though none of Caesar's ances- demagogues would adopt, cf. II. tors figure prominently in Roman 14. 11-13. se populares haberi history, still the Julian gens was volunt, 'pretend that they are one of the most ancient'and most regarded as democrats;' for this noble of the patrician families, and sense of volunt cf. ~ 8. 34. non claimed lllus, the son of Aeneas neminem, ' one or more,' in sense and grandson of the goddess plural, though treated as a singuVenus, as its founder. lar: cf. ferat, and Is 1. 16. 10. obsidem, 'a pledge,' i.e., 15. de capite: see on Mur. 8. Caesar's proposal to punish the 2. sententiam ferat, 'give their prisoners commits him to the sup- votes,' i.e., they were absent to port of the government against avoid 'going on record;' for the the anarchists. It must be remem- differences of opinion on the legalbered that Caesar was suspected ity of the trial, see p. 37, ~ 64. of complicity in the plot. 16-19. nudius tertius = nunc 11, 12. Intellectum est, at the dies tertius, 'day before yesterconclusion of Caesar's speech: see day' (Dec. 3) by the inclusive especially ~ 43. quid interesset, reckoning of the Romans. dedit, 'what a difference there is;' for an- decrevit, adfecit, i.e., gave his other meaning of the verb cf. 1. 1; vote for these acts: see on ~ 7. 4, for its mood cf. contrahatur, 1. 7; and give the more precise form; for tense see on III. 11. 30. con- point out three other instances in tionatorum, ' demagogues.' ~ 8. hoc, explained by quid... ~ 10. 13, 14. de istis: for case iudicarit. qui has for its anteceA. 216 c; G. 371 Rem. 5; H. 397 dent the unexpressed subject of n 3; B. 201 a; for force see iudicarit. reo, quaesitori: see I. 2. 17; for the form of attack Exe. II. ~~ 2 and 7.

Page  262 * 262 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. 20 praemium decrerit, quid de tota re et causa iudicarit. At vero C. Caesar intellegit legem Semproniam esse de civibus Romanis constitutam; qui autem rei publicae sit hostis, eum civem esse nullo modo posse; denique ipsum latorem Semproniae legis iniussu populi poenas 25 rei publicae dependisse. Idem ipsum Lentulum, largitorem et prodigum, non putat, cum de pernicie populi Romani, exitio huius urbis tam acerbe, tam crudeliter cogitarit, etiam appellari posse popularem. Itaque homo mitissimus atque lenissimus non dubitat P. Len 20. decrerit, principal parts? Cicero means that the absent senators have already gone on record by the unanimous (cf. III. 13. 4) decrees of Dec. 3. 21. legem Semproniam. It is not certain just what this law of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (~ 4. 24) was, but it seems to have confirmed the right of appeal granted to citizens by the earlier leges Porciae and lex Valeria (see on I. 28. 17). Cicero mentions it here in allusion to ~~ 22 and 40 of Caesar's speech, because it was the most recent legislation upon the question before the senate, and because the fate of its proposer could be used as an argument against Caesar. Notice that Roman laws are described by the nomina of their proposers. 22, 23. qui... posse. Read carefully p. 37, ~~ 64, 65. The weakness of Cicero's argument is this: the question whether or not the prisoners were rei publicae hostes was precisely the point for a court (not the senate) to decide. Cicero probably argued in his own mind that the confessions of Lentulus (III. 11. 32) and Gabinius (III. 12. 47) made a formal trial unnecessary, but he nowhere puts this idea forward in set terms. 24, 25. iniussu populi: for the fate of Gracchus see on I. 3, 21. The precedent is exactly suited to the punishment of the conspirators, but the legality of the act had never been admitted by the democratic opposition. rei publicae is dative: see on I. 4. 9, and note the different case there. dependisse, 'paid.' largitorem et prodigum, 'however lavish a giver,' the appositives have a concessive force, and can best be translated as hendiadys. 26. prodigum: the sing. adj. is used as a substantive (1) when used as a collective noun, (2) in philosophical language, (3) when the connection makes the sense quite clear, (4) when,as here,the adjective is accompanied by one or more substantives in parallel constructions; give an example from Mur. ~ 7. 28, 29. etiam, as in I. 1. 2. dubitat: see on I. 17. 20.

Page  263 CAP. 5-6, ~ 10-11. 263 tulum aeternis tenebris vinculisque mandare et sancit 30 in posterum, ne quis huius supplicio levando se iactare et in pernicie populi Rorani posthac popularis esse possit. Adiungit etiam publicationem bonorum, ut omnis animi cruciatus et corporis etiam egestas ac mendicitas consequatur. 35 VI. Quam ob rem, sive hoc statueritis, dederitis mihi 11 comitem ad contionem populo carurn atque iucundum, sive Silani sententiam sequi malueritis, facile me atque vos a crudelitatis vituperatione populo Romano purgabo atque obtinebo earn multo leniorem fuisse. 5 Quamquam, patres conscripti, quae potest esse in tanti sceleris inmanitate punienda crudelitas? Ego enim de meo sensu iudico. Nam ita mihi salva re publica vobiscum perfrui liceat, ut ego, quod in hac causa 31, 34. se iactare, show (himself) off,' ' make himself conspicuous.' omnis cruciatfs, case? Explain the number of consequatur. Contentio: The*general argument. Severity to the prisoners is mercy to the people; the guilty are to be regarded as public enemies, not as citizens; the senate must take the responsibility, and the consul will not fail (~~ 11-19). ~ 11. 1. sive... sive, 'if... orif.' dederitis; the fut. perfect in the apodosis is rare (cf. II. 11. 33), and implies that the action of its verb will be completed at the same time as that of the protasis, although the latter began first. 2. comitem, Caesar. contionem: see on Mur. 50. 6; in which meaning here? After the adjournment of the senate Cicero wQuld be expected to acquaint the people with its decision (cf. the Third Oration), and, according to custom, would be accompanied by the proposer of the successful motion. populo with carum and iucundur. A. 234; G. 356; H. 391; B. 192 1. 5. ear refers to sententiam(l.3), despite the nearer feminine nouns. 6. Quamquam: meaning, when first in the sentence? quae... potest, 'what cruelty can there be in punishing the inhuman conduct of so great a crime?' 8, 9. ita... liceat, ut... moveor, 'so may I enjoy, etc., as I am moved,' a common way of emphasizing a statement by expressing a wish that the welfare of the speaker may depend upon its truth. Cf. the "So help me God" appended to oaths in our courts. quod, 'assuming that,' not differing much from si: for

Page  264 264 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. o1 vehementior sum, non atrocitate animi moveor (quis enim est me mitior?), sed singulari quadam humanitate et misericordia. Videor enim mihi videre hanc urbem, lucem orbis terrarum atque arcem omnium gentium, subito uno incendio concidentem, cerno animo 15 sepulta in patria miseros atque insepultos acervos civium, versatur mihi ante oculos aspectus. Cethegi et 12 furor in vestra caede bacehantis. Cuin vero mihi proposui regnantem Lentulum, sicut ipse se ex fatis sperasse confessus est, purpuratum esse huic Gabinium, 20 curn exercitu venisse Catilinam, tum lamentationem matrum familias, turn fugam virginum atque puerorum ac vexationem virginum Vestalium perhorresco et, quia mihi vehementer haec videntur misera atque the converse (si almost=quod) cf. III. 2. 8. 10-12. vehementior, 'rather severe.' atrocitate animi, 'cruelty of heart.' quadam: cf. ~ 2. 19; are the following nouns here too strong or too weak? Read Mur. ~ 6. Videor... videre: for figure of speech cf. ~ 5. 3. 14, 15. uno as in ~ 3. 20. sepulta, 'on the grave of,' 'in the ashes of.' insepultos. The Romans attached great importance to the rite of burial, because the souls of the unburied were supposed to become evil spirits. 16. mihi ante oculos, 'before my eyes.' A. 235, a; G. 343 Rem. 2; H.'384, 4 n 2; B. 188 N. aspectus Cethegi et furor = aspectus Cethegi furentis: cf. ~ 10. 25, 26. aspectus is here passive in meaning: what kind of a gen. is Cethegi therefore? Notice the position of Cethegi between two nouns standing in the same rela tion to it, instead of after or before them both: this very common arrangement is called by old grammarians coniunctio. ~ 12. 17. Cum vero: here, as often, vero introduces the climax. mihi pioposui, 'have pictured to myself.' 19. purpuratum, 'grand vizier:' the high officials of eastern courts were called purpurati, from their robes of purple and gold. Cicero uses the word to suggest that Catilina contemplated setting up an oriental despotism on the ruins of the republic. huic for case cf. miihi, ~ 11. 16. 20. cum,the preposition. Cicero does not avoid putting the conjunction (1. 17) and preposition close together. venisse, see on II. 6. 9. 21, 22. familias: for case A. 36 b; G. 27 Rem. 1; H. 49 1. B. 21 1 a. vexationem, etc.: notice the alliteration. 23, 24. vehementer... mi

Page  265 CAP. 6, ~ 11-12. 265 miseranda, idcirco in eos, qui ea perficere voluerunt, me severum vehementemque praebeo. Etenim quaero, 25 si quis pater familias liberis suis a servo interfectis, uxore occisa, incensa domo supplicium de servo non quam acerbissumum sumpserit, utrum is clemens ac misericors an inhumanissimus et crudelissimus esse videatur. Mihi vero inportunus ac ferreus, qui non 30 dolore et cruciatu nocentis suum dolorem cruciatumque lenierit. Sic nos in his hominibus, qui nos, qui coniuges, qui liberos nostros trucidare voluerunt, qui singulas unius cuiusque nostrum domos et hoc universum rei publicae domicilium delere conati sunt, qui id 35 egerunt, ut gentem Allobrogum in vestigiis huius urbis atque in cinere deflagrati imperii collocarent, si vehementissimi fuerimus, misericordes habebimur; sin remissiores esse voluerimus, summae nobis crudelitatis in patriae civiumque pernicie fama subeunda est. 40 sera = miserrima. The adverb is used merely for the sake of a better antithesis to vehementem 1. 25. haec... ea: see on ea Mur. 78.2. 29, 30. an = an potius; i.e., the emphasis rests upon the latter clause. crudelissimus: modern' feeling on this point is at utter variance with that of the Romans, whose rigor in the punishment of slaves went the length of extrem'est cruelty. Roman law, for example, provided that when a pater familias was killed by a slave, all his slaves should be put to death. Mibi; sc. videatur. 32. lenierit: why subj.? nos, subject of habebimur (1. 38). in, 'in the case of,' as often. qui nos, etc.: for figure of speech cf. 1. 1.3. 33, 34. singulas... domos, 'the homes of each of us one by one,' opposed to universum domicilium. nostrum, the regular form of the gen. when used partitively: how does its use differ here from that in ~ 2. 24? 35-37. id egerunt: cf. III. 4. 10; Mur. 79. 31. ut... collocarent: explain the clause. deflagrati: here used in the passive, but always intrans. in the active voice, in good writers. 39, 40. remissiores: sc. in his hominibus from 1. 32, and for the comparative see on III. 4. 13. fama is used of either good or ill report: which here? Such a word is called a vox media, 'neutral expression.' subeunda: explain the metaphor.

Page  266 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. 13 Nisi vero cuipiam L. Caesar, vir fortissimus et amantissimus rei publicae, crudelior nudius tertius visus est, cum sororis suae, feminae lectissimae, virum praesentem et audientem vita privandum esse dixit, 45 cum avum suum iussu consulis interfectum filiumque eius inpuberem legatum a patre missunl in carcere necatum esse dixit. Quorum quod simile factum, quod initum delendae rei publicae consilium? Largitionis voluntas turn in re publica versata est et partium 50 quaedam contentio. Atque illo tempore huius avus ~ 13. 41. Nisi vero: see on II. 20. 38) and a distant relative of C. 6. 3; how does the nisi here differ Julius Caesar. The following from the one there? L. (Julius) table will explain the relationships Caesar, consul in 64 (see on III. mentioned below: (1) M. Fulvius Flaccus (cos. 125) (2) M. Fulvius Flaccus Fulvia = L. Julius Caesar (cos. 90) M. Antonius I 1 Creticus (3) L. Julius Caesar (cos. 64) (4) Julia = (5) P. Cornelius 2 Lentulus. vir fortissimus (cf. III. 5. 26), with the consul, but thrown into merely a complimentary phrase, prison and afterwards executed, not to be distinguished from vir though but eighteen years old. probus, honestus, etc. Could homo L. Caesar (No. 3) cited this act as have been used? Cf. I. 13. 4. a precedent for vigorous proceed42, 43. crudelior: cf. remis- ings against the conspirators. siores, ~ 12. 39. nudius tertius, 47. Quorum... factum: as in ~ 10. 16: what day? sororis ' What deed of theirs [was] like suae: No. 4 in table above. femi- [this conspiracy]?' factum, here nae: see on I. 4.4. virum, 'hus- a noun: sc. fuit. band,' as often; No. 5 in table 48-50. delendae: what other above, construction is possible? Cf. ~ 4. 45, 46. avum suum: No. 1 in 32-33. Largitionis voluntas, table above: see on I. 4. 1. con- etc. 'A disposition for lavish sulis; who? filium eius inpu- grants then pervailed in the state berem: No. 2 in table, sent by and a clashing, so to speak, of his father to negotiate (legatum) parties.' Largitionis refers to a

Page  267 CAP. 6-7, ~ 13-14. 267 Lentuli, vir clarissimus, armatus Gracchum est persecutus. Ille etiam grave tur vulnus accepit, ne quid de summa re publica deminueretur; hic ad evertenda rei publicae fundamenta Gallos accersit, servitia concitat, Catilinam vocat, adtribuit nos trucidandos Ce- 55 thego et ceteros civis interficiendos Gabinio, urbem inflammandam Cassio, totam Italiam vastandam diripiendamque Catilinae. Vereamini censeo, ne in hoc scelere tam ilmmani ac nefando nimis aliquid severe statuisse videamini; multo magis est verendum, ne 60 remissione poenae crudeles in patriam quam ne severitate animadversionis nimis vehementes in acerbissimos hostis fuisse videamur. viI. Sed ea, quae exaudio, patres conscripti, dissinu- 14 lexfrumentaria of Gaius Gracchus retur, alius autem alium. truciwhich provided for the distribu- dandos; for the gerundive see on tion of food among the poor, and III. 20. 35; so those in 11. 56, 57. also perhaps to his agrarian law Do the datives with them denote (~ 4. 25). quaedam: cf. ~ 11. 11. the agent or the indirect object contentio, caused by Gains Grac- 58, 61. Vereamini c e n s e o, chus, who transferred from the 'You are afraid, I suppose;' lit. senators to the equites the privi- 'It is my opinion that you are lege of serving as jurors: see on afraid.' censeo is not parenthetiMur. 24. 8. avus: see on III. cal, but governs vereamini, ut be10. 17. ing omitted as often with such 52, 53. Ille... hic: explain verbs as curo, volo. hortor, etc.: their use. ne quid... deminu- cf. Mur. 59. 26; II. 5. 11-12. The eretur, ' lest the majesty of the sense is ironical, so with credo, III. state should be in any degree im- 6. 10; II. 14. 27. remissione, paired.' ' mitigation,' 'mildness,' not ' re54, 55. servitia... vocat; mission.' read the letter of Lentulus in III. 62, 63. vehementes in hostis; ~ 12. nos, perhaps intentionally cf. ~ 12. 32-38, and notice the ambiguous (cf. II. 12. 6; I. 14, change in construction and slightly 12), as it may = me as in I. 22. 6, different meaning. or me et vos as in ~ 12. 32; the former meaning is confirmed by Sall. ~ 14. 1. exaudio: see on I. 43: (uti) Cethegus Ciceronis ianu- 21. 40. dissimulare: cf. I1. am obsideret, eumque vi aggrede- 17. 4.

Page  268 268 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. lare non possum. Iaciuntur enim voces, quae perveniunt ad auris meas eorum, qui vereri videntur, ut habeam satis praesidii ad ea, quae vos statueritis 5 hodierno die, transigunda. Omnia et provisa et parata et constituta sunt, patres conscripti, cum mea summa cura atque diligentia, tur etiam multo maiore populi Romani ad summum imperium retinendum et ad communes fortunas conservandas voluntate. Omnes adsunt 10 omnium ordinum homines, omnium generum, omnium denique aetatum; plenum est forum, plena templa circum forum, pleni omnes aditus huius templi ac loci. Causa est enim post urbem conditam haec inventa sola, in qua omnes sentirent unum atque idem 15 praeter eos, qui cum sibi viderent esse pereundum, 15 cum omnibus potius quam soli perire voluerunt. Hosce ego homines excipio et secerno lubenter neque in inproborum civium, sed in acerbissimorum hostium numero habendos puto. Ceteri vero, di inmortales! 20 qua frequentia, quo studio, qua virtute ad communem salutem dignitatemque consentiunt! Quid ego hic 2, 3. Iaciuntur voces, 'There it is probably a part of an old are repeated in my hearing the legal or religious formula: see on words of, etc.' ut: meaning after Mur. 27. 40. What temple is a verb of fearing? meant? 5-10. Omnia = Immo vero om- ~ 15. 17, 19. inproborum, as nia: see on ~ 7. 5. summa... in ~ 7. 10 or ~ 8. 32? Ceteri: he maiore: see on III. 13.48. vo- now goes through all the classes luntate; notice its emphatic posi- by turns, mentioning first the tion. ordinum, generum: the knights (the disposition of the second word is a little wider in its senate being clear), then the offiextent than the first. cial classes (the Civil Service (see 11, 13. plenum, 'crowded.' p. 68, ~~ 70, 71), we might call circum forum: for the phrase them), then the general body of cf. ~ 9. 3, and give the more cor- freeborn citizens, and lastly the rect form. templi ac loci, a freedmen and slaves. pleonasm common in Cicero, the 21. consentiunt, 'show their order being sometimes reversed; approval.'

Page  269 CAP. 7, ~ 14-15. 269 equites Romanos commemorem? qui vobis ita summam ordinis consiliique concedunt, ut vobiscum de amore rei publicae certent; quos ex multorum annorum dissensione huius ordinis ad societatem concordiamque 25 revocatos hodiernus dies vobiscum atque haec causa coniungit. Quam si coniunctionem in consulatu confirmatam meo perpetuam in re publica tenuerimus, confirmo vobis nullum posthac malurn civile ac domesticum ad ullam rei publicae partem esse venturum. 30 Pari studio defendundae rei publicae convenisse video tribunos aerarios, fortissimos viros; scribas item uni versos, quos cum casu hic 22. commemorem: for meaning see on II. 9. 5; for mood cf. laeter, ~ 2. 29. ita... ut: the so-called restrictive use of these correlatives, showing with what reservation the main statement is to be accepted; it may be variously rendered, 'with this limitation... that,' 'only... to,' 'I admit... but,' etc. summam, 'precedence;' how does it differ from the word in 1. 6? 24, 25. ex multorum.., ordinis, 'after a strife of many years' duration with this body.' For several genitives thus depending upon one word cf. Caes. II. 17. 2, eorum dierum, etc. dissensione, caused by Gains Gracchus: see on contentio, ~ 13. 50. huius ordinis = ordinis senatorii or nostri (Mur. 47. 7). societatem concordiamque: figure of speech? 26, 27. revocatos, by the lex Aurelia (70) which made the juries dies ad aerarium frequendents: see on Mur. 24. 8. vobiscum: for position see on ~ 11. 16; where would it naturally stand? coniunctionem: this union of the knights and senators in opposition to the democrats was Cicero's most cherished political object, but it was of very brief duration. 29-32. c i v i e ac domesticum, as in III. 19. 23. tribunes a e r a r i o s, 'district presidents.' The Roman people were divided for administrative and financial purposes into 35 tribes whose 'presidents' or ' deans' were elected from the wealthiest and most respectable plebeians, and had formed a distinct ordo in the state since the lex Aurelia (1. 26). As their duties were largely connected with the revenue, they were called tribuni aeraii, 'of the treasury.' scribas: see p. 68, ~ 70. 33. cum, the conjunction, with frequentasset. The Latins do not consist of equal numbers of sena- seem to have felt the awkwardtors, knights, and district presi- ness of putting the conjunction

Page  270 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. tasset, video ab expectatione sortis ad salutem com16 munem esse conversos. Omnis ingenuorum adest 36 multitudo, etial tenuissiimorum. Quis est enim, cui non haec templa, aspectus urbis, possessio libertatis, lux denique haec ipsa et commune patriae solum cum sit carum, tum vero dulce atque iucundum? vII. Operae pretium est, patres conscripti, libertinorum hominum studia cognoscere, qui sua virtute fortunam huius civitatis consecuti vere hanc suam esse patriam 5 iudicant, quam quidam hic nati, et summo nati loco, cum immediately before an ablative (here casu): cf. Caes. II. 17. 4; 24. 4; 29. 1. Another infelicity in the use of cum has been noticed on ~ 12. 20. casu, etc. This speech happened to be delivered upon the Nones of Dec., the day on which the quaestors' term of office began. They gathered at the aerarium (see on I. 4. 13), which was near the temple of Concordia, to draw lots for their respective positions, or provinciae: see on Mur. 18. 29, 30. They were attended by their clerks, scribae quaestorii, who would of course be almost as interested as the quaestors themselves in the drawing (sortis). frequentasset = frequentes congregasset, here only in this sense. ~ 16. 35-37. ingenuorum, 'free born men,' opposed to libertinorum (1. 2), 'freedmen.' Cf. Acts xxii. 28: the centurion was libertinus, Paul ingenuus. aspectua urbis: cf. ~ 11. 16. libertatis: what kind of a genitive? 38, 39. cum... turn, 'not only... but also:' cf. III. 18. 4, and notice that cumr is not causal or concessive, and does not govern the subjunctive sit, although it stands immediately before it. For the mood of sit cf. sentirent, ~ 14. 14, and for the awkward position of cum see on ~ 15. 33. For cum (in cum... turn) with the subjunctive see on Mur. 55. 3. tur vero: see on cum vero, ~ 12. 17; while the soil of his native land is dear (carum) to every citizen, it is much stronger to say that it is a joy and delight (dolce atque iucundum). 1-3. Operae pretium est, 'It is worth while,' lit. 'It is the cost of the labor:' what is the subject of est? Give a synonymous phrase from II. 15. 14. studia: how may such plurals be rendered? virtute fortunam, etc., 'having by their manly qualities identified themselves with this state;' manumission was commonly the reward for a slave's industry and energy. 5. summo nati loco, 'born in the highest rank.'

Page  271 CAP. 7-8, ~ 15-17. 271 non patriam suam, sed urbem hostium esse iudicaverunt. Sed quid ego hosce homines ordinesque comInemoro, quos privatae fortunae, quos communis res publica, quos denique libertas, ea quae dulcissima est, ad salutem patriae defendendam excitavit? Servus lo est nemo, qui modo tolerabili condicione sit servitutis, qui non audaciam civium perhorrescat, qui non haec stare cupiat, qui non quantum audet et quantum potest, conferat ad communem salutem, voluntatis. Quare si quem vestrum forte commovet hoc, quod 17 auditum est, lenonem quendam Lentuli concursare 16 circum tabernas, pretio sperare sollicitari posse animos egentium atque imperitorum, est id quidem coeptum atque temptatum, sed nulli sunt inventi tam aut for 7. quid commemoro: cf. quid commemorem, ~ 15. 21, and explain the difference in thought which makes the difference in mood. 11, 12. nemo is often used as an adj. (= nullus), but only with persons, never things: decline it. qui modo... qui non, etc.: the first clause is restrictive (' none that is who is,' etc.), the second is characteristic; for mood of sit see A. 320 d; G. 629 Rein.; B. 283 5: for perhorrescat cf. sit, 1. 38. haec, as in ~ 7. 2. 13. audet et potest: sc. conferre from conferat. It is implied that many slaves, seeing their masters leaning towards the conspiracy, ventured to express in some measure their own loyalty. 14. voluntatis: for its position cf. voluntate, ~ 14. 9; it is partitive after tantum, to be supplied from quantum. Notice that the Romans liked to put the partitive gen. as far as possible from the governing word. ~ 17. 15, 16. vestrum, as nostrum, ~ 12. 34. hoc, quod auditum est, ' this rumor;' notice that hoc is explained by the clause lenonem... sperare, which is accommodated to auditum est: see on III. 21. 14 ad fin. lenonem, 'pimp,' to hint at the nature of the services which the agents (administri) of Lentulus were accustomed to perform. concursare; what is the force of con- when used, as here, of but one person? 17, 18. tabernas, 'shops.' pretio, ' money.' animos egentium, etc., 'to win over the [minds of the] poor,'etc.; for the common pleonasm with animus cf. Caes. I. 19. 2; 33. 1; IV. 6. 5; and contrast III. 4. 16-18. eat id quidem: there is a slight ellipsis; see on Mur. 15. 11, 12, and on II. 3. 5, and for quidem on II. 10. 20.

Page  272 272 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. 20 tuna miseri aut voluntate perditi, qui non ilium ipsum sellae atque operis et quaestus cotidiani locum, qui non cubile ac lectulum suum, qui denique non cursum hunc otiosum vitae suae salvum esse velint. Multo vero maxima pars eorum, qui in tabernis sunt, immo vero 25 (id enim potius est dicendum) genus hoc universum amantissimum est otii. Etenim omne instrumentum, omnis opera atque quaestus frequentia civium sustentatur, alitur otio; quorum si quaestus occlusis tabernis minui solet, quid tandem incensis futurum fuit? 18 ix. Quae cum ita sint, patres conscripti, vobis populi Romani praesidia non desunt; vos ne populo Romano deesse videamini, providete. Habetis consulem ex plurimis periculis et insidiis atque ex media morte 20-22. ilium, with a gesture (cf. III. 22. 21) towards the forum where there were many of these shops. sellae, 'bench.' lectulum: no distinction in meaning can be made between this form and lectus; both are used of precisely the same piece of furniture in ~ 2. 16 and I. 9. 24. 23-26. Multo maxima: with the superlative longe is more common than multo in Cicero, and is used exclusively by Caesar. immo vero: see on I. 2. 13; is a weaker or stronger expression substituted here? instrumentum, 'plant,' ' stock in trade.' 27-29. frequentia sustentatur, alitur otio, a good instance of the very common arrangement called chiasmus (from the Greek letter X chi), on account of the criss-cross arrangement, thus:' frequentia sustentatur alitur ot alitur otio quorum must be forced back to eorum (1. 24), despite the nearer masculine plural civium: cf. the analogous use of the demonstrative earn, ~ 11. 5. si... solet: the apodosis is unexpressed ("I ask you this") as often in English. tabernis is ab. abs. with both occlusis and incensis: with the former it is equivalent to a temporal clause (cum tabernae occluduntur), with the latter to a contrary to fact protasis (si tabernae incensae essent). futurum fuit, apodosis to the ab. abs., not to si... solet: why notfuturum fuisset? A. 308 d; G. 599 Rem. 3; H. 511 2; B. 304 1 3 b). ~ 18. 1-4 Quae cum ita sint, as in II. 26. 1. praesidia, in reference to the rumor mentioned in ~ 14. 2-5. atque, 'yes, and,' usually implies that the words following it are more important than those preceding.

Page  273 CAP. 8-9, ~ 17-19. 273 non ad vitam suam, sed ad salutem vestram reser- 5 vatum. Omnes ordines ad conservandam rem publicam mente, voluntate, studio, virtute, voce consentiunt. Obsessa facibus et telis impiae coniurationis vobis supplex manus tendit patria communis, vobis se, vobis vitam omnium civium, vobis arcem et Capitolium, 10 vobis aras Penatium, vobis ilium ignem Vestae sempiternum, vobis omnium deorum templa atque delubra, vobis nuros atque urbis tecta commendat. Praeterea de vestra vita, de coniugum vestrarum atque liberorum anima, de fortunis omnium, de sedibus, de focis vestris 15 hodierno die vobis iudicandumn est. Habetis ducem 19 memorem vestri, oblitum sui, quae non semper facultas datur, habetis omnis ordines, omnis homines, universum populum Romanurn, id quod in civili causa hodierno die primum videmus, unum atque idem sentientem. 20 Cogitate, quantis laboribus fundatum imperium, quanta virtute stabilitam libertatem, quanta deorum benigni 9, 10. vobis se, vobis vitam, etc.: for arrangement cf. ~ 12. 32. arcem et Capitolium, the ancient fortress and the temple of Iupiter Capitolinus on opposite extremities of the saddle-shaped Mons Capitolinus. The word Capitolium is used in three senses: of the whole hill, of the site of the temple, and of the temple itself; in the last sense here. 11, 12. Penatium: sc. publicorum, the protecting deities of the state considered as a family: their altars (arcs) were in the temple of Vesta. illum, as in ~ 17. 20. ignem... sempiternum. see on III. 9. 22. templa atque delubra: cf. III. 2.16. 13-16. urbis: for position cf. vobiscum, ~ 15. 26. Notice the combination of anaphora and chiasmus in 11. 14, 15. hodierno die, for the reasons given on. ~ 6. 23. ~ 19. 17-19. vestri: cf. vestrum, ~ 17. 15 and A. 99 b and c; G. 99 R. 1; 362; H. 446 n 3; B. 242 2, and explain the use of the two forms. id quod, as in II. 18. 2(i: case of il? civili causa: we should say 'in a question of politics.' 21-23. quantis... delerit, an abbreviated expression combining two really distinct, indirect questions: (1) cogitate quantis laboribus imperiumfundatum sit,

Page  274 274 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. tate auctas exaggeratasque fortunas una nox paene delerit. Id ne umquam posthac non modo confici, sed 25 ne cogitari quidem possit a civibus, hodierno die providendum est. Atque haec, non ut vos, qui mihi studio paene praecurritis, excitarem, locutus sum, sed ut inea vox, quae debet esse in re publica princeps, officio functa consulari videretur. 20 x. Nunc, antequam ad sententiam redeo, de me pauca dicam. Ego, quanta manus est coniuratorum, quam videtis esse permagnam, tantam me inimicorum multitudinem suscepisse video; sed earn esse iudico turpem 5 et infirmam et abiectam. Quodsi aliquando alicuius furore et scelere concitata manus ista plus valuerit quam vestra ac rei publicae dignitas, me tamen meorum factorum atque consiliorum numquam, patres conscripti, quanta virtute stabilita libertas for the best interests of the state sit, etc., and (2) cogitate ut (~~ 20-24). ('how') una nox paene (imperium, ~ 20. 1. ad sententiam: sc. libertatem, etc.) delerit. Such rogandam; i.e., he will not proparticipial clauses with interroga- nounce a direct opinion himself, tives do not occur in English, and but will go on asking the opinions are best rendered by making the of the senators: see p. 38, ~ 67. participial clauses the principal 5-7. Quodsi... tamen: cf. ones, and inserting 'which' be- for quodsi, III. 28. 18, for (quod) fore the finite verb: 'Think with si... tamen III. 7. 18. aliwhat toil the government was quando, the ' sometime' came five established, etc., which one night years later. s c el e r e, 'villany,' has almost destroyed.' una nox, as always when used with abthe night of the meeting at Lae- stract nouns: cf. II. 29. 24; 25. ca's house (p. 30, ~ 49) or, perhaps 20; 11. 29. -orum, -o r u m, better, of the arrest of the Allo- -orum. Cicero does not seem to broges. have avoided this resounding ter24, 25. ne umquam... non mination: give examples from modo... sed ne... quidem, Mur. 27. 34 and I. 7. 18. as in I. 25. 6. 8. f a c t o r u m, consiliorum: Peroratio: He is not concerned the former refers to what he has for himself... let the senate already accomplished; cf. III. remember his sacrifice, and vote ~~ 16, 17: the latter to his plans

Page  275 CAP. 9-10, ~ 19-21. 275 paenitebit. Etenim mors, quam illi fortasse ninitantur, omnibus est parata; vitae tantam laudem, quanta vos 10 me vestris decretis honestastis, nemo est adsecutus. Ceteris enim bene gesta, mihi uni conservata re publica gratulationem decrevistis. Sit Scipio clarus ille, cuius 21 consilio atque virtute Hannibal in Africam redire atque Italia decedere coactus est, ornetur alter eximia laude 15 Africanus, qui duas urbes huic imperio infestissimas, Carthaginem Numantiamque, delevit, habeatur vir egregius Paulus ille, cuius currum rex potentissimus quondam et nobilissimus Perses honestavit, sit aeterna gloria Marius, qui bis Italiam obsidione et metu servi- 20 yet to be carried out; cf. III. 29. ideas; of course the leaving Italy 36-38. For the genitives A. 221 b; preceded the returning to Africa. G. 376; H. 409 III.; B. 209. Italia: with decedere the preposi9-12. quam... minitantur: tion (de or ex) is often omitted. see on II. 1. 3; if 'me' had been alter Africanus, the younger expressed, what case would have Scipio: see on Mur. 75. 5. He been employed? omnibus est took and destroyed Carthage in parata: cf. ~~ 7. 14; 3. 7-9. bene 146, Numantia in 133. gesta, with re publica: cf. III. 18, 19. Paulus, the father of 15. 37. the younger Africanus, and the ~ 21. 13. Sit: A. 313 i; G.257; most eminent man of his time. H. 484 III.; P. 472 (4), an ex- At the battle of Pydna, in 168, he tension of the Hortatory subj. defeated and took captive Perseus, Scipio the elder, who restored king of Macedonia, and ended the Roman supremacy in Spain in the tlird Macedonian war. Perses, Second Punic war, and by his the Greek form of Perseus. A. 37; daring invasion of Africa forced G. 72; H. 50; P. 94. Decline! Hannibal to leave Italy in order 20. gloria, abl. of quality. to defend Carthage. HIe defeated bis, by defeating the Teutones at Htannibal at Zama in 202. clarus, Aquae Sextiae in 102, and the predicate. ille, as in Mur. 66. 26: Cimbri near Vercellae in 101. when thus used of a person his obsidione, 'military occupation,' praenomen is usually omitted as when used of a country as here: here and in 1. 18. how is it used in Caes. IV. 19. 4? 14, 15. in A f r i c a m redire 21-23. cuius res, etc.: the same atque Italia decedere, a good thought in III. 26. 15-16. solis example of hysteron proteron, the cursus: sc. what? continentur, reversing of the natural order of as in Caes. I. 1. 5.

Page  276 276 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. tutis liberavit, anteponatur omnibus Pompeius, cuius res gestae atque virtutes isdem quibus solis cursus regionibus ac terminis continentur; erit profecto inter horum laudes aliquid loci nostrae gloriae, nisi forte 25 maius est patefacere nobis provincias, quo exire possimus, quam curare, ut etiam illi, qui absunt, habeant, 22quo victores revertantur. Quamquam est uno loco condicio melior externae victoriae quam domesticae, quod hostes alienigenae aut oppressi serviunt aut 30 recepti beneficio se obligatos putant; qui autem ex nurero civium dementia aliqua depravati hostes patriae semel esse coeperunt, eos cum a pernicie rei publicae reppuleris, nec vi coircere nec beneficio placare possis. Quare mihi cum perditis civibus aeternum bellum sus35 ceptum esse video. Id ego vestro bonorumque omnium auxilio memoriaque tantorum periculorum, quae non modo in hoc populo, qui servatus est, sed in ornnium gentium sermonibus ac mentibus semper haerebit, a me atque a meis facile propulsari posse confido. Neque 40 ulla profecto tanta vis reperietur, quae coniunctionem vestram equitumque Romanorum et tantam conspira 24,25. loci, partitive. gloriae, dative. nisi forte is used precisely as nisi vero: cf. ~ 13. 41. maius, 'a greater feat.' quo, relative adverb = ad quas: what is it equivalent to in Mur. 28. 18? in III. 28. 25? and below in 1. 27 (cf. aliquo 1. 17. 24)? ~ 22. 27-30. uno loco, 'in one respect.' externae victoriae, etc.: the adjectives take the place of objective genitives, externae victoriae being equivalent to victoriae hostium-, and domesticae victorite to victoriae inimico rum: ' victory over foreign enemies than victory over foes at home.' oppressi serviunt, ' when conquered, eaj our slaves.' recepti: complete the phrase from Caes. I. 5. 4 ad fin. 33-37. possis: for mood A. 311 a; G. 250; H. 485 n 3; B. 280 2. mihi: case? II. 26. 3. non.. modo... sed: see on II. 8. 28, and for the whole thought, cf. III. 26. 9 f. 40-41. coniunctionem v e stram, etc., 'your union with the Roman knights:' cf. ~ 15. 27.

Page  277 CAP. 10-11, ~ 21-23. 277 tionem bonorum omnium confringere et labefactare possit. xi. Quae cum ita sint, pro imperio, pro exercitu, 23 pro provincia, quam neglexi, pro triumpho ceterisque laudis insignibus, quae sunt a rme propter urbis vestraeque salutis custodiam repudiata, pro clientelis hospi conspiratio, a vox media; see on ~ 12. 40: in good or bad sense here? 42. confringere et labefactare, 'break and loosen:' the metaphor is from a stake driven into the ground, the upper part broken, and the lower worked loose, labefactare; for formation, see on II. 16. 27; Cicero does not use labefacere. ~ 23. 1. pro, 'in place of.' imperio, here, in its technical sense, the power by virtue of which the general controlled his army by martial law. It was vested in the chief magistrates (see p. 62, ~ 45, II. a), but its use was restricted within the city. Cicero was not going to govern a province, and hence would not have an army or the imperium (= 'military command '). 2. pro provincia. Each of the ten chief magistrates (two consuls and eight praetors) had the right to go, at the expiration of his term of office, to one of the provinces as governor: see p. 68, ~~ 73-75. The two consular provinces were fixed upon by the senate before the election of the consuls who were to govern them, and after their election the consuls settled by lot or by mutual agreement which of the two each should take. The consular provinces of 62 were Macedonia and Cisalpine Gaul, of which Cicero gave up the former to Antonius and the latter to Metellus Celer (p. 28, ~ 42). By so doing he lost, of course, the chance of a triumph, etc. 4. clientelis. Provincial communities often attached themselves as clients to their former governors, who thus became their patroni, and looked after their interests in the capital. Such connections were very advantageous to the patroni, and, by declining a province, Cicero had given up the best opportunity of forming them. hospitiis, 'guest friendships,' 'fraternal ties.' Hospitium was a relation entered into with each other by two citizens of different states, at the time when there were no international relations. These ' guest friends' (hospites) were bound to extend to each other protection and aid, very much as members of our great secret societies, - Masons, Oddfellows, etc. The relation descended from father to son, and was voucaed for by a token (tessera) agreed upon by the original pair. In course of time it became common for a community, when it wished to highly honor an individual of another community, to de

Page  278 278 IN CATILINAM ORATIO QUARTA. 5 tiisque provincialibus, quae tamen urbanis opibus non minore labore tueor quam comparo, pro his igitur omnibus rebus, pro meis in vos singularibus studiis proque hac, quam perspicitis, ad conservandam rem publicam diligentia nihil a vobis nisi huius temporis totiuso1 que mei consulatus memoriam postulo; quae dum erit in vestris fixa mentibus, tutissimo me muro saeptum esse arbitrabor. Quodsi meam spem vis inproborum fefellerit atque superaverit, commendo vobis parvum meum filium, cui profecto satis erit praesidii non solum 15 ad salutem, verum etiam ad dignitatem, si eius, qui haec omnia suo solius periculo conservarit, illum filium 24 esse memineritis. Quapropter de summa salute vestra populique Romani, de vestris coniugibus ac liberis, de aris ac focis, de fanis atque templis, de totius urbis 20 tectis ac sedibus, de imperio ac libertate, de salute dare him the hospes of the whole community. Of course the governors of provinces enjoyed exceptional opportunities for forming such relations with both individuals and communities. 5. provincialibus, 'in the provinces.' quae tamen: here as often (cf. ~ 7. 20) tamen answers to a concession implied in a preceding word (provincialibus) '(although these relations are with provincials, and I have declined a province), still I maintain them with no less labor than I secure them by means of my influence in the city.' 6-10. igitur, as in Mur. 34. 24. pro meis, proque hac, 'in return for:' the preposition has a slightly different force with the last two clauses. nisi... memoriam: see on II. 10. 15, and cf. praeterquam III. 26. 3. dum: see on III. 16. 10. 12-14. spem, object of fefellerit alone, not of superaverit, which is intransitive, as in III. 24. 15. commendo... cui profecto, etc.; while the sense is clear enough, the force of the preceding future-perfects would have been more evident, and the thought more logical thus: meo filio profecto, quem vobis commendo, satis erit ('will have') praesidii, etc. For a similar rearrangement see on III. 4. 14, 15. 15,16. eius, qui, ' a man, who.' suo solius: see on I. 9.12. What different idea would suo solus

Page  279 CAP. 11, ~ 23-24. 279 Italiae, de universa re publica decernite diligenter, ut instituistis, ac fortiter. Habetis eum consulem, qui et parere vestris decretis non dubitet et ea, quae statueritis, quoad vivet, defendere et per se ipsum praestare possit. 25 ~ 24. 21-24. universa re pub- consul's speech. per se ipsum lica, 'the public interests as a praestare, 'and warrant them whole.' instituistis, i.e., before (stand good for them) by limthe expression of opinion by the self;' the same thought as in suo senators was interrupted by the solius, 1. 16. EXCURSUS IV. EVENTS FROM THE CONCLUSION OF THE DEBATE TO THE DEATH OF CATILINA. [Sallust, Cap. 55-57; 59-61. Text of Schmalz.] 55. Postquam, ut dixi, senatus in Catonis sententiam discessit, consul, optumum factu ratus noctem quae instabat antecapere, ne quid eo spatio novaretur, tresviros, quae supplicium postulabat pa2 rare iubet; ipse praesidiis dispositis Lentulum in carcerem deducit; 3 idem fit ceterisperpraetores. Est in carcere locus, quod Tullianum appellatur, ubi paululum asscenleris ad laevam, circiter duodecim 4 pedes humi depressus. Eum muniunt undique parietes atque insuper camera lapideis fornicibus iuncta, sed incultu, tenebris, odore foeda atque terribilis eius facies 5 est. In eum locum postquam demissus est Lentulus, vindices rerum capitalium quibus praeceptum erat. laqueo gulam fregere. Ita ille patricius ex gente claris- 6 suma Corneliorum, qui consulare imperium Romae habuerat, dignum moribus factisque suis exitium vitae invenit. De Cethego Statilio Gabinio Caepario eodein modo supplicium sumptum est. 56. Dum ea Romae geruntur, Catilina ex omni copia, quam et ipse adduxerat et Manlius habuerat, duas legiones instituit, cohortis pro numero militum complet. Deinde, ut quisque voluntarius aut 2 ex sociis in castra venerat, aequaliter distribuerat, ac brevi spatio legiones numero hominum expleverat, cum initio non amplius duobus milibus habuisset. Sed ex 3 omni copia circiter pars qnarta erat militaribus armis instructa, ceteri, ut quemque casus armave

Page  280 280 IN CATILINAM ( rat, sparos aut lanceas, alii praea4 cutas sudis portabant. Sed postquam Antonius cum exercitu adventabat, Catilina per montis iter facere, modo ad urbem modo in Galliam vorsus castra movere, hostibus occasionem pugnandi non dare: sperabat propediem magnas copias sese habiturum, si Romae E socii incepta patravissent. Interea servitia repudiabat, cuius initio ad eum magnae copiae concurrebant, opibus coniurationis fretus, simul alienum suis rationibus existumans, videri causam civium cum servis fugitivis communicavisse. 57. Sed postquam in castra nuntius pervenit Romae coniurationem patefactam, de Lentulo et Cethego ceterisque quos supra memoravi supplicium sumptum, plerique, quos ad bellum spes rapinarum aut novarum rerum studium illexerat, dilabuntur, reliquos Catilina per montis asperos magnis itineribus in agrun Pistoriensem abducit eo consilio, uti per tramites occulte perfugeret in Gal2 liam Transalpinam. At Q. Metellus Celer cum tribus legionibus in agro Piceno praesidebat, ex difficultate rerum eadern illa existumans, quae supra diximnus, Catili3 nam agitare. Igitur ubi iter eius ex perfugis cognovit, castra propere movit ac sub ipsis radicibus montium consedit, qua illi descensus erat in Galliam properanti. Neque tamen Antonius procul abe4 rat, utpote qui magno exercitu locis aequioribus expeditus tarda5 tos in fuga sequeretur. Sed Catilina postquam videt montibus atque copiis hostium sese clausum, in urbe res advorsas, neque )RATIO QUARTA. fugae neque praesidi ullam spem, optumum factu ratus in tali re fortunam belli temptare, statuit cum Antonio quam primum confligere. 59.... paululum commoratus, signa canere iubet atque instructos ordines in locum aequom deducit. Dein rernotis omnium equis, quo militibus exaequato periculo animus amplior esset, ipse pedes exerciturn pro loco atque copiis instruit. Nam uti pla- 2 nities erat inter sinistros montis et ab dextera rupe aspera, octo cohortis in fronte constituit, reliquarum signa in subsidio artius conlocat: ab eis centuriones omnis, lectos et 3 evocatos, praeterea ex gregariis militibus optumum quernque armatum in primam aciem subdncit. C. Manlium in dextra, Faesulanum quendam in sinistra parte curare iubet: ipse cum libertis et calonibus propter aquilam adsistit, quam bello Cimbrico C. Marius in exercitu habuisse dicebatur. At ex altera parte C. Antonius, 4 pedibus aeger quod proelio adesse nequibat, M. Petreio le-ato exercitum permittit. Ille cohortis ve- 5 teranas, quas tumultus causa conscripserat, in fronte, post eas ceterum exercitum in subsidiis locat: ipse equo circumiens unum quenqe nominans appellat hortatur rogat, ut meminerint se contra latrones inermos, pro patria pro liberis, pro aris atque focis suis certare. Homo milita- 6 ris, quod amplius annos triginta tribunus aut praefectus aut legatus aut praetor cum magna gloria

Page  281 EXCURSUS IV. 281 in exercitu fuerat, plerosque ipsos factaque eorum fortia noverat: ea commemorando militum animos accendebat. 60. Sed ubi omnibus rebus exploratis Petreius tuba signum dat, cohortis paulatim incedere iubet; idem facit hostium exercitus. 2 Postquam eo ventum est, unde a ferentariis proelium coninitti posset, maxumo clamore cum infestis sign is concurrunt: pila omittunt, gladiis res geritur. 3 Veterani, pristinae virtutis memores, comminus acriter instare, illi haud timidi resistunt: maxu4 ma vi certatur. Interea Catilina cum expeditis in prima acie vorsari, laborantibus succurrere, integros pro sauciis arcessere, omnia providere, multum ipse pugnare, saepe hostem ferire: strenui militis et boni imperatoris officia simul 5 exsequebatur. Petreius ubi videt Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, nmagna vi tendere, cohortem praetoriam in medios hostis inducit eosque perturbatos atque alios alibi resistentis interficit, deinde utrimque ex lateribus ceteros ag6 greditur. Manlius et Faesulanus 7 in primis pugnantes cadunt. Catilina postquam fusas copias seque cum paucis relictum videt, memor generis atque pristinae suae digni tatis, in confertissumos hostis incurrit ibique pugnans confoditur. 61. Sed confecto proelio turn vero cerneres, quanta audacia quantaque animi vis fuisset in exercitu Catilinae. Nam fere quem 2 quisque vivos pugnando locum ceperat, amissa eum anima corpore tegebat. Pauci autern, quos me- 3 dios cohors praetoria disiecerat, paulo divorsius, sed omnes tamnen advorsis volneribus conciderant. Catilina vero longe a suis inter 4 hostium cadavera repertus est, paululum etiam spiralns ferociamque animi, quam habuerat vivos, in voltu retinens. Postremo ex 5 omni copia neque in proelio neque in fuga quisquam civis ingenuus captus est: ita cuncti suae lhosti- 6 unique vitae iuxta pepercerant. Neque tamen exercitus populi 7 Romani laetam aut incruentam victoriam adeptus erat: nam strenuissuinus quisque aut occiderat in proelio aut graviter volneratus discesserat. Multi autem, qui e 8 castris visundi aut spoliandi gratia processerant, volventes hostilia cadavera alnicumn alii, pars hospitem aut cognatur reperiebant; fuere item qui inimicos suos cognoscerent. Ita varie per omnem 9 exercitum laetitia maeror, luctus atque gaudia agitabantur.

Page  282 M. TULLI CICERONIS PRO P. SULLA ORATIO AD IUDICES. 1 I. Maxime vellem, indices, ut P. Sulla et antea dignitatis suae splendorem optinere et post calamitatem TITLE. P. Sulla: read p. 38, more likely to secure their convic~~ 68-72, and review p. 23, ~~ 30- tion. It provided, e.g., that the 32. Oratio. Aftera short intro- court should not adjourn for the duction (~~ 1, 2), in which Cicero public games or on dies nefasti urges the jury to follow his exam- (Mur. 28. 10; 22. 6), as was usual; pie of pity and mercy, the speech that a slave might be examined is divided into three parts. The against his master without the first part (~~ 3-35) is his justifica- latter's consent; that the jury tion of his own conduct in con- should be selected in a manner ducting the defence; the second far from advantageous to the depart (~~ 36-68) deals with the fendants. Just how the jurors charges against Sulla; the third were selected, we do not know; (~~ 69-88) argues from Sulla's past but it is probable that they were life; peroration, ~~ 89-93. Ad editicii (Mur. 47. 22), and that the iudices. For the usual method usual time was not allowed the of conducting criminal trials, see defence for making the inquiries Exc. II. at the end of the Pro Mu- necessary to the effective use of rena. Sulla, however, was tried the right to challenge. under a special law, - the Lex Lutatia de vi ('breach of the public ~ 1. 1, 2. vellem: for mood see peace'), -the date and provisions on II. 5. 11. dignitatis, the conof which are very uncertain. It sulship to which he had been was probably selected for the pros- elected. P. 23, ~ 30 ad init. optiecution of the conspirators, be- nere, 'maintain.' calamitatem, cause its rigor and severity seemed often applied to convictions which 282

Page  283 CAP. 1, ~ 1-2. 283 acceptam modestiae fructum aliquem percipere potuisset; sed quoniam ita tulit casus infestus, ut et amplissimo honore cum communi ambitionis invidia, turn 5 singulari Autroni odio everteretur et in his pristinae fortunae reliquiis miseris et adflictis tarnen haberet quosdam, quorum animos ne supplicio quidem suo satiare posset, quamquam ex huius incommodis imagnam animo molestiam capio, tamen in ceteris malis 10 facile patior oblatum mihi tempus esse, in quo boni viri lenitatem meam misericordiamque notam quondam omnibus, nunc quasi intermissam agnoscerent, inprobi ac perditi cives redomiti atque victi praecipitante re publica vehementem me fuisse atque fortem, conser- 15 vata mitem ac misericordem faterentur. Et, quoniam 2 L. Torquatus, meus familiaris ac necessarius, iudices, entailed whole or partial loss of reference to the attacks already civil rights. 5-7. cum... tur: for the awkward use of the conjunction czon before an ablative (invidia, abl. of cause), see on IV. 15. 33. communi invidia, 'the jealousy that universally attends on the political career.' Autroni odio, 'tlhe hatred felt for A.;' abj. gen. Throughout the whole speech Autronius is made to bear all the blame. tamen: the concession is implied in the phrase in... adfiictis: see on IV. 23. 5. 8-10. quosdam, a reference to Torquatus and his father, p. 40, ~ 72. animo, instr. abl.: the word is frequently used in Latin (see on IV. 17. 17), where it is not needed, and should not be translated in English. malis, 'in the midst of my other troubles,' a made upon him, p. 39, ~~ 69, 70. 11-14. tempus, in quo: why is in necessary? quasi intermissam, 'almost suspended,' i.e., by the proceedings against Lentulus and his accomplices. This use of quasi (= 'almost,' 'so to speak') is common in Cicero. redomiti, found here only, and explained by a common word of similar meaning, as new or unusual words frequently are (cf. Caes. II. 8. 1; III. 15. 3). 16. mitem ac misericordem: supply esse from fuisse. ~ 2. 17. L. (Manlius) Torquatus, p. 40, ~ 72. He was a close friend of Cicero, had prosecuted Sulla for bribery (p. 23, ~ 30), and, with his father, had taken an active part in the proceedings against the conspirators. In the civil war

Page  284 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. existimavit, si nostram in accusatione sua necessitudinem familiaritatemque violasset, aliquid se de aucto20 ritate meae defensionis posse detrahere, cum huius periculi propulsatione coniungam defensionem officii mei. Quo quidem genere orationis non uterer, iudices, hoc tempore, si mea solum interesset; multis enim locis et data mihi facultas est et saepe dabitur de mea 25 laude dicendi; sed, ut ille vidit, quantum de mea auctoritate deripuisset, tantum se de huius praesidiis deminuturum, sic hoc ego sentio, si mei facti rationem vobis constantiamque huius officii ac defensionis probaro, causam quoque me P. Sullae probaturum. 3 Ac primum abs te illud, L. Torquate, quaero, cur me 31 a ceteris clarissimis viris ac principibus civitatis in hoc officio atque in defensionis iure secernas. Quid enim est, quam ob rem abs te Q. Hortensi factumn, clarissimi viri atque ornatissimi, non reprehendatur, reprehendatur he took the side of Pompeius, and was killed after the battle of Thapsus while trying to escape by flight. 19, 20. auctoritate meae defensionis, 'the prestige of my speech for the defence.' So Cato had tried to lessen the force of Cicero's plea for Murena: see on Mur. 3,4. huius, masc. gend. and substantive = Sullae, not agreeing with periculi, a very awkward use of the double genitive. 23-27. mea: for case see on IV. 9. 1. solum, adv.: what case of the adj. might have been used? Cf. IV. 23. 16. locis, 'occasions.' mei facti rationem, etc.: ef. Mur. 3. 9. ~ 3. 30-32. Ac, 'now,' often used at the beginning of a sentence to draw attention to a new point. Cicero claims for himself the same right to defend Sulla as had been granted to others by Torquatus. Quid... rem, ' why is it thaA? 33. Q. Hortensi, the famous rival of Cicero in the forum, was born in 114, and early gave promise of great talent. At the age of 19 he made his first appearance as a speaker, and soon won the title of " King of the Courts." He ranked above Cicero as an orator, until the famous case of Verres (p. 19, ~~ 18-20). After Cicero changed his politics (p. 28, ~ 42), the two were frequently associated in cases of a political

Page  285 CAP. 1-2, ~ 2-4. 285 meum? Nam, si est initum a P. Sulla consilium inflam- 35 mandae huius urbis, extinguendi imperii, delendae civitatis, mihine maiorem hae res dolorem quam Q. Hortensio, mihi maius odium adferre debent, meum denique gravius esse iudicium, qui adiuvandus in his causis, qui oppugnandus, qui defendendus, qui dese- 40 rendus esse videatur? 'Ita,' inquit; 'tu enim investigasti, tu patefecisti coniurationem.' Ii. Quod cum 4 dicit, non attendit eum, qui patefecerit, hdc curasse, ut id omnes viderent, quod antea fuisset occultum. Quare ista coniuratio, si patefacta per me est, tam patet Hortensio quam mihi. Quem cum videas hoc 5 honore, auctoritate, virtute, consilio praeditum non dubitasse, quin innocentiam P. Sullae defenderet, quaero, nature, e.g., for Murena. Hortensius died in 50. 35. initum consilium. P. 23, ~~ 30-32. 39. iudicium, qui, etc.: the noun iudicium is here followed, as the verb iudicare would be, by an indirect question. Clauses depending upon substantives are not uncommon in Cicero. 41. esse videatur: Cicero's propensity to end sentences with these words was so pronounced that some young men at Rome, says Quintilian, thought they had mastered his style when they closed a sentence with esse videatur. Ita, perhaps the commonest equivalent for our 'yes;' so non ita = 'no,' and ita prorsus 'yes, precisely so;' for other equivalents see on Mur. 65. 23. ment is unfair. He implies that when he made public his knowledge of the conspiracy, he divulged even the minutest details. In ~ 13 he claims to have a peculiar acquaintance with the conspiracy. honore... consilio: the words go in pairs, honore and auctoritate (relating to public position), virtute and consilio (relating to private character): see on I. 32. 25. and cf. III. 16.17; II. 1. 5. For meaning of honore see on III. 28. 24. 7. dubitasse, quin... defenderet, 'did not doubt that in Sulla he was defending an innocent man.' Dubitare, meaning 'to doubt,' takes when negative quin and the subj., as here; when positive, some form of the indirect question: for construction when meaning 'to hesitate,' see on I. 17. 20. innocentiam P. Sullae, an instance of the con ~ 4. 2-6. non attendit, 'he does not observe.' Cicero's argu

Page  286 286 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. cur, qui aditus ad causam Hortensio patuerit, mihi interclusus esse debuerit; quaero illud etiam, si me, 10 qui defendo, reprehendendum putas esse, quid tandem de his existimes summis viris et clarissimis civibus, quorum studio et dignitate celebrari hoc iudicium, ornari causam, defendi huius innocentiam vides. Non enim una ratio est defensionis ea, quae posita est in 15 oratione; omnes, qui adsunt, qui laborant, qui salvum 5 volunt, prio sua parte atque auctoritate defendunt. An vero, in quibus subselliis haec ornamenta ac lumina rei publicae viderem, in his me apparere nollem, cum ego illum in locum atque in hanc excelsissimamn sedem 20 dignitatis atque honoris multis meis ac magnis laboribus et periculis ascendissem? Atque ut intellegas, Torquate, quem accuses, si te forte id offendit, quod ego, qui in hoc genere quaestionis defenderim neminem, non desim P. Sullae, recordare de ceteris, quos adesse 25 huic vides; intelleges et de hoc et de aliis iudicium struction noticed on Mur. 16. 20; almost equivalent to Sullam, virum innocentem; so below, 1. 13. 9. debuerit has for its subject aditus, 1. 8, which is attracted into the relative clause. 13-16. Non enim, etc., i.e., you can defend a man without delivering an oration for him. The play on ratio and oratio is perhaps intentional. s a 1 v u m volunt: when velle is followed by an adj. or participle, esse is often, but not always, omitted. an can hardly be represented in English. There is strictly an ellipse: see on I. 3. 20. ~ 5. 17. subselliis: c r i m i n al trials were usually held in the forum, and seats (wooden benches without backs) were provided for those only who had some official connection with the case, e.g., the judge, jury, the parties to the case and their supporters and friends: see Exc. II. ~ 14. ornamenta ac lumina, the consulares, who, almost to a man, supported Sulla. 19. illum in locum; here illum has its not uncommon meaning of 'that famous,' ' that splendid;' cf. IV. 21. 13; Mur. 66. 26; II. 1. 10. The clause introduced by atque is explanatory: 'I mean this lofty position,' with a gesture toward the curule chairs of the consuls who were present. 24-26. recordare... intelleges: for use of moods and the asyndeton see on Mur. 68. 21. aliis: in this and the two following ~~ alii

Page  287 CAP. 2, ~ 4-7. 287 meum et horum par atque unum fuisse. Quis nostrum 6 adfuit Vargunteio? Nemo, ne hic quidem Q. Hortensius, praesertimn qui illum solus antea de ambitu defendisset. Non enim iam se ullo officio cum illo coniunctum arbitrabatur, cum ille tanto scelere commisso omniunl 30 officiorum societatem diremnisset. Quis nostrum Serv. Sullam, quis Publium, quis M. Laecam, quis C. Cornelium defendendum putavit, quis iis horum adfuit? Nemo. Quid ita? Quia in ceteris causis etiam nocentes viri boni, si necessarii sunt, deserendos esse non 35 putant; in hoc crimine non solum levitatis est culpa, verum etiam quaedam contagio sceleris, si defendas eum, quem obstrictum esse patriae parricidio suspicere. Quid? Autronio nonne sodales, non collegae 7 and ceteri seem to be used merely see p. 40, ~ 71. ceteris, a good for variety with no distinction of instance of the proleptic or anticimeaning. meum et horum: ob- patory use of ceteri; i.e., its serve that good writers do not use meaning becomes clear only when the personal pronouns in the poss. tlhe reader reaches some later word gen. (mei, tui, sui), but replace in the sentence; here hoc, 1. 36. them by possessive pronouns in 36-38. c r i m i n e, here as agreement with the substantive; always in Cicero = criminatione for an exception see on I. 14. 21. 'charge,' ' accusation,' never ~ 6. 27, 28. Vargunteio: see 'crime.' levitatis est culpa: for I. 9. 23 and p. 40, ~ 71. prae- this gen. (explanatory): see on sertim qui = praesertim cum is: I. 12. 32, and cf. Mur. 23. 12; 67. cf. III. 22. 36. The clause intro- 2; obstrictum, 'implicated in.' duced by praesertim cum is ordi- parricidio (abl. case), often used narily confirmatory of what pre- by Cicero of the crime of higll cedes (cum causal): cf. Mur. 24.13, treason: see on I. 17. 26. susbut sometimes contrasts with what picere: for termination see on precedes (cum concessive): cf. I. 22. 10; for exception Mur. 7.31. Caes. I. 16. 6. In the former case ~ 7. 39. nonne... non... it may be translated' especiallyas,' non: when the negative is rein the latter 'and that though;' peated in an interrogative senso praesertim qui varies in mean- tence introduced by nonne, the ing, in the former sense III. 22. nonne is usually replaced by non in 36, in the latter here. the second and succeeding places: 32-34. On the proper names cf. 1.27.12-14. sodales, collegae,

Page  288 288 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. 40 sui, non veteres amici, quorum ille copia quondam abundarat, non hi omnes, qui sunt in re publica principes, defuerunt? Immo etiam testimonio plerique laeserunt. Statuerant tantum illud esse maleficium, quod non modo non occultari per se, sed etiam aperiri 45 illustrarique deberet. III. Quam ob rem quid est, quod mirere, si cum isdem me in hac causa vides adesse, cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse? Nisi vero me unum vis ferum praeter ceteros, me asperum, me 5 inhumanum existimari, me singulari inmanitate et 8 crudelitate praeditum. Hanc mihi tu si propter meas res gestas imponis in omni vita mea, Torquate, personam, vehementer erras. Me natura misericordem, patria severum, crudelem nec patria nec natura esse o0 voluit; denique istam ipsam personam vehementem et acrem, quam mihi tum tempus et res publica inposuit, iam voluntas et natura ipsa detraxit. Illa enim ad breve tempus severitatem postulavit, haec in omni members of the same sodalitas, collegium, words which cannot be always distinguished. In Rome there were numerous orders (religious fraternities, political clubs, trade-unions or guilds) whose members were bound to mutual assistance and support: see Mur. 56. 26. Neither the severity which Cicero showed towards Catilina in his consulship, nor his recent proceedings against Autronius, justify Torquatus' charge of inconsistency. 1, 2. quid est, quod mirere, si... vides: 'why is it that you are surprised at seeing, etc.' quod, adv. acc., lit. 'as to which.' mirere, subj. of characteristic. si... vides. A. 333 b Rein.; G. 542 Rein. ad fin. ~ 8. 6-9. Hano is here unusually far from its substantive (versonamn): cf., however, magna... gratia, I. 11. 8-10, where the same numberof words intervenes, personam, strictly the mask used by actors on the ancient stage. As eacl type (young man, old man, soldier, parasite, etc.) had its separate mask, the word came to mean 'character,' as here. In good Latin it never means 'person.' natura... patria, patria... natura: chiasmus, for which see on IV. 17. 27. 12, 13. Illa, haec: the pro

Page  289 CAP. 2-3, ~ 7-10. 289 vita misericordiam lenitatemque desiderat. Quare 9 nihil est, quod ex tanto comitatu virorum amplissi- 15 morum me unum abstrahas; simplex officium atque una bonorum est omnium causa. Nihil erit, quod admirere posthac, si in ea parte, in qua hos animum adverteris, me videbis. Nulla est enim in re publica mea causa propria; tempus agendi fuit mihi magis 20 proprium quam ceteris, doloris vero et timoris et periculi fuit illa causa communis; neque enim ego tune princeps ad salutem esse potuissem, si esse alii comites noluissent. Quare necesse est, quod mihi consuli praecipuum fuit praeter alios, id iam privato cum 25 ceteris esse commune. Neque ego hoc partiendae invidiae, sed communicandae laudis causa loquor; oneris mei partem nemini impertio, gloriae bonis omnibus. ' In Autronium testimonium dixisti,' inquit; 10 ' Sullam defendis.' Hoc totum eius modi' est, iudices, 30 ut, si ego sum inconstans ac levis, nec testimonio fidem tribui convenerit nec defensioni auctoritatem; sin est in me ratio rei publicae, religio privati officii, studium nouns refer respectively to the more important substantives in eachof the preceding groups of two. ~ 9. 15-17. nihil... abstrahas: for construction cf. ~ 7. 1. simplex, una, 'indivisible,' 'inseparable.' bonorum: in what sense? 18,19. parte, 'party,' in a political sense, as nearly all the men hinted at were optimates. hos animum adverteris: the pronoun is the direct object of the compound idea animum adverteris, more commonly contracted into animadverteris. Nulla est, etc. ' There is no political circumstance which is exclusively mine.' 21-26. doloris... causa, a mere periphrasis for dolor, etc.; so ratio comitiorumn (Mur. 53. 8) = conitia, and natura hominum = homo. consuli, iam privato, 'when I was consul,' ' now that I am a private citizen.' alios, ceteris, here strictly used, the former '= some others,' the latter = 'all others.' ~ 10. 30-33. Hoc totum, ' The long and the short of it is, etc.' inconstans ac levis, 'inconsistent and unstable.' auctorita

Page  290 290 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. retinendae voluntatis bonorum, nihil minus accusator 35 debet dicere quam a me defendi Sullam, testimonio laesum esse Autronium. Videor enim iar non solum studium ad defendendas causas, verurn etiam opinionis aliquid et auctoritatis adferre; qua ego et moderate utar, iudices, et omnino non uterer, si ille me non coigisset. 11 iv. Duae coniurationes abs te, Torquate, constituuntur, una, quae Lepido et Volcatio consulibus patre tuo consule designato facta esse dicitur, altera, quae me consule; harum in utraque Sullam dicis fuisse. 5 Patris tui, fortissimi viri atque optimi consulis, scis me consiliis non interfuisse; scis me, cum mihi summus tecum usus esset, tamen illorum expertem temporum et sermonum fuisse, credo, quod nondum penitus in re publica versabar, quod nondum ad propositum o0 mihi finem honoris perveneram, quod me ambitio et tern; supply the present conveniat from the perfect convenerit: cf. ~ 1. 16. ratio... officii, 'regard for public interests, respect for private obligation.' 34-38. voluntatis, 'good will,' constantly used by Cicero of political intentions. nihil minus, etc., i.e., he ought not to contrast my actions as if inconsistent. debet: we should expect debeat parallel with convenerit above; perhaps he meant to put this thought independently. opinionis, as in Caes. II. 8. 1; 24. 4; 35. 1 and often. auctoritas, 'prestige,' i.e., influence arising from position and success. While apparently digressing, Cicero shows that he can consistently defend Sulla, because he knew of nothing criminal in his conduct, though he had the minutest information about the plot. ~ 11. 1, 2. constituuntur, 'are asserted,' i.e., in the statement of the case by the prosecution, a technical term. Lepido et Volcatio. M' Aemilius Lepidus and L. Volcatius Tullus were consuls in 66,- both insignificant men politically. Notice that the former is here designated by his cognomen and the latter by his nomen. How are they named in I. 15. 24? 7-10. tecum usus, 'intimacy with you;' usus is a noun. expertem, etc., 'had no part in that cris i s and those discussions.' finem honoris, 'the end set before me, viz., office;' for the gen. see on levitatis ~ 6. 36. ambitio, 'my canvass:' see p. 21, ~ 24 ad fin.

Page  291 CAP. 3-4, ~ 10-12. 291 forensis labor ab omni illa cogitatione abstrahebat. Quis ergo intererat vestris consiliis? Omnes hi, quos 12 vides huic adesse, et in primis Q. Hortensius; qui cum propter honorem ac dignitatem atque animum eximium in rem publicam, tur propter summamr 15 familiaritatem summumque amorem in patrem tuum cum communibus, tur praecipuis patris tui periculis commovebatur. Ergo istius coniurationis crimen defensum ab eo est, qui interfuit, qui cognovit, qui particeps et consilii vestri fuit et timoris; cuius in 20 hoc crimine propulsando cum esset copiosissima atque ornatissima oratio, tamen non minus inerat auctoritatis in ea quam facultatis. Illius igitur coniurationis, 11. illa cogitatione, 'thought about that matter,' a very common use of the demonstrative for a limiting genitive or a defining phrase with some case of res: see on Mur. 68. 3. Here illa stands for de illa re, or de illis rebus; so istius suspicionis, 1. 26 below = suspicionis istius rei: cf. Caes. I. 8. 4. ea spe; 9. 3 ea civitate = eorum civ., etc. ~ 12. 12-14. vestris, 'of you and your father,' so vos, vobis, l. 24, vobis ~ 13, 27. While nos and noster are used 'editorially' for ego and meus (see on I. 22. 6), vos is not used for tu, or vester for tuus. honorem ac dignitatem atque animum: the series contains but two terms, the first being divided, thus (a + b) + c; honorem ac dignitatem are taken together to balance animum. Such an arrangement is quite common, and ac is the usual connective for the subdivided term. 16-18. amorem in patrem, a common substitute for the ambiguous amorem patris. A. 217 c; G. 361 Rem. 1; H. 396 III. N. 1; B. 200 1. cum.... turn. Notice (1) that cum 'both ' stands before an abl. (cf. ~ 1. 5), and (2) that the words connected by the correlatives are themselves dependent upon a verb introduced by one of a like pair: turn in 1. 15. There is said to be but one similar arrangement in Cicero. istius coniurationis crimen, 'the charge relating to that conspiracy:' so in ~ 13. 34 below. istius: see on I. 3.27. 19-23. interfuit, c o gnovit: supply the proper cases from consilii and timoris in the next line. particeps fuit: translate as suggested on Mur. 3. 18. copiosissima atque ornatissima: the first adjective refers to the matter, the second to the style of the speech. auctoritatis, facultatis: cf. for meaning Mur. 4.23, 24.

Page  292 292 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. quae facta contra vos, delata ad vos, a vobis prolata 25 esse dicitur, ego testis esse non potui; non modo animo nihil comperi, sed vix ad aures meas istius 13 suspicionis faina pervenit. Qui vobis in consilio fuerunt, qui vobiscum illa cognorunt, quibus ipsis periculum tur conflari putabatur, qui Autronio non 30 adfuerunt, qui in ilium testimonia gravia dixerunt, hunc defendunt, huic adsunt, in huius periculo declarant se non crimine coniurationis, ne adessent ceteris, sed hominum maleficio deterritos esse. Mei consulatus autem tempus et crimen maximae coniurationis 35 a me defendetur. Atque haec inter nos partitio non est fortuito, iudices, nec temere facta; sed, cum videremus eorum criminum nos patronos adhiberi, quorum testes esse possemus, uterque nostrum id sibi 39 suscipiendum putavit, de quo aliquid scire ipse atque 14 existimare potuisset. v. Et quoniam de criminibus superioris coniurationis Hortensium diligenter audistis, de hac coniuratione, quae me consule facta est, hoc primum attendite. 5 Multa, cum essem consul, de summis rei publicae ~ 13. 26-29. animo, not needed for the sense, but inserted to balance ad aures: cf. I. 12. 28. consilio: see on I. 2. 14; here used of the group of advisers gathered round him by the consul: cf. the cabinets of our presidents. conflari, a favorite word with Cicero for malicious and underhanded proceedings. 34-37. crimen, etc.: cf. ~ 12. 18. maximae: the superlative is sometimes used loosely in Latin, as in English, for one of two things only, where the comparative would be strictly correct. fortuito, temere, 'accidentally,' ' blindly:' the first denotes mere absence of reflection; the latter, reckless disregard of the considerations suggested by reflection. criminum patronos, 'as advocates to avert the charges.' This use of patronus for one who averts something is unusual, though defensor is often sod used. ~ 14. 2, 3. Hortensium audistis, p. 16, ~ 9. hac, 'the recent:' see on illam. TV. 9. 6.

Page  293 CAP. 4-5, ~ 12-15. 293 periculis audivi, multa quaesiVi, multa cognovi; nullus umquam de Sulla nuntius ad me, nullum indicium, nullae litterae pervenerunt, nulla suspicio. Multum haec vox fortasse valere deberet eius hominis, qui consul insidias rei publicae consilio investigasset, 10 veritate aperuisset, magnitudine animi vindicasset, cum is se nihil audisse de P. Sulla, nihil suspicatun esse diceret. Sed ego nondum utor hac voce ad hunc defendendum; ad purgandum me potius utar, ut mirari Torquatus desinat me, qui Autronio non adfuerim, 15 Sullam defendere. Quae enim Autroni fuit causa, 15 quae Sullae est? Ille ambitus iudicium tollere ac disturbare primum conflato voluit gladiatorum ac fugitivorum tumultu, deinde, id quod vidimus omnes, lapidatione atque concursu; Sulla, si sibi suus pudor 20 ac dignitas non prodesset, nullum auxilium requisivit. 6, 7. audivi, quaesivi, cognovi, 'I heard many rumors, set on foot many inquiries, ascertained many facts.' The words give the three steps in the investigation in their proper order. nuntius, indicium: the latter differs from the former only in implying that the informer (index) hoped to profit by his information. 9-16. vox, 'deliberate utterance:' the word is used only of sayings in some way remarkable. consilio, veritate, magnitudine animi, 'statesmanship, rectitude, great courage.' For consilio see on I. 3. 31; for magnitudine animi cf. ~ 4. 7. cum diceret explains vox, 1. 9 above. mirari me... defendere. A. 333 b; G. 533; H. 535, III; B. 331 V; cf. ~ 7. 2. ~ 15. Cicero now justifies his different treatment of Autronius and Sulla by the difference in their character and conduct. 17-19. am bit us iudicium, 'bribery court:' see Exc. II. ~ 1, and p. 23, ~ 30. tollere ac disturbare, 'break up and abolish;' the second word is much stronger than its English derivative. gladiatorum: see on II. 9. 2; their trainers (lanistae) hired them out to ringleaders of riots. tumultu, as in Mur. 22. 6. This uprising, projected before his trial, was not carried out by Autronius: he contented himself with the street brawls mentioned below. 20, 21. Sulla... suus: for the alliteration cf. IV. 12. 22; I. 30.25; for position of sibi suus see on III. 27. 6. prodesset, subj., as giving the thought of Sulla.

Page  294 294 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. Ille damnatus ita se gerebat non solum consiliis et sermonibus, verum etiam aspectu atque vultu, ut inimicus esse amplissimis ordinibus, infestus bonis om25 nibus, hostis patriae videretur; hic se ita fractum illa calamitate atque adflictum putavit, ut nihil sibi ex pristina dignitate superesse arbitraretur, nisi quod 16 modestia retinuisset. Hac vero in coniuratione quid tam coniunctum quam ille cum Catilina, cum Lentulo? 30 quae tanta societas ullis inter se rerum optimarum, quanta ei cum illis sceleris, libidinis, audaciae? quod flagitium Lentulus non cum Autronio concepit? quod sine eodem illo Catilina facinus admisit? cum interim Sulla cum eisdem illis non modo noctem solitudinem35 que non quaereret, sed ne mediocri quidem sermone 17 et congressu coniungeretur. Ilium Allobroges, maximarum rerum verissimi indices, illum multorum litterae ac nuntii coarguerunt; Sullam interea nemo insi23,24. aspectu atque vultu, (tanta) as his with these men 'looks and expression:' cf. I. 1. (Catilina and Lentulus), for the 7. inimicus is a 'personal,' as purpose of crime, lawlessness, and opposed to hostis, a 'public' recklessness? s o c i e t a s and enemy. ordinibus refers to the classes from which the jurors were selected: see on Mur. 24. 8. 28-29. modestia (abl. case), 'submission to the laws.' In good Latin the word is always used for a law-abiding disposition, and does not correspond to our ' modesty,' which is pudor. Sulla showed his submission by retiring quietly to Naples after his conviction. Hac, as in ~ 14. 3. quid tam, etc., 'what connection so close as his with, etc.' ~ 16. 30, 31. quae tanta, etc., 'what association for noble ends have any men ever had so intimate socius take the genitive always of the purpose of the alliance. sceleris, crime in the abstract: no particular criminal act is thought of. libidinis, precisely opposite to modestia, ~ 15. 28. audaciae: see on II. 10. 14. The omission of est in short impassioned questions and exclamations is quite regular. 33. cum... cum: see on IV. 12. 20. interim and interea, like our 'while,' have occasionally the force of an adversative particle, autem or contra. ~ 17. 36. Allobroges: see p. 34, ~~ 58, 59.

Page  295 CAP. 5-6, ~ 15-18. 295 mulavit, nemo nominavit. Postremo eiecto sive emisso iam ex urbe Catilina ille arma misit, cornua, tubas, 40 fasces, signa, ille relictus intus, expectatus foris, Lentuli poena compressus convertit se aliquando ad timorem, numquam ad sanitatem; hic contra ita quievit, ut eo tempore omni Neapoli fuerit, ubi neque homines fuisse putantur huius adfines suspicionis et 45 locus est ipse non tam ad inflammandos calamitosorum animos quam ad consolandos accommodatus. VI. Propter hanc igitur tantam dissimilitudinem hominum atque causarum dissimilem me in utroque praebui. Veniebat enim ad me, et saepe veniebat 18 Autronius multis cum lacrimis supplex, ut se defenderem, et se meum condiscipulum in pueritia, fami- 5 39, 40. eiecto sive emisso, 'driven forth or rather allowed to leave.' The substitution here of the milder term is in sharp contrast with the resolute tone of III. 3. 2-4: see p. 40, ~ 72. arma misit, etc.: these words seem to contradict II. 13. 21-25, where he asserts that these things had been sent ahead by Catilina before leaving the city. According to Sallust, however (see Exe. IV. cap. 56), the insurgent force was still in process of equipment when the decisive engagement was forced upon it. 41.42. fasces... foris: from these words (see on II. 13. 22) it has been suggested that Autronius expected to be Catilina's colleague in the consulship in the event of success. Lentulus, too, had his ambitions: cf. IV. 12. 17-20. foris: see on II. 2. 26. Lentuli poena. p. 38, ~ 67. aliquando: see on I. 25. 1. 44. ut... fuerit, i.e., he voluntarily left the city, banishment not being a penalty for bribery until the lex Tullia: see on Mur. 46. 2. eo tempore omni. A. 256 b; G. 392 Rein. 2; H. 379, 1; B. 231 1; cf. also Caes. I. 26. 5: eaque tota nocte continenter ierunt, where, as here, it is merely the accompanying adj. (tota, omni) that gives the sense of duration. Neapoli: case? Naples was a luxurious watering-place, a favorite place of dissipation for the wealthy society people of Rome. 2. dissimilem me praebui, 'I behaved differently to the two men.' ~ 18. 4, 5. ut... defenderem: the clause depends upon the whole idea of veniebat supplex, which implies a request or entreaty. condiscipulum, a very rare word: their teacher is not known.

Page  296 296 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. liarem in adulescentia, collegam in quaestura commemorabat fuisse; multa mea in se, nion nulla etiam sua in me proferebat officia. Quibus ego rebus, iu. dices, ita flectebar animo atque frangebar, ut iam ex o0 memoria, quas mihi ipse fecerat insidias, deponerem, ut iam inmissum esse ab eo C. Cornelium, qui me in meis sedibus, in conspectu uxoris ac liberorum meo, rum trucidaret, obliviscerer. Quae si de uno me cogitasset, qua mollitia sum animi ac lenitate, num15 quam mehercule illius lacrimis ac precibus restitissem; 19 sed cum mihi patriae, cum vestrorum periculorum, cum huius urbis, cum illorum delubrorum atque temr plorum, cum puerorum infantium, cum matronarum ac virginum veniebat in mentern, et cum illae infestae 20 ac funestae faces universumque totius urbis incendium, cum tela, cum caedes, cum civium cruor, cum cinis patriae versari ante oculos atque animum memoria refricare 6-9. quaestura: see p. 18, ~~ 16, of the ablative of quality we find 17. commemorabat, 'he re- pro mollitia without a verb, and counted,' not ' remembered' or quae est mollitid. 'reminded me of:' see on II. 9. 5. ~ 19. 16. cum, etc. The whole in se: case? proferebat, 'Ile protasis down to coeperat (1. 23) instanced,' the regular word in is constructed most symmetrically. Cicero for quoting examples. ut The first six clauses fall into three iam: this clause, and that in 1. 11, pairs exactly corresponding to are strictly parallel, both depend- each other and constitute the first ing uponflectebar andfrangebar: half of the protasis; the second notice the asyndeton. half, et curm illae (1. 19), echoes 11-14. ab eo C. Cornelium. the first, but with some artful Cicero ascribes to Autronius wliat variations. Notice too the anawas the voluntary suggestion of phora. patriae, periculorum, Cornelius and Vargunteius (p. 30, etc.: for case, A. 219, 1; G. 375 ~ 49), and of the two would-be Rem. 3; H. 406 N.; B. 206 3. assassins mentions Cornelius only, 17-22. On the whole passage because his son, also named C. cf. IV. ~ 12. delubrorum: cf. Cornelius, was one of the prose- IV. 18. 12. puerorum, as in cutors. qua mollitia, 'such is Caes. IV. 14. 5. cum... cinis: my tenderness, etc.:' for this use notice the alliteration. animum

Page  297 CAP. 6, ~ 18-20. 297 coeperat, tur denique ei resistebam, neque solum illi hosti ac parricidae, sed his etiam propinquis illius, Marcellis, patri et filio, quorum alter apud me parentis 25 gravitatem, alter filii suavitatem optinebat; neque me arbitrabar sine summo scelere posse, quod maleficium in aliis vindicassem, idem in illorum socio, cum scirem, defendere. Atque idem ego neque P. Sullam sup-20 plicem ferre neque eosdem Marcellos pro huius peri- 30 culis lacrimantes aspicere neque huius M. Messallae, hominis necessarii, preces sustinere potui; neque enim est causa adversata naturae, nec homo nec res misericordiae meae repugnavit. Nusquam nomen, nusquam vestigium fuerat, nullum crimen, nullum indicium, 35 m e m o r i a refricare, 'to tear afresh by memory (the wounds of) the soul:' the metaphor is from irritating an unhealed sore, and with cinis as subject may be compared with those in III. 24. 15, and Mur 85. 29. 23, 24. coeperat when the nearest of several subjects varying in number is singular, Cicero makes the verb singular. ei, illi: used of the same person, but not precisely as haec... ea in IV. 12. 23; here the illi is introduced merely to make a better contrast with his in the next line. hosti, parricidae, in apposition witlh illi; for the former cf. ~ 15. 25; for the latter (- 'traitor') see on ~ 6. 38, and cf. I. 17. 26. 25-28. Marcellis, etc., 'for one of whom I felt reverence as for a father, for the other tenderness as for a son.' The father was praetor in 79, and then governor of Sicily: he was one of the jury that tried Verres (p. 19, ~ 20). The son became consul in 50, and took the side of Pompeius in the civil war. Both remained warm friends of Cicero. aliis: some are mentioned on p. 40, ~ 71. socio is Autronius. illorum refers to allis. cum scirem: sc. Autronium illorum esse socium. ~20. 29-35. Atque idem, 'and yet I:' see on I. 7. 15, and notice the adversative force of idem. pro periculis, 'in view of,' not 'on account of.' M. Messallae, consul tlle following ydar (61), an eminent lawyer, and personal friend of Cicero. The fact that lie is not called designatus shows that the speecl was delivered before the elections, which are known to have taken place in Auigust. 62. naturae: sc. meae and cf. ~ 8. 8.. res: sc. eius. crimen, indicium: the former is the charge as formulated by the prosecution, the latter the evidence (~ 14. 7) on which the charge was based.

Page  298 298 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. nulla suspicio. Suscepi causam, Torquate, suscepi, et feci libenter, ut me, quem boni constantem, ut spero, semper existimassent, eundem ne improbi quidem crudelem dicerent. 21 vII. Hic ait se ille, iudices, regnum meum ferre non posse. Quod tandem, Torquate, regnum? Consulatus, credo, mei; in quo ego imperavi nihil et contra patribus conscriptis et bonis omnibus parui; quo in magi5 stratu non institutum est videlicet a me regnum, sed repressum. An turn in tanto imperio tantaque potestate non dicis me fuisse regem, nunc privatum regnare dicis? quo tandem nomine? 'Quod, in quos testimonia dixisti,' inquit, 'damnati sunt; quem defendis, o0 sperat se absolutum iri.' Hic tibi ego de testimoniis meis hoc respondeo, si falsum dixerim, te in eosdem ~ 21. As other enemies of of a synonym, as suffragatio does Cicero had done and were still to voluntas in Mur. 38. 14-17. do, Torquatus reproached him 5-8. videlicet: see on I. 19. with a tyrannical use of his power 12, but here there is no irony. (cf. p. 39, ~~ 69, 70) and added repressum: he means the hopes some jests upon his origin. Cicero of Catilina and Lentulus: cf. III. replies to the reproach in 11. 1-23, ~ 9. tanto as in III. 17. 24, not to the jests in 11. 23-41. quite as in ~ 17. 1. an: cf. ~ 5. 1-3. Hic, as in II. 13. 14. reg- 16; the ellipse may here be supnum, 'tyranny,' a reproach anti- plied: 'if you don't mean my cipated in I. 30. 19. Consula- consulship.' imperio, potestus: sc. regnum: for case cf. tate, 'in a position of such milihonoris, ~ 11.10. in quo. Cicero tary and civil power.' All politioften links his refutation to an cal offices at Rome might be opponent's argument by a rela- included under the term potestas, tive. et contra, 'but on the but only a few could strictly be other hand:' see on II. 28. 12. called imperia (see p. 64, ~ 50). 4. parui: while. exalting his nomine: cf. Mur. 82. 14. own services (cf. ~ 14. 10 f), Cicero 10, 11. absolutum iri: notice was always anxious to throw the the rare fut. inf. pass., and that se responsibility upon the senate: cf. is obj. of the supine, not subj. of the IV. 24. 22 f. magistratu re- inf. dixerim, indirect discourse. peats the consulatus in the form te, etc., i.e.,you are as guilty as I.

Page  299 CAP. 6-7, ~ 20-22. 299 dixisse; sin verum, non esse hoc regnare, cum verum iuratus dicas, probare. De huius spe tantum dico, nullas a me opes P. Sullam, nullam potentiam, nihil denique praeter fideml defensionis expectare. 'Nisi 22 tu,' inquit, 'causam recepisses, numquam mihi resti- 16 tisset, sed indicta causa profugisset.' Si iam tibi hoc concedam, Q. Hortensium, tanta gravitate hominem, si, hos tales viros non suo stare iudicio, sed meo; si hoc tibi dem, quod credi non potest, nisi ego huic 20 adessem, hos adfuturos non fuisse, uter tandem rex est, isne, cui innocentes homines non resistunt, an is, qui calamitosos non deserit? At hic etiam, id quod tibi necesse minime fuit, facetus esse voluisti, cum Tarquinium et Numam et me tertium peregrinum 25 regem esse dixisti. Mitto iam de rege quaerere; 13-15. probare, 'to compel belief,' subject of esse, with regnare as predicate, rather a peculiar combination of infinitives. huius = Silllae. tantum, as in III. 25. 37. opes, potentiam: the former has the wider scope, including the use of every resource of wealth and position; the latter is limited to personal influence over individuals. fidem defensionis: cf. magnitudine animi, ~ 14. 11. ~ 22. 17, 18. indicta... profugisset: see p. 36, ~ 63. Notice that the perf. pass. part. is the only part of the verb with which the negative in- can be compounded. tanta, as above, ~ 21. 6, so tales, next line. hominem: see on I. 4. 4; could virum have been used? See on I. 13. 4. 19-21. si.. dem, strictly par allel with si... concedam above, the synonym being used merely for variety. credi: notice that credere takes an accusative of the thing, and is, therefore, personal here. For construction with a person cf. I. 6.5. adfuturos fuisse: for the form, A. 337 b, 2; G. 599, Rem. 4; H. 527, III.; B. 321 2 a). 22-25. est, not strictly the conclusion to the condition above; there is a slight ellipse, such as 'the question would still be:' cf. IV. 17. 18; Mur. 15. 11-12; II. 3. 5. Tarquinium et Numam: we should expect the reverse order. Numa Pompilius, the second of the mythical kings, was a Sabine, and Lucius Tarquinius, the fifth, came from Etruria. Supply peregrinos reges fuisse, and for change of tense cf. ~~ 10. 32; 1. 16. 26. Mitto quaerere, 'I for

Page  300 300 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. illud quaero, peregrinum cur me esse dixeris. Nam si ita sum, non tarn est admirandum regem me esse, quoniam, ut tu ais, etiam peregrini reges Romae 30 fuerunt, quam consulem Romae fuisse peregrinum. 23 'Hoc dico,' inquit, 'te esse ex municipio.' Fateor, et addo etiam: ex eo municipio, unde iterum iam salus huic urbi imperioque missa est. Sed scire ex te pervelim, quam ob rem, qui ex municipiis veniant, pere35 grini tibi esse videantur. Nemo istuc M. illi Catoni seni, cum plurimos haberet inimicos, nemo Ti. Coruncanio, nemo M'. Curio, nemo huic ipsi nostro C. Mario, cum ei multi inviderent, obiecit umquam. Equidem vehementer laetor eum esse me, in quem tu, cum 40 cuperes, nullam contumeliam iacere potueris, quae non bear asking;' mitto (= ormitto) with an infinitive is rare in good prose. de rege, ' about (the word) 'king.' 27, 28. illud quaero,' blt I do ask this;' for omission of connective cf. IV. 7. 5. ita = talis: for adverbial predicate cf. III. 5. 32; I. 19. 8, and the common quae cum ita sint (I. 20. 16). ~ 23. 31-33. municipio: see on II. 24. 9. Arpinum (p. 16, ~ 11.) did not receive full citizenship until 188, although it had had partial rights since 302. unde iterum salus: an allusion to Gaius Marius, who was also from Arpinum, and to his defeat of the Teutones in 102, and the Cimbri in-lOl: see Allen, p. 169; Creighton, p. 63; Myers, p. 84; Pennell, p. 103. pervelim; the intensive per- is far less common with verbs than adjectives; for mood, A. 311 b; G. 250; H. 486, 1; B. 280 2 a). Explain the other subjunctives in this sentence. 35-37. istuc: for the form, A. 101, p. 67; G. 102 III. Rem. 2; H. 186 VI. 2; B. p. 50 f. n. 3. M. illi Catoni, from Tusculum: see on Mur. 32.41; for meaning of illi cf. ~ 5. 19; IV. 21. 18 and Mur. 66. 26; its position between the praenomen and cognomen is not unusual. seni: he lived to tlie age of 85, and tle word senex (decline!) is frequently appended to his name. plurimos inimicos. Pliny (A.D. 23-79) says that lie was prosecuted 44 times, and conducted as many prosecutions himself. Ti Coruncanio, also from Tusculum, was consul in 280, and the first plebeian pontifex maximus. M'. Curio Dentato, birthplace *unknown, defeated Pyrrhus at Beneventum in 275. As

Page  301 CAP. 7-8, ~ 22-25. 301 ad maximam partem civium conveniret. viii. Sed tamen te a me pro magnis causis nostrae necessitudinis monendum esse etiam atque etiam puto. Non possunt omnes esse patricii; si verum quaeris, ne curant quidem; nec se aequales tui propter istam 5 causam abs te anteiri putant. Ac si tibi nos peregrini 24 videmur, quorum iam nomen et honos inveteravit et urbi huic et hominum famae ac sermonibus, quam tibi illos competitores tuos peregrinos videri necesse erit, qui iam ex tota Italia delecti tecum de honore ac de 10 omni dignitate contendent! Quorum tu cave quemquam peregrinum appelles, ne peregrinorum suffragiis obruare. Qui si attulerint nervos et industriam, mihi crede, excutient tibi istam verborum iactationem et te ex somno saepe excitabunt nec patientur se abs te, nisi 15 virtute vincentur, honore superari. Ac si, iudices, 25 ceteris patriciis me et vos peregrinos videri oporteret, a Torquato tamen hoc vitium sileretur; est enim ipse 2. a me: for case, A. 232, Note; G. 353 Rem.; H. 388 Note; B. 189 1; see also on Mur. 54. 26. pro, etc., 'such are the important interests of our friendship:' cf. the note on qua mollitia, ~ 18. 14. 4-6. patricii: see on III. 22. 33 and Mur. 16.16; Torquatus was a patrician. ne curant quidem, ' they do not want to either:' this meaning of ne... quidemr is almost as common as 'not even.' The few offices (such as that of flamen Dialis) still confined to the patricians were so burdensome that a few years later Augustus had to bribe men to accept them. abs.- see on I. 27. 11. s 24. 7-9. inveteravit, 'has become familiar to,' more coinmonly used of something bad, but cf. III. 26. 11. quam goes with necesse erit. competitores, probably for the quaestorship. 10-13. iam: since the end of the Social war (88), citizenship had been extended to all the Italian communities. Allen, p. 175; Creighton, p. 64; Myers, p. 85 f; Pennell, p. 108. ex tota Italia: the northern boundary at this time was the Rubico on the east, and the Aesis on the west. Qui refers to competitores (1. 9), in spite of the nearer peregrinorum (l. 12): cf. IV. 17. 28. nervos, 'energy.' ~ 25. 18. sileretur 'should ( = ought to) have been kept

Page  302 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. a materno genere municipalis, honestissimi ac nobi20 lissimi generis, sed tamen Asculani. Aut igitur doceat Picentis solos non esse peregrinos ant gaudeat suo generi me meum non anteponere. Quare neque tu me peregrinum posthac dixeris, ne gravius refutere, neque regem, ne derideare. Nisi forte regium tibi 25 videtur ita vivere, ut non modo homini nemini, sed ne cupiditati quidem ulli servias, contemnere omnes libidines, non auri, non argenti, non ceterarum rerum indigere, in senatu sentire libere, populi magis utilitati consulere quam voluntati, nemini cedere, multis 30 obsistere. Si hoc putas esse regium, me regem esse confiteor; sin te potentia mea, si dominatio, si denique aliquod dictum arrogans ant superbum movet, quin tu id potius profers quam verbi invidiam contumeliamque maledicti? 26 ix. Ego tantis a me beneficiis in re publica positis silent:' for mood, A. 266 e; G. 266 3; H. 483 2 n; B. 275, the imp. and pl. perf. tenses are used without distinction. 19, 20. a... genere, 'on his mother's side.' generis, gen. of quality. Asculani, 'of Asculum,' in Picenum, where the Social war broke out. 22-25. meum: sc. genus. Arpinurn had received the full civitas a century before Asculum: cf. the notes on ~ 23. 31 and ~ 24. 10. neque... dixeris: for mood, A. 269 a 1; G. 256, 2, 266; H. 484 IV. Note 1; B. 276. Neve (neu) is the ordinary connective for prohibitions, but here it is the noun in each clause rather than the verb that is negatived. Nisi forte: see on IV. 21. 24. homini nemini, 'to no man;' for nemini =nullo see on IV. 16.11. As nemo,=ne homo the phrase is pleonastic, and Cicero, although using it often, usually separates the nemo and the homo by one or more words. 28-33. se n t i r e = sententiam dicere as often. utilitati consulere, as a true friend of the people. quam voluntati, as a demagogue: cf. IV. 9.11 f. dominatio: Cicero's favorite word for 'tyranny,' for which Torquatus had used regnum: cf. ~ 21. 1. profers, as in ~ 18. 8. verbi invidiam, as in III. 3. 3. Notice the chiasmus. ~ 26. 1, 2. a me, an example of a pronoun referring to the subject incorporated in an abl. abs. bene

Page  303 CAP. 8-9, ~ 25-26. 303 si nullum aliud mihi praemium ab senatu populoque Romano nisi honesturn otium postularem, quis non concederet? Sibi haberent honores, sibi imperia, sibi provincias, sibi triumphos, sibi alia praeclarae laudis 5 insignia; mihi liceret eius urbis, quamn conservassem, conspectu tranquillo animo et quieto frui. Quid, si hoc non postulo? si ille labor meus pristinus, si sollicitudo, si officia, si operae, si vigiliae deserviunt amicis, praesto sunt omnibus; si neque amici in foro lo requirunt studium meum neque res publica in curia; si me non modo non rerum gestarum vacatio, sed neque honoris neque aetatis excusatio vindicat a labore; si voluntas mea, si industria, si domus, si animus, si aures patent omnibus; si mihi ne ad ea quidem, quae 15 pro salute omnium gessi, recordanda et cogitanda ficiis... positis, 'after the great with all the subjects of deserviservice I have bestowed upon the unt, and refers to his labors as an state.' For ponere in cf. Mur. 45. advocate before his consulship. 4. si: for position see on I. 17. 13. operae, in the sense of 'aid,' 'as4. Sibi haberent: the sub- sistance,' is used in the singular: ject is easily supplied, the proud the plural here may be explained patricians, such as Torquatus; sibi as in IY. 16. 2; Mur. 24. 14; II. is dative of reference; the sentence 10. 14. praesto, 'at the service is the apodosis of a conditional of.' in foro modifies requirunt, sentence whose protasis must be the tense of which is emphatic. supplied from what goes before, in curia refers to his services as a e.g., quod si concederent, or con- statesman. cederetur. Trans. ' They would 12-16. r e rum.. vacatio: have exclusively.' liceret (1. 6) the genitive with vacatio, and exhas the same construction as ha- cusatio, 1. 13, denotes the ground berent. honores, etc.: cf. IV. on which release is given. re~ 23 and notes. cordanda et cogitanda, alluding 8-11. hoc, i.e., this retired life. to the literary works with which The idea is developed in the series he was busy, all treating of his of si clauses —the longest known consulship: a history in Greek, -in lines 8-17, and the apodosis dedicated to Atticus, another in then follows in the form of a ques- Latin, probably never finished, tion. pristinus, 'of old,' goes and a poem in three books.

Page  304 304 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. quicquam relinquitur temporis: tamen hoc regnum appellabitur, cuius vicarius qui velit esse, inveniri 27nemo potest? Longe abest a me regni suspicio; sin 20 quaeris, qui sint Romae regnum occupare conati, ut ne replices annalium memoriam, ex domesticis imaginibus invenies. Res enim gestae, credo, meae me nimis extulerunt ac mihi nescio quos spiritus attulerunt. Quibus de rebus tam claris, tam inmortalibus, 25 iudices, hoc possum dicere, me, qui ex summis periculis eripuerim urbem hanc et vitam omnium civium, satis adeptum fore, si ex hoc tanto in omnis mortalis beneficio nullum in me ipsum periculum redundarit. 28Etenim, in qua civitate res tantas gesserim, memini, 30 in qua urbe verser, intellego. Plenum forum est eorum hominum, quos ego a vestris cervicibus depuli, 18. cuius vicarius, etc., 'when no one can be found who is willing to succeed to it!' For translation of vicarius esse cf. ~ 12. 20; Mur. 80. 41. ~ 27. 19-22. Longe... me, 'is wholly foreign to my character.' regnum occupare, 'set up a monarchy,' not' seize the throne.' replices, etc., ' unfold the history contained in the annals:' the metaphor is from unrolling a Roman book; for ut... replices cf. III. 18. 8; 10. 1; Mur. 32. 7; 10. 37; II. 9. 1. imaginibus. The busts of ancestors who had held curule offices (Mur. 88. 3) were kept in the atrium of the Roman noble's house. Each had a titulus declaring the honors of the man whom it represented, and woollen threads (stemmata) ran from bust to bust to show the re lationships. Cicero alludes here to the famous M. Manlius Torquatus. Allen, p. 74; Creighton, p. 26; Myers, p. 34; Pennell, p. 34. credo, ironical. 23-28. spiritus, as in Caes. I. 33.,. eripuerim, ind. disc. for eripui;1 the direct form. adeptum fore, fut. perf. inf., a form more cornmon with passive verbs than with depnents. A. 147 c 2; G. 531 ad fin.; 1-. 537 3 n 2. For the future perfect iz apodosis see on IV. 11. 1. omnii mortalis. Cicero uses mortales for homines, only with the adjs. omnes, multi, cuncti, and in the singular wyith nemo. redundarit, perf. subj. for fut. perf. ind. in direct discourse; for the metaphor see on Mur. 85. 29. ~ 28. 31. cervicibus: for plural see on Mur. 79. 21.

Page  305 CAP. 9-10, ~ 26-30. 305 iudices, a meis non removi. Nisi vero paucos fuisse arbitramini, qui conari aut sperare possent se tantum imperium posse delere. Horum ego faces eripere de manibus et gladios extorquere potui, sicuti feci, vo- 35 luntates vero consceleratas ac nefarias nec sanare potui nec tollere. Quare non sum nescius, quanto periculo vivam in tanta multitudine improborum, cum mihi uni cum omnibus improbis aeternum -videam 39 bellum susceptum esse. x. Quodsi illis meis prae- 29 sidiis forte invides, et si ea tibi regia videntur, quod omnes boni omnium generum atque ordinum suam salutem cum mea coniungunt, consolare te, quod omnium mentes improborum mihi uni maxime sunt 5 infensae et adversae; qui me non solum idcirco oderunt, quod eorum conatus impios et furorem consceleratum repressi, sed eo etiam magis, quod nihil iam se simile me vivo conari posse arbitrantur. At vero 30 quid ego mirer, si quid ab improbis de me improbe 10 dicitur, cum L. Torquatus primum his fundamentis ipse adulescentiae iactis, ea spe proposita amplissimae 35-39. sicuti feci, 'as I really did:' the adverb is required by English idiom, and is occasionally found in Latin. sanare nec tollere: cf. II. 11. 41-43. cum... cum: cf. ~ 16. 33. mihi: for case cf. IV. 22. 34, a passage very like this. ~ 29. 4, 5. cum mea coniungunt, 'link their safety with mine,' i.e., think that they must stand or fall with me. On this point Cicero was soon undeceived. mihi uni maxime: uni is not to be translated: see on III. 25. 31. 9. me... vivo. Cicero lived, however, to see Caesar dictator and Antony, Octavianus, and Lepidus masters of Rome. ~ 30. 10-12. mirer si: cf. ~ 7. 2; for mood cf. IV. 2. 29. improbis: for meaning and synonym cf. ~ 1.13,14. primum... ipse, 'first for himself,' opposed to deinde. filius (11. 13, 14), 'secondly as being the son of, etc.' hisfundamentis, etc., 'having laid these foundations of his young life, with such hopes before him of winning the highest position.' his, ea are used elliptically: cf. tanta and tales, ~ 22. 18, 19, 'these (which he has laid),' 'such (as he has).'

Page  306 306 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. dignitatis, deinde L. Torquati, fortissimi consulis, constantissimi senatoris, semper optimi civis, filius, inter15 dum efferatur inmoderatione verborum? Qui cum suppressa voce de scelere P. Lentuli, de audacia coniuratorum omnium dixisset, tantum modo ut vos, qui ea probatis, exaudire possetis, de supplicio, de carcere 31magna et queribunda voce dicebat. In quo primum 20 illud erat absurdum, quod, cum ea, quae leviter dixerat, vobis probare volebat, eos autem, qui circum iudicium stabant, audire nolebat, non intellegebat ea, quae dare diceret, ita illos audituros, quibus se venditabat, ut vos quoque audiretis, qui id non probabatis. Deinde alte25 rum iam oratoris vitium non videre, quid quaeque causa postulet. Nihil est enim tam alienum ab eo, qui alterum 14, 15. filius: here and often (e.g., talem adulescentem, 1. 31) the Latin suffers from the want of a present partic. from esse. inmoderatione, found here only. 17, 18. vos, qui, 'you who approve these sentiments.' The jury from its composition would naturally be conservative in politics, and the democrats are represented as watching the proceedings at a little distance. When Torquatus nentioned the criminal acts of the conspirators he spoke in low tones, that the democrats might not hear; when he dwelt upon their punishment as an act of tyranny on Cicero's part he lifted his voice. exaudire: see on I. 21. 40. ~ 31. 19-23. In quo = in qua re, i.e., his treatment of the execution of the conspirators. Cicero points out three mistakes of Torquatus: (1) a blunder in the trick of the voice mentioned above (11. 20-24); (2) a rhetorical blunder (11. 25-33); (3) a political blunder (~ 32). ea object of both probare and audire. leviter = suppressa voce, ~ 30. 16. vobis probare, 'to convince you of,' lit. 'to make acceptable to you;' vobis is dat. of reference. intellegebat depends upon quod, 1. 20. ita... ut, in their so-called restrictive use (see on IV. 15. 22), 'only on condition that,' 'not unless;' here equivalent to co-ordinate clauses with non modo...sed etiam. 24-26. Deinde, etc., ' Then the second, a rhetorical fault, not to see,' etc.: notice the omission of est. Torquatus first sinned against common-sense, then against the rules of rhetoric. quid... postulet: as he was prosecuting Sulla for complicity with Lentulus, he ought to have argued that the lat

Page  307 CAP. 10-11, ~ 30-32. 307 coniurationis accuset, quam videri coniuratorum poenam mortemque lugere. Quod cum is tribunus pl. facit, qui unus videtur ex illis ad lugendos coniuratos relictus, nemini mirum est; difficile est enim tacere, cum 30 doleas; te, si quid eius modi facis, non modo talem adulescentem, sed in ea causa, in qua te vindicem coniurationis velis esse, vehementer admiror. Sed 32 reprehendo tamen illud maxime, quod isto ingenio et prudentia praeditus causam rei publicae non tenes, qui 35 arbitrere plebi Romanae res eas non probari, quas me consule omnes boni pro salute communi gesserunt. xi. Ecquem tu horum, qui adsunt, quibus te contra ipsorum voluntatem venditabas, aut tam sceleratum statuis fuisse, ut haec omnia perire voluerit, aut tam miserum, ut et se perire cuperet et nihil haberet, quod ter deserved his fate, instead of calling his execution an act of tyranny. alienum ab, 'damaging to.' 28. is tribunus pl. (= plebis). L. Calpurnius Bestia, said by Sallust to have been one of the conspirators, was the colleague of Metellus Nepos (p. 39, ~ 69), and aided him in his attacks upon Cicero. 30-33. cum doleas: 'when you (= any one) are in pain:' for the mood, which is not influenced by cum, see on Mur. 7. 31; te (= Torquatunm) seems to us unpleasantly near the indef. second person in doleas. talem adulescentem: see on ~ 30. 14. vindicem, 'punisher,' the word has often the precisely opposite sense of ' protector,' 'champion.' velis, subj. of characteristic; for meaning here see on IV. 8. 34. ~ 32. 34-36. quod... non tenes, the third (political) blunder. ingenio et prudentia, ' ability and learning;' the former includes only natural gifts, the latter is acquired by effort. tenes: for meaning cf. III. 16. 11; Mur. 22. 49. arbitrere: causal, qui = cumn tu. plebi Romanae: for case (not agent) see above, ~ 31. 21. He refers to the change in the feeling of the lower classes when they were told that Catilina intended to burn the city. P. 35, ~ 60 ad fin. For the word plebi see p. 57, ~ 21. 3,4. haec omnia, as in IV. 16. 12; 7. 2; I. 21. 42. voluerit, cuperet, haberet: notice change in sequence of these parallel verbs. In consecutive clauses the perfect subj. denotes a momentary, the imperfect a continued action.

Page  308 308 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. 5 salvum esse vellet? An vero clarissimum virum generis vestri ac nominis nemo reprehendit, qui filium suum vita privavit, ut in ceteros firmaret imperium; tu rem publicam reprehendis, quae domesticos hostis, ne ab iis 33 ipsa necaretur, necavit? Itaque attende, Torquate, 10 quam ego defugiam auctoritatem consulatus mei! Maxima voce, ut omnes exaudire possint, dico semperque dicam. Adeste omnes animis, qui adestis, quorum ego frequentia magnopere laetor; erigite mentes auresque vestras et me de invidiosis rebus, ut ille 15 putat, dicentem attendite! Ego consul, cum exercitus perditorum civium clandestino scelere conflatus crudelissimum et luctuosissimum exitium patriae comparasset, cum ad occasum interitumque rei publicae Catilina in castris, in his autem templis atque tectis dux 20 Lentulus esset constitutus, meis consiliis, meis laboribus, mei capitis periculis, sine tumultu, sine dilectu, 5, 6. An vero, etc.: for the use of an il single questions cf. ~ 21. 6; 5. 16. The form of the whole sentence should be carefully studied. It really comprises two sentences (an... imperium and tu... necavit), placed in strong contrast; the first refers to an act generally approved, the second to one called in question -the inference is that the latter is absurd. In English 'and' may be inserted: 'did no one censure. and do you...?' Compare and explain the parallel in I. 3. 20 foll. clarissimum v i r u m. The T. Manlius Torquatus, who earned the surname Imperiosus, by putting his son to death for disobedience in the Latin war. Creighton, p. 28. generis vestri ac nominis: for position of vestri see on IV. 11. 16; for meaning on ~ 12. 12. ~ 33. 10-17. quam, 'how far.' defugiam auctoritatem, ' shirk the responsibility,' a legal term. Adeste animis, 'give heed.' ille, Torquatus. consul = cum essem consul: see onfilius ~ 30. 14. confiatus: for meaning see on ~ 13. 29, and cf. ~ 15. 18. patriae, dative. 21. sine tumultu = nzllo tumultu publice concitato in I. 11. 19: see on Mur. 22. 6. sine dilectu: of course troops had been levied: cf. II. 5. 1-4; but Cicero means that no troops were raised for suppressing the threatened outbreak in the city.

Page  309 CAP. 11-12, ~ 32-34. 309 sine armis, sine exercitu, quinque hominibus comprelensis atque confessis incensione urbem, internicione cives, vastitate Italiam, interitu rem publicam liberavi; ego vitam omnium civium, statum orbis terrae, 25 urbem hanc denique, sedem omnium nostrum, arcem regum ac nationum exterarum, lumen gentium, domicilium imperii, quinque hominum amentium ac perditorum poena redemi. An me existimasti haec iniuratum 34 in iudicio non esse dicturum, quae iuratus in maxima 30 contione dixissem? xII. Atque etiam illud addam, ne qui forte incipiat inprobus subito te amare, Torquate, et aliquid sperare de te, atque, ut idem omnes exaudiant, clarissima voce dicam: Harum omnium rerum, quas ego in consulatu pro salute rei publicae suscepi atque 5 gessi, L. ille Torquatus, cum esset meus contubernalis in consulatu atque etiam in praetura fuisset, auctor, adiutor, particeps extitit, cum princeps, cum auctor, cum signifer esset iuventutis; parens eius, homo arran22-26. quinque: cf. III. 14.28; mea unius opera salvam esse. explain the apparent contradic- contione: for meaning cf. II. tion, and give the names of those Title and Mur. 50. 6. executed. comprehensis, confessis: for the use of the par- 1-6. ne qui inprobus: as the ticiple see on Mur. 35. 8. The pronoun is accompanied by an stress laid upon the confessions adj., we should expect ne quis, but may be understood fron the note the forms are interchanged seemon IV. 10. 23. Notice that Cicero ingly at the will of the writer: cf. does not mention the execution quis dies, Mur. 46.21. idem nom. among his services, and see on plural. contubernalis,'compan~ 21. 4. omnium nostrum: see ion,' gradually lost its military on I. 14. 21; why not call nostrum sense,' tent companion:'for a simia partitive gen.? lar loss of meaning see on II. 9.5. ~ 34. 29-31. iniuratum: on the 7-9. auctor, adiutor, particompound cf. ~ 22. 17. iuratus: ceps, 'backer, lieutenant, associsee p. 39, ~ 69. In the oration ate.' princeps, auctor, signiagainst Piso, lie gives the oath: fer, 'leader, instigator, standard rem publicam atque hanc urbem bearer.' iuventutis, the young

Page  310 310 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. 10 tissimus patriae, maximi animi, summi consilii, singularis constantiae, cum esset aeger, tamen omnibus rebus illis interfuit, nusquam est a me digressus, studio, consilio, auctoritate unus adiuvit plurimum, cum infirmita35 tern corporis virtute animi superaret. Videsne, ut 15 eripiam te ex improborum subita gratia et reconciliem bonis omnibus? qui te et diligunt et retinent retinebuntque semper nec, si forte a me desciveris, idcirco te a se et a re publica et a tua dignitate deficere patientur. Sed iam redeo ad causam atque hoc vos, iudices, testor: 20 Mihi de memet ipso taIn multa dicendi necessitas quaedam imposita est ab illo. Nam, si Torquatus Sullam solum accusasset, ego quoque hoc tempore nihil aliud agerem nisi eum, qui accusatus esset, defenderem; sed cum ille tota illa oratione in me esset invectus et cum, 25 ut initio dixi, defensionem meam spoliare auctoritate voluisset, etiamsi meus me dolor respondere non cogeret, tamen ipsa causa hanc a me orationem flagitavisset. men of equestrian rank who guarded the temple of Jupiter Stator during the memorable session of the senate on Nov. 8th, 63: see p. 31, ~ 50. 12, 13. interfuit, 'took part in.' nusquam: this adverb is used with verbs of motion as well as rest, answering the questions 'whither' and 'where;' so also usquam. unus plurimum: see on ~ 29. 5. ~ 35. 14-18. Videsne: for force of -ne see on I. 7. 8. ut eripiam, 'how I am, etc.;' ut is here an interrogative adverb, not a conjunction: cf. Mur. 22. 49 (two examples). Explain the mood. desciveris, deficere, strictly mil itary words, as contubernalis, ~ 34. 6, above. 19-25. redeo ad causam. Cicero admits that his attack upon Torquatus has nothing to do with the case: see Exc. II. ~ 13. hoc: for case cf. quod, ~ 9. 15; 7. 2. memet: for form see A. 99 f; G. 100 Rem. 1; H. 184 3; B. 84 2. necessitas quaedam, 'a sort of compulsion;' for this meaning of quaedam cf. IV. 13. 50; 11. 11; 2. 19. ut initio dixi, in ~ 2. 16-21. The second part of the speech, dealing with the specific charges against Sulla (~~ 36-68): see on TITLE, oratio.

Page  311 CAP. 12-13, ~ 34-37. 311 xnii. Ab Allobrogibus nominatum Sullam esse dicis. 36 Quis negat? Sed lege indicium et vide, quem ad modum nominatus sit. L. Cassium dixerunt commemorasse cum ceteris Autronium secum facere. Quaero, nun Sullam dixerit Cassius. Nusquam. Sese aiunt 5 quaesisse de Cassio, quid Sulla sentiret. Videte diligentiam Gallorum; qui vitam hominum naturamque non nossent ac tantum audivissent eos pari calamitate esse, quaesiverunt, essentne eadem voluntate. Quid tur Cassius? Si respondisset idem sentire et secum 10 facere Sullam, tamen mihi non videretur in hune id criminosum esse debere. Quid ita? Quia, qui barbaros homines ad bellum impelleret, non debebat minuere illorum suspicionem et purgare eos, de quibus illi aliquid suspicari viderentur. Non respondit 37 tamen una facere Sullam. Etenim esset absurdum, 16 cum ceteros sua sponte nominasset, mentionem facere Sullae nullam nisi admonitum et interrogatum; nisi forte veri simile est P. Sullae nomen in memoria Cassio non fuisse. Si nobilitas hominis, si adflicta 20 ~ 36. 1-5. Ab Allobrogibus. P. 34, ~~ 58, 59. lege indicium: see on III. 11. 24. L. Cassium, p. 32, ~ 54 and note on III. 14. 18. cum ceteris, the prominent men whose names he had mentioned. secum, the conspirators, rank and file; Cassius had said: Cum ceteris Autronius nobiscum facit. Nusquam: see on ~ 34. 12, and tell what question it answers here. 6-10. diligentiam, 'circ umspection.' qui = curn ii, so also in 1. 12. ac: cf. et, ~ 21. 3. Cassius: sc. respondit. The answer is not given until ~ 38. 33. Cicero first shows that little importance ought to be attached to anything said against Sulla by Cassius, while working on the Gauls. ~ 37. 16-20. una facere = secumfacere, ~ 36. 10, 4. Etenim, 'and indeed.' nisi admonitum, etc.: see on IV. 23. 9; the participles agree with the unexpressed subject of facere. nisi forte: see on IV. 21. 24; the two uses of nisi are unpleasantly close. S ull a e nomen, for Sullam nomen: cf. Mur. 67. 2, and explain the genitive. in memoria Cassio, etc., ' that Cassius did not

Page  312 312 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. fortuna, si reliquiae pristinae dignitatis non tam illustres fuissent, tamen Autroni commemoratio memoriam Sullae rettulisset; etiam, ut arbitror, cum auctoritates principum coniurationis ad incitandos animos Allo25 brogum colligeret Cassius, et cum sciret exteras nationes maxime nobilitate moveri, non prius Autronium 38 quam Sullam nominavisset. Iam vero illud probari minime potest, Gallos Autronio nominato putasse propter calamitatis similitudinem sibi aliquid de Sulla 30 esse quaerendum, Cassio, si hic esset in eodem scelere, ne cum appellasset quidem Autronium, huius in mentem venire potuisse. Sed tamen quid respondit de Sulla Cassius? Se nescire certum. 'Non purgat,' inquit. Dixi antea: Ne si argueret quidem tur deni35 que, cum esset interrogatus, id mihi criminosum vide39 retur. Sed ego in indiciis et in quaestionibus non recall, etc.' Cassio is dat. of reference: this construction for Cassium memoria habere is very rare. 21-26. illustres, 'conspicuous.' commemoratio, In e ntion:' see on commemorabat, ~ 18. 6. etiam, 'indeed,' introducing a second step in his argument, clinched by iam vero, ~ 38. 27. auctoritates... colligere t, 'was bringing to bear the influence of leading men in the conspiracy.' For plural auctoritates cf. operae, ~ 26. 9; for translation, II. 10. 15. nobilitate, 'high rank.' ~ 38. 27-31. Iam vero; see on II. 8. 21, and on 37. 23. illud, etc., 'the statement cannot possibly be made good that, etc.' Cassio, 'while (but) Cassius, etc.:' for omission of conjunction cf. illud, ~ 22. 27. Cassio is dat. of ref. with in mentem venire (1. 32), and is put at the beginning of its clause to contrast sharply with Gallos (1. 28). huius: for case cf. patriae, ~ 19. 16. 32-34. Sed tamen: see on Mur. 48. 1. nescire certum, ' he knew nothing certain:' certum is used substantively as direct object. tur denique: the denique emphasizes the turn; i.e., his statement might have been damaging at another time, when the question had not been put so directly. ~39. 36. in indiciis, 'in matters of evidence.' quaestionibus, 'criminal courts:' see Exc. II. ~ 1.

Page  313 CAP. 13, ~ 37-39. 313 hoc quaerendum arbitror, num purgetur aliqui, sed num arguatur. Etenim cum se negat scire Cassius, utrum sublevat Sullam an satis probat se nescire? 'Sublevat apud Gallos.' Quid ita? 'Ne indicent.' 40 Quid? si periculum esse putasset, ne illi umquam indicarent, de se ipse confessus esset? 'Nesciit videlicet.' Credo celatum esse Cassium de Sulla uno; nam de ceteris 6erte sciebat; etenii domi eius pleraque conflata esse constabat. Qui negare noluit esse 45 in eo numero Sullam, quo plus spei Gallis daret, dicere autem falsum non ausus est, nescire dixit. Atqui hoc perspicuum est, cum is, qui de omnibus scierit, de Sulla se scire negarit, eandem esse vim negationis huius, quam si extra coniurationem hunc 50 esse se scire dixisset. Nam cuius scientiam de omnibus constat fuisse, eius ignoratio de aliquo purgatio debet videri. Sed iam non quaero, purgetne Cassius 37, 39. num... aliqui: for aliquis instead of quis with si, num, ne see A. 105 d, note; G. 302, Rem.; H. 455, 1; B. 252 2; for aliqui as substantive instead of aliquis see on ne qui ~ 34, 1. utrum... an, 'is lie trying to clear Sulla, or does he quite convince us that lie did not know?' Tllis is a good example of a dilemma. 40. 'Sublevat, etc.:' the words are supposed to be those of Torquatus accepting the first alternative. 41. periculum, ne, 'danger that:' periculum est takes the same construction as a verb of fearing. 42, 43. se ipse: cf. III. 27. 15'; I. 19. 3. 'Nesciit videlicet.' Torquatus is now supposed to to accept the second alternative. On videlicet cf. ~ 21. 5. celatum esse Cassium: for construction of celare in active voice see A. 239 d; G. 333, Rein. 2; H. 374 2, Note 1; B. 178 1 e); in the passive the person becomes the subject and the thing is put in the abl. with de or in the accusative if it is a neuter pronoun. 47-50. nescire dixit: sc. se. The omission of a reflexive pronoun as subj. of an infin. is not uncommon in Cicero and Caesar; for the latter cf. rogare I. 7. 3; posse I. 31. 13. extra coniurationem = coniurationis non adfinem esse.

Page  314 314 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. Sullam; illud mihi tantum satis est, contra Sullam 55 nihil esse in indicio. 40 xiv. Exclusus hac criminatione Torquatus rursus in me irruit, me accusat; ait me aliter, ac dictum sit, in tabulas publicas rettulisse. O di inmortales! (vobis enim tribuo, quae vestra sunt, nec vero possum tantum 5 meo ingenio dare, ut tot res tantas, tam varias, tam repentinas in illa turbulentissima tempestate rei publicae mea sponte dispexerim) vos profecto animium meum tum conservandae patriae cupiditate incendistis, vos me ab omnibus ceteris cogitationibus ad unam o1 salutem rei publicae convertistis, vos denique in tantis tenebris erroris et inscientiae clarissimum lumen 41 menti meae praetulistis. Vidi ego hoc, iudices, nisi recenti memoria senatus auctoritatem huius indicii monumentis publicis testatus essem, fore ut aliquando 54. illud tantum, 'this one thing only.' To a casually expressed suspicion of Torquatus that the evidence of the Allobroges had been modified by Cicero in favor of Sulla, he replies by showing (1) the precautions taken at the time to insure an accurate transcript (~~ 41-42), (2) the impossibility of subsequent alterations (~~ 42, 43), and finally asks Torquatus (~ 44) why he had not denounced the alleged falsification before. ~ 40. 2-4. aliter, ac; see refs. on aliud atque, Mur. 35. 11. dictum sit: sc. indicium Allobrogum. tabulas publicas, used of any kind of official documents, records, registers, etc. It is not known that a journal was kept of debates in the senate before Cicero's consulship, and he speaks here of his precautions as exceptional. v o b i s enim tribuo: there is here, as often with enim, an ellipse of the connecting idea; translate '(I appeal to you) for to you I ascribe, etc.' For the fact cf. III. ~ 22. 5-10. ut... dispexerim, a condensed expression for ut dicam me dispexisse. The verb means 'to see with difficulty ' as through a chink, almost 'divine.' unam salutem = unam cogitationem salutis. ~ 41. 13,14. auctoritatem, etc., 'unless I attested by public documents the authenticity of the evidence while the recollection of the senate was fresh.' fore ut... diceret (1. 18): for this (here unnecessary) periphrasis see on II. 4. 16.

Page  315 CAP. 13-14, ~ 39-42. 315 non Torquatus neque Torquati quispiam similis (nam 15 id me multum fefellit), sed ut aliquis patrimonii naufragus, inimicus otii, bonorum hostis aliter indicata haec esse diceret, quo facilius vento aliquo in optimum quemque excitato posset in malis rei publicae portum aliquem suorum malorum invenire. Itaque 20 introductis in senatum indicibus constitui senatores, qui omnia indicum dicta, interrogata, responsa perscriberent. At quos viros! non solum summa virtute 42 et fide, cuius generis erat in senatu facultas maxima, sed etiam quos sciebam memoria, scientia, celeritate 25 scribendi facillime, quae dicerentur, persequi posse, C. Cosconium, qui turn erat praetor, M. Messallam, qui tum praeturam petebat, P. Nigidium, App. Claudium. Credo esse neminem, qui his hominibus ad vere referendum aut fidem putet aut ingenium defuisse. 30 -- - ----- 15, 16. nam... fefellit, 'for such a case was far from my thoughts:' for fefelit cf. I. 7. 12. lt: for its repetition cf. II1. 4.23. 17-21. naufragus, applied to Catilina's followers in II. 24. 7 and I. 30. 27: the metaphor is continued in vento' for invidia and portum for salutem. aliter: sc. atque scripta sunt. portum... malorum, ' haven (of safety) from his own troubles.' indicibus: see III. 9. 11. constitui senatores, 'I appointed senators,' instead of the official scribes, for r e a s o n s presently given. ~42. 23-27. At quos viros: for case cf. II. 7. 9; the at is used in abrupt exclamations to express passion. facultas, as in Caes. I. 38. 3; III. 9. 6. celeritate scribendi, a reference to the practice of short-hand writing which was rapidly coming into use in Cicero's time. C. Cosconium, governor of Further Spain in 62, died in 59. M. Messallam, consul in 53, not the one mentioned in ~ 20. 31 as present at the trial. 28. P. Nigidium (Figulum), a great student and writer upon philosophy, and an intimate friend of Cicero, praetor in 58, died in exile in 44, having sided with Pompeius in the civil war. Appium Claudium, an elder brother of the demagogue Clodius. 30. putet: for position see on vestri ~ 32. 6.

Page  316 316 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. Quid? deinde quid feci? xv. Cum scirem ita esse indicium relatum in tabulas publicas, ut illae tabulae privata tamen custodia more maiorum continerentur, non occultavi, non continui domi, sed statim describi 5 ab omnibus librariis, dividi passim et pervulgari atque edi populo Romano imperavi. Divisi tota Italia, emisi in omnes provincias; eius indicii, ex quo oblata salus esset omnibus, expertem esse neminem volui. 43 Itaque dico locum in orbe terrarum esse nullum, quo o0 in loco populi Romani nomen sit, quin eodem perscriptum hoc indicium pervenerit. In quo ego tam subito et exiguo et turbido tempore multa divinitus, ita ut dixi, non mea sponte providi, primum ne qui posset tantum aut de rei publicae aut de alicuius 15 periculo meminisse, quantum vellet; deinde ne cui liceret umquam reprehendere illud indicium aut temere creditum criminari; postremo ne quid iam a me, ne quid ex meis commentariis quaereretur, ne aut oblivio mea aut memoria nimia videretur, ne denique aut 20 neglegentia turpis aut diligentia crudelis putaretur. 44 Sed tamen abs te, Torquate, quaero: Cum indicatus 1-3. ita... ut tamen, restrictive, as ita... ut without tamen in ~ 31. 23, the correlatives 'not.. unless,' ' it is true... but,' 'not only... but also' will be helpful in translation. privata custodia. Only the formal decrees of the senate were kept in the public archives: see on I. 4. 13; other acta senatus were kept by the presiding consul, who may or may not have turned them over to the state on retiring from office. 4-6. describi... imperavi: for the infinitive see on I. 27. 13. librariis, the regular clerks. tota Italia: for the omission of the preposition A. 258 f, 2; G. 386; Ii. 425 I., 2; B. 228 1 b). ~ 43. 10-18. n o m e n sit: sc. notum. divinitus: cf. III. 22. 35. tantum meminisse, quan-.tum, 'to remember only so much as he pleased;' tanturn, as in ~ 21. 13. The written record would, of course, prevent convenient lapses of memory. commentariis, as in the title to Caesar's Gallic war. ~ 44. 21. Sed tamen, as in ~ 38. 32. Cum indicatus esset,

Page  317 CAP. 14-15, ~ 42-44. 317 tuus esset inimicus et esset eius rei frequens senatus et recens memoria testis tibique, meo familiari et contubernali, prius etiam edituri indicium fuerint scribae mei, si voluisses, quam in codicem rettulissent, cum 25 videres aliter referri, cur tacuisti, passus es, non mecum aut cum familiari meo questus es aut, quoniam tam facile inveheris in amicos, iracundius aut vehementius expostulasti? Tu, cum tua vox numquam sit audita, cum indicio lecto, descripto, divulgato 30 quieveris, tacueris, repente tantam rem ementiare et in eum locum te deducas, ut ante, quam me commutati indicii coargueris, te summae neglegentiae tuo iudicio convictum esse fateare?. 'since (as you allege) your enemy was criminated,' by the Allobroges. 22. esset eius rei: for the number cf. A. 205 d; H. 463 1; P. 321. Notice how this case differs from that pointed out on ~19. 23. 24. edituri fuerint = edidissent. A.308 d; G. 599,3; t1. 511 2; B. 304 3 b). The moodof fuerint is due to the preceding curn, not to the condition: cf. IV. 17. 29. 25. codicem: for the method of writing see on III. 10. 1. The several tabellae were arranged in the proper order, and fastened together at the back in much the same way as a modern book, forming what was called a codex. The codex mentioned here was probably the one intended for the official use of the consul, and had been introduced as evidence at the trial. 26-29. aliter, as in ~ 41. 17. tacuisti, passus es, etc.: notice the asyndeton. familiari meo, 'some one of my friends.' numquam, explained by the following clauses. 31. quieveris tacueris, on asyndeton between two words only see on Mur. 19. 5. ementiare: for mood cf. sis and dubites II. 18. 18. 34. fateare, 'must confess:' the idea of necessity lies merely in the connection of ideas, not in the mood. Cicero vigorously repels the imputation of Torquatus, in almost threatening words gives expression to his wounded feelings ( ~ 46 f), and finally (Cap. xvii.) shows that he, not Torquatus, has reason for being angry.

Page  318 318 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO.:. 45 xvI. Mihi cuiusquam salus tanti fuisset, ut meam neglegerem? per me ego veritatem patefactam contaminarem aliquo mnendacio? quemquam denique ego iuvarem, a quo et tam crudelis insidias rei publicae 5 factas et me potissimum consule putarem? Quodsi iam essem oblitus severitatis et constantiae meae, tamne amens eram, ut, cum litterae posteritatis causa repertae sint, quae subsidio oblivioni esse possent, ego recentem putarem memoriam cuncti senatus commen46 tario meo posse superari? Fero ego te, Torquate, iam 11 dudum, fero et non numquam animum incitatum ad ulciscendam orationem tuam revoco ipse et reflecto, permitto aliquid iracundiae tuae, do adulescentiae, cedo amicitiae, tribuo parenti. Sed, nisi tibi aliquem modum 15 tute constitueris, coges me oblitum nostrae amicitiae habere rationem meae dignitatis. Nemo umquam me tenuissima suspicione perstrinxit, quem non perverterim ac perfregerim. Sed mihi hoc credas velim: Non iis libentissime soleo respondere, quos mihi videor 47 facillime posse superare. Tu quoniam minime ignoras ~ 45. 1-4. fuisset, c o n t a m i- flecto: the metaphor is from drivnarem, iuvarem: for mood cf. ing horses: cf. Caes. IV. 33 ad fin. ementiare, ~ 44. 31, and for tense, permitto... tribuo, 'I make A. 268 Rem.; G. 252 ad fin; H. some allowance, some concession, 484 V. foot note 3; B. 277. For some sacrifice, I owe something past time the tenses used here are to.' aliquid must be taken with common, and differ little in mean- each of the four verbs. ing: the perfect is rare, but is found, 17, 18. perstrinxit, ' chafed.' e.g., Mur. 21. 31-33. pe r e r t e r i m, perfregerim, 5-8. pot i s im u m, 'rather ' overturned and shattered.' than at any other time;' mihi hoc credas velim, 'I the word takes its sense from should like you to take my the context: cf. Mur. 75. 15. word for this;' cf. II. 15.18. For quae = ut eae. subsidio obli- mihi see on I. 6. 5; for hoc on vioni: for cases cf. Caes. II. ~ 35. 19; for credas on eduxisset 20. 2. II. 5. 12; for velim on pervelim, ~ 46. 11-14. animum... re- ~ 23. 33.

Page  319 CAP. 16-17, ~ 45-48. 319 consuetudinem dicendi meam, noli hac lenitate nova 21 abuti mea, noli aculeos orationis meae, qui reconditi sunt, excussos arbitrari, noli id omnino a me putare esse amissum, si quid est tibi remissum atque concessum. Cum illae valent apud me excusationes iniuriae 25 tuae, iratus animus tuus, aetas, amicitia nostra, turn nondum statuo te virium satis habere, ut ego tecum luctari et congredi debeam. Quodsi esses usu atque aetate robustior, essem idem, qui soleo, cum sum lacessitus; nunc tecum sic again, tulisse ut potius iniuriam 30 quam rettulisse gratiam videar. xvii. Neque vero, 48 quid mihi irascare, intellegere possum. Si, quod eum defendo, quern tu accusas, cur tibi ego non suscenseo, quod accusas eum, quem ego defendo? 'Inimicum ego,' inquis, 'accuso meum.' Et amicum ego defendo 5 meumn. 'Non debes tu quemquam in coniurationis quaestione defendere.' Immo nemo magis eum, de quo nihil umquam est suspicatus, quam is, qui de ~ 47. 21-24. noli.. abuti, a common form for a prohibition. A. 269, a, 2; G. 264 II.; H. 489 (1); B. 276 c. For meaning of abuti see on I. 1. 1. aculeos excussos, metaphor from bees, which were popularly supposed to leave their stings in the wound and then to die. reconditi, 'only hidden.' amissum, remissum: see on I. 30. 25, and cf. IV. 11.132; Mur. 61. 29, and above ~~ 30. 10; 12. 24. id... si quid: the si has lost all its conditional force, and si quid is a weak quod. 28-31. luctari et congredi, 'struggle and battle:' the second is the stronger word as it is used of whole armies, while the former is used of single combatants. nunc, as in IV. 9. 1; 2. 20; I. 17. 24. rettulisse gratiam, 'repaid it;' the phrase, like our 'repay,' 'requite,' is a vox media: see on IV. 22. 41; 12. 40. ~ 48. This section furnishes an excellent example of what the old grammarians called an altercatio, or imaginary dispute between the accuser and defender. 2-5. Si: sc. mihi irasceris. inquis: for the form, A. 144 b; G. 190 2; H. 297 II. 2; B. 134; for its use A. 345 c; G. 651 Rem. 2; H. 569 V.; B. 134. Et is sometimes used instead of at to make an interposed objection still

Page  320 320 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. aliis multa cogitavit. 'Cur dixisti testimonium in 10 alios?' Quia coactus sum. ' Cur damnati sunt?' Quia creditum est. ' Regnum est dicere, in quem velis, et defendere, quem velis.' Immo servitus est non dicere, in quem velis, et non defendere, quem velis. Ac si considerare coeperis, utrum magis mihi hoc 15 necesse fuerit facere an istud tibi, intelleges honestius te inimicitiarum modum statuere potuisse quam me 49 humanitatis. At vero, cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae amplissimus, hoc est consulatus parentis tui, sapientissimus vir familiarissimis suis non suscensuit, 20 pater tuus, cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent; intellegebat hanc nobis a maioribus esse traditam disciplinam, ut nullius amicitia ad pericula propulsanda impediremur. Et erat huic iudicio longe dissimilis illa contentio. Turn adflicto P. Sulla consulatus vobis 25 pariebatur, sicuti partus est; honoris erat certamen; ereptum repetere vos clamitabatis, ut victi in campo in foro vinceretis; tur qui contra vos pro huius salute pugnabant, amicissimi vestri, quibus non irascebamini, more abrupt by putting it, as it were, in the mouth of the speaker. 11-16. creditum est: sc. mihi. Regnum est, etc., 'it is tyranny to, etc.;' a charge already answered at length in ~ 21 f. inimicitiarum. Cicero represents Torquatus as prosecuting Sulla as an inimicus (cf. ~ 44. 22), not as a hostis. For Sulla's relations with the elder Torquatus see p. 23, ~ 30; with the younger see on ~ 2. 17. ~ 49. 17-22. agebatur,' was at stake.' familiarissimis: notice the substantive use of the super lative (Mur. 45. 11); so amicissimi, 1. 28. defenderent, as advocati or patroni. laudarent, as laudatores, 'witnesses to character,' Exc. II. ~ 14. disciplinam. 'custom,' often joined with instituta and mores. nullius: for substantive use see on Mur. 87. 22. 25-30. pariebatur, conative imperfect (see on I. 13. 34), turn into active. sicuti partus est: trans. as suggested in ~ 28. 35. in campo in foro: explain the order of words and contrast of ideas. integro officio, ' without a breach of obligation.'

Page  321 CAP. 171-8, ~ 48-51. 321 consulatum vobis eripiebant, honori vestro repugnabant, et tamen id inviolata vestra amicitia, integro officio, 30 vetere exemplo atque instituto optimi cuiusque faciebant. XVIII. Ego vero quibus ornamentis adversor tuis 50 aut cui dignitati vestrae repugno? Quid est, quod iam ab hoc expetas? Honos ad patrem, insignia honoris ad te delata sunt. Tu ornatus exuviis huius venis ad eum lacerandum, quem interemisti, ego iacentem et 5 spoliatum defendo et protego. Atque hic tu et reprehendis me, quia defendam, et irasceris; ego autem non modo tibi non irascor, sed ne reprehendo quidem factum tuum. Te enim existimo tibi statuisse, quid faciendum putares, et satis idoneum officii tui iudicem esse 10 potuisse. At accusat C. Corneli filius, et id aeque valere debet, 51 ac si pater indicaret. O patrem Cornelium sapientem, qui, quod praemii solet esse in indicio, reliquerit, quod turpitudinis in confessione, id per accusationem filii 15 ~ 50. 1-7. ornamentis, 'marks of honor '= insignia, 1. 3. tuis... vestrae: cf. ~ 32. 6, and explain the difference. quod iam = quod iam amplius, I. 6. 1. insignia: so far as we know, the only external distinction wh i c h the younger Torquatus could gain by his father's elevation to the consulship would be the additional bust of a consular in his atrium. hic, as in ~ 21. 1. quia defendam, 'because (as you say) I, etc.:' the mood is due to the thought of Torquatus, not to quia. ~ 51. 12. At accusat, 'but you say, etc.:' for this use of at see on Mur. 35. I. accusat implies that Cornelius was acting as subscriptor: see Ex. II. ~ 7. C. Corneli; see on ~ 18. 11. 13. indicaret: for mood, A. 312; G. 604; H. 513 II.; B. 307 1. 14. quod praemii: in such cases the part. gen. is a mere caprice of the writer; quod praemium would express the same idea. For the rewards offered by the senate see on IV. 5. 11. 15. confessione, i.e., the minute information supplied by him to his son could have been furnished only by some one connected with the plot. Cornelius the elder had not turned state's evidence, but had been tried, found guilty, and punished. P. 40, ~ 71.

Page  322 322 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. susceperit! Sed quid est tandem, quod indicat per istum puerum Cornelius? Si vetera mihi ignota cim Hortensio communicata, respondit Hortensius; sin, ut ais, ilium conatum Autroni et Catilinae, cum in canmpo 20 consularibus comitiis, quae a me habita sunt, caedem facere voluerunt, Autronium tum in campo vidinus, sed quid dixi vidisse nos? ego vidi; vos enim tam, iudices, nihil laborabatis neque suspicabamini, ego tectus praesidio firmo amicorum Catilinae tuni et 52 Autroni copias et conatum repressi. Num quis est 26 igitur, qui tum dicat in campum aspirasse Sullam? Atqui, si turn se cum Catilina societate sceleris coniunxerat, cur ab eo discedebat, cur cum Autronio non erat, cur in pari causa non paria signa criminis reperi30 untur? Sed quoniam Cornelius ipso etiam nunc de indicando dubitat, ut dicitis, informat ad hoc adumbratum indicium filium, quid tandem de illa nocte dicit, 16, 17. quid est, quod indicat: cf. quid est quod expetas, ~ 50. 2, and note the difference in mood. In the former (ind. mood) we have a question about a fact, asked for information, and answered in ~ 54. 15 f; in the latter (subj. mood) we have a challenge rather than a question, asked merely for rhetorical effect, and implying that no answer is possible. We have the same difference in questions without a relative: see on IV. 16.7, quid commemoro. puerum, contemptuous for adulescentem: the age of Cornelius is not known. vetera, the first conspiracy: see ~ 12. 18 f. 19-23. illum conatum, object of indicat (1. 16), as is also vetera above; illum,'as in ~ 23. 35. con sularibus comitiis, fully described in Mur. ~ 52: see also I. ~ 11 and p. 29, ~ 44. Autronium vidim u s, the apodosis to sin (1. 18): there is a slight ellipse (cf. ~ 22. 22), 'I tell you this.' quid dlxi, the rhetorical figure called correctio. nihil laborabatis, felt no anxiety:' for nihil cf. II. 27. 11. ~ 52. 26-32. in campum aspirasse, 'came upon the plain.' In negative sentences Cicero often uses aspirare, lit., 'to breathe toward,' in the sense of accedere: it is probably a metaphor from the cautious approach of animals. signa criminis, not 'signs of crime:' see on ~ 6. 36, but rather 'evidence for a charge,' 'indications on which to base a charge.'

Page  323 CAP. 18-19, ~ 51-53. 323 cum inter falcarios ad M. Laecam nocte ea, quae consecuta est posterum diem Nonarum Novembrium me consule, Catilinae denuntiatione convenit? quae nox 35 omnium temporum coniurationis acerrima fuit atque acerbissima. Tum Catilinae dies exeundi, turn ceteris manendi condicio, tum discriptio totam per urbem caedis atque incendiorum constituta est; tum tuus pater, Corneli, id quod tandem aliquando confitetur, 40 illam sibi officiosam provinciam depoposcit, ut, cum prima luce consulem salutatum veniret, intromissus et meo more et iure amicitiae me in meo lectulo trucidaret. xix. Hoc tempore, cum arderet acerrime coniuratio, 53 cum Catilina egrederetur ad exercitum, Lentulus in urbe relinqueretur, Cassius incendiis, Cethegus caedi praeponeretur, Autronio, ut occuparet Etruriam, praescriberetur, cum omnia ordinarentur, instruerentur, 5 pararentur, ubi fuit Sulla, Corneli? num Romae? Immo longe afuit. Num in iis regionibus, quo se Catilina inferebat? Multo etiam longius. Num in dicitis; cf. ~~ 32. 6; 12. 12, and 15. 24. denuntiatione, 'at the explain number. informat... call:' the word does not necesfilium, 'but (cf. ~~ 3S. 30; 22. 27) is sarily imply hostility, as does the priming his son for this shadowy English derivative. evidence.' 38-42. m an e n d i condicio, 33-35. quae consecuta est, 'the purpose of remaining.' disetc., 'which followed the day criptio, 'assignment.' tandem after the Nones, etc.,' i.e., the aliquando, as in I. 25. 1. connight of November 6. This man- fitetur: see on ~ 51. 15. officioner of expressing the date is not sam provinciam, 'serviceable elsewhere found. Nonarum: for function:' forprovinciam cf. Mur. the Roman calendar see on I. 6.8; 41. 7. prima luce, etc.: cf. I. for case of nonarum cf. gen. with 10. 28 f. such words aspridie and postridie, A. 223 e; G. 371 Rem. 4; H. 398 ~ 53. 2-7. On the proper nouns 5; B. 201 3 a. What other case see p. 32, ~ 54. regionibus, quo, is used with pridie? see on I. as in IV. 21. 25.

Page  324 324 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. agro Camerti, Piceno, Gallico, quas in oras maxime 10 quasi morbus quidam illius furoris pervaserat? Nihil vero minus. Fuit enim, ut iam ante dixi, Neapoli, fuit in ea parte Italiae, quae maxime ista suspicione caruit. 54 Quid ergo indicat aut quid adfert aut ipse Cornelius aut vos, qui haec ab illo mandata defertis? Gladia15 tores emptos esse Fausti simulatione ad caedem ac tumultum. Ita prorsus; interpositi sunt gladiatores, quos testamento patris deberi videmus. 'Adrepta est familia, quae si esset praetermissa, posset alia familia Fausti munus praebere.' Utinam quidem haec ipsa 9. Camerti, 'of Camerinum,' an old town in Umbria: see on II. 6. 17-19. Piceno, Gallico: see on II. 5. 2. 10-12. quasi quidam: these words, together and separately, are used to modify metaphors and to soften or excuse expressions which might seem strange or inaccurate. For quasi alone cf. ~ 1. 13; for quidam alone, ~ 35. 20. ista suspicione: cf. ~ 12. 26, and see on ~ 11.11. caruit: see ~ 17. 43. Yet the neighboring city of Capua was certainly within the scope of Catilina's operations, and was al important headquarters for gladiators: see on II. 9. 2. ~ 64. First charge based upon the assertions of Cornelius; refuted by altercatio: cf. ~ 48. 15, 16. Pausti simulatione, 'on a pretext furnished by Faustus.' He was the minor son of the dictator Sulla, and had been required by his father's will to give funeral games in his honor. Fa'ustus was at this time in Asia with Pompeius. Ita prorsus: see on ~ 3. 41. interpositi sunt, 'are made a pretext,' i.e., for this charge against Sulla. 17, 18. deberi, 'are due:' sc. populo. The exhibitions of gladiators under the republic were unofficial; that is, the government did not provide them, and the magistrates were not required to furnish them. 'They were avowedly funeral games, the death of some relative of the exhibitor furnishing the pretext for giving them. The custom was derived from Etruria (for another see on III. 9.17), and grew out of the idea that the shedding of blood gave satisfaction to the dead. Adrepta est familia, 'a company was hurriedly engaged.' Familia is the technical word for a gang of gladiators, trained under the same lanista: see on ~ 15. 18. quae si, 'although if it,' i.e., there was no need of the haste shown. 19. munus: strictly speaking exhibitions of gladiators and no others were called munera (lit. 'largesses'); for other games see

Page  325 CAP. 19, ~ 53-55. 325 non modo iniquorum invidiae, sed aequorum exspecta- 20 tioni satis facere posset! ' Properatum vehementer est, cum longe tempus muneris abesset.' Quasi vero tempus dandi muneris non valde appropinquaret. 'Nec opinante Fausto, cum is neque sciret neque vellet, familia est comparata.' At litterae sunt Fausti, per quas ille 55 precibus a P. Sulla petit, ut emat gladiatores, et ut hos 26 ipsos emat, neque solum ad Sullam missae, sed ad L. Caesarem, Q. Pompeium, C. Memmium, quorum de sententia tota res gesta est. 'At praefuit familiae.' Iam si in paranda familia nulla suspicio est, quis prae- 30 fuerit, nihil ad rem pertinet; sed tamen munere Servili obtulit se ad ferramenta prospicienda, praefuit vero numquam, eaque res omni tempore per Bellum, Fausti libertum, administrata est. on Mur. 38. 3. Utinam, etc. Cicero insinuates that the gang was too small to satisfy public expectation, and of course too small for an insurrection. 20-23. non modo.. sed, ' I do not say... but merely:' see on II. 8. 28, and give the formula. Properatum... cum, 'eager haste was shown, although.' tempus muneris: a time within which the games had to be given was probably set in the will. 'Nec opinante,' usually written as one word. Nec is here an adv. (= non), not a conj. (= et non): see the note on Mur. 3. 14, 15. ~ 55. 26-28. precibus, abl. of manner, and should therefore be accompanied by what? L. Caesarem: see on IV. 13. 41. Q. Pompeium (Rufulm), the son of Faustus' sister Cornelia. C. Memmium, the husband of Faustus' twin-sister Fausta, who afterwards was divorced and married Milo. 31. sed tamen: cf. ~ 44. 21. munere Servili, 'at the games of Servilius;' for the case cf. gladiatoribus, Mur. 67. 11. The gang having proved too small (~ 54. 20) for the funeral games of so great a man as the dictator Sulla, it was hired or loaned for a like purpose to a certain Servilius, of whom we know nothing. 32. obtulit se ad, 'he (merely) offered his services for.' ferramenta, ' tools,' a euphemism for 'weapons,' as in III. 10. 10. 33. omni tempore: see on ~ 17. 44.

Page  326 326 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. 56 xx. At enim Sittius est ab hoc in ulteriorem Hispaniam missus, ut eam provinciam perturbaret. Primum Sittius, iudices, L. Iulio C. Figulo consulibus profectus est aliquanto ante furorem Catilinae et suspicionem 5 huius coniurationis; deinde est profectus non tur primum, sed cum in isdem locis aliquanto ante eadem de causa aliquot annos fuisset, ac profectus est non modo ob causam, sed etiam ob necessariam causam, magna ratione cum Mauritaniae rege contracta. Tur o1 autem, illo profecto, Sulla procurante eius rem et gerente plurimis et pulcherrimis P. Sitti praediis venditis aes alienum eiusdem est dissolutum, ut, quae causa ceteros ad facinus impulit, cupiditas retinendae possessionis, ea Sittio non fuerit praediis deminutis. 57 lam vero illud quam incredibile, quam absurdum, qui 16 Romae caedem facere, qui hanc urbem inflammare vellet, eum familiarissimum suum dimittere ab se et ~ 56. Second charge based on the statements of Cornelius: cf. ~ 54. 1-3. At enim, ' But (that is not all) for: ' for at enim, cf. at ~ 51. 12, and see on Mur. 35. 1; for ellipse with enim cf. ~ 40. 4. Sittius. P. Sittius was a Roman knight from Nuceria in Campania. Deeply in debt, he may have favored the designs of Catilina for a time, but he suddenly quitted Rome, paid his debts, and went to Spain, where he had business interests. He did nothing in Spain to show his connection with the plot. He took Caesar's side in the civil war, and was himself assassinated soon after Caesar. Hispaniam. Spain had been included in the plans of the conspirators: see p. 23, ~ 31, and on IV. 6. 27-29. L. Iulio (Caesare) C. (Marcio) Pigulo: for the former cf. ~ 55. 28, and for the combination of nomen and cognomen cf. ~ 11. 2. 5-13. huius, as hac in ~ 14. 3. magna ratione: sc. pecuniaria, 'important business transactions.' procurante, ' while Sulla was his agent and managed the business.' The procurator was originally the representative at Rome of a citizen absent from Italy, and afterwards any one who was authorized by another to act for him, causa: for the thought cf. II. 18. 12-14. ~ 15-17. Iam vero, 'And finally:' cf. ~ 38. 27. incredibile: sc. est; see on ~ 16. 31. familiarissimum: cf. ~ 49. 19.

Page  327 CAP. 20, ~ 56-58. 327 amandare in ultimas terras! Utrum quo facilius Romae ea, quae conabatur, efficeret, si in Hispania turbatum esset? At haec ipsa per se sine ulla coniunctione age- 20 bantur. An in tantis rebus, tam novis consiliis, tam periculosis, tam turbulentis hominem amantissimum sui, familiarissimum, coniunctissimum officiis, consuetudine, usu dimittendum esse arbitrabatur? Veri simile non est, ut, quem in secundis rebus, quem in otio semper 25 secum habuisset, hunc in adversis et in eo tumultu, quem ipse comparabat, ab se dimitteret. Ipse autem 58 Sittius (non enim mihi deserenda est causa amici veteris atque hospitis) is homo est aut ea familia ac disciplina, ut hoc credi possit, eum bellum populo Romano 30 facere voluisse? ut, cuius pater, cum ceteri deficerent finitimi ac vicini, singulari extiterit in rem publicam nostram officio et fide, is sibi nefarium bellum contra patriam suscipiendum putaret? cuius aes alienum videmus, iudices, non libidine, sed negotii gerendi 35 studio esse contractum, qui ita Romae debuit, ut in -- 18. Utrum: sc. eum amandabat; the clause with an follows, 1. 21, being interrupted by the answer (At.. agebantur) to the first clause. 20-25. haec, 'affairs here' at Rome. ipsa per se, 'by themselves,' in predicate, and not to be connected with haec: cf. ipse, ~ 30. 12. sine ulla coniunctione, ' without any connection' with matters there. The conspiracy was crushed too soon, but Cicero does not say so. Veri simile non est, ut: this construction occurs only when the main clause is negative: A. 332 f; G. 559; H. 501 I. 2; B. 295 6. ~ 58. 27-31. Ipse autem Sittius. Having argued that Sulla was not likely to have employed Sittius in treasonable designs, he now shows that Sittius was not the man to be thus employed. enim: supply the ellipse. hoc credi: see on ~ 22. 20. cum deficerent, in the Italian or Social war: see refs. on ~ 24. 10. 35, 36. libidine, ' reckless living:' see on ~ 16.31. negotii... studio, 'speculation.' ita... ut, restrictive: select appropriate correlative from notes on ~~ 42. 1; 31. 23; IV. 15. 22. debuit, was in debt.'

Page  328 328 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. provinciis et in regnis ei maximae pecuniae deberentur; quas cum peteret, non commisit, ut sui procuratores quicquam oneris absente se sustinerent; venire omnes 40 suas possessiones et patrimonio se ornatissimo spoliari maluit quam ullam moram cuiquam fieri creditorum 59 suorum. A quo quidem genere, iudices, ego numquam timui, cum in illa rei publicae tempestate versarer. Illud erat hominum genus horribile et pertimescendum, 45 qui tanto amore suas possessiones amplexi tenebant, ut ab iis membra citius divelli ac distrahi posse diceres. Sittius numquam sibi cognationem cum praediis esse existimavit suis. Itaque se non modo ex suspicione tanti sceleris, verum etiam ex omni hominum sermone 50 non armis, sed patrimonio suo vindicavit. 60 xxr. Iam vero quod obiecit Pompeianos esse a Sulla 38,39. cum... peteret, 'while he was collecting them.' procuratores: see on ~ 56. 10; such attorneys were liable for the debts of their principals. quicquam oneris: see on quod praemii, ~ 51. 14. The construction is necessary here because quisquam has no adj. form to agree with onus as quis, etc., have. venire, from veneo not venio. 40,41. se spoliari maluit: for this use of the reflexive cf. ~ 32. 4 and I. 4. 17. When the subject of the infinitive depending upon volo, cupio, etc., is the same as that of volo, cupio, etc., it is generally omitted, but may be expressed for the sake of a little additional emphasis. ~ 59. 42. genere sc. hominum, a word more often omitted than expressed by Cicero with genus; cf., however, 1. 44. 44-47. Illud erat, etc.: on the thought cf. II.~ 18; illud = 'the following' is common: see on III. 13. 48. sibi cognationem cum, 'that he was connected by ties of blood with.' ~ 60. 1. quod obiecit: for the clause see on I. 3. 24. Pompeianos, 'citizens of Pompeii,' the famous city of Campania. Its people had been deprived of their lands and political rights by the dictator Sulla (see on II. 20. 22), and a colony of his veterans had been planted there. The defendant Sulla had been one of the three commissioners under whose oversight the colonists were settled, and was one of their patroni (see on IV. 23. 4). The Pompeiani and colonists were naturally on bad terms, and Sulla was accused of fomenting the discord.

Page  329 CAP. 20-21, ~ 58-61. 329 impulsos, ut ad istam coniurationem atque ad hoc nefarium facinus accederent, id cuius modi sit, intellegere non possum. An tibi Pompeiani coniurasse videntur? Quis hoc dixit umquam, aut quae fuit 5 istius rei vel minima suspicio? 'Diiunxit,' inquit, 'eos a colonis, ut hoc discidio ac dissensione facta oppidum in sua potestate posset per Pompeianos habere.' Primum omnis Pompeianorum colonorumque dissensio delata ad patronos est, cum iam inveterasset 10 ac multos annos esset agitata; deinde ita a patronis res cognita est, ut nulla in re a ceterorum sententiis Sulla dissenserit; postremo coloni ipsi sic intellegunt, non Pompeianos a Sulla magis quam sese esse defensos. Atque hoc, iudices, ex hac frequentia colo- 61 norum, honestissimorum hominum, intellegere potestis, 16 qui adsunt, laborant, hunc patronum, defensorem, custodem illius coloniae si in omni fortuna atque omni honore incolurnem habere non potuerunt, in hoc tamen casu, quo afflictus iacet, per vos iuvari con- 20 servarique cupiunt. Adsunt pari studio Pompeiani, qui ab istis etiam in crimen vocantur; qui ita de.. 2-13. ad... accederent, 'take part in.' id cuius modi sit, 'what this means:' for case of modi cf. III. 25. 23. Explain mood of sit. An, 'or is it that.' inquit: see on ~ 48. 5. Primum: there is a slight ellipse, e.g., hoc respondeo. inveterasset, 'had become an old story.' sic intellegunt, 'are convinced of this, that:' for sic see on III. 21. 5. ~ 61. 17-19. adsunt, laborant, cupiunt (1. 21): cf. ~ 4. 15, and see Exc. II. ~ 14; notice the asyndeton. patronum, etc., subj. of the infin. in 1. 20. incolu mem, 'unblemished,' in its political sense denoting that the person to whom it is applied is enjoying all the rights and privileges of his rank. Even if Sulla is not guilty of conspiracy, lie has lost by conviction for bribery the consulship, the right to hold office, the right to appear in the senate, the insignia of a senator (the purple border on the toga and the peculiar shoe), and the ius imaginum. 20-22. i u v a ri... cupiunt: regular or irregular construction? See on ~ 58. 40. ita... ut, restrictive.

Page  330 330 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. ambulatione ac de suffragiis suis cum colonis dissen62 serunt, ut idem de communi salute sentirent. Ac ne 25 haec quidem P. Sullae mihi videtur silentio praetereunda esse virtus, quod, cum ab hoc illa colonia deducta sit, et cum commoda colonorum a fortunis Pompeianorum rei publicae fortuna diiunxerit, ita carus utrisque est atque iucundus, ut non alteros demovisse, sed 30 utrosque constituisse videatur. xxii. At enim et gladiatores et omnis ista vis rogationis Caeciliae causa comparabatur. Atque hoc loco 23. ambulatione, 'promenade.' There was probably a public walk, the exclusive right to which was claimed by both the Pompeiani and colonists. suffragiis: the Pompeiani claimed the right now to vote for the municipal officers which had been denied them during Sulla's lifetime. cum colonis dissenserunt, 'quarrelled with:' for construction see on II. 18. 26. ~ 62. 25. silentio: for case cf. precibus, ~ 55. 26 and A. 248 Rem.; G. 401 Remi.; H. 419 III. Note 2; B. 220 2. 27-30. et cum... diiunxerit, 'and although the fortune of politics has separated the interests of the colonists from the fortunes of the Pompeiani.' Owing to his change of politics (p. 19, ~ 18 ad fin. and ~ 42), Cicero has to speak in guarded language of Sulla's political acts. utrisque, alteros, 'both parties,' ' the one party.' The plural of uterque is used properly of groups, or classes, only. By alteros the Pompeiani are meant. demovisse: sc. ex agris. constituisse: sc. in agris; for this sense cf. (II. 20. 22 and) Caes. I. 13. 3: ibi... constituisset. 1, 2. At enim, as in ~ 56. 1. ista vis,' the violence you talk of;' for this sense of ista cf. Mur. 20. 15. rogationis Caeciliae, 'the bill of Caecilius.' A rogatio is a proposed law, becoming a lex only when enacted by the proper authority (p. 59, ~ 29). Caecilius, tlhe half-brother of Sulla, became tribune Dec. 10th, 64, and proposed a bill for the relief of Autronius and Sulla, providing that the new and severe provisions of the Calpurnian law should be suspended in their favor, and that they should suffer the penalties of the earlier laws only (see on Mur. 46. 2). So determined was the opposition, however, that the bill was withdrawn at the in$sance of Sulla himself. Notice that bills are named as laws are: see on IV. 10. 21. comparabatur: for number see on ~ 19. 23. hoc loco = hic, ~ 50. 6.

Page  331 CAP. 21-22, ~ 61-63. 331 in L. Caecilium, pudentissimum atque ornatissimum virum, vehementer invectus est. Cuius ego de virtute et constantia, indices, tantum dico, talem hunc in ista 5 rogatione, quam promulgarat non de tollenda, sed de levanda calamitate fratris sui, fuisse, ut consulere voluerit fratri, cum re publica pugnare noluerit; promulgarit inpulsus amore fraterno, destiterit fratris auctoritate deductus. Atque in ea re per L. Caeci-63 lum Sulla accusatur, in qua re est uterque laudandus, 11 primnum Caecilius, qui si id promulgavit, in quo res iudicatas videatur voluisse rescindere, ut restitueretur Sulla, recte reprehendis; status enim rei publicae maxime iudicatis rebus continetur; neque ego tantum fra- 15 terno amori dandum arbitror, ut quisquam, dum saluti suorum consulat, communem relinquat. At nihil de iudicio ferebat, sed poenam ambitus earn referebat, quae fuerat nuper superioribus legibus constituta. Itaque hac rogatione non iudicum sententia, sed legis 20 vitium corrigebatur. Nemo iudicium reprehendit, cum 5-8. tantum, as in ~ 43. 14. hunc implies that Caecilius was present in court: cf. ~ 20. 31. promulgarat, 'had published:' the bill had to be published at least seventeen days before it could be proposed for passage. consulere fratri: for construction and meaning see on IV. 3. 1. cum re publica, as in ~ 61. 23; notice the adversative asyndeton, so in 1. 9. ~ 63. 11-13. uterque, singular only of individuals: cf. ~ 62. 28. primum,' in The first place:' there is a slight anacoluthon, as the deinde Sulla which ought to follow does not appear. Caecilius: sc. laudandus est. qui si id: for quern si is id, a not uncommon attraction; cf. Mur. 70. 9; II. 19. 17; 5. 7. res iudicatas, 'the decisions of the courts.' 14-21. status... continetur, ' the perpetuity... depends upon:' case of rebus? dandum: for meaning cf. ~ 22. 20. iudicio, 'the trial.' referebat, 'tried to reintroduce: both imperfects are conative. fuerat constituta: for the auxiliary cf. III. 25. 34 and see on I. 16. 10. nuper, i.e., before the Calpurnian law, about five years before this speech was delivered, three before Sulla's conviction. corrigebatur, trans. as suggested on pariebatur ~ 49. 25.

Page  332 332 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. de poena queritur, sed legem. Damnatio est enim iudicum, quae manebat, poena legis, quae levabatur. 64Noli igitur animos eorum ordinum, qui praesunt 25 iudiciis summa cum gravitate et dignitate, alienare a causa. Nemo labefactare iudicium est conatus, nihil est eius modi promulgatum, semper Caecilius in calamitate fratris sui iudicum potestatem perpetuandam, legis acerbitatem mitigandam putavit. xxiII. Sed quid ego de hoc plura disputem? Dicerem fortasse, et facile et libenter dicerem, si paulo etiam longius, quam finis cotidiani officii postulat, L. Caecilium pietas et fraternus amor propulisset, implorarem 5 sensus vestros, unius cuiusque indulgentiam in suos testarer, peterem veniam errato L. Caecili ex intimis vestris cogitationibus atque ex humanitate communi. 65 Lex dies fuit proposita paucos, ferri coepta numquam, deposita est in senatu. Kalendis Ianuariis cum in 10 Capitolium nos senatum convocassemus, nihil est ~ 64. 24-27. Noli... alienare: see on ~ 47. 21. ordinum, from which the jurors are selected, Exc. II. ~ 6. labefactare: for form see on II. 16. 27. eius modi: for case cf. ~ 60. 3. 1. hdc, masc. gend. disputem: explain the mood. ~ 65. 8, 9. fuit proposita: cf. ~ 63. 19. ferri coepta numquam, 'it never began to be put through;' the phrase ferre legem, 'to get a law passed,' is used of the proposer. For the passive coepta (est) see A. 143 a; G. 424 Rein. 1; H. 297 1; P. 249 (3) a. deposita est, 'laid aside.' Kalendis Ianuariis 63, the first day of Cicero' s consulship. 10. in Capitolium: see on IV. 18. 10. The ceremonies of inauguration were very simple. The consuls, preceded by their lictors and accompanied by priests and people, marched in solemn procession to the Capitoline hill, where white steers were sacrificed, and prayers offered for the Roman people. The senate was then called into the temple of Jupiter, and the first business transacted always related to public religious rites. After such other business as was introduced had been finished, the procession was reformed and proceeded to the forum. nihil, i.e., of ordinary business; religious business always took precedence.

Page  333 CAP. 22-23, ~ 63-66. 333 actum prius, et id mandatu Sullae Q. Metellus praetor se loqui dixit, Sullam illam rogationem de se nolle ferri. Ex illo tempore L. Caecilius egit de re publica multa; agrariae legi, quae tota a me reprehensa et abiecta est, se intercessorem fore professus est, im- 15 probis largitionibus restitit, senatus auctoritatem numquam impedivit, ita se gessit in tribunatu, ut onere deposito domestici officii nihil postea nisi de rei publicae commodis cogitarit. Atque in ipsa rogatione 66 ne per vim quid ageretur, quis tur nostrum Sullam 20 aut Caecilium verebatur? nonne omnis ille terr6r, omnis seditionis timor atque opinio ex Autroni improbitate pendebat? Eius voces, eius minae ferebantur, eius aspectus, concursatio, stipatio, greges hominum perditorum metum nobis seditionesque adferebant. 2f Itaque P. Sulla hoc importunissimo cum honoris, tur etiam calamitatis socio atque comite et secundas for 11. mandatu Sullae: see on ~ 62. 1 ad fin. Q Metellus (Celer): seep. 28, ~ 42; p. 29, ~ 47. 14-18. agrariae legi, proposed by the tribune P. Servilius Rullus, and providing that all public lands should be distributed among the people, and that more land should be bought by the treasury for the same purpose. Cicero delivered three speeches against the bill, of which we have one, and fragments of the others. legi, governed by the phrase intercessorem fore, A. 226.a; G. 355, Rem.; H. 3921; B. 191 1. improbis largitionibus, 'unprincipled grants,' explained above, nihil nisi de, as in I. 17. 26, a different construction in 1II. 10. 15. ~ 66. 19-23. in ipsa rogatione, 'at the time of proposing the bill,' a time that never arrived. Sullam aut Caecilium: these words, should strictly be in the subordinate clause (a Sulla aut Caecilio), but are attracted into the main clause, an attraction especially frequent with verbs of 'fearing' and ' knowing.' ferebantur, as in I. 26. 14. 24-27. stipatio, 'his following,' explained by the next three words. adferebant: why not singular, like comparabatur, ~ 62. 2? hoc socio, abl. abs. not agent. honoris, the consulship to whlich they had been elected. calamitatis, loss of the consulship on account of bribery. secundas fortunas, 'good fortune,' more common in sing. than plural.

Page  334 334 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. tunas amittere coactus est et in adversis sine ullo remedio atque adlevamento permanere. 67 xxrv. Hic tu epistulam meam saepe recitas, quam ego ad Cn. Pompeium de meis rebus gestis et de summa re publica misi, et ex ea crimen aliquod in P. Sullam quaeris et, si furorem incredibilem biennio ante con5 ceptum erupisse in meo consulatu scripsi, me hoc demonstrasse dicis, Sullam in illa fuisse superiore coniuratione. Scilicet ego is sum, qui existimem Cn. Pisonem et Catilinam et Vargunteium et Autronium nihil scelerate, nihil audacter ipsos per sese sine P. 68 Sulla facere potuisse. De quo etiamsi quis dubitasset 11 antea, an id, quod tu arguis, cogitasset, interfecto patre tuo consul descendere Kalendis Ianuariis cum lictoribus, sustulisti hanc suspicionem, cum dixisti hunc, ut Catilinam consulem efficeret, contra patrem 15 tuum operas et manum comparasse. Quod si tibi ego confitear, tu mihi concedas necesse est hunc, cum Catilinae suffragaretur, nihil de suo consulatu, quem iu ~67. 1. epistulam meam. Soon after the execution of Lentulus, Cicero had written to Ponmpeius a letter' de rebus suis in consulatu gestis,' the tone of which may be conjectured from III. ~ 26 f; IV. ~~ 20-22. The letter is no longer extant, but from Cicero's words here it is evident that Sulla's name was not mentioned, though there were allusions to him. 4-9. si: for meaning here see on III. 1. 8. erupisse in meo consulatu: for the thought read I. 31.1-5, and Mur. 81. 7-10; both passages give a different construction for erumpere, and the latter gives more accurately the time spent in maturing the plot. ipsos per sese: cf. ~ 57. 20. ~ 68. 11-16. an, used for num in ndirect questions with dubito, haud scio, and nescio. patre tuo: p. 23, ~ 30 ad fin. consul descendere: as the inf. is complementary, the noun (consul) takes the case of the subject of the main verb (cogitasset). descendere: sc. in forum, i.e., Sulla, not Torquatus, would complete the ceremonies of inauguration: see on ~ 65. 10 ad fin. operas, ' hirelings,' in plural only. Quod si: for case of quod cf. II. 12. 2. concedas necesse est: for omission of ut cf. ~ 46. 18; IV. 13. 58; Mur. 59.26; II. 512.

Page  335 CAP. 23-25, ~ 66-70. 335 dicio amiserat, per vim recuperando cogitavisse. Neque enim istorum facinorum tantorum, tam atrocium crimen, indices, P. Sullae persona suscipit. 20 Iam enim faciam criminibus omnibus fere disso- 69 lutis, contra atque in ceteris causis fieri solet, ut nunc denique de vita hominis ac de moribus dicam. Etenim de principio studuit animus occurrere magnitudini criminis, satis facere expectationi hominum, de 25 me aliquid ipso, qui accusatus cram, dicere; nunc iam revocandi estis eo, quo vos ipsa causa etiam tacente me cogit animos mentesque convertere. xxv. Omnibus in rebus, iudices, quae graviores maioresque sunt, quid quisque voluerit, cogitarit, admiserit, non ex crimine, sed ex moribus eius, qui arguitur, est ponderandum. Neque enim potest quisquam nostrum subito fingi 5 neque cuiusquam repente vita mutari aut natura converti. Circumspicite paulisper mentibus vestris, ut 70 alia mittamus, hosce ipsos homines, qui huic adfines sceleri fuerunt. Catilina contra rem publicam con 20. persona: see on ~ 8. 7. suscipit, 'does not admit, justify.' ~ 69. Transition to the last part of the speech (~~ 69-88), the socalled probabile ex vita or argument from the character of the accused. All the Roman writers on rhetoric agree that this argument should come early in the speech (Quint. vii. 2. 27: nam is ordo est an facere voluerit, poterit, fecerit), and Cicero departs here from the rule only because, in this case of Sulla, the probabile ex vita gave the best opportunity for oratorical display. 21-28. faciam ut... dicam = dicam (fut. indic.) alone: see on III. 7. 16. contra atque: see on III. 20. 30. me aliquid ipso: for the collocation cf. ~ 15. 20. animos mentesque, constantly combined in Latin: cf. I. 27. 4; properly mens is intellect, animus intellect and feeling. 'Soul and mind, heart and soul,' etc., will translate them quite adequately. 2-5. graviores, maiores, 'of more than usual moment and importance.' Neque enim potest, a profound thought that is expressed elsewhere by Cicero. ~ 70. 8, 9. adfines sceleri: for dative cf. IV. 6. 24; for a different case ~ 17. 45.

Page  336 336 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. 10 iuravit. Cuius aures umquam haec respuerunt, conatum esse audacter hominem a pueritia non solum intemperantia et scelere, sed etiam consuetudine et studio in omni flagitio, stupro, caede versatum? Quis eum contra patriam pugnantem perisse miratur, quem 15 semper omnes ad civile latrocinium natum putaverunt? Quis Lentuli societates cum indicibus, quis insaniam libidinum, quis perversam atque impiam religionem recordatur, qui ilium aut nefarie cogitasse aut stulte sperasse miretur? Quis de C. Cethego atque eius in 20 Hispaniam profectione ac de vulnere Q. Metelli Pii cogitat, cui non ad illius poenam career aedificatus 71 esse videatur? Omitto ceteros, ne sit infinitum; tantum a vobis peto, ut taciti de omnibus, quos coniurasse cognitum est, cogitetis; intellegetis unum 25 quemque eorum prius ab sua vita quam vestra suspicione esse damnatum. Ipsum ilium Autronium, quoniam eius nomen finitimum maxime est huius periculo et crimini, non sua vita ac natura convicit? Semper audax, petulans, libidinosus; quem in stupro30 rum defensionibus non solum verbis uti improbissimis 10, 11. conatum esse, etc., 'that a desperate attempt was made by a man who from his youth had engaged, on account of moral instability and criminality, as well as from force of habit and deliberate purpose, in all sorts of scandalous, lewd, and murderous acts.' 16-22. indicibus: see on Mur. 49. 11. ins ani a m libidinum, ' mad caprices: ' for the two nouns cf. ~~ 21. 15;14. 11; 4. 13 and 7. religionem, ' superstition.' Q. Metelli Pi commanded against Sertorius in Spain, 79-71: see Allen, p. 193; Creighton, p. 69, 70; Myers, p. 93; Pennell, p. 116. Nothing is known of this journey and a t t e m pt e d assassination. carcer: see on II. 22. 18. esse videatur: see on ~ 3. 41. ~ 71.24-30. intellegetis: notice that the request peto ut... cogitetis = a mild imperative (cogitate), and cf. ~ 5. 25. ab sua vita: for the prep. see on I. 25. 8. defensionibus, 'speeches delivered in defence of licentious acts.' In Cicero the word defensio always

Page  337 CAP. 25-26, ~ 70-72. 337 solitum esse scimus, verum etiam pugnis et calcibus, quem exturbare homines ex possessionibus, caedem facere vicinorum, spoliare fana sociorum, vi et armis disturbare iudicia, in bonis rebus omnis contemnere, in malis pugnare contra bonos, non rei publicae cedere, 35 non fortunae ipsi succumbere. Huius si causa non manifestissimis rebus teneretur, tamen eum mores ipsius ac vita convinceret. xxvI. Agedum, conferte nunc cum illius vita P. 72 Sullae vobis populoque Romano notissimam, iudices, et earn ante oculos vestros proponite. Ecquod est huius factum aut commissum non dicam audacius, sed quod cuiquam paulo minus consideratum videretur? Factum 5 quaero; verbum ecquod umquam ex ore huius excidit, in quo quisquam posset offendi? At vero in illa gravi means a speech delivered in court, and we must infer from this passage that Autronius was accustomed to appear in court for clients of infamous lives. 31-37. pugnis et calcibus, a proverbial expression for violent actions, here referring to the extravagant gestures with which lis 'unprincipled language' was accompanied, or to sodne assault upon opposing witnesses. c a e d e m *.. sociorum: nothing more is known of these acts. disturbare iudicia: cf. ~ 15. 17-20: for the plural see on I. 4. 5; 3. 24. teneretur, etc.: 'if the case against hil were not proved by the most potent facts.' eum repeats huius above: see on IV. 12. 24; Mur. 78.2. 38. convinceret: explain the number. ~72. 1-4. Agedum, 'come now,' ' well then,' the anticipatory imperative, used in the singular without regard to the number addressed to call attention to what follows, and itself usually followed by an imperative or equivalent subjunctive. Dum was originally the accusative of a noun dius ( = dies), and probably meant'for a time.' In early Latin it was attached as an enclitic to many words, but in Cicero it is found only with age with the force of our unemphatic 'now,' 'then.' cum illius vita: shortened for cum illius vita vitam, as notissimam sufficiently indicates. fact u m aut commissum, 'act or undertaking.' audacius, 'too bold:' cf. IV. 12. 39; III. 4. 13; II. 9. 3. 5-1. Factum q u a e r o: for rhet. figure see on ~ 51. 22.

Page  338 338 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. L. Sullae turbulentaque victoria quis P. Sulla mitior, quis misericordior inventus est? Quam multorum hic o0 vitam est a L. Sulla deprecatus! quam multi sunt summi homines et ornatissimi et nostri et equestris ordinis, quorum pro salute se hie Sullae obligavit! Quos ego nominarem (neque enim ipsi nolunt et huic animo gratissimo adsunt); sed, quia maius est benefi15 cium, quam posse debet civis civi dare, ideo a vobis peto, ut, quod potuit, tempori tribuatis, quod fecit, ipsi. 73 Quid reliquam constantiam vitae commemorem, dignitatem, liberalitatem, moderationem in privatis rebus, splendorem in publicis? quae ita deformata sunt a 20 fortuna, ut tamen a natura inchoata conpareant. Quae domus celebratio cotidiana, quae familiarium dignitas, quae studia amicorum, quae ex quoque ordine multitudo! Haec diu multumque et multo labore quaesita una eripuit hora. Accepit P. Sulla, iudices, yulnus 25 vehemens et mortiferum, verum tamen eius modi, quod videretur huius vita et natura accipere potuisse. Hones 8-12. L. Sullae victoria: see on III. ~ 24; for the mild expression see on ~ 62. 27. se obligavit, i.e., made himself formally responsible to the dictator for their good behavior. 15,16. quam posse... dare, because in a republic no man's life ought to be at the mercy of another. ideo... ipsi, 'on that account I beg you to ascribe his power (quod potuit) to the times, his acts (quod fecit) to himself.' ~ 73. 19-21. quae: for gender see on II. 19. 15. ita... ut tamen: cf. ~~ 58. 36; 42. 1. deformata, 'marred.' a fortuna. a natura: cf. ~ 71. 25. conpareant, 'may be seen.' Quae domus, etc., 'what a crowd at his house each day!' The reference is to the morning receptions of Roman nobles, at one of which Cicero was to be assassinated. 25, 26, quod... potuisse, 'that his life and character, it seemed, might admit of it.' He means that bribery was so general that no man, however scrupulous in other respects, was above suspicion of it: he has already said (~ 68. 19) that Sulla was above suspicion in the matter of such crimes as the conspiracy contemplated.

Page  339 CAP. 26-27, ~ 72-75. 339 tatis enim et dignitatis habuisse nimis magnam iudicatus est cupiditatem; quam si nemo alius habuit in consulatu petendo, cupidior iudicatus est hic fuisse quam ceteri; sin etiam in aliis non nullis fuit iste consulatus amor, 30 fortuna in hoc fuit fortasse gravior quam in ceteris. Postea vero quis P. Sullam nisi maerentem, demissum 74 afflictumque vidit, quis umquam est suspicatus hunc magis odio quam pudore hominum aspectum lucemque vitare? Qui cum multa haberet invitamenta urbis et 35 fori propter summa studia amicorum, quae tamen ei sola in malis restiterunt, afuit ab oculis vestris et, cum lege retineretur, ipse se exilio paene multavit. xxvii. In hoc vos pudore, iudices, et in hac vita tanto sceleri locum fuisse creditis? Aspicite ipsum, contuemini os, conferte crimen cum vita, vitam ab initio usque ad hoc tempus explicatam cum crimine recog- 4 noscite. Mitto rem publicam, quae fuit semper Sullae 75 carissima; hosne amicos, tales viros, tam cupidos sui, per quos res eius secundae quondam erant ornatae, nunc sublevantur adversae, crudelissime perire voluit, ut cum Lentulo et Catilina et Cethego foedissimam vitam ac miserrimam turpissima morte proposita degeret? Non, 10 inquam, cadit in hos mores, non in hunc pudorem, non 27-31. habuisse iudicatus 1-5. In hoc pudore,'in an honest: is this an illustration of, or ex- orable character like this.' conception to, the rule given on I. 15. ferte... recognoscite: notice 32? in ceteris, e.g., Murena. the chiastic arrangement, and ~ 74. 32-38. maerentem de- point out an instance in ~ 75. missum afflictumque: for -que 7, 8. see on II. 14. 4. invitamenta ~ 75. 5-11. Mitto rem publiurbis, 'many attractions in the cam, 'I put the public interests capital.' cum lege retineretur, out of sight:' for mitto (sc. di'although the law allowed him to cere) see on ~ 22. 26. Non, inremain:' see on ~ 17. 44. paene quam, etc., answers the question qualifies the whole expression ex- in ~ 74. 1, 2. cadit in, 'is consistilio multavit, 'I might almost say.' ent with.'

Page  340 340 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. in hanc vitam, non in hunc hominem ista suspicio.: Nova quaedam illa inmanitas exorta est, incredibilis fuit ac singularis furor, ex multis ab adulescentia 15 collectis perditorum hominum vitiis repente ista tanta 76 inportunitas inauditi sceleris exarsit. Nolite, iudices, arbitrari hominum ilium impetum et conatum fuisse (neque enim ulla gens tam barbara aut tam immanis umquam fuit, in qua non modo tot, sed unus tam 20 crudelis hostis patriae sit inventus), beluae quaedam illae ex portentis immanes ac ferae forma hominum indutae extiterunt. Perspicite etiam atque etiam, iudices, (nihil enim est, quod in hac causa dici possit vehementius) penitus introspicite Catilinae, Autroni, 25 Cethegi, Lentuli ceterorumque mentes; quas vos in his libidines, quae flagitia, quas turpitudines, quantas audacias, quam incredibiles furores, quas notas facinorum, quae indicia parricidiorum, quantos acervos scelerum reperietis Ex magnis et diuturnis et iam 30 desperatis rei publicae morbis ista repente vis erupit, ut ea confecta et eiecta convalescere aliquando et sanari 13-16. Nova quaedam illa, etc., 'That cruelty (i.e., the conspiracy) sprang up utterly unprecedented, it was, etc.' quaedam implies that nova is inadequate to the meaning: see on ~ 35. 20, and collect examples from ~ 53. 10; IV. 13. 50; 11. 11; 2. 19; Mur. 63. 29. ista tanta inportunitas, etc., 'the great abomination of this unparalleled villany,' or importunitas inauditi sceleris, may be taken = tam importunum atque inauditum scelus: cf. ~ 70. 16; 21. 15; 14. 11;4. 13 and 7. ~ 76. 19-26. non m o do... sed; cf. ~ 54. 20. beluae quae dam illae, 'like the monsters of fiction, if I may so speak, they (i.e., the conspirators) came forth, cruel, etc.' quaedam, as in ~ 75. 13 above; so in 1. 35 below. portentis means stories of fabulous monsters. vehementius, ' with greater emphasis.' penitus introspicite takes up perspicite afteP the parenthesis. turpitudines: what two ways of translating the plural of abstract nouns? 28-31. parricidiorum: for meaning see on ~ 6. 38. confecta, eiecta: the metaphor is from the digestion of food.

Page  341 CAP. 27-28, ~ 75-78. 341 civitas posset; neque enim est quisquam, qui arbitretur illis inclusis in re publica pestibus diutius haec stare potuisse. Itaque eos non ad perficiendum scelus, sed id luendas rei publicae poenas Furiae quaedam in- 35 citaverunt. xxviiI. In hunc igitur gregem vos nunc 77 P. Sullam, iudices, ex his, qui cum hoc vivunt aut vixerunt, honestissimorum hominum gregibus reicietis, ex hoc amicorum numero, ex hac familiarium dignitate in impiorum partem atque in parricidarum sedem atque 5 numerum transferetis? Ubi erit igitur illud firmissimum praesidium pudoris, quo in loco nobis vita ante acta proderit, quod ad tempus existimationis partae fructus reservabitur, si in extremo discrimine ac dimicatione fortunae deseret, si non aderit, si nihil adiu- 10 vabit? Quaestiones nobis servorum accusator et tormenta 78 minitatur. In quibus quamquam nihil periculi suspicamur, tamen illa tormenta gubernat dolor, moderatur 33-35. pestibus, 'that poison:' so in II. 2. 25; why plural here? haec, as in ~ 32. 3. Furiae, deities charged with the punishment of criminals and with the execution of the decrees of fate. They are often represented as driving men from crime to crime to the final catastrophe. ~ 77. 1-10. hunc, his, hoc: note the repetition with different words and different cases. hoc amicorum numero: for horum amicorum numero, an almost invariable attraction; cf. in eo numero for in eorum numero ~ 39. 46. parricidarum sedem, in the other world: cf. I. 33.37, 38. quo in loco, 'on what occasion:' locus is often used of time. nihil: what kind of an accusative? ~ 78. 12,13. Quaestiones servorum... tormenta, 'the examination of our slaves under torture,' a kind of hendiadys, though the word quaestio when used of slaves always implies torture, as their evidence was always taken upon the rack. In ordinary cases slaves could be examined only in behalf of their masters; for the exception here see on TITLE ad iudices. minitatur: in direct opposition to our custom the arguments of counsel preceded the taking of evidence. 14. gubernat, etc.: the verbs

Page  342 342 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. 15 natura cuiusque cum animi, tur corporis, regit quaesitor, flectit libido, corrumpit spes, infirmat metus, ut in tot rerum angustiis nihil veritati loci relinquatur. Vita P. Sullae torqueatur, ex ea quaeratur, nun quae occu7. tetur libido, num quod lateat facinus, num quae crude20 litas, num quae audacia. Nihil erroris erit in causa nec obscuritatis, iudices, si a vobis vitae perpetuae vox, ea quae verissima et gravissima debet esse, audietur. 79 Nullum in hac causa testem timemus, nihil quemquam scire, nihil vidisse, nihil audisse arbitramur. Sed 25 tamen, si nihil vos P. Sullae fortuna movet, iudices, vestra moveat. Vestra enim, qui cum summa elegantia atque integritate vixistis, hoc maxime interest, non ex libidine aut simultate aut levitate testium causas honestorum hominum ponderari, sed in magnis disqui30 sitionibus repentinisque periculis vitam unius cuiusque esse testem. Quam vos, iudices, nolite armis suis spoliatam atque nudatam obicere invidiae, dedere suspicioni; munite communem arcem bonorum, obstruite perfugia improborum; valeat et ad poenam et ad 35 salutem plurimum, quam solam videtis ipsam ex sua go in pairs: see on ~ 4. 6; the ~ 79. 23-32. nihil, nihil, nihil, metaphor in the first pair is from i.e., nothing compromising: for the steeringof ships, in the second the figure see on I. 1. 3, and nopair from the guiding of horses. tice the difference in construction. 15-22. cuiusque.. animi: si movet... moveat: for see on huius periculi, ~ 2. 20. moods see on IV. 2. 20-27. Vesquaesitor, the presiding officer tra, qui: see on I. 7. 22, and for of the court, not the torturer (tor- case of vestra cf. mea ~ 2. 23. eletor). libido,' caprice:' sc. quae- gantia, 'refinement.' nolite obisitoris. spes: sc. servi. facinus, cere: cf. ~ 76. 16, and notice the 'crime,' always in a bad sense following chiasmus. unless accompanied by a compli- 33-35. arcem bonorum, i.e., mentary adjective: it was origi- a good life. obstruite perfugia, nally a vox media. verissima: 'cut off the retreat.' valeat: sc. sc. est, from esse debet; cf. ~~ 10. vita with which quam agrees. 32; 1. 16. plurimum: for case cf. nihil 1. 25.

Page  343 CAP. 28-29, ~ 78-81. 343 natura facillime perspici, subito flecti fingique non posse. xxrx. Quid vero? haec auctoritas (semper enim est 80 de ea dicendum, quamquam a me timide modiceque dicetur), quid? inquam, haec auctoritas nostra, qui a ceteris coniurationis causis abstinuimus, P. Sullam defendimus, nihil hune tandem iuvabit? Grave est hoc 5 dictu fortasse, iudices, grave, si appetimus aliquid; si, cum ceteri de nobis silent, non etiam nosmet ipsi tacemus, grave; sed, si laedimur, si accusamur, si in invidiam vocamur, profecto conceditis, iudices, ut nobis libertatem retinere liceat, si minus liceat dignitatem. 10 Accusati sunt uno nomine consulares, ut iam videatur 81 honoris amplissimi nomen plus invidiae quam dignitatis adferre. 'Adfuerunt,' inquit, ' Catilinae illumque laudarunt.' Nulla turn patebat, nulla erat cognita coniuratio; defendebant amicum, aderant supplici, vitae eius 15 36. flecti fingique, as can, on the other hand, the evidence of slaves upon the rack. For the thought cf. ~ 69. 5, 6. Finally (~~ 80-87) Cicero throws the weight of his personal character into the scales for Sulla, declaring that he had found nothing against him while he was investigating the conspiracy. By way of transition to this important point lie answers (~~ 81, 82) the charges made by Torquatus against the consulares. ~ 80. 1-10. Quid vero: see on III. 22. 30. auctoritas, as in ~~ 10. 38; 2. 19. semper, 'at every turn,' i.e., in all cases growing out of the conspiracy. q u i d, repeating quid vero: cf. ~ 76. 24. ceteris: mentioned p. 40, ~ 71. abstinuimus, i.e., as defensor and laudator, in several cases lie had given testimony for the prosecution. grave est, 'would be offensive:' for mood see on I. 12. 26; the position of grave illustrates both anaphora and chiasmus. si appetimus aliquid, 'if we were suing for anything.' libertatem, 'freedom of speech.' si minus: see on I. 22. 6. ~ 81. 11-13. uno nomine, 'together:' see on Mur. 82.14. Adfuerunt Catilinae, in his trial in 65 for extortion (p. 24, ~ 33), and in 64 for murder, growing out of Sulla's proscription (p. 21, ~ 26). laudarunt: cf. Exc. II. ~ 14 ad fin.

Page  344 344 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. turpitudinem in summis eius periculis non insequebantur. Quin etiam parens tuus, Torquate, consul reo de pecuniis repetundis Catilinae fuit advocatus, improbo homini, at supplici, fortasse audaci, at aliquando amico. 20 Cui cum adfuit post delatam ad eum primam illam con, iurationem, indicavit se audisse aliquid, non credidisse. 'At idem non adfuit alio in iudicio, cum adessent ceteri.' Si postea cognorat ipse aliquid, quod in consulatu ignorasset, ignoscendum est iis, qui postea nihil 25 audierunt; sin illa res prima valuit, num inveterata quam recens debuit esse gravior? Sed si tuus parens etiam in ipsa suspicione periculi sui tamen humanitate adductus advocationem hominis improbissimi sella curuli atque ornamentis et suis et consulatus honesta, 30 vit, quid est, quam ob rem consulares, qui Catilinae 82adfuerunt, reprehendantur? 'At idem iis, qui ante hunc causam de coniuratione dixerunt, non adfuerunt.' Tanto scelere astrictis hominibus statuerunt nihil a se adiumenti, nihil opis, nihil auxilii ferri oportere. Atque 35 ut de eorum constantia atque animo in rem publicam dicam, quorum tacita gravitas et fides de uno quoque 19, 20. aliquando, 'formerly.' eum: for the demonstrative where we should expect the reflexive, cf. Caes. I. 5. 4; 6. 3; 11. 3; 14. 3, etc. primam: what adj. was used in ] 14. 2? 21-29. audisse non credidisse: for rhet. fig. cf. ~~ 52. 31; 38. 30; 22. 27. At idem: cf. Atque idem, ~ 20. 29. illa res prima aliquid, 1. 23. sella curuli: it is evident from this passage (see on ~ 5. 19) that the consuls went into court as laudatores with all their official insi gnia. et suis, as senator and patrician. ~ 82. 31-37. At idem, etc.: for the thought cf. ~ 6. Torquatus had charged the consulares with inconsistency, and in his reply Cicero dwells upon their constantia (1. 35; constantiores, 39; constantissime, 42). ii s = ceteris, ~ 80. 4. causam dixerunt, 'pleaded their cases,' 'were brought to trial,' the technical expression. ut... dicam: purpose of what? cf. ~ 27. 21. tacita... loquitur: for rhet. fig.

Page  345 CAP. 29-30, ~ 81-83. 345 loquitur neque cuiusquam ornamenta orationis desiderat, potest quisquam dicere umquam meliores, fortiores, constantiores consulares fuisse quam his temporibus et periculis, quibus paene oppressa est res publica? Quis 40 non de communi salute optime, quis non fortissime, quis non constantissime sensit? Neque ego praecipue de consularibus disputo; nam haec et hominum ornatissimorum, qui praetores fuerunt, et universi senatus communis est laus, ut constet post hominum memoriam 45 numquam in illo ordine plus virtutis, plus amoris in rem publicam, plus gravitatis fuisse; sed quia sunt descripti consulares, de his tantum mihi dicendum putavi, quod satis esset ad testandam omnium memoriarn, neminem esse ex illo honoris gradu, qui non omni 50 studio, virtute, auctoritate incubuerit ad rem publicam conservandam. xxx. Sed quid? ego, qui Catilinam non laudavi, qui 83 reo Catilinae consul non adfui, qui testimonium de coniuratione dixi in alios, adeone vobis alienus a sanitate, adeo oblitus constantiae meae, adeo immemor rerum a me gestarum esse videor, ut, cum consul bellum ges- S serim cum coniuratis, nunc eorum ducem servare cupiam et in animum inducam, cuius nuper ferrum rettuderim flammamque restinxerim, eiusdem nunc caucf. III. 10. 19; I. 18. 29. cuius- the consulares. consul adfui, as quam: for use and position cf. did your father. adeo, adeo, cuiusque, ~ 78. 15. Notice that it adeo: see on nihil, ~ 79. 23. aliis not in agreement with oratio- enus a, 'utterly without;' for a ui.S. different meaning cf. ~ 31. 26. 42-48. sensit, as in ~ 25. 28. ut consul: see on filius, ~ 30. 14. constet, ' that it is admitted,' ex- 7, 8. animum inducam, 'make plains laus: cf. II. 19. 5. de- up my mind;' in this phrase scripti, marked out,' 'set apart.' Cicero elsewhere (cf. I. 22. 5) tantum, as in ~ 62. 5. omits the preposition in. ferrum rettuderim: for meaning III. 2. ~ 83. 1-5. non laudavi, as (lid 19. vy

Page  346 346 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. sam vitamque defendere? Si medius fidius, indices, 10 non me ipsa res publica meis laboribus et periculis conservata ad gravitatem animi et constantiam sua dignitate revocaret, tamen hoc natura est insitum, ut, quem timueris, quicum de vita fortunisque contenderis, cuius ex insidiis evaseris, hunc semper oderis. Sed cum 15 agatur honos meus amplissimus, gloria rerum gestarum singularis, cum, quotiens quisque est in hoc scelere convictus, totiens renovetur memoria per me inventae salutis, ego sim tam demens, ego committam, ut ea, quae pro salute omnium gessi, casu magis et felicitate 20 a me quam virtute et consilio gesta esse videantur? 84 Quid ergo? hoc tibi sumis,' dicet fortasse quispiam, 'ut, quia tu defendis, innocens iudicetur?' Ego vero, iudices, non modo mihi nihil adsumo, in quo quispiam repugnet, sed etiam, si quid ab omnibus conceditur, id 25 reddo ac remitto. Non in ea re publica versor, non iis temporibus meum caput obtuli pro patria periculis omnibus, non aut ita sunt extincti, quos vici, aut ita grati, quos servavi, ut ego mihi plus appetere coner, quam quantum omnes inimici invidique patiantur. 85 Grave esse videtur eum, qui investigarit coniurationem, 9-13. medius fidius = [ita] me deus fidius [adiuvet]; see on mehercule, I. 17. 13. dius fidius (cf. fides), 'the god of good faith.' animi: what is its position here called? cf. putet, ~ 42. 30. quicum: for form cf. Mur. 22. 41; gender here? 18, 19. sim, committam: for mood cf. disputem, ~ 64. 1. casu, etc.: for thought cf. III. 29. 31. ~ 84. 21-25. Quid ergo, a favorite way of introducing a new point, always followed by another question and always implying a negative answer. tibi sumis,' do you arrogate so much to yourself?' in ea re publica: for thought cf. ~ 28. 29. ~ 85. The thought is: I do not ask that you should shape your verdict by what I say as a man of high position and prominence (auctoritati, 1. 35), but I do ask you to ascribe some importance to what I solemnly declare as a man of honor (pudori, 1. 36).

Page  347 CAP. 30-31, ~ 83-87. 347 qui patefecerit, qui oppresserit, cui senatus singularibus 31 verbis gratias egerit, cui uni togato supplicationem decreverit, dicere in iudicio: ' Non defenderem, si coniurasset.' Non dico id, quod grave est, dico illud, quod in his causis coniurationis non auctoritati adsumam, sed 35 pudori meo: ' Ego ille coniurationis investigator atque ultor certe non defenderem Sullam, si coniurasse arbitrarer.' Ego, iudices, de tantis omnium periculis cum quaererem omnia, multa audirem, crederem non omnia, caverem omnia, dico hoc, quod initio dixi, nullius indi- 40 cio, nullius nuntio, nullius suspicione, nullius litteris de P. Sulla rem ullam ad me esse delatam. xxxr. Quam ob rem vos, di patrii ac penates, qui huic 86 urbi atque huic rei publicae praesidetis, qui hoc imperium, qui hanc libertatem, qui populum Romanum, qui haec tecta atque templa me consule vestro numine auxilioque servastis, testor integro me animo ac libero 5 P. Sullae causam defendere, nullum a me sciente facinus occultari, nullum scelus susceptum contra salutem omnium defendi ac tegi. Nihil de hoc consul comperi, nihil suspicatus sum, nihil audivi. Itaque idem ego 87 ille, qui vehemens in alios, qui inexorabilis in ceteros 1o esse visus sum, persolvi patriae, quod debui; reliqua 31-40. singularibus... egerit: cf. III. 14. 7-9. cui uni: read the notes on III. 15. 32-35. dico illud,' but (cf. ~ 81. 21) I do say this:' for illud = 'the following;' cf. ~ 59. 44. initio dixi: ~~ 14. 5-8; 17. 38, 39; 20. 34-36. ~86. 1-8. di patrii ac penates, gods of our forefathers and protecting deities of the state;' an example of genus and species, i.e., the second class is really included in the first: cf. I. 11. 8. penates: sc. publici, and see on IV. 18. 11. Nihil, nihil, nihil: cf. ~ 82. 33, 34. comperi: in his public references to the conspiracy Cicero so frequently declared se comperisse omnia that comperi became a cant word at the time, and he was often taunted with it. ~ 87. 10. alios, ceteros: see on ~ 9. 25. Who were the alii

Page  348 348 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. iam a me meae perpetuae consuetudini naturaeque debentur; tam sum misericors, iudices, quam vos, tam mitis quam qui lenissimus; in quo vehemens fui 15 vobiscum, nihil feci nisi coactus, rei publicae praecipitanti subveni, patriam demersam extuli; misericordia civium adducti tum fuimus tam vehementes, quam necesse fuit. Salus esset amissa omnium una nocte, nisi esset severitas illa suscepta. Sed ut ad scelera20 torum poenam amore rei publicae sum adductus, sic ad salutem innocentium voluntate deducor. 88 Nihil video esse in hoc P. Sulla, iudices, odio dignum, misericordia digna multa. Neque enim nunc propulsandae calamitatis suae causa supplex ad vos, 25 iudices, confugit, sed ne qua generi ac nomini suo nota nefariae turpitudinis inuratur. Nam ipse quidem, si erit vestro iudicio liberatus, quae habet ornamenta, quae solacia reliquae vitae, quibus laetari et perfrui possit? Domus erit, credo, exornata, aperientur ma14. quam qui lenissimus, 10. 25, as the time referred to 'as (he who is) the most merci- must have been after the execuful,' a form of comparison espe- tion (severitas) of the conspirators. cially common in epistolary Latin: Of what night does Cicero speak for the thought cf. IV. 11. 10, 11. in similar terms, IV. 19. 23? voin quo = in qua re: cf. ~ 31. 19. luntate, as he has explained, ~ 8. vehemens, etc.: for the thought 10-12. cf. Mur. ~ 6. ~ 88. Here begins the Peroratio, 15-21. vobiscum: the judges, for the general style of which may aS representing the senate under be compared Mur. cap. xl. whose authority Cicero insists that 23-29. nunc, in contrast with Lentulus, etc., were put to death: his trial for bribery. calamitatis, see on ~ 21. 4. misericordia as in ~ 1. 2. ne... inuratur civium, 'pity for the citizens;' depends upon supplex conftigit: explain the gen. tam, 'only so,' see on ~ 18. 4. nota inuratur: in the restrictive sense, so com- for metaphor cf. I. 13. 5. quimon with tanturn: cf. III. 16. 9. bus: what kind of a pronoun? una nocte, not the night of Nov. credo, ironical, as his conviction 6th, but that of Dec. 19th: cf. III. for bribery carried with it the loss

Page  349 CAP. 31, ~ 87-89. 349 iorum imagines, ipse ornatum ac vestitum pristinum 30 recuperabit. Omnia, iudices, haec amissa sunt, omnia generis, nominis, honoris insignia atque ornamenta unius iudicii calamitate occiderunt. Sed ne extinctor patriae, ne proditor, ne hostis appelletur, ne hanc labem tanti sceleris in familia relinquat, id laborat, 35 id metuit, ne denique hic miser coniurati et conscelerati et proditoris filius nominetur; huic puero, qui est ei vita sua multo carior, metuit, cui honoris integros fructus non sit traditurus, ne aeternam memoriam dedecoris relinquat. Hic vos orat, iudices, parvus, ut89 se aliquando si non integra fortuna, at ut adflicta 41 patri suo gratulari sinatis. Huic misero notiora sunt itinera iudiciorum et fori quam campi et disciplinarum. Non iam de vita P. Sullae, iudices, sed de sepultura contenditur; vita erepta est superiore iudicio, nunc, ne 45 corpus eiciatur, laboramus. Quid enim est huic reliqui, quod eum in hac vita teneat, aut quid est, quam of all these ornamenta: see on incolumem, ~ 61. 19. 36. hic miser. Sulla's young son, who was present (hic: cf. ~ 62. 5) in court: see Exc. II. ~ 14. 37. huic puero... metuit ne, etc., 'for this boy he fears that, etc.:' puero should be placed in the subordinate clause as ind. obj. of relinquat, but is placed in the main clause for emphasis by the attraction noted on Sullam, ~ 66. 20. For case of puero with metuit, A. 227 c; G. 347; H. 385 II. 1; B. 1871 a. ~ 89. 41-43. at ut adflicta, 'at least as far as may be in his affliction:' with adflicta sc. fortuna. This parenthetical use of ut ('as far as possible in,' 'considering' 'for') with an ellipsis of the verb (fit, fieri potest) is quite rare. itinera iudiciorum, for itinera ad iudicia: he had accompanied his father to and fro to excite sympathy for him. campi, the regular place of exercise. disciplinarum, 'schools.' 44-46. vita, a common exaggeration for status. Sulla's life was not at stake, but all that made life valuable in the eyes of a Roman noble. eiciatur, a reference to exile, the one penalty for conspiracy more severe than those already imposed upon him for bribery.

Page  350 350 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. ob rem haec cuiquam vita videatur? xxxr. Nupet is homo fuit in civitate P. Sulla, ut nemo ei se neque honore neque gratia neque fortunis anteferret, nune spoliatus omni dignitate, quae erepta sunt, non repetit; 5 quod fortuna in malis reliqui fecit, ut cum parente, cum liberis, cum fratre, cum his necessariis lugere suam calamitatem liceat, id sibi ne eripiatis, vos, iudices, 90 obtestatur. Te ipsum iam, Torquate, expletum huius miseriis esse par erat, et, si nihil aliud Sullae nisi 10 consulatum abstulissetis, tamen eo contentos vos esse oportebat; honoris enim contentio vos ad causam, non inimicitiae deduxerunt. Sed cum huic omnia cum honore detracta sint, cum in hac fortuna miserrima ac luctuosissima destitutus sit, quid est, quod expetas 15 amplius? Lucisne hanc usuram eripere vis plenam lacrimarum atque maeroris, in qua cum maximo cruciatu ac dolore retinetur? Libenter reddiderit adempta ignominia foedissimi criminis. An vero inimicum ut expellas? cuius ex miseriis, si esses crudelissimus, 91 videndo fructum caperes maiorem quam audiendo. 0 48. haec, for hoc attracted to vita: see on II. 23. 31. vita, 'real life:' cf. "It is not all of life to live, Nor all of death to die," and see similar force of vir in III. 12. 41. 2-6. se anteferret, ' took precedence.' parente, his mother. liberis, the son mentioned above and a step-son Memmius. fratre, 63. ~90. 10-15. vos, the prosecutor and his father. honoris contentio, 'struggle for office,' i.e., the consulslip of 65; so in 11. 13 and 28. cum honore, 'together with the office,' = et honor. Lucisne hanc usuram, for lucisne huius u., by the attraction noticed on hoc numero, ~ 77. 4. usuram, 'right to enjoy,' as in I. 29. 4. 17-19. reddiderit, 'will surrender it at once:' for tense cf. ~ 28. 28, and see on IV. 11. 1. Express the protasis in a si clause. ut expellas depends upon vis, as does also the infinitive eripere, 1. 15. Such double constructions are found in all writers: cf. quibus, II. 25. 12. cuius = at eius: see on in quo ~ 21. 3.

Page  351 CAP. 31-33, ~ 89-93. 351 miserum et infelicem ilium diem, quo consul omnibus 21 centuriis P. Sulla renuntiatus est, o falsam spem, o volucrem fortunam, o caecam cupiditatem, o praeposteram gratulationem! Quam cito illa omnia ex laetitia et voluptate ad luctum et lacrimas reciderunt, 25 ut, qui paulo ante consul designatus fuisset, repente nullum vestigium retineret pristinae dignitatis! Quid enim erat mali, quod huic spoliato fama, honore, fortunis deesse videretur? aut cui novae calamitati locus ullus relictus esse? Urget eadem fortuna, quae coe- 30 pit, repperit novum maerorem, non patitur hominem calamitosum uno malo adflictum uno in luctu perire. xxxIIi. Sed iam impedior egomet, iudices, dolore 92 animi, ne de huius miseria plura dicam. Vestrae sunt iam partes, iudices, in vestra mansuetudine atque humanitate causam totam repono. Vos reiectione interposita nihil suspicantibus nobis repentini in nos iudices 5 consedistis ab accusatoribus delecti ad spem acerbitatis, a fortuna nobis ad praesidium innocentiae constituti. Ut ego, quid de me populus Romanus existimaret, quia severus in improbos fueram, laboravi et, quae prima innocentis mihi defensio est oblata, suscepi, sic 10 vos severitatem iudiciorum, quae per hos menses in homines audacissimos facta sunt, lenitate ac misericordia mitigate. Hoc cum a vobis impetrare causa 93 ~ 91. 21-30. omnibus centu- ~ 92. 4-10. reiectione interriis, 'unanimously,' probably a posita, ' at the time for the chalrhetorical exaggeration. centu- lenging,' another (cf. ~~ 78, 79) riis, p. 59, ~ 30 f. relictus esse: hardship of the present trial: see sc. videbatur, fromvideretur, 1. 29; on ad iudices in Title. a forcf. ~ 78. 22. coepit: sc. urgere, as tuna: see on ~ 71. 25. quid... coepi is not used absolutely (i.e., existimaret depends upon labowithout a dependent inf. expressed ravi, 'I was anxious.' defensio, or supplied) in Cicero. antecedent attracted to relative

Page  352 352 PRO P. SULLA ORATIO. ipsa debet, tum est vestri animi atque virtutis decla15 rare non esse eos vos, ad quos potissimum interposita reiectione devenire convenerit. In. quo ego vos, iudices, quantum meus in vos amor postulat, tantum hortor, ut communi studio, quoniam in re publica coniunctisumus, mansuetudine et misericordia nostra 20 falsam a nobis crudelitatis famam repellamus. clause as often: for meaning see same contemptuous tone Mur. on ~ 71. 30. 29. 32. convenerit, 'it will ~ 93. 15. potissimum, 'rather prove convenient:' sc. accusathan to any others,' here of per- toribus; the mood is subj. of sons; of time ~ 45. 5, of place characteristic, the tense is for Mur. 75. 15. the fut. perf. ind. in quo: cf. 16. devenire, 'resort,' in the ~ 87. 14. EXCURSUS V. ROMAN CORRESPONDENCE. ~ 1. I. SENDING LETTERS. The Romans had no public postal service. Official despatches were carried by special messengers (statores), and to these the subject conmmunities had to furnish horses, carts, and vessels on demand. Private letters were usually delivered by slaves (tabellarii) of the correspondents. For long distances, especially beyond seas, such service was very expensive, and, except for the most urgent matters, recourse was had to travellers and traders going in the desired direction. Persons intending to travel notified their friends of their departure in time for letters to be written, and also carried letters, if requested, for entire strangers. ~ 2. There was, of course, great danger that letters carried thus might be lost or might fall into the wrong hands. It was customary, therefore, to send a copy of the letter (litterae eodem [or uno] exemplo), or at least an abstract of its contents, by another person, and the meaning was often disguised by the use of fictitious names understood by the correspondents only, or by employing regular cipher codes. ~3. The time made by letters carried under such circumstances is

Page  353 EXCURSUS V. 353 remarkable. The tabellarii travelled from forty to fifty miles a day in carts, and from twenty-six to twenty-seven on foot. Under favorable conditions much better time was possible: a letter could go from Rome to Brundisium (three hundred and seventy mill, pass.) in five days, on to Dyrrhachium in five more, reaching Athens in twenty-one days from its departure; and letters from Caesar in Britain reached Cicero in Rome in from twenty-seven to thirty-four days. In the time of Washington a month was the usual time for a letter to take in going from the Eastern to tile Southern States in winter. II. WRITING MATERIALS. For ordinary brief communications ~4. the Romans used tablets (tabellae) made of firwood or ivory. These were of various sizes, fastened together in sets of two or more by wire hinges. The inner faces were slightly hollowed out, and the depression was nearly filled with wax, so as to leave a raised rim about the edges. Upon the wax letters were traced with an ivory or metal tool (stilus, graphium) having one end pointed like a pencil for writing, and the other flat, like a paper-cutter, for smoothing the wax. With this fiat end mistakes could be corrected, or the whole letter erased and the tabellae prepared for use on other occasions. For longer communications another material (papyrus) was used, ~ 5. resembling our paper, but rough and coarse. It was made from the reed of the same name, obtained in Egypt. Upon this papyrus, or charta, they wrote with a pen made of a split reed (calamus) and ink (atramentum) made of soot mixed with resinous gums. The ink could be washed off with a damp sponge, which the writer kept by him for the correction of errors. The tendency of the poor ink to blot and spread upon the poorer paper accounts for the continued use of the bulky tabellae. These rude writing materials, and the extensive correspondence ~6. carried on by every Roman of birth and position, made it impossible for him to write any but the most important of his letters, or those to his dearest friends, with his own hand. The place of the stenographer and typewriter of to-day was taken by slaves or freedmen, often highly educated, who wrote at the dictation of the master. Such slaves were called in general terms librarii, more particularly servi ab epistolis, servi a manu, or amanuenses. In. TIE LETTER (litterae, epistola). Of the six parts of a modern ~ 7. letter, - the date, address, salutation, body, complimentary close, and signature, -the address and complimentary close are entirely wanting in Latin letters, and the date is but rarely given. The delivery of the letters by special messengers (~ 1) made the date and address less necessary than now, and the straightforwardness of the Latin language knew no such meaningless phrases as our 'your obedient servant,' 'yours truly,' ' yours, etc.' The DATE when expressed will be found at the end of the ~8,

Page  354 354 EXCURSUS V. letter, sometimes alone (iv., xxii.), sometimes preceded by date (x.-xiii.) agreeing with epistola understood. It is written according to the whim of the writer in the longer form a. d. vi. Kal. Dec. = ante diem sextum Kalendas Decembris (xx., xxi.), or the shorter vi. Kal. Dec. = sexto [die ante] Kalendas Decembris (iv., x., xii.). The ~9. year is occasionally given (iv.). When the place is mentioned it usually follows the date in the form required to answer the question "where?" from the standpoint of the writer (xiii., xv., xxi.), or the question "whence?" from the standpoint of the receiver (xii., xiv., xx.); sometimes, of course, the case is ambiguous (x.). Finally both date and place may be less formally expressed (xviii., xix.) in the body of the letter. ~ 10. The SALUTATION and SIGNATURE are combined as in our 'society form:' Mr. John Doe presents his compliments to Mr. Richard Roe. The writer placed his cognomen first in the nominative case, then that of the person addressed in the dative, and finally the letters s. D. (salutem dicit): CICERO PAETO S. D. This formula was capable of alteration to correspond with the tone of the letter; the fulness of both names and greeting varying inversely with the intimacy of ~ 11. the correspondents. Politeness required that in formal letters the praenomen of the person addressed or of both should be given. CICERO (or M. CICERO) C. CAESARI S. D.; still greater formality required the descent upon the father's side and official titles (i., ii.): M. TuIIUS M (arci) F (ilius) M (arci) N (epos) CICERO IMP (erator) s. D. C. CAELIO L (uci) F (ilio) C (== Gai) N (epoti) CALDO ~ 12. QUAEST (ori). On the other hand in friendly letters the S.D. may become the more cordial SAL (iii., iv., vii-xiii.), or SAL (utem ) PLUIIMAM, or may be omitted altogether as if too frigid. Then, too, more or less endearing adjectives may be added to the name of the correspondent, as suus (xiv., xxi.),SUAVISSIMUS, DULCISSIMUS, etc., or a tender diminutive employed (xx., xxi.), or the praenomen (vi.), or nomen (xiv.), may be substituted for the cognomen of the writer. ~ 13. The BODY of the letter does not differ essentially from the modern form. The writer, as a rule, plunges abruptly into his subject in the straightforward fashion peculiar to the Romans. In his official and formal letters, however, Cicero sometimes uses certain old-fashioned phrases that had once been strictly insisted upon: SI VALES BENE EST, or to a general in the field (i) SI TU EXERCITUSQUE VALETIS, BENE EST, often with the addition EGO (or EGO QUIDEM) VALEO, all indicated by the initial letters only. The close of the letter is as abrupt as the beginning, though we find a few stock phrases of leave-taking: VALE or VALETE (iv., XiV., XX., xxii.), CURA (or FAC) UT VALEAS (v., X., xiii.). ~14. The STYLE of the letters shows the ordinary conversational Latin of the refined and polished circles in which the writer moved. The

Page  355 EXCURSUS V. 355 sentences are much shorter than in literary Latin, the order of words is less studied and artificial, and the connection is often loose and obscure. Colloquialisms and ellipses abound, the personal pronouns and such verbs as agere, esse, facere, ferre, ire, and venire being omitted with great freedom. The pluperfect is often used for the ~ 15. imperfect and perfect, and these in turn for the present, owing to the writer's projecting himself into the time of the reading of the letter and describing present actions as past. Exaggerated and pleonastic expressions are especially common, Greek words and phrases are frequently used (iii., iv.). just as some persons nowadays interlard English letters with French and German, and postscripts are not uncommon (xx.). IV. SEALING and OPENING the LETTER. For sealing the letter ~ 16. thread (linum), wax (cera), and a seal (signum) were necessary. The seal not only secured the letter against improper inspection, but also attested the genuineness of those written by the librarii, as autograph signatures seem not to have been thought of. Each man's seal had some device peculiar to it, and was affixed to all documents which he wished to acknowledge as his own. The tabellae (~ 4) having been ~ 17. put together face to face, the thread was passed around them and through small holes bored through them, and was then securely tied. Upon the knot softened wax was dropped, and to this the seal was applied. The chartae (~ 5) were rolled longitudinally and secured in the same way. The letter bore upon the outside merely the name of the person addressed. Cicero in Cat. iii. ~ 10 describes the process of ~ 18. opening the letter. The seal was first examined, and then the thread was cut in order to leave the seal uninjured. If the letter was preserved, the seal was kept attached to it in order to attest its genuineness.

Page  356 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. I. (AD FAM. V. 7.) M. TULLIUS M. F. CICERO S. D. CN. POMPEIO CN. F. MAGNO IMPERATORI. X 1 S. T. E. Q. V. B. E. Ex litteris tuis, quas publice misisti, cepi una cum omnibus incredibilem voluptatem; tantam enim spem otii ostendisti, quantam ego semper omnibus te uno fretus pollicebar; I. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written from Rome to Pompeius in Asia in 62. Soon after the execution of the conspirators Cicero had written a long and exultant letter to Pompelus (Sull. ~ 67), to which the latter had sent a very cold reply not now extant. To this reply of Pompeius we here have Cicero's answer. For the campaign of Pompeius against Mithradates see Creighton, pp. 71, 72; Allen, pp. 195, 196; Myers, p. 97; Pennell, p. 121. On the general form of the letter read Exc. V. For Cicero's Correspondence p. 15, ~ 7. SALUTATION: Formal or familiar? Explain the abbreviations, Exc. V. ~~ 10, 11. Magno, a title said to have been conferred upon Pompeius by Sulla in 81. ~ 1. 1-4. S. T., etc: see Exc. V. ~ 13. litteris, an official (publice) despatch received at Rome in November, 63 (cf. Mur. ~ 34), announcing the death of Mithradates. Cicero had immediately had a ten days' thanksgiving declared in honor of Pompeius. spem otii, i.e., abroad, by the ending of the war. te: for case A. 254 b 2; G. 373 R 1; H. 425 II. 1 (1) note; B. 2183. pollicebar: e.g., in the oration for the Manilian law, p. 20, ~ 23. 356

Page  357 EP. I., ~ 1-3. 357 sed hoc scito, tuos veteres hostes, novos amicos 5 vehementer litteris perculsos atque ex magna spe deturbatos iacere. Ad me autem litteras quas mi- 2 sisti, quamquam exiguam significationem tuae erga me voluntatis habebant, tamen mihi scito iucundas fuisse; nulla enim re tam laetari soleo quam meo- 1o rum officiorum conscientia, quibus si quando non mutue respondetur, apud me plus officii residere facillime patior: illud non dubito, quin, si te mea summa erga te studia parum mihi adiunxerunt, res publica nos inter nos conciliatura coniuncturaque 15 sit. Ac, ne ignores, quid ego in tuis litteris desi- 3 derarim, scribam aperte, sicut et mea natura et nostra amicitia postulat: res eas gessi, quarum aliquam in tuis litteris et nostrae necessitudinis et rei publicae causa gratulationem exspectavi, quam ego 20 abs te praetermissam esse arbitror, quod vererere, ne cuius animum offenderes; sed scito ea, quae nos pro salute patriae gessimus, orbis terrae iudicio ac testimonio comprobari, quae, cum veneris, tanto 5-7. scito: for form see on II. 23. 31, used three times in this letter. veteres hostes, novos amicos, the democrats, who had opposed Pompeius up to 71, but had made him consul in 70 (p. 19, ~ 18), and had given him in 66 the command in Asia (p. 21, ~ 24). Cicero represents them as alarmed by the good feeling now existing (or supposed to exist) between Pompeius and the senate. iacere, as in II. 2. 21. ~ 2. 7-14. litteras, the personal letter to which this is the answer. significationem, ' expression.' quibus = et iis: cf. III. 27. 14. non mutue respondetur, 'no fair return is made.' apud me... patior, 'I am well content that the balance of services rendered should be in my favor.' studia, as shown by supporting the Manilian law and proposing the thanksgiving. ~ 3. 16-22. desiderarim, 'have missed.' postulat: for number see on Sull. 44. 22. litteris, the despatch, 1. 1. vererere: for mood see on II. 2. 25. ne... offenderes: cf. Caes. I. 19. 2. animum: see on Sull. 1. 10. 23, 24. iudicio ac testimonio, 'the expressed judgment.'

Page  358 358 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. 25 consilio tantaque animi magnitudine a me gesta esse cognosces, ut tibi multo maiori, quam Africanus fuit, me non multo minorem quam Laelium facile et in re publica et in amicitia adiunctum esse patiare. II. (AD FAM. v. 5.) M. CICERO S. D. C. ANTONIO M. F. IMP. 1 Etsi statueram nullas ad te litteras mittere nisi commendaticias - non quo eas intelligerem satis 26, 27. Africanus and Laelius are frequently mentioned by Cicero as ideal friends, the former a great general (see on IV. 21. 15; Mur. 75. 5), the latter a wise statesman. Mur. 66. 31. quam Laelium: cf. quam Africanus, 1. 26, and see for case A. 336 a 1 R.; G. 647 R. 1 (last example); H. 524 1. (1). II. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written from Rome to Antonius in Macedonia in 61. Antonius, said report, had hinted that Cicero was to share the plunder of Macedonia, thus giving the lie direct to Cicero's often-repeated boast of patriotic motives in declining a province (cf. IV. ~ 23). Cicero writes to remonstrate against this unwarranted slander, and to ask Anto nius to aid Titus Pomponius Atticus in certain business matters in the province. SALUTATION: More or less formal than in Ep. I? Antonio: on his early career, connection with Catilina, election to the consulship with Cicero, and change of politics, see p. 24, ~~ 34-36 and p. 28, ~ 42. He is damned with faint praise, III. 14. 10 f., and his operations against Catilina are described in Exc. IV. and p. 38, ~ 68. Imp. He received the title for the defeat of Catilina, and governed Macedonia as proconsul in 62 and 61. In 59 he was prosecuted for misgovernment, and in spite of Cicero's defence was convicted and went into exile. ~ 1. 2-8. commendaticias, 'of introduction,' for friends going to Macedonia. non quo... sed

Page  359 EP. I., ~ 3; 1II., ~ 1-3. 359 apud te valere, sed ne iis, qui me rogarent, aliquid de nostra coniunctione imminutum esse ostenderem,tamen, cum T. Pomponius, homo omnium meorum in te 5 studiorum et officiorum maxime conscius, tui cupidus, nostri amantissimus, ad te proficisceretur, aliquid mihi scribendum putavi, praesertim cum aliter ipsi Pomponio satisfacere non possem. Ego si abs te summa officia 2 desiderem, mirum nemini videri debeat; omnia enim a 10 me in te profecta sunt, quae ad tuum commodum, quae ad honorem, quae ad dignitatem pertinerent: pro his rebus nullam mihi abs te relatam esse gratiam tu es optimus testis, contra etiam esse aliquid abs te profectum ex multis audivi; nam "comperisse " me non audeo 15 dicere, ne forte id ipsum verbum ponam, quod abs te aiunt falso in me solere conferri; sed ea, quae ad me delata sunt, malo te ex Pomponio, cui non minus molesta fuerunt, quam ex meis litteris cognoscere. Meus in te animus quam singulari officio fuerit, et se- 20 natus et populus Romanus testis est: tu quam gratus erga me fueris, ipse existimare potes; quantum mihi debeas, ceteri existiment. Ego quae tua causa antea 3 ne: see on Mur. 2. 27. me rogarent: sc. litteras commnendaticias. T. Pomponius (Atticus). P. 18, ~ 15. tui cupidus, 'well disposed to you.' nostri: for case (so tui) and form see on IV. 19. 17. praesertim cum: see on Sull. 6. 28. ~ 2. 10-14. desiderem,' claim:' notice the different meaning in Ep. I. 3. 16. commodum, honorem, dignitatem, the province, triumph, and political position of Antonius. quae ad... quae ad... quae ad: figure? con tra etiam esse, etc., 'nay, I lhave heard from many that something the very opposite [of gratitude] has proceeded from you:' contra is an adv. and its position is very emphatic; for its attributive sense cf. adhuc, II. 27. 20. 15-23. "comperisse:" see on Sull. 86. 8. falso goes with conferri. Meus animus=ego: cf. Ep. I. 3. 22. officio, ' devotion.' testis est: for number cf. Ep. I. 3. 18. existiment, hortatory.

Page  360 360 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. feci, voluntate sum adductus posteaque constantia; sed 25 reliqua, mihi crede, multo maius meum studium maioremque gravitatem et laborem desiderant; quae ego si non profundere ac perdere videbor, omnibus meis viribus sustinebo; sin autem ingrata esse sentiam, non committam, ut tibi ipsi insanire videar. Ea quae sint et 30 cuiusmodi, poteris ex Pomponio cognoscere. Atque ipsum tibi Pomponium ita commendo, ut, quamquam ipsius causa confido te facturum esse omnia, tamen abs te hoc petam, ut, si quid in te residet amoris erga me, id omne in Pomponii negotio ostendas: hoc mihi nihil 35 gratius facere potes. III. (AD ATT. I. 16.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. 1 Quaeris ex me, quid accidert de iudicio, quod tam praeter opinionem omnium factum sit, et simul ~ 3. 24-33. sum adductus: sc. Atticus (cf. Ep. II. 1. 5) in Epirus, ut facerem. constantia, 'con- towards the end of May, 61, giving sistency.' reliqua, the threat- an account of tlhe trial of Clodius ened suit for misgovernment. (~~ 1-5), of his own position in the desiderant, as in ~ 2. 10. quae state and public matters generally refers to gravitatem and laborein: (~~ 11-13), and finally treating of for gender cf. Still. 73. 19. non personal matters. For the trial committam, ut: cf. III. 17. 26. of Clodius read p. 41, ~~ 73, 74, abs te: cf. ~ 2. 9; Sull. 3. 30, and and for the senate's part in it see on I. 27. 11. p. 74, ~~ 96 and 99. II. SALUTATION: Formal or familINTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written iar? Notice that the same form from Rome to Titus Pomponius is used in all the letters to Atticus

Page  361 EP. II., ~ 3; III., ~ 1. 361 vis scire, quomodo ego minus, quam soleam, proeliatus sim: respondebo tibi C'rsQov rQot6Qo 'OVQixi;. Ego enim, quamdiu senatus auctoritas mihi defendenda fuit, sic acriter et vehementer proeliatus sum, ut 5 clamor concursusque maxima cum mea laude fierent: quod si tibi umquam sum visus in re publica fortis, certe me in illa causa admiratus esses; cum enim ille ad conciones confugisset in iisque meo nomine ad 10 invidiam uteretur, di immortales! quas ego pugnas et quantas strages edidi! quos impetus in Pisonem, in here given. Attico: the full name is given above. He was Cicero's most intimate and trusted friend, a man of refined and cultivated tastes, extensive learning, and great wealth. He had early devoted himself to a business life and kept resolutely aloof from politics. He had large investments in Greece wliicli required his personal supervision and kept him from Rome much of the time- once for a period of twenty-three years continuously - and thus gained for him the cognomen Atticus. On his return to the capital his house became the resort of the ablest men of all schools and parties, whose love and respect for him are shown by the fact that he lived (109-32) in security through all the revolutions of Marius, Sulla, Caesar, and the second triumvirate. He died by voluntary starvation, when he found himself suffering from an incurable disease. It is largely to him that we owe the letters of Cicero which we possess; none of his own are preserved. ~ 1. 1-5. Quaeris ex me: these words serve to remind Atticus of the letter to which this is a reply; for the prep. see on a II. 13. 16. quomodo, ' why,' abbreviated from quo modo ['how,' so 1. 13] factum sit ut, etc. proeliatus sim, evidently a phrase from Atticus' letter.,vrepov pdrrEpov 'Opqpit7)s [husteron proteron Homnrikos] 'last first in Homer's style:' see on IV. 21. 14, and for the use of Greek words in the letters see Exc. V. ~ 15. enim: see on IV. 9. 8. auctoritas, etc.: the first proposal of the senate (p. 41, ~ 73 ad fin) had been opposed by one of the consuls, and the struggle referred to was of the kind described, p. 77, ~ 112. 9-12. admiratus esses: the protasis is omitted, e.g., si adfuisses; for the conclusion (apodosis) of visus sum cf. IV. 17. 28. conciones: see p. 61, ~~ 42, 43; Clodius was quaestor. ad invidiam, 'for the purpose of exciting unpopularity.' pugnas... edidi, colloquial phrases, keeping up jestingly the proeliatus of 1. 3. Piso

Page  362 362 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. Curionem, in totam illam manum feci! quomodo sum insectatus levitatem senum, libidinem iuventutis! saepe, 15 ita me di iuvent! te non solum auctorem consiliorum meorum, verum etiam spectatorem pugnarum mirifi2 carum desideravi. 4 Postea vero quam Hortensius excogitavit, ut legem de religione Fufius tribunus pl. ferret, in qua nihil aliud a consulari rogatione differebat 20 nisi iudicum genus - in eo autem erant omnia -, pugnavitque, ut ita fieret, quod et sibi et aliis persuaserat nullis illum iudicibus effugere posse, contraxi vela perspiciens inopiam iudicum neque dixi quidquam pro testimonio, nisi quod erat ita notum atque testa25 turn, ut non possem praeterire. Itaque, si causam quaeris absolutionis, ut iam eisQ,5 7Ser&eov revertar, egestas iudicum fuit et turpitudo; id autem ut accideret, commissum est Hortensii consilio, qui, nem: M. Pupius Piso Calpurnianus, now consul with M. Valerius Messala, had been Clodius' supporter in all the proceedings before the senate. 13-16. Curionem: C. Scribonius Curio, consul in 76, defended Clodius in court. auctorem, spectatorem: translate as suggested Mur. 7. 29. ~ 2.17-22. desideravi, ' longed for:' cf. Eps. II. 2. 10 and I. 3. 16. Hortensius: see on Sull. 3. 33. Seeing that the senate's plan could not be carried out because of the opposition of the tribune Fufius, Hortensius proposed a compromise: that Fufius should put a law through (ferret: see on Sull. 65. 8) the comitia bringing Clodius to trial, but leaving the jurors to be selected in the ordinary way (see Exc. II. ~~ 5 and 8). This resuited in a packed jury. de religione: sc. violata. Pufius, Ca. lenus. tribunus pl.: see p. 66, ~~ 61-63. in eo... omnia, 'on that depended everything.' pugnavit, 'carried his point.' nullis... posse, 'that Clodius could not escape, whoever the judges might be.' iudicibus, ab. abs. nullis: connect the negative with posse. 26-28. rpos ra tp6repov [pros to proteron], ' to the first point:' cf. ~ 1. 4. revertar: for the clause cf. Sull. 82. 35; III. 18. 8. iudicum: for position cf. Sull. 83. 11; IV. 18. 13. fuit, not the real apodosis to si... quaeris: cf. ~ 1. 8; for number cf. Ep. I. 3. 18. id. commissum eat: cf. Ep. II. 3. 28.

Page  363 EP. III., ~ 1-4. 363 dum veritus est, ne Fufius ei legi intercederet, quae ex senatus consulto ferebatur, non vidit illud, satius esse 30 ilium in infamia relinqui ac sordibus quam infirmo iudicio committi, sed ductus odio properavit rem deducere in iudicium, cum illurn plumbeo gladio iugulatum iri tamen diceret. Sed, iudicium si quaeris 3 quale fuerit, incredibili exitu, sic, uti nunc ex eventu 35 ab aliis, a me iam ex ipso initio consilium Hortensii reprehendatur. Nam, ut reiectio facta est clamoribus maximis, cum accusator tamquam censor bonus homines nequissimos reiiceret, reus tamquam clemens lanista frugalissimum quemque secerneret, ut primum iudices 40 consederunt, valde diffidere boni coeperunt; non enim umquam turpior in ludo talario consessus fuit: maculosi senatores, nudi equites, tribuni non tam aerati quam, ut appellantur, aerarii; pauci tamen boni inerant, quos reiectione fugare ille non potuerat, qui maesti inter sui 45 dissimiles et maerentes sedebant et contagione turpitudinis vehementer permovebantur. Hic, ut quaeque 4 res ad consilium primis postulationibus referebatur, 29-34. dum veritus est; the perfect with dum, ' while,' is rare; what is the regular tense? intercederet: see p. 68, ~ 72. sordibus, 'wretchedness.' iugulatum iri: for form cf. Sull. 21. 10. tamen: see on Sull. 1. 7: the ab. abs. plumbeo gladio = quanquam plumbeus esset gladius. ~ 3. 35-39. exitu, abl. of quality, in predicate with fuit understood. sic =tale, cf. ita Sull. 22. 28, also predicate. eventu *. initio: explain the arrangement of the words. reiectio: see Exc. II. ~ 8. accusator, L. Lentulus Crus, consul in 49. censor. reiiceret: see p. 65, ~ 57. clemens lanista: see on Sull. 15. 18. IIe would naturally spare his best men as much as possible. 42-44. ludo talario, 'variety show,' so called from the dress of the performers, vestis talaris, 'reaching to the ankles.' senatores, equites, tribuni: see Exc. II. ~ 6. aerati, 'rich.' aerarii: a pun on the two senses of the word, one explained IV. 15. 32, the other p. 59, ~ 30 ad fin. ~ 4. 47-52. Hic: cf. Sull. 50.6; 21. 1: notice that this use of the word always implies surprise or indignation. consilium: see Exc. II. ~ S. postulationibus, in the preliminary proceedings, demands

Page  364 364 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. incredibilis erat severitas nulla varietate sententiarum: 50 nihil impetrabat reus, plus accusatori dabatur, quam postulabat; triumphabat - quid quaeris? - Hortensius se vidisse tantum; nemo erat, qui ilium reum ac non milies condemnatum arbitraretur. Me vero teste producto credo te ex acclamatione Clodii advocatorum 55 audisse quae consurrectio iudicum facta sit, ut me circumsteterint, ut aperte iugula sua pro meo capite P. Clodio ostentarint: quae mihi res multo honorificentior visa est quam aut illa, cum iurare tui cives Xenocratem testimonium dicentem prohibuerunt, aut cum. tabulas 60 Metelli Numidici, cum eae, ut mos est, circumferrentur, nostri iudices aspicere noluerunt; multo haec, inquam, 5 nostra res maior. Itaque iudicum vocibus, cum ego sic ab iis, ut salus patriae, defenderer, fractus reus et una patroni omnes conciderunt, ad me autem eadem fre. 65 quentia postridie convenit, quacum abiens consulatu sum domum reductus. Clamare praeclari Ariopagitae for the production of certain witnesses, etc. 49-52. nulla varietate: what like expression in III. 13. 4? triumphabat, a colloquialism for gaudebat. quid quaeris, ' in short,' a common phrase, to mark the transition from details to a general statement. vidisse tantur, 'had had such penetration.' 53-59. milies, colloquial exaggeration, so in next line: see Exc. V. ~ 15. audisse, away off in Epirus! ut, as in Sull. 35. 14. iurare depends upon prohibuerunt: cf. ingredi prohibuerint, Caes. II. 4. 2; what is the regular construction? c i v e s = Atheni enses: see on SALUTATION, Attico. Xenocratem, a pupil of Socrates. t a b u 1 a s, 'account books.' 60. Metelli Numidici, consul in 109, the year of Atticus' birth. When he was brought to trial de repetundis (Exc. II. ~ 1), the jurors refused to insult him by even looking at his accounts. ~ 5. 63-66. fractus: sc. est, 'was crushed;' princp. parts? conciderunt, as in II. 5. 9. quacum, etc.: see p. 39, ~ 69 ad fin. Clamare, hist. inf. Ariopagitae, the title of the members of the highest court of Athens, which assembled on Mars Hill (Areopagus): cf. Acts xvii. 22. The title

Page  365 EP. III., ~ 5. 365 se non esse venturos nisi praesidio constituto. Refertur ad consilium: una sola sententia praesidium non desideravit. Defertur res ad senatum: gravissime ornatissimeque decernitur; laudantur iudices; datur 70 negotium magistratibus; responsurum hominem nemo arbitrabatur. 'EauEsE viv yot, Movoao, - a071,75 - i5 7r1ow0ov n7e 'U7nee. Nosti Calvum ex Nanneianis, illum laudatorem meum, de cuius oratione erga me honorifica ad te scripseram: biduo per unum servum, et eum ex 75 gladiatorio ludo, confecit totum negotium: arcessivit ad se, promisit, intercessit, dedit; iam vero - o di boni, rem perditam! - etiam noctes certarum mulierum atque adolescentulorum nobilium introductiones non nullis iudicibus pro mercedis cumulo fuerunt. Ita s8 summo discessu bonorum, pleno foro servorum xxv. is here used ironically ' Big Wigs:' for its declension see A. 37, b; G. 72; H. 50; B. 22. 67, 68. nisi praesidio constituto; 'unless in the event of a guard having been assigned them.' The abl. abs. takes the place of the future condition (o. O.): si praesidium constitutum esset and nisi placed before this condition gives the form found in II. 6. 3; cf. Caes. III. 17. 7. Refertur ad consilium, 'The demand is referred to the [Praetor's] council;' referre is the technical word for bringing a matter before a body for advice, deferre (1. 69) is to report action already taken. consilium, not the jury (as in ~ 4. 48), but the body of advisers gathered around him by each of the higher magistrates: see on Sull. 13. 27. 71, 72. homine m, Clodius: in what sense? Cf. II. 12. 4, "Eorre vp po(i, etc. [Espete nun moi Mousai, - hoppos dOe pr6ton pur empese.] 'Declare untome, O Muses, how first came the fire upon them!' Quoted in mock heroic style from Homer. 73-76. Calvum ex Nanneianis: the words have no meaning in themselves to us: see Exc. V. ~ 2 ad fin. From what follows and from other letters it is almost certain that they refer to Crassus, as it is known that he had, shortly before the date of this letter, lauded Cicero to the skies in the senate. et eum: for meaning cf. IV. 7. 16. gladiatorio ludo: see on II. 9. 2. negotium, i.e., bribing the jury. 77-81. intercessit, 'he went security' for Clodius. summo discessu, 'notwithstanding the total absence of.' bonorum: in what sense?

Page  366 366 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. iudices ita fortes tamen fuerunt, ut summo proposito periculo vel perire maluerint quam perdere omnia: XxxI. fuerunt, quos fames magis quam fama commo85 veret; quorum Catulus cum vidisset quendam, "quid vos," inquit, " praesidium a nobis postulabatis? an, ne 6 nummi vobis eriperentur, timebatis?" Habes, ut brevissime potui, genus iudicii et causam absolutionis. Quaeris deinceps, qui nunc sit status rerum et qui meus. 90 Rei publicae statum ilium, quem tu meo consilio, ego divino confirmatum putabam, qui bonorum omnium coniunctione et auctoritate consulatus mei fixus et fundatus videbatur, nisi quis nos deus respexerit, elapsum scito esse de manibus uno hoc iudicio, si iudi95 cium est triginta homines populi Romani levissimos ac nequissimos nummulis acceptis ius ac fas omne delere et, quod omnes non modo homines, verum etiam pecudes factum esse sciant, id Talnam et Plautum et Spongiam et ceteras huiusmodi quisquilias statuere 7 numquam esse factum; sed tamen, ut te de re 83-85. vel perire, 'even to perish,' the intensive use of vel. Catulus: Q. Lutatius Catulus, the leader of the optimates, consul in 78, died in 60. ~ 6. 87-94. ut potui: sc. exponere. divino: cf. III. 18. 1-3; 22. 35. omnium coniunctione. What was the chief political object of Cicero in his consulship? See on IV. 15. 27 and p. 39, ~ 70. iudicium, etc.: this is really predicate, while the subject of est is the compound clause triginta homines... delere (1. 97) and Talnam... esse factum (1. 100), in trans. however change the form slightly: 'if it is a trial, when,' etc. 95-98. populi, partitive with the following superlative. nummulis, 'some paltry coins:' for this sense of the diminutive cf. Mur. 75. 10, for another IV. 3. 14. ius ac fas, 'human and divine right,' always with this distinction. non modo... pecudes: see on II. 20. 36, and notice the different correlatives. Talnam, etc., probably the most insignificant of the thirty-one (~ 5. 84): cf. our' Tom, Dick, and Harry.' ~ 7. 100-106. ut... consoler: for the clause cf. ~ 2. 26. fore ut... peteret, necessary or unnecessary periphrasis? Cf. Sull. 41. 14; II. 4.16.

Page  367 EP. III., ~ 5-8. 367 publica consoler, non ita, ut sperarunt mali tanto 101 imposito rei publicae vulnere, alacris exsultat improbitas in victoria - nam plane ita putaverunt, cum religio, cum pudicitia, cum iudiciorum fides, cum senatus auctoritas concidisset, fore, ut aperte victrix0o5 nequitia ac libido poenas ab optimo quoque peteret sui doloris, quem improbissimo cuique inusserat severitas consulatus nei -: idem ego ille- non enim mihi 8 videor insolenter gloriari, cum de me apud te loquor, in ea praesertim epistola, quam nolo ab aliis legi —110 idem, inquam, ego recreavi afflictos animos bonorum unumquemque confirmans et excitans; insectandis vero exagitandisque nummariis iudicibus omnem omnibus studiosis ac fautoribus illius victoriae naqeliialv eripui, Pisonem consulem nulla in re consistere umquam sum 115 passus, desponsam homini iam Syriam ademi, senatum ad pristinam suam severitatem revocavi atque abiectum excitavi, Clodium praesentem fregi in senatu cum oratione perpetua plenissima gravitatis, tum alterca ~ 8. 108. idem ego ille, ' I likewise, the mall:' the sentence should continue cuius severitas poenas inusserat, but the thought is broken by the parenthesis, and when resumed (1. 111) takes a different form. 111-114. i n q u a m: for form see on Sull. 48. 5; it has here a resumptive force, 'I repeat.' 7nrpiomfiav [parresian], 'freedom of speech.' 116. desponsam Syriam,' the promised Syria.' For the assignment of provinces see on IV. 23. 2. The provinces had been assigned (decretae) by the senate in 62 to the consuls of 61 before it was known who they would be. Since the assignment Pompey had returned to Rome leaving Syria free, and it had been promised (desponsa) to Piso by men of influence, possibly by friends of Clodius in return for his aid. As it turned out Piso got no province at all. 118,119. fregi: for meaning cf. fractus, ~ 5. 63. cum: comment on its position. oratione perpetua, 'set, continuous, speech,' which has not come down to us. altercatione, 'dispute,' carried on in short alternate speeches: cf. the imaginary one in Sull. ~ 48 f.

Page  368 368 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. 120tione huiusmodi, ex qua licet pauca degustes - nam cetera non possunt habere neque vim neque venustatem remoto illo studio contentionis, quem &rwra vos appella9 tis -: nam, ut Idibus Maiis in senatum convenimus, rogatus ego sententiam multa dixi de summa re 125publica, atque ille locus inductus a me est divinitus, 'ne una plaga accepta patres conscripti conciderent, ne deficerent;j vulnus esse eiusmodi, quod mihi nec dissimulandum nec pertimescendum videretur, ne aut ignorando stultissimi aut metuendo ignavissimi iudica130 remur: bis absolutum esse Lentulum, bis Catilinam, hunc tertium iam esse a iudicibus in rem publicam immissum. " Erras, Clodi: non te iudices urbi, sed carceri reservarunt neque te retinere in civitate, sed exsilio privare voluerunt. Quamobrem, patres conscripti, 135erigite animos, retinete vestram dignitatem. Manet illa in re publica bonorum consensio; dolor accessit bonis viris, virtus non est imminuta; nihil est damni factum novi, sed, quod erat, inventum est: in unius 120-122. huiusmodi: the connection is loose (see Exc. V. ~ 14), and the idea is continued in a different form with Nam, etc.: ~ 9. 123; cf. 1. 108 above. pauca, 'only a few tidbits.' degustes: for mood cf. II. 4.20. quem takes its gender from the masc. Greek word in predicate. ayDva [agona], 'struggle.' vos, 'you Athenians: see on Sull. 12. 12. ~ 9. 124-131. rogatus... dixi: see p. 76, ~ 107. de summa re p.: cf. III. 13. 2. bis... Lentulum, the first time of extortion when quaestor (p. 68, ~~ 73, 74) in 80; of his second trial we know nothing except that he had in his favor a majority of two jurors, and remarked that he iight have saved the money spent on one of them. bis Catilinam: see on Sull. 81. 13. hunc tertium, Clodius. in rem p.: cf. I. 27. 12. 132-138. non te* the non in strictness should stand before urbi, as its correlative stands before the contrasted word carceri, but when the first clause contains a pronoun it generally (as here) stands directly after the negative. exsilio, i.e., if Clodius were allowed to remain in the city, there was hope that he might be killed in the prosecution of some intrigue, such as that with Caesar's wife. quod erat is an adjective clause ( vetus) corre

Page  369 EP. III., ~ 8-10. 369 hominis perditi iudicio plures similes reperti sunt." Sed quid ago? paene orationem in epistolam inclusi.10 Redeo ad altercationem. Surgit pulchellus puer: 141 obiicit mihi me ad Baias fuisse. "Falsum, sed tamen quid hoe? simile est," inquam, "quasi dicas in operto fuisse."-" Quid," inquit, "homini Arpinati cum aquis calidis?" " Narra," inquam, "patrono tuo, qui Arpi-145 natis aquas eoncupivit; nosti enim marinas."-^ Quousque," inquit, "hune regem feremus?" "Regem appellas," inquam, "cum Rex tui mentionem nullam fecerit?" (ille autem Regis hereditatem spe devorarat). - "Domum," inquit, "emisti." "Putes," in- 150 quam, "dicere: iudices emisti." - " uranti," inquit, "tibi non crediderunt." "Mihi vero," inquam, "xxv. sponding to novi: the partisans of Clodius have not just now become criminal, but their criminality has just been found out. ~ 10. 140-143. orationem, the oratio perpetua of ~ 8. 119. pulchellus, a play on the cognomen Pulcher of Clodius, who was, besides, a man of almost feminine beauty: for the diminutive cf. ~ 6. 96. Baias, a fashionable and rather dissipated watering-place in Campania, famous for its hot springs. Cicero had a villa near by, to which Clodius alludes. quid hoc, 'what does this charge mean?' in operto: the retort refers to Clodius' presence at the secret rites of the Bona Dea. 144-147. Quid homini.. cum: sc. est. and see on III. 11. 25. Arpinati, a thrust at Cicero's rustic origin, with which Torquatus had twitted him in the trial of Sulla. aquis: in the plural aqua means 'medicinal springs.' Narra, colloquial for die, memora. patrono: see on ~ 1. 13. Arpinatis, ' the man of Arpinum,' was Marius: cf. Sull. 23. 31 f. Curio must have bought in some of Marius' property during Sulla's proscription, marinas, 'those (springs) by the seashore.' The only point in Cicero's reply is the reference to the trial contained in the mention of Clodius' lawyer. hunc regem: cf. Sull. ~ 21. 148-152. Rex. Q. Marcius Rex, the husband of Clodius' sister Tertia, had left Clodius un- ' mentioned in his will. Domum emisti. Cicero borrowed the money ($175,000) for the purchase of his house on the Palatine (p. 31, ~ 50) from Crassus, and Clodius twits him with the debt. Putes dicere: sc. te, 'one would suppose you said:' for mood of putes cf. possis IV. 22. 33. credide S

Page  370 370 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. iudices crediderunt, xxxr., quoniam nummos ante acceperunt, tibi nihil crediderunt." Magnis clamoribus 11 afflictus conticuit et concidit. Noster autem status est 156hic: apud bonos iidem sumus, quos reliquisti, apud sordem urbis et faecem multo melius nunc, quam reliquisti; nam et illud nobis non obest, videri nostrum testimonium non valuisse: missus est sanguis 160invidiae sine dolore, atque etiam hoc magis, quod omnes illi fautores illius flagitii rem manifestam illam redemptam esse a iudicibus confitentur; accedit illud, quod illa concionalis hirudo aerarii, misera ac ieiuna plebecula, me ab hoc Magno unice diligi putat, et 16o hercule multa et iucunda consuetudine coniuncti inter nos sumus, usque eo, ut nostri isti comissatores coniurationis, barbatuli iuvenes, ilium in sermonibus Cn. Ciceronem appellent: itaque et ludis et gladiatoribus mirandas eirardjlulai sine ulla pastoricia fistula aufere12 bamus. Nunc est exspectatio comitiorum, in quae runt means both 'believe,' and 'give credit to' in the mercantile sense. ~ 11. 157-161. melius. adv.: cf. sic, ~ 3. 35, and see on I. 19. 8. et, 'both,' by an anacoluthon similar to those in ~ 8.108 f. and 120 f. the second et does not appear, its place being taken by accedit illud quod, 1. 162. missus...invidiae 'my unpopularity has lost some blood.' He means that the senators have lost some of their jealousy of him since his spirited attacks upon Clodius in their behalf. rem, etc., 'the case was clear and the judges bought.' 163-169. i a contionalis, etc., ' those clamoring blood-suckers of the treasury, the wretched, starveling mob:' cf. p. 57, ~ 22 ad fin. Magno: see on Ep. I. SALUTATION. comissatores: cf. II. 10. 24-28. barbatuli: see on II. 22. 23. gladiatoribus: for case and meaning cf. Mur. 67. 11; for origin of the games, Sull. 54. 17. lratataaas [episemasias] 'expressions of approval,' for which he elsewhere uses significationes: cf. Ep. 1. 2. 8. pastoricia fistula, 'shepherd's pipe,' used scornfully of the hisses of opponents. ~ 12. 170. comitiorum: the consular elections, generally held when? See p. 64, ~ 53.

Page  371 EP. III., 10-13. 371 omnibus invitis trudit noster Magnus Auli filium, 171 atque in eo neque auctoritate neque gratia pugnat, sed quibus Philippus omnia castella expugnari posse dicebat, in quae modo asellus onustus auro posset ascendere; consul autem ille deterioris histrionis similis 175 suscepisse negotiumn dicitur et doini divisores habere, quod ego non credo. Sed senatus consulta duo iam facta sunt odiosa, quod in consulem facta putantur, Catone et Domitio postulante, unum, ut apud magistratus inquiri liceret, alterum, cuius domi divisores180 habitarent, adversus rem publicam; Lurco autem tri-13 bunus pl. solutus est et Aelia et Fufia, ut legem de 171. trudit. etc., 'for which to the disgust of everybody, our Magnus backs (lit. 'pushes') the son of Aulus.' Magnus: cf. ~ 11. 164. Auli filium. L. Afranius, a legatus of Pompeius, is scornfully called the 'son of Aulus,' because his father was absolutely unknown. In spite of Cicero's contempt, he became consul in 60, and proconsul of Gaul in 59. 173-178. Philippus, the great king of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great. consul... ille, Piso, who plays second fiddle to Pompeius by attending to the meaner details of the bribery. negotium: here of bribing the voters; of what in ~ 5. 76? divisores, as in Mur. 54. 28. senatus consulta: see p. 76, ~ 110. odiosa, 'unpopular.' consulem, 'a (not 'the') consul.' 179-181. Catone: see on Mur. 3. 1. Domitio. L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, brother-in-law of Cato. ut, etc., 'that it should be lawful to search the houses of the magistrates,' which seem to have been exempt from such a search. habitarent, 'harbored,' 'frequented.' adversus rem p., 'would act against the public interests,' of course by having bribery agents at his house. This formal protest is all that could be done to prevent unlawful acts of the magistrates: see p. 64, ~ 52. For omission of facturum, see Exc. V. ~ 14 ad fin. Lurco, Aufidius Lurco. ~ 13. 182. Aelia et Pufia: sc. lege. Very little is known about these laws: they confirmed the right of obnuntiatio (p. 72, ~ 89), and also fixed certain days on which the comitia could not meet for legislation. It was from the latter provision that Lurco was relieved, in order that he might propose his law on bribery before the elections, which for the purpose of giving him more time

Page  372 372 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. ambitu ferret, quam ille bono auspicio claudus hom^. promulgavit: ita comitia in a. d. vi. Kal. Sext. dilata 85sssunt. Novi est in lege hoc, ut, qui nummos in tribubus pronuntiarit, si non dederit, impune sit, sin dederit, ut, quoad vivat, singulis tribubus HS. cro cIo cro debeat: dixi hanc legem P. Clodium iam ante servasse; pronuntiare enim solitum esse et non dare. Sed, heus tu! 190videsne consulatum ilium nostrum, quern Curio antea d&o0eoWPv vocabat, si hic factus erit, mimum futurum? quare, ut opinor, (pioaoqopreov, id qucd tu facis, et istos 14 consulatus non flocci facteon. Qaod ad me scribis te in Asiam statuisse non ire, equidsm mallem, ut ires, ac 195vereor, ne quid in ista re minus commode fiat; sed tamen non possum reprehendere consilium tuum, praesertim cum egomet in provinciam non sim pro, were postponed a few days. His j ostrum, 'our famous office, the law did not pass. consulship.' nostrum is not ' edi 183-186. c laudus homo, torial' for meum, but is equiva. 'though lame.' By ancient law lent to Romanorum, as vos, ~ 8. 12: physical defects disqualified a man = tu et alii Athenienses. a7rootwuar from performing public religious [apotheosin] 'a deification.' Otceremonies, and would theLefore, oaoo~,riov [philosopheteon] 'I must if strictly enforced, debar him turn philosopher.' from public office. a. d. vi., etc.: ~ 14. 193-197. non flocci faccf. I. 7. 16 and the refs. on I. 6. 8. teon, 'I must not care a straw for.' pronuntiarit, the usuul word for For case of flocci see on I. 22. 8; the promising of briles by a can- facteon is jestingly formed, in didate. impune, ad.: cf. melius, imitation of the Greek word above, ~ 11. 157. from the Latin stem and Greek 187-192. quosd. vivat, i.e., termination. Quod... scribis: every year as ling as he lived. for the clause see on II. 27. 21; it HS: see A. 378 a: H. 647 IV. 3; P. is a favorite formula of transition 663 n 4. cIa, 'he old abbreviation in the letters to something sugfor mille, later M; three thousand gested by the correspondent. in sestertli arc, amout a hundred and Asiam, as legatus to Cicero's fifty dollars. heus tu, ' see here! ' brother Quintus, who had married a familiar phrase to draw atten- the sister of Atticus. praesertim tion. videsne: for -ne cf. Sull. cum: cf. Ep. II. 1. 8. egomet: 35. 14 1, 7.8. consulatum... see on Sull. 35. 20.

Page  373 EP. III., ~ 13-18. 373 fectus. Epigrammatis tuis, quae in Amaltheo posuisti, 15 contenti erimus, praesertim cum et Thyillus nos reliquerit et Archias nihil de me scripserit, ac vereor, 200 ne, Lucullis quoniam Graecum poima condidit, nunc ad Caecilianam fabulam spectet. Antonio tuo nomine 16 gratias egi eamque epistolam Mallio dedi - ad te ideo antea rarius scripsi, quod non habebam idoneum, cui darem, nec satis sciebam,(quo dare —: valde te vendi- 205 tavi. Cincius si quid ad me tui negotii detulerit, sus- 17 cipiam; sed nunc magis in suo est occupatus, in quo ego ei non desum. Tu, si uno in loco es futurus, crebras a nobis litteras exspectato; plures etiam ipse mittito. Velim ad me scribas, cuiusmodi sit 'Auu0elov tuum, quo 18 ornatu, qua ToToOealT, et, quae poemata quasque historias 211 ~ 15. 198, 199. Epigrammatis, 'inscriptions,' which A t t i c u s wrote beneath the busts of distinguished men in his library, giving brief outlines of their lives. Amalthgo, a name given by Atticus to his library, from the goat Amalthea, which suckled Zeus, perhaps to suggest that books are the best nourishment for the mind. Thyillus: nothing is known of him. 200. Archias, a Greek poet who obtained Roman citizenship, and lived under the patronage of the Luculli and Metelli. Cicero defended him in 62, when his citizenship was questioned, and expected from him in return a poem on his consulship. ~ 16. 202-203. Caecilianam fabulam, i.e., a dramatic poem on the gens Caecilia, to which the Metelli belonged. Antonio.. egi: it appears, therefore, that Antonius granted the request of Ep. II. ~ 3. Mallio, unknown. 205. quo darem, 'your address.' valde... venditavi, 'praised you highly,' i.e., to Antonius. The metaphor is from puffing what one has for sale. ~ 17. 206. Cincius, the procurator (see on Sull. 56. 10) of Atticus. 209. exspectato: for tense see on III. 23. 2; is this parallel with scito, Ep. I. 1. 5? ~ 18. 210, 211. Velim... scribas... sit; explain the mood of each: cf. Sull. 46. 18. 'ApaAlOEov [Amaltheion], the Latin word is explained ~ 15. 198. roiro0eriq [topothesia], situation.'

Page  374 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. de 'A4ualelt habes, ad me mittas: libet mihi facere in Arpinati. Ego tibi aliquod de meis scriptis mittam: nihil erat absoluti. IV. (AD ATT. I. 18.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. 1 Nihil mihi nunc scito tam deesse quam hominem eum, quocum omnia, quae me cura aliqua afficiunt, communicem, qui me amet, qui sapiat, quicum ego ex animo loquar, nihil fingam, nihil dissimulem, nihil 5 obtegam; abest enim frater d&perzaaTo; et amantissimus; tu autem, qui saepissime curam et angorem animi mei sermone et consilio levasti tuo, qui mihi et in publica re socius et in privatis omnibus conscius et omnium 212-214. 'ApaRl0a [Amaltheia], the goat mentioned on ~ 15. 198. facere: sc. Amaltheum. Cicero intends to build at Arpinum a library like that of Atticus. Arpinati: sc. villa. nihil erat absoluti, ' I have nothing finished:' for tense of erat (=est) see Exc. V. ~ 15. absoluti, partitive genitive. This letter contains examples of almost all the idioms mentioned in Exc. V. ~~ 14, 15, and examples of each should be carefully noted. IV. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written from Rome to Atticus in Epirus, in January, 60. He asks for Atticus' sympathy and advice in the threatening state of public affairs. This letter is the first to mention (~ 4) Clodius' wish to become a plebeian, and Cicero's indifferent tone shows that he had not yet realized the significance of the act. Read p. 41, ~~ 75 and 76. SALUTATION: Review the notes on Ep. III. Salutation. ~ 1. 3. quicum, abl. sing. masc.: cf. Sull. 83.13, and on Mur. 22.41. 5-8. abest frater: where? cf. Ep. III. 14.194. pAtixararo; [aphelestatos], 'most candid.' publica re: what does this order show?

Page  375 EP. III., ~ 18; IV., ~ 1-2. 375 meorum sermonum et consiliorum particeps esse soles, ubinam es? ita sum ab omnibus destitutus, ut tantum o0 requietis habeam, quantum cum uxore et filiola et mellito Cicerone consumitur: nam illae ambitiosae nostrae fucosaeque amicitiae sunt in quodam splendore forensi, fructum domesticum non habent; itaque, cum bene completa domus est tempore matutino, cum. ad 15 forum stipati gregibus amicorum descendimus, reperire ex magna turba neminem possumus, quocum aut iocari libere aut suspirare familiariter possimus. Quare te exspectamus, te desideramus, te iam etiam arcessimus; multa sunt enim, quae me sollicitant anguntque, quae 20 mihi videor aures nactus tuas unius ambulationis serinone exhaurire posse. Ac domesticarum quidem solli- 2 citudinum aculeos omnes et scrupulos occultabo, neque ego huic epistolae atque ignoto tabellario committam; atque hi - nolo enim te permoveri - non sunt per- 25 molesti, sed tamen insident et urgent et nullius amantis consilio aut sermone requiescunt: in re publica vero, quamquam animus est praesens, tamen voluntas etiam atque etiam ipsa me deficit; nam, ut ea breviter, quae 11-15. uxore, filiola, etc.: see on IV. 3. 14, 15. mellito, 'darling.' nam illae, etc., 'for these political and pretended friendships have a certain public glitter.' completa, etc.: see on I. 10. 28. 16-21. stipati.. descendimus: many of those who paid their respects to great men in the morning (see on I. 10. 28) remained to escort them to the forum, and even accompanied them home when the duties of the day were over. descendere, the regular word for going to the forum, as the homes of the higher classes were on the surrounding hills (p. 31, ~ 50). unius... sermone, 'with the talk of a single turn in the open air.' ~ 2. 22-29. Ac: see on Sull. 3. 30. aculeos: see on Sull. 47. 22. scrupulos, small pointed stones that might get into the shoe. The two words are used metaphorically of anything that causes worry or uneasiness. ut.. colligam, 'altlhough I put together briefly:' for ut concessive

Page  376 376 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. 30 post tuum discessum acta sunt, colligam, iam exclames necesse est res Romanas diutius stare non posse. Etenim post profectionem tuam primus, ut opinor, introitus fuit in causam fabulae Clodianae, in qua ego nactus, ut mihi videbar, locum resecandae libidinis et 35 coercendae iuventutis vehemens fui et omnes profudi vires animi atque ingenii mei, non odio adductus alicuius, sed spe rei publicae corrigendae et sanandae 3 civitatis: afflicta res publica est empto constupratoque iudicio. Vide, quae sint postea consecuta: consul est 40 impositus is nobis, quem nemo praeter nos philosophos aspicere sine suspiritu posset. Quantum hoc vulnus! facto senatus consulto de ambitu, de iudiciis nulla lex perlata, exagitatus senatus, alienati equites Romani: sic ille annus duo firmamenta rei publicae per me unum 45 constituta evertit; nam et senatus auctoritatem abiecit et ordinum concordiam diiunxit. Instat hic nunc annus see A. 313, a; G. 610; H. 515, III.; B. 308. 30. exclames: for mood cf. Sull. 68. 16. 32-36. profectionem. Atticus had left Rome for Epirus at the end of 62 or beginning of 61. He returned to Rome at the end of 60, but went back to Epirus in May, 59. introitus, etc., 'was the first entrance of the farce of Clodius into politics:' see Ep. III. resecandae, coercendae, metaphor from pruning and tieing of vines. odio alicuius, ' hatred for any one:' what kind of a genitive? ~3. 38-43. empto constupratoque, 'purchased and debauched:' cf. Ep. III. 5. 75-80. consul is, Piso: cf. Ep. III. 1. 12. vulnus: sc. est, and cf. Sull. 57. 15. hoc refers to the following clause: what pronoun might have been expected? Cf. Sull. 85. 34; III. 13 48. facto... consulto, concessive. de ambitu: cf. Ep. III. ~ 13. de iudiciis, 'about the courts:' notice the asyndeton, The senate on motion of Cato had resolved that inquiry should be made into the corruption of the courts, especially of that which tried Clodius, and that the people should be asked to authorize this investigation by a plebiscitum (p..59, ~ 29 ad fin.). No action, however, was taken by the comi, tia. perlata, etc.: sc. est (sunt); see Exc. V. ~ 14 ad fin. 46. Hic annus, 60: the consuls are named in the date.

Page  377 EP. IV., ~ 2-4. 377 egregius. Eius initium eiusmodi fuit, ut anniversaria sacra Iuventatis non committerentur: nam M. Luculli uxorem Memmius suis sacris initiavit, Menelaus aegre id passus divortium fecit, quamquam ille pastor Idaeus 50 Menelaum solum contempserat, hic noster Paris tam Menelaum quam Agamemnonem liberum non putavit. Est autem C. Herennius quidam tribunus pl., quem 4 tu fortasse ne nosti quidem-tametsi potes nosse, tribulis enim tuus est et Sextus, pater eius, nummos 55 vobis dividere solebat-: is ad plebem P. Clodium traducit idemque fert, ut universus populus in campo Martio suffragium de re Clodii ferat; hune ego accepi 48-52. sacra Iuventatis, 'ceremonies in honor of Youth (Hebe).' They were conducted under the auspices of the Luculli, and were omitted this year owing to the scandal caused by the intrigue of C. Memmius, curule aedile (p. 67, ~ 65 (d ) with the wife of Lucullus. Menelaus, etc., an allusion to the story of Troy. Paris, son of the King of Troy, had been raised as a shepherd on Mount Ida (pastor Idaeus), and was promised by a goddess the most beautiful woman in the world for his wife. He found her in Helen of Greece, wife of Menelaus, and induced her to accompany him to Troy. The crime resulted in the ten years' siege and destruction of Troy by the Greeks under Agamemnon, brother of Menelaus. Here Lucullus is Menelaus, Memmius is Paris, and an unknown person, also wronged by Melmmius, is Agamemnon. liberum non putavit, ' treated as a slave,' i.e., with insult and injury. ~ 4. 53-58. C. Herennius quidam: witl a proper name quidan is always used slightingly, to imply that the person mentioned is obscure and insignificant. tribulis tuus, 'a man of your tribe:' see p. 58, ~ 25. vobis = tibi et tuis tribulibus: cf. Ep. III. 8. 122. nummos dividere: cf. divisores, Ep. III. 12. 176. ad plebem... traducit. As Clodius was of a patrician family he could hold the tribuneship only by formally renouncing his privileges, or by being adopted by a plebeian. Such an act ought to have been authorizetl by the comitia curiata (p. 59, ~ 28), but in that assembly the senate was all powerful. Herennius therefore proposed to have the whole people act upon the question. traducit, conative present: see A. 276 b; G. 218 Rem. 2; H. 467 III. 6;B.2592. hunc accepi, 'treated him.'

Page  378 378 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. in senatu, ut soleo, sed nihil est illo homine lentius. 5 Metellus est consul egregius et nos amat, sed imminuit 61 auctoritatem suam, quod habet dicis causa promulgatum illud idem de Clodio; Auli autem filius, o di immortales! quam ignavus ac sine animo miles! quam dignus, qui Palicano, sicut facit, os ad male audiendum quotidie 6 praebeat! agraria autem lex promulgata est a Flavio, 66 sane levis, eadem fere, quae fuit Plotia. Sed interea nolTtlx6 dlq o0' ovag quisquam inveniri potest; qui poterat, familiaris noster —sic est enim: volo hoc te scire - Pompeius togulam illam pictam silentio tuetur 70 suam; Crassus verbum nullum contra gratiarn; ceteros iam nosti, qui ita sunt stulti, ut amissa re publica pis7 cinas suas fore salvas sperare videantur. Unus est, qui curet constantia magis et integritate quam, ut mihi videtur, consilio aut ingenio, Cato, qui miseros publi 59. lentius, ' insensible,' i.e., proof against all of Cicero's arguments and jeers. ~ 5. 61-64. habet promulgatum: for the participle see on I. 1. 8. dicis causa: 'for form's sake.' Metellus had taken some formal part without realizing the real purpose of Clodius. Palicano. M. Lollius Palicanus was a candidate for the consulship of 60, along with Metellus and Afranius, but his character was so bad that Piso (~ 3. 39), who was prtsiding over the comitia (p. 64, ~ 53, ad fin.), declared that he would not return his name (p. 61, ~ 38) if he were elected. sicut facit, sc. an adverb: see on Sull. 28. 35. os... praebeat, ' to expose his face daily to be abused:' we do not know to what Cicero alludes. male audiendum, a colloquialism, lit.,' to hear evil of one's self.' ~ 6. 65,66. praebeat: for mood, A. 320f; G. 556 Rem. 2; H. 503 II. 2; B. 282 2, 3. lex... Plotia, to distribute land among the soldiers of Pompeius. 67-70. roXltrLKb dav)p oiv' vap [politikos aner oud' onar], 'no real statesman can be found, not even the ghost of one.' sic: cf. Ep. III. 3. 35. togulam... pictam, a slighting reference to tile vanity of Pompeius, who liked to wear in public the toga picta: see on Mur. 11. 13; notice the diminutive. piscinas: Sums of money almost beyond belief were spent by the wealthy upon the fishponds in which all sorts of rare fish, were fed for the table. ~ 7. 74. Cato: the opinion ex

Page  379 EP. IV., ~ 4-8. 379 canos, quos habuit amantissimos sui, tertium iam men- 75 sem vexat neque iis a senatu responsum dari patitur: ita nos cogimur reliquis de rebus nihil decernere, antequam publicanis responsum sit; quare etiam legationes reiectum iri puto. Nunc vides, quibus fluctibus iactemur, 8 et, si ex iis, quae scripsimus tanta, etiam a me non scrip- so ta perspicis, revise nos aliquando et, quamquam sunt haec fugienda, quo te voco, tamen fac, ut amorem nostrum tanti aestimes, ut eo vel cum his molestiis perfrui velis; nam, ne absens censeare, curabo edicendum et proponendum locis omnibus, sub lustrum autern cen- 85 pressed here of his character is wait:' for form cf. Ep. III. 2. 34. confirmed by all we know of him. ~ 8. 80-84. ex iis... tanta: miseros publicanos: the taxes for trans. see on Mur. 12. 26. imposed upon the provinces were quo = what? Cf. IV. 21. 25; farmed out by the censors (p. 65, III. 28. 25; Mur. 28. 18. tanti: ~ 58) to publicani, men of the ordo case, and why? vel, intensive equestris. They paid a round sum with the phrase cum molestiis: into the treasury for the chance of cf. Ep. III. 5. 83. ne absens squeezing a larger sum out of the censeare, 'that you shall not be provincials. Those who had lately registered in your absence.' Attibought the revenues of Asia had cus would naturally prefer to be bid more than they could collect, present when the list of his posand had asked the senate (p. 74, sessions was mnade out (p. 65, ~ 56), ~ 98) to release them from their and still his interests in Epirus contract. might demand his presence there 76-78. cogimur nihil decer- as long as possible. Cicero hints nere: in order to put a stop to that to appear before the censors at persistent opposition, the senate the very last moment allowed was sometimes voted that no other not good form. business should receive attention 85. sub lustrum, 'just at until the question at issue was the expiration of the time.' The settled. This action had been word originally meant the ceretaken about Clodius' trial, and mony of purification that had in now about the petition of the ancient times ended tle regispublicani. legationes, from tration, and so Cicero uses it foreign nations. February was here of the period (18 months) the regular month for attending which the censors actually served; to foreign affairs: cf. p. 74, ~ 97. for its more usual meaning see reiectum iri, 'will be made to p. 65, ~ 56.

Page  380 380 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. seri germani negotiatoris est. Quare cura, ut te quam primurn videamus. Vale. xi. Kal. Febr. Q. Metello L. Afranio coss. V. (AD ATT. II. 23.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. 1 Numquam ante arbitror te epistolam meam legisse, nisi mea manu scriptam: ex eo colligere poteris, quanta occupatione distinear; nam, cum vacui temporis nihil haberem et cum recreandae voculae causa necesse esset 2 mihi ambulare, haec dictavi ambulans. Primum igitur 86-88. germani negotiatoris, 'of a tradesman pure and simple:' for case cf. IV. 8. 22. Vale: see Exc. V. ~ 13 ad fin. XI... coss. So full a date is unusual. coss.: this (or cos.) is the regular abbreviation for consulibus wlere used to fix the year, and shows that n before s must have had a very weak sound; cons. did not come into use before 200 A.D. V. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written from Rome to Atticus in Epirus (see on Ep. IV. 2. 32), in August 59, therefore eighteen months after the preceding letter. The adoption of Clodius had been at last accomplished, he was a candidate for the tribunate at the approach ing election, and was already beginning to utter threats against Cicero. The letter shows how little the latter comprehended the political manoeuvres of Caesar, and how blindly he still trusted to Pompeius. Read p. 41, ~~ 75, 76. ~ 1. 2-5. nisi... scriptam: see Exc. V. ~ 6; for nisi with participle cf. Ep. III. 5. 67. occupatione, 'business,' explained in ~ 3. voculae, 'what is left of my voice,' will fairly represent the diminutive. mihi: for case A. 272, a r. 1; G. 535. Rem. 1; what other case should we expect? ambulare, walking in the open air was believed to be good for the voice. What other mood could we have had? cf. Ep. IV. 2. 30.

Page  381 EP. IV., ~ 8; V., ~ 1-3. 381 illud te scire volo, Sampsiceramum, nostrum amicum, 6 vehementer sui status poenitere restituique in eum locum cupere, ex quo decidit, doloremque suum impertire nobis et medicinam interdum aperte quaerere, quam ego posse inveniri nullam puto; deinde omnes o0 illius partis auctores ac socios nullo adversario consenescere, consensionem universorum nec voluntatis nec sermonis maiorem umquam fuisse. Nos autem - 3 nam id te scire cupere certo scio - publicis consiliis nullis intersumus totosque nos ad forensem operam 15 laboremque contulimus, ex quo, quod facile intelligi possit, in multa commemoratione earum rerum, quas gessimus, desiderioque versamur. Sed fow'naog nostrae consanguineus non mediocres terrores iacit atque denuntiat et Sampsiceramo negat, ceteris prae se fert et 26 ~ 2. 6-13. Sampsiceramum, a nickname given to Pompeius from a petty prince whom he defeated in the East, and whom he may have mentioned too often in his despatches: for case and that of status see refs. on factorum IV. 20. 8. poenitere, cupere. Pompeius was dissatisfied with the inferior part in politics which he had to take under Caesar, but he did not have enough decision of character to do more than coquet with the senate. Notice that Sampsiceramum is object of poenitere and subject of cupere: for a similar double construction, cf. quibus II. 25. 12. universorum... sermonis, 'unanimity on the part of all in policy and word:' for the double genitives cf. IV. 15. 24; for voluntas in political sense see on Sull. 10. 34. ~ 3. 14-20. certo scio. Cicero uses the form certo with scio only, and only when the verb is in the 1st pers. sing. and has an infinitive clause dependent upon it; certum scio (nescio) he always uses absolutely, i.e., without a dependent clause. in... versamur, ' we live amid much talk of the deeds which we have done and great desire for them.' He means that he often hears men speaking of his consulship, and wishing that he would resume his political activity. Bo0Lros [bo6pidos] nostrae 'of our soft-eyed friend:' the 'soft-eyed one' is Clodia, the elder sister of Clodius. consanguineus, Clodius. Samp. negat, 'denies the threats to Pompeius.' ceteris prae se fert, 'asserts them openly to others.'

Page  382 382 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. ostentat; quamobrem, si me amas tantum, quantum profecto amas, si dormis, expergiscere, si stas, ingredere, si ingrederis, curre, si curris, advola: credibile non est, quantum ego in consiliis et prudentia tua, quodque 25 maximum est, quantum in amore et fide ponam. Magnitudo rei longam orationem fortasse desiderat, coniunctio vero nostrorum animorum brevitate contenta est: permagni nostra interest te, si comitiis non potueris, at declarato illo esse Romae. Cura, ut valeas. VI. (AD Q. FRATREM I. 2 [~ 15 FOLL.].) MARCUS QUINTO FRATRI SAL. 15 Nunc ea cognosce, quae maxime exoptas: cam funditus amisimus, adeo ut C. Cato, rem publiadolescens 24-29. quodque, etc., refer to the following words. permagni nostra interest, 'it is of the greatest moment to me.' permagni: for case cf. tanti, Ep. IV. 8. 83; is the intensive per- ever used with verbs? See on Sull. 23. 33. nostra: for case cf. Sull. 2. 23; IV. 9. 1. comitiis: sc. tribuniciis. The election of Clodius was so certain that Cicero does not insist on the coming of Atticus before the comitia, the date of which we do not know. at declarato, etc., 'at least be at Rome after his election,' i.e., before his term as tribune actually begins (p. 63, ~ 48 ad fin.). cura, utvaleas: see Exc. V. ~ 13 ad fin., and cf. Ep. IV. 8 87. Atticus returned to Rome in November, and exerted himself manfully but unsuccessfully in Cicero's behalf. VI. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written from Rome to Quintus in Asia in the latter part of November or first part of December, 59, therefore tliree or four months after the preceding letter. Clodius had been elected tribune, but had as yet accomplished nothing to alarm Cicero. Read p. 42, ~ 77. The

Page  383 EP. V., ~ 3; VI., ~ 15-16. 383 nullius consilii, sed tamen civis Romanus et Cato, vix vivus effugerit, quod, cum Gabinium de ambitu vellet postulare neque praetores diebus aliquot adiri possent 5 vel potestatem sui facerent, in contionem escendit et Pompeium privatum dictatorem appellavit: propius nihil est factum, quam ut occideretur. Ex hoc, qui sit status totius rei publicae, videre potes. Nostrae tamen 16 causae non videntur homines defuturi: mirandum in 10 modum profitentur, offerunt se, pollicentur. Equidem cum spe sum maxima, tur maiore etiam animo, spe, greater part of the letter is omitted, as having nothing to do with Cicero's political affairs. SALUTATION: Marcus Quinto: see Exc. V. ~ 12. Fratri. Q. Tullius Cicero was the orator's younger and only brother, and had been educated with him at home and abroad. He married Pomponia, the sister of Atticus, but his hasty temper and her sensitiveness made their married life unhappy, and they separated in 45. Quintus was aedile in 65, praetor in 62, and propraetor of Asia from 61 to 58. He left his province about the time Cicero went into exile and hurried to Rome, fearing a prosecution for misgovernment. This he escaped, and he worked zealously for his brother's recall. In 57 lhe was legatus to Pompeius in Sardinia. in 54 to Caesar in Gaul and Britain. He took sides with Pompeius in the civil war, but was pardoned by Caesar, only to fall a victim to the proscription of 43. ~ 15. 2-5. funditus: for another adverb in -us cf. Ep. III. 9. 125. C. Cato, a man of shifting principles, strong prejudices, and violent temper. nullius consilii: for case cf. modi, Sull. 64. 27; III. 25. 23. et Cato, 'and a Cato,' i.e., his mere name entitled him to respect. Gabinium. Aulus Gabinius and L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus were the consuls-elect, both men of the basest character and tools of the triumvirate. postulare,' to accuse,' ' bring suit against,' a legal term. praetores, p. 65, ~ 59, Exc. II. ~ 7. 6-8. potestatem sui facerent, 'would not allow themselves to be spoken to,' lit. 'would not give him a chance at them;' in a different sense Caes. I. 40. 8. in contionem, 'the platform:' give the three meanings of this word, Mur. 50. 6. quam ut occideretur: for tle clause see A. 332 b: G.647Rein.4; H.5022; B.2844. Ex hoc = ex hac re: gender of hoc? Parallel use of the neuter? Cf. Sull. 31. 19. What is the objection to this substantive use of the pronoun?

Page  384 384 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. superiores fore nos, animo, ut in hac.re publica ne casum quidem ullum pertimescam. Sed tamnen se res 15 sic habet: si diem nobis Clodius dixerit, tota Italia concurret, ut multiplicata gloria discedamus; sin autem vi agere conabitur, spero fore studiis non solum amicorum, sed etiam alienorum ut vi resistamus. Omnes et se et suos amicos clientes, libertos servos, pecunias 20 denique suas pollicentur. Nostra antiqua manus bonorum ardet studio nostri atque amore; si qui antea aut alieniores fuerant aut languidiores, nunc horum regum odio se cum bonis coniungunt. Pompeius omnia pollicetur et Caesar, quibus ego ita credo, ut nihil de mea 25 comparatione deminuam. Tribuni pl. designati sunt ~ 16. 13, 14. superiores fore nos: this clause in apposition with spe takes the construction that regularly follows words of hoping (see on I. 9. 25), while the clause ut... pertimescam in apposition with animo takes the construction (result) that would be used were animo omitted, because the noun animus has no meaning in itself to suggest any special construction. in hac re publica, 'even though the condition of the state is such,' i.e., as he has just described it: for the concessive phrase see on II. 18. 12. ne casum quidem; connect the quidem witl in hac re publica and the ne with the verb. The emphatic word does not always stand between the ne and quidem, though some word always does. Sed tamen; see on Mur. 48. 1. 15-18. diem dixerit: this is the term used of a magistrate who brought a criminal charge be fore the comitia, something which no private citizen could do. Such a charge could not be sprung upon the accused without notice; a day had to be set, hence the phrase. Private citizens could bring criminal charges before the standing courts only (Exc. II. ~~ 7 and 11), for which tlhe terms are postulare (~ 15. 5) and reuin facere. tota Italia, as actually happened when his recall was brought before the comitia centuriata. discedamus, 'come off.' vi: for this abl. of manner (so in 1. 18) see on silentio, Sull. 62. 25. fore, ut resistamus: cf. Ep. III. 7. 105; necessary or unnecessary? 21-24. studio nostri atque amore: for case of nostri cf. alicuius, Ep. IV. 2. 36; for its form, Ep. II. 1. 7; for its position, Ep. III. 2. 27. regum, who? pollicetur, same position as nostri above. ita... ut, restrictive: cf. for trans. Mur. 5. 1-3.

Page  385 EP. VI., ~ 16; VII. 385 nobis amici; consules se optimos ostendunt; praetores habemus amicissimos et acerrimos cives Domitium, Nigidium, Memmium, Lentulun; bonos etiam alios, sed hos singulares: quare magnum fac animum habeas et spem bonam; de singulis tamen rebus, quae quotidie 30 gerantur, faciam te crebro certiorem. VII. (AD ATT. III. 1.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. Cum antea maxime nostra interesse arbitrabar te esse nobiscum, tum vero, ut legi rogationem, intellexi ad iter id, quod constitui, nihil mihi optatius cadere posse, 26-28. amici, of course excluding Clodius. consules: sc. designati: see on ~ 15. 4. optimos: he was soon unldeceived on this point. praetores: sc. designatos. Domitium: see on Ep. III. 12. 179. Nigidium: see on Sull. 42. 28. Memmium: see on Ep. IV. 3. 48. Lentulum: see on Ep. III. 3. 38. alios: how many praetors were there? VII. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written on the road to Brundisium to Atticus in Rome (see on Ep. V. ~ 3 ad fin.) at the beginning of April, 58. Read p. 43, ~~ 78 and 79. The bills (rogationes, see on Sull. 62. 1) of Clodius must be carefully distinguished:I. A bill in general terms, ut qui civem Romanum indemnatum interemisset, ei aqua et igni interdiceretur. This bill did not become a law, as Cicero left the city before it was acted upon, and Clodius let it drop. II. A bill aimed at Cicero individually (privilegium), ut M. Tullio aqua et igni interdiceretur. During the 17 days that had to intervene between the proposal and passing of a law (I. 4. 13) Cicero's friends got a clause inserted, II. (a), limiting the interdict to a distance of 400 miles from the city, and in this modified form

Page  386 386 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. quam ut tu me quami primum consequerere, ut, cum ex 5 Italia profecti essemus, sive per Epirum iter esset faciendum, tuo tuorumque praesidio uteremur, sive aliud quid agendum esset, certum consilium de tua sententia capere possemus; quamobrem te oro, des operam, ut me statim consequare, quod eo facilius potes, quoniam 10 de provincia Macedonia perlata lex est. Pluribus verbis teculn agerem, nisi pro me apud te res ipsa loqueretur. the bill became a law in the comitia tributa. When Cicero gave way before the first bill (I.), he retired to one of his country seats (probably the one near Arpinum: see on Ep. III. 18. 213), and remained there until he heard of the second rogatio (II.), not later than March 19. He then started for the East, intending to leave Italy by way of Brundisium, and expecting to be accompanied by Atticus. He writes this letter to notify Atticus of his departure. 1. nostra: for case cf. Ep. V. 3. 28. 2. rogationem, II. 4. consequerere: for mood see on Ep.VI. 15. 8. 6. tuo tuorumque: for position cf. Sull. 69. 26; IV. 9. 1. praesidio, against the banished Catilinarians living in Epirus. 10, 11. de provincia..lex: the regular method of assigning the consular provinces has been explained (cf. Ep. III. 8. 116), but Clodius, in order to secure the aid of tlhe consuls, had proposed a law assigning Macedonia to Piso, and Cilicia (afterwards Syria) to Gabinius. Atticus had large investments in Macedonia, and had therefore desired to stay in Rome until the law was voted on. Pluribus verbis: for the thought cf. Ep. V. 3. 25 f.

Page  387 EP. VII.; VIII. 387 VIII. (AD ATT. II. 3.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. Utinam ilium diem videam, cum tibi agam gratias, quod me vivere coegisti! adhuc quidem valde me poenitet. Sed te oro, ut ad me Vibonem statim venias, quo ego multis de causis converti iter meum: scilicet, eo si veneris, de toto itinere ac fuga mea consilium capere potero; si id non feceris, mirabor, sed confido te esse facturum. 5 VIII. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written on the road to Vibo to Atticus in Rome; the date cannot be precisely fixed. Before reaching Brundisium (see Ep. VII.) Cicero suddenly changed his mind, and turned his course to Vibo in Bruttium, on the western coast of Italy. He probably thought it safer to wait for Atticus in Vibo than in Brundisium, because in the event of sudden violence threatening him, he could more easily escape from the former town to Sicily than from the latter to Greece. At any rate, he writes this note to ask Atticus to follow him at once. 2-6. vivere coegisti. Cicero tells us again and again that he had made up his mind to die by his own hand, and had only consented to live on account of Atticus' earnest persuasion. me poenitet: sc. vivere, or (cf. Ep. V. 2. 7 status) vitae. si... feceris, mirabor: see on Sull. 7. 1.

Page  388 388 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. IX. (AD ATT. in. 4.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. Miseriae nostrae potius velim quam inconstantiae tribuas, quod a Vibone, quo te arcessebamus, subito discessimus; allata est enim nobis rogatio de pernicie mea, in qua quod correctum esse audieramus, erat 5 eiusmodi, ut mihi ultra quadringenta milia liceret esse. Illo cum pervenire non liceret, statim iter Brundisium versus contuli ante diem rogationis, ne et Sicca, apud IX. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written on the way from Vibo to Brundisium, shortly after Ep. VIII., to Atticus in Rome. While at Vibo Cicero learned that C. Vergilius (p. 44, ~ 81) would not receive him in Sicily, and also received a copy of the revision of the second bill (see Ep. VII. Int. Note), with tile four hundred mile clause. Shut out from Sicily, and unwilling to go to Africa, lie now resumes his first plan (Ep. VII., Int. Note ad fin.), and again asks Atticus to quo = what? rogatio, marked II. (a) in Ep. VII. Int. Note. in qua: the relative must be forced back to rogatio in spite of the nearer fern. sing. pernicie; cf. Sutll. 24. 13; IV. 17. 28. quod correctum, etc.,' the amendment which we had heard of.' He was waiting to learn its exact form. 5, 6. erat eiusmodi, 'was (a clause) to this effect.' ultra... milia, i.e., from Rome. This limit did not shut out Malta (Melitae, 1. 8), but with the terrible penalties of tlhe law before him (p. 44, ~ 80) Cicero could not meet him at Brundisium. afford to be too nice in his meas1-4. Miseriae.. tribuas, urements. Illo, i.e., within the quod, etc.: cf. Caes. I. 13. 5. ve- 400 miles of Rome. Brundisium, lim tribuas: for moods cf. Ep. place 'whither' with iter contuli. III. 18. 210. a Vibone: the 7, 8. versus, 'in the direction preposition is used because he had of,' an adv., not a prep.: it been near, not in, the town; see always follows a noun denoting A. 258 a note 1; G. 411 Rem. 1; place, but has no influence upon H. 412 II., 3 note; B. 229 2. its construction. ne et... et

Page  389 EP. IX.; X. 389 quem eram, periret et quod Melitae esse non licebat. Nunc tu propera, ut nos consequare, si modo recipiemur: adhuc invitamur benigne, sed, quod superest, timemus. 10 Me, mi Pomponi, valde poenitet vivere, qua in re apud me tu plurimum valuisti; sed hoc coram: fac modo, ut venias. X. (AD ATT. III. V.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. Terentia tibi et saepe et maximas agit gratias: id est mihi gratissimum. Ego vivo miserrimus et maximo dolore conficior. Ad te quid scribam, nescio; si enim es Romae, iam me assequi non potes, sin quod: in correlative clauses with et... et, aut... ant, etc., we often meet two irregularities: (1) Words belonging to but one of the clauses are put before both, and (2) Words belonging to both clauses are inserted in one of them. Here we have an example of (1): the ne belongs to the first clause only, and the correct arrangement would be et ne... et quod. Melitae: case? 9-11. recipiemur, 'are admitted (into the city).' What case would urbs have if expressed? cf. Caes. II. 3. 3. valde... valuisti: cf. Ep. VIII. 1. 2-3. hoc coram: sc. agemus; see Exc. V. ~ 14 ad fin. X. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written from Thurii, a town in Lucania on the road between Vibo and Brundisium, to Atticus in Rome on the 6th of April. 1, 2. Terentia had remained in Rome to look after Cicero's property, and had probably written to him of some kind and generous acts of Atticus. agit gratias, 'expresses gratitude.' Gratia is always in the plural with ago, and always in the singular with habeo; gratiam habeo = 'I feel thankful,' gratias ago = ' I express my thanks.' What does gratiam refero mean? See on Sull. 47. 31. gratissimum: for meaning see on IV. 1. 5.

Page  390 390 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. 5 es in via, cum eris me assecutus, coram agemus, quae erunt agenda: tantum te oro, ut, quoniam me ipsum semper amasti, ut eodem amore sis; ego enim idem sum: inimici mei mea mihi, non me ipsum ademerunt. Cura, ut valeas. Data viII. Idus April. 10 Thuriis. XI. (AD ATT. III. 2.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. Itineris nostri causa fuit, quod non habebam locum, ubi pro meo iure diutius esse possem, quam in fundo Siccae, praesertim nondum rogatione correcta, et simul intelligebam ex eo loco, si te haberem, posse me 6-10. ut... ut sis: cf. Sull. 41. 16; III. 4. 23. inimici: notice the alliteration withi m: cf. Sull. 15. 20; IV. 12. 22; 1. 30. 24, 25. mea... non me ipsum, 'my savings... not myself.' mea mihi: for position cf. Ep. VII. 1. 6. Data: see Exc. V. ~ 8. VIII. Idus April: explain the date by the Julian calendar; it is not worth while to use the older. Thuriis: case? see Exc. V. ~ 9. XI. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written between Thurii and Brundisium to Atticus in Rome on the 8th of April. He justifies his change of plan (see Ep. VIII. Int. Note) in turning froni Brundisium to Vibo, probably in answer to some reproach of Atticus, who had pleaded tlhe fatigues of travel as his excuse for not following him. 1-4. Itineris cau s a, quod: the same fulness of expression in Caes. III. 1. 2. pro meo iure, 'considering my rights,' impaired of course by the Clodian law: see p. 54. ~ 5. possem: explain the mood. in fundo Siccae, near Vibo: see on Ep. IX. 1. 2. praesertim... correcta: cf. Ep. IX. 1. 4. intelligebam, parallel with habebarn, 1. 1.

Page  391 EP. XI.; XII. 391 Brundisium referre, sine te autem non esse nobis illas 5 partes tenendas propter Autronium. Nunc, ut ad te antea scripsi, si ad nos veneris, consilium totius rei capiemus: iter esse molestum scio, sed tanta calamitas omnes molestias habet. Plura scribere non possum: ita sum animo perculso et abiecto. Data vi. Idus Apriles. Cura, ut valeas. lo XII. (AD ATT. II. 6.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. Non fuerat mihi dubium, quin te Tarenti aut Brundisii visurus essem, idque ad multa pertinuit, in eis, ut et in Epiro consisteremus et de reliquis rebus tuo consilio uteremur: quoniam id non contigit, erit 5. nobis.. tenendas, 'we ought not to go to those regions;' tenere aliquem locum = (1) cursum tenere in aliquem locum, (2) capere (Caes. IV. 26. 5) aliquem locum, which here? illas, because referring to an abandoned plan. 6-9. propter Autronium (see p. 23, ~ 30, p. 40, ~ 71), whom Cicero had good reason to fear if a copy of the pro Sulla had fallen into his hands: see on Still. 1. 6. calamitas: for meaning see on Sull. 1. 2. habet, as in IV. 7. 18: what may be supplied? XIT. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written near Tarentuln, on the road from Thnrii to Brundisinm, to Atticus in Rome, on the 18th of April. Cicero had waited here several days for letters from Atticus, and seems to lIave learned that Atticus could not join him before he left Italy. 1-3. fuerat (=erat): see Exc. V. ~ 15. id... pertinuit, 'was desirable for many reasons.' in eis, 'among them.' in Epiro, where Atticus made his home when not in Italy.

Page  392 392 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. 5 hoc quoque in magno numero nostrorum malorum. Nobis iter est in Asiam, maxime Cyzicum; meos tibi commendo; me vix misereque sustento. Data xiiiI. Kal. Maias de Tarentino. ' XIII. (AD ATT. II. 7.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. Brundisium veni a. d. xinr. Kal Maias: eo die pueri tui mihi a te litteras reddiderunt, et alii pueri post diem tertium eius diei alias litteras attulerunt. 6-8. Cyzicum, on tle south- ties of the Clodian law to aid its ern shore of the Propontis victim in his time of trouble. (Sea of Marmora): see on Mur. Cicero still shows much hesitation 33. 21. meos: notice the confu- as to his destination, and great sion of the singular and plural anxiety and despair. ('editorial') of pronouns and verbs ~ 1. 1-3. a. d. XIIII., on tle in the first person referring to same day that he wrote Ep. XII. Cicero. XIII. Kal. Maias: ex- The distance from Tarentum to plain the date. de Tarentino: Brundisium in a direct line is about sc. fundo, 'from an estate near forty-five mil. pass.: see Exc. V. Tarentum,' probably that of some ~ 3. Note thle different expression friend (cf. Ep. XI. 1. 2), where he for the same date in Ep. XII. 1. 8, felt safer than in the town. and express botl in full: cf. Exc. V. ~ 8. pueri, 'slaves,' not imXIII. plying youth at all; so also in INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written Greek, German, and English. from Brundisium, to Atticus in post diem tertium, 'three days Rome, on April 30. Cicero. lhad after:' see A. 259 d; G. 400 Rem. waited thirteen days at Brundi- 3; H. p. 230 foot note 4; B. sium for an opportunity tocross to 357 1. eius diei, governed by Greece, entertained by a devoted the whole phrase post diem terand courageous friend. M. Laenius tium: see on Nonarum, Sull. 52. Flaccus, who braved all the penal-1 34.

Page  393 EP. XII.; XIII., ~ 1-2. 393 Quod me rogas et hortaris, ut apud te in Epiro sim, voluntas tua mihi valde grata est et minime nova; 5 esset consilium mihi quidem optatum, si liceret ibi omne tempus consumere - odi enim celebritatem, fugio homines, lucem aspicere vix possum -: esset mihi ista solitudo, praesertim tam familiari in loco, non amara; sed, itineris causa ut deverterer, primum 10 est devium, deinde ab Autronio et ceteris quatridui, deinde sine te; nam castellum munitum habitanti mihi prodesset, transeunti non est necessarium. Quod si auderem, Athenas peterem-sane ita cadebat, ut vellem -: nunc et nostri hostes ibi sunt et te non 15 habemus et veremur, ne interpretentur illud quoque oppidum ab Italia non satis abesse, nec scribis, quam ad diem te e xspectemus. Quod me ad vitam vocas, 2 4-6. Quod rogas, an important construction in epistolary Latin, serving to remind the correspondent of something in one of his letters: see on Ep. III. 14. 193. sim, 'stay;' so in Ep. XI. 1. 2, and in II. 5. 33. voluntas... grata: cf. IV. 1. 5. liceret; the home of Atticus in Epirus was at Buthrotum, within the forbidden distance from Rome. It was here that he had the Amaltheum mentioned Ep. III. 15. 19S. 10-17. itineris causa, 'on account of (the fatigues of) travel:' a pregnant (see on III. 2. 11) use of iter. ut deverterer, ' to stop temporarily.' The connection is very loose (see Exc. V. ~ 14): itineris causa ut diverterer [fieri non potuit (Exc. V. ~ 15) quod] primum, etc. quatridui: sc. spatio (cf. Caes. III. 17. 5) or iter (cf. Caes. IV. 7. 2) abest; distance from a place may be expressed by either abl. or ace., but not by the gen. habitanti... necessarium, 'would be of advantage to me if I made my home there, but is not necessary if I merely pass by.' Notice the difference in the meaning of the present participles and in the moods of the verbs that form their apodoses. Quod si: explain case of quod. cadebat, 'happened,' for the more common compound accidebat: which in Ep. VII. 1. 3? Nunc, as in Sull. 47. 30; IV. 2. 20; III. 17. 27. oppidum, Athens, usually called urbs; but for Rome itself oppidum is occasionally used by Latin writers. ~ 2. 18. Quod vocas, another allusion to something in Atticus' letter: see on ~ 1 h.

Page  394 394 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. unum efficis, ut a me manus abstineam, alterum non 20 potes, ut me non nostri consilii vitaeque poeniteat; quid enim est, quod me retineat, praesertim si spes ea non est, quae nos proficiscentes prosequebatur? non faciam, ut enumerem miserias omnes, in quas incidi per summlam iniuriam et scelus non tam inimicorum 25 meorum quam invidorum, ne et meumn maerorem exagitem et te in eundem luctum vocem: hoc affirmo, neminem umquam tanta calamitate esse affectum nemini mortem magis optandam fuisse, cuius oppetendae tempus honestissimum praetermissum est, 30 reliqua tempora sunt non tam ad medicinam quam 3 ad finem doloris. De re publica video te colligere omnia, quae putes aliquam spem mihi posse afferre mutandarum rerum; quae, quamquam exigua sunt, tamen, quoniam placet, expectemus. Tu nihilo minus, 35 si properaris, nos consequere; nam aut accedemus in Epirum aut tarde per Candaviam ibilmus. Dubitatio 21-23. spes ea, of an early recall: many friends had assured him that his absence would be for a few weeks only. faciam, ut enumerem = enurnerabo: see on III. 7. 16; cf. Sull. 69. 21. 25-30. invidorum. Cicero frequently speaks of 'the envious' as urging him to yield to the bill proposed by his 'enemies.' Among the former he unjustly reckoned Hortensius, and probably alludes to him here. tempus honestissimum: when rogatio I. (Ep. VII. Int. Note) was proposed, in accordance with the advice of Lucullus; see p. 43, ~ 79. reliqua tempora, etc.: the meaning is obscure, perhaps 'coming days will end but cannot cure my pain,' i.e., he will always bear the sense of this humiliation. ~ 3. 31-36. De re publica, 'as to public matters.' This phrase has no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence (it might be cut off by a colon), but is precisely equivalent to the quod clause noticed in ~~ 2. 18 and 1. 4: quod de re p. scribis. It is just as commonly employed in epistolary Latin. exspectemus, 'let us wait for them.' This implies that he will not push on to Asia (Ep. XII. 1. 6), but will wait for Atticus in Epirus in spite of what he has just said in ~ 1. 4-13. Candaviam, a mountainous re

Page  395 EP. XIII., ~ 2-3; XIV., ~ 1. nem autem de Epiro non inconstantia nostra afferebat, sed quod de fratre, ubi eum visuri essemus, nesciebamus; quem quidem ego nec quo modo visurus nec ubi dimissurus sim scio: id est maximum et miserri- 40 mum mearum omnium miseriarum. Ego et saepius ad te et plura scriberem, nisi mihi dolor meus cum omnes partes mentis, tur maxime huius generis facultatem ademisset: videre te cupio. Cura, ut valeas. Data pr. Kal. Maias Brundisii. 45 XIV. (AD FAM. xiv. 4.) TULLIUS S. D. TERENTIAE ET TULLIAE ET CICERONI SUIS. Ego minus saepe do ad vos litteras, quam possum, 1 propterea quod cum omnia mihi tempora sunt misera, tum vero, cum aut scribo ad vos aut vestras lego, con gion in Illyricum (north of Epirus) tlhough which lay the road to Cyzicus by way of Macedonia. 37-40. afferebat ( = affert): cf. erat Ep. III. 18 214. de fratre, ubi eum, a good example of the attraction to the main clause of a word that should stand in the subordinate clause: quod ubi fratrem visuri essemus. diniisaurus sim, 'let him go away,' the regular meaning of dimitto. 41-45. saepius et plura, 'more frequently and at greater length.' huius generis: sc. litterarum, i.e., of writing letters, implied in saepius... scriberem above. Brundisii: case? What other case might have been used? See Exc. V. ~ 9. XIV. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written to his wife, daughter, and son at Rome on the same date and from the same place as Ep. XIII., and showing the same doubt and despondency. SAIUTATION: Tullius, the nomen: see Exc. V. ~ 12. What

Page  396 396 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. ficior lacrimis sic, ut ferre non possim. Quod utinam 5 minus vitae cupidi fuissemus! certe nihil aut non multum in vita mali vidissemus. Quod si nos ad aliquam alicuius commodi aliquando recuperandi spem fortuna reservavit, minus est erratum a nobis; si haec mala fixa sunt, ego vero te quam primnum, mea vita, cupio videre et in in Ep. XII.? in Ep. VI.? Teren- nelius Dolabella. In 45 she was tia. Not much is known of her. divorced and died soon after. She came of a good and wealthy Ciceroni. M. Tullius Cicero was family and was married to Cicero born in 65. He was carefully in 77. Without sharing his lit- educated, at home under his erary tastes she was of assistance father's care and abroad under to him in his political career. She the best teachers of the time. He was conspicuous for the purity was, however, inclined to extravaof her character, the painstaking gance and dissipation. In 44 he with which she managed his house- was at Athens, and one of the hold affairs, and the courage and first to respond to Brutus' call to devotion with whicl she supported arms; he distinguished hlimself as him in his failing fortunes. She a subordinate officer in the civil seems at all times to liave taken a war. Iie was consul in 30, and leading part in the management later proconsul in Asia. But the of his property, and it is supposed spirit of his father had not dethat her love of speculation caused scended upon him, and he died of the gradual coolness between over indulgence soon after llis prothem. She was divorced in 46. consulship. suis: seeExc.V. ~ 12. Tullia: for the name see A. 80 ~ 1. 1-7. vos: the plural c; H. 649 4; P. 666 c. She was throughout the letter means all to born on the 5th of August, 76, whom it is addressed, the singular resembled her father in looks, lan- is used of Terentia only. vesguage, and disposition, and was tras: sc.-? quod utinam, as tenderly loved by him. She was in quod si (Ep. XIII. 1. 13), the married between 64 and 63 to C. quod is a mere connective, 'but;' Calpurnius Piso Frugi, a man of case? mali, partitive with nihil. good family, whose devotion to Cicero constantly repeats his exhis wife and her family testifies to pressions of regret at not having. his nobility of character; lie died fought it out at Rome: cf. Ep. before Cicero's recall. In 56 Tul- XIII. 2. 29. aliquam, alicuius, lia was married to Furius Cras- aliquando: the indefinites are sipes, but they soon separated. purposely used to emphasize his In 50 she was married to P. Cor- hopelessness.

Page  397 EP. XIV., ~ 1-3. 397 tuo complexu emori, quoniam neque di, quos tu castis- 10 sime coluisti, neque homines, quibus ego semper servivi, nobis gratiam rettulerunt. Nos Brundisii apud 2 M. Laenium Flaccum dies xiii. fuimus, virum optimum, qui periculum fortunarum et capitis sui prae mea salute neglexit neque legis improbissimae poena deductus est, 15 quo minus hospitii et amicitiae ius officiumque praestaret: huic utinam aliquando gratiam referre possimus! habebimus quidem semper. Brundisio profecti sumus 3 a. d. II. K. Mai.: per Macedoniam Cyzicum petebamus. ) me perditum! o afflictumn! Quid enim? Rogem te, 20 ut venias? Mulierem aegram, et corpore et aniino confectam. Non rogem? Sine te igitur sim? Opinor, sic agam: si est spes nostri reditus, ean confirmes et rem adiuves; sin, ut ego metuo, transactum est, quoquo modo potes ad me fac venias. Unum hoc scito: si te 25 habebo, non mihi videbor plane perisse. Sed quid Tulliola mea fiet? iam id vos videte: mihi deest consilium. 10, 11. di, quos tu... homines, quibus ego: these words show clearly that Cicero had no faith in the national gods. ~ 2. 14-17. capitis sui: see p. 54, ~ 6. legis... poena, 'the punishment fixed by the shameful law,' subj. gen. hospitii: see on IV. 23. 4. gratiam referre... habebimus: distinguish the meaning of these phrases; see on Ep. X. 1. 1; what does gratias ago mean? possimus: how does this wish differ from that in ~ 1. 5? See on I. 22. 3 and II. 4. 23. ~ 3. 18-24. profecti sumus a. d. II. K. Mai. ( = proficiscimur hodie), ' we start to-day:' see Exc. V. ~ 15. a. d. II., here only for pridie: explain the date and the translation given above. petebamus (= petimus: cf. Ep. XIII. 3.37),' we intend to go.' Rogem: for mood cf. Sull. 30. 10; I. 24. 25. sic agam, 'I will arrange it thus.' confirmes, adiuves, 'strengthen it and aid its realization.' This use of the 2d sing. present subjunctive for a command addressed to a definite person is found in Cicero in his letters only, elsewhere he uses always the imperative. transactum est, 'all is over,' more commonly 'acturn est.' 26-27. quid... fiet, a question that he thinks Terentia will raise: sc. in thought; 'if you come to me.' Tulliola, the name by which Cicero usually speaks of her;

Page  398 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. Sed certe, quoquo modo se res habebit, illius misellae et matrimonio et famae serviendum est. Quid? Cicero 30 meus quid aget? iste vero sit in sinu semper et complexu meo. Non queo plura iam scribere: impedit maeror. Tu quid egeris, nescio: utrum aliquid teneas 4 an, quod metuo, plane sis spoliata. Pisonem, ut scribis, spero fore semper nostrum. De familia liberanda nihil 35 est quod te moveat: primum tuis ita promissum est, te facturam esse, ut quisque esset meritus; est autem in officio adhuc Orpheus, praeterea magno opere nemo; ceterorum servorum ea causa est, ut, si res a nobis abisset, liberti nostri essent, si obtinere potuissent, sin 40 ad nos pertineret, servirent praeterquam oppido pauci. for case see A. 244 d; G. 396, Rem. 1;H. 415 III. note 1; B. 218 6. 28-32. Sed certe... serviendum est, 'But at any cost, no matter how things turn out, the poor girl's marriage and( good name must be regarded.' He means that if her husband prefers that she remain at Rome, she must not cause scandal by leaving him. Quid... aget, another anticipated objection of Terentia. The boy is to come with his mother to his father. sinu et complexu: cf. II. 22. 21-22. Non queo: see on Mur. 55. 9. aliquid: sc. rei familiaris. ~ 4. 33-35. Pisonem: see Int. Note Tullia. nostrum, ' devoted to us.' De familia: for the phrase see on Ep. XIII. 3. 31. primum, etc. 'In the first place, what was promised to yours was that you would act towards them as each deserved. Now, except Orpheus, there is none of them who shows at present much sense of duty. With regard to the others, the condition made is, that if we lost our property they should be my freedmen, if they could obtain permission; but if they still belonged to me they should continue in slavery, except a very few.' That is, Cicero had not freed them at all, but had arranged a mock manumission in the event of the loss of his property. primum has no correlative deinde, which should stand before ceterorum, 1. 38: cf. Sull. 63. 12. 37-39. magno opere is used for the lacking adverb of magnus. a nobis abisset, a phrase taken from the auction-room, meaning the loss of property by being outbid. All Cicero's property that was ' in sight' would be confiscated and sold at auction, but he could, through his friends, buy in such as his reduced means or credit permitted.

Page  399 EP. XIV., ~ 3-6. 399 Sed haec minora sunt. Tu quod me hortaris, ut animo 5 sim magno et spem habeam recuperandae salutis, id velim sit eiusmodi, ut recte sperare possimus. Nunc miser quando tuas iam litteras accipiam? quis ad me perferet? quas ego exspectassem Brundisii, si esset 45 liciturn per nautas, qui tempestatem praetermittere noluerunt. Quod reliquum est, sustenta te, mea Terentia, ut potes. Honestissime viximus, floruimius: non vitium nostrum, sed virtus nostra nos afflixit; peccatum est nullum, nisi quod non una animam cum ornamentis 50 amisimus; sed, si hoc fuit liberis nostris gratius, nos vivere, cetera, quamiquaim ferenda non sunt, feramus. Atqui ego, qui te confirnlo, ipse me non possum. Clo- 6 dium Philetaerum, quod valetudine oculorum impediebatur, hominem fidelem, remisi. Sallustius officio 55 vincit omnes. Pescennius est perbenevolus nobis, quem semper spero tui fore observantem. Sicca dixerat se niecum fore, sed Brundisio discessit. Cura, quoad potes, ut valeas et sic existimes, me vehementius tua miseria quam mea commoveri. Mea Terentia, fidissima atque c0 optima uxor, et mea carissima filiola et spes reliqua nostra, Cicero, valete. Pr. K. Mai. Brundisio. ~ 5. 41-46. quod... hortaris: cf. Ep. XIII. 1. 4. velim sit: for moods cf. Ep. IX. 1. 1, 2. exspectassem Brundisii (= exspectarem hic): for tense see on Ep. XII. 1. 1, and cf. ~ 3. 18. esset licitum: for form see A. 146 c note; G. p. 114; H. 299. tempestatem, a vox media: see on IV. 12.40; what kind of weather here? in Caes. IV. 23.1, and 29.2? 47-52. Quod reliquum est, as in II. 27. 21. nisi quod: what is nisi? Cf. Ep. V. 1. 2. ornamentis: cf. Stll. 50. 1. quamquam ~..feramus; cf. I. 18, 35, 36. ~ 6. 53-62. Clodium Ph., Sallustius, Pescennius, freedmen or clients of Cicero. valetudine, a vox media: what here? Sicca: cf. Ep. XI. 1. 3. Pr. K. the regular abbreviation: notice again the irregular expression substituted for it in ~ 3. 19.

Page  400 400 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. XV. (AD ATT. In. 9.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. 1 Quintus frater cum ex Asia decessisset ante Kal. Maias et Athenas venisset Idibus Maiis, valde fuit ei properandum, ne quid absens acciperet calamitatis, si quis forte fuisset, qui contentus nostris malis non esset. 5 Itaque eum malui properare Romam quam ad me venire, et simul- dicarn enim, quod verum est, ex quo magnitudinem miseriarum mearum perspicere possis - animum inducere non potui, ut aut illum amantissimun mei, mollissimo animo tanto in maerore aspicerem aut meas miseo1 rias luctu afflictas et perditam fortunam illi offerrem aut ab illo aspici paterer. Atque etial illud timebarn, quod profecto accidisset, ne a me digredi non posset: versabatur mihi tempus illud ante oculos, cum ille aut XV. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written from Thessalonica in Macedonia to Atticus in (or on the road from) Rome, on June 13. Cicero reached Thessalonica on the 23d of May, and, giving up the idea of going to Asia, remained there, the guest of his friend Plancius whom he has immortalized in the oration that bears his name. He had sent a messenger to Athens to meet his brother Quintus, who was on his way home from his province, requesting him to come to Thessalonica; but he had changed his mind, thinking it best for Quintus himself that he should hurry on to Rome, and having no heart to see him. ~ 1. 1-10. Quintus frater: read Ep. VI. Sal. Fratri. decessisset: for meaning see on Mur. 37. 8. calamitatis: cf. Ep. XI. 1. 8. fuisset, 'slould be,' expressing in O. 0. the thought of Quintus: what mood and tense in direct form? animum inducere: see on I. 22. 5. amantissimum... animo: for the collocation see on II. 22, 22. offerrem, 'thrust upon.' 12, 13. accidisset: for protasis (cf. Ep. XIV. 3. 26, 27), sc. si ad me venisset. versabatur. oculos: cf. IV. 11. 16.

Page  401 EP. XV., ~ 1-3. 401 lictores dimitteret aut vi avelleretur ex complexu meo; huius acerbitatis eventum altera acerbitate non videndi 15 fratris vitavi. In hunc me casum vos vivendi auctores impulistis; itaque mei peccati luo poenas. Quamquam 2 me tuae litterae sustentant, ex quibus, quantum tu ipse speres, facile perspicio; quae quidem tamen aliquid habebant solatii, antequam eo venisti a Pompeio: " nunc 20 Hortensium allice et eiusmodi viros." Obsecro, mi Pomponi, nondum perspicis, quorum opera, quorum insidiis, quorum scelere perierimus? Sed tecum haec omnia coram agemus; tantum dico, quod scire te puto: nos non inimici, sed invidi perdiderunt. Nunc, si ita 25 sunt, quae speras, sustinebimus nos et spe, qua iubes, nitemur; sin, ut mihi videntur, infirma sunt, quod optimo tempore facere non licuit, minus idoneo fiet. Te- 3 rentia tibi saepe agit gratias. Mihi etiam unum de malis in metu est, fratris miseri negotium, quod si sciam cu- 30 14-17. lictores: see p. 68, ~ 71; for their number see p. 66, ~ 60, ad fin. dimitteret: the promagistrate was not allowed to carry his imperium into the province of another, except in passing directly to and fro between his own province and Rome. If lle stopped for any reason he had to lay aside the imperium, and of course dismiss his lictors. acerbitate... fratris: for the gen. cf. Sull. 6. 86; Mur. 23. 12; I. 12. 32. ~ 2.17-28. Quamquam: meaning in this position? Notice that it is not correlative to tamen, 1. 19: cf. II. 26. 8. a Pompeio. Atticus had described in his letter an encouraging interview with Pompeius, and continued 'nunc, etc.' coram agemus: he is afraid to trust the messenger. tantum, as in Sull. 82. 48; III. 25. 37. nos... perdiderunt: cf. Ep. XIII. 2. 24, 25. quae, 'as,' correlative to ita = talia. speras: sc. esse from sunt, and so niti with lubes from nitemur. spe: for case see A. 254 b 1; G. 403 Rein. 3; H. 425 1 (1) note; B. 218 3. quod, i.e., suicide: cf. Eps. IX. 1. 11,and VIII.. 2-3. optimo tempore: see on Ep. XIII. 2.29. ~ 3. 30. negotium, the threatened suit for misgovernment. Quintus had been upright himself, but the conduct of some of his staff had not been beyond reproach, and his own hasty temper had made him enemies.

Page  402 402 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. iusmodi sit, sciam, quid agendum mihi sit. Me etiam nune istorum beneficiorum et litterarum exspectatio, ut tibi placet, Thessalonicae tenet: si quid erit novi allatum, sciam, de reliquo quid agendum sit. Tu si, ut 35 scribis, Kal. Iuniis Roma profectus es, propediem nos videbis. Litteras, quas ad Pompeium scripsi, tibi misi. Data Id. lun. Thessalonicae. XVI. (AD Q. FRAT. I. 3.) MARCUS QUINTO FRATRI SALUTEM. 1 Mi frater, mi frater, mi frater, tune id veritus es, ne ego iracundia aliqua adductus pueros ad te sine litteris miserim? aut etiam ne te videre noluerim? Ego tibi irascerer? tibi ego possem irasci? Scilicet, tu enim me 5 afflixisti; tui me inimici, tua me invidia, ac non ego te 35, 36. profectus es. Atticus had not left Rome; had he done so Cicero expected his messenger to meet him and deliver the letter on the road. tibi misi, i.e., for examination and delivery if approved. XVI. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written on the same day and from the same place as Ep. XV. to Quintus at Athens, explaining why he recalled his invitation to come to Thessalonica and giving suggestions as to affairs at Rome. Read Int. Notes to Eps. VI. and XV. SALUTATION: Marcus, etc.: cf. Ep. VI. Sal. ~ 1. 1-4. Mi: for form see A. 98 3; G. 29 Rem. 2; H. 185 Note 1; B. 86 2. ne... miserim, 'that it was owing to anger that I sent, etc.' pueros: see on Ep. XIII. 1. 2. Ego tibi... tibi ego notice the different emphasis produced by the different arrange. ment. irascerer, possem: for mood cf. rogem, Ep. XIV. 3. 20; for tense see on contaminarem, Sull. 45. 2.

Page  403 EP. XV., ~ 3; XVI., ~ 1-3. 403 misere perdidi. Meus ille laudatus consulatus mihi te, liberos, patriam, fortunas, tibi velim ne quid eripuerit praeter unum me. Sed certe a te mihi omnia semper honesta et iucunda ceciderunt, a me tibi luctus meae calamitatis, metus tuae, desiderium, maeror, solitudo. lo Ego te videre noluerim? Immo vero me a te videri nolui; non enim vidisses fratrem tuum, non eum, quem reliqueras, non eum, quem noras, non eum, quem flens flentem, prosequentem proficiscens dimiseras, ne vestigium quidemn eius nec simulacrum, sed quandam effi- 15 giem spirantis mortui. Atque utinam me mortuum prius vidisses aut audisses! utinam te non soluin vitae, sed etiam dignitatis meae superstitem reliquissem! Sed testor omnes deos me hac una voce a morte esse 2 revocatum, quod omnes in mea vita partem aliquam 20 tuae vitae repositam esse dicebant: qua in re peccavi scelerateque feci; nam, si occidissem, mors ipsa meam pietatem amoremque in te facile defenderet: nunc commisi, ut me vivo careres, vivo me aliis indigeres, mea vox in domesticis periculis potissimum occideret, quae 25 saepe alienissimis praesidio fuisset. Nam, quod ad te pueri sine litteris venerunt, quoniam vides non fuisse iracundiam causam, certe pigritia fuit et quaedam infinita vis lacrimarum et dolorum. Haec ipsa me quo 3 7-12. te... fortunas: sc. death I had left to you the heritage eripuit from the following eri- of my good name. puerit; cf. Sull. 91. 30. nolu- ~ 2. 19-27. v o c e, 'appeal.' erim: for mood cf. irascerer, quod.. dicebant, in app. with 1. 4: for tense see the note on Sull. voce: see on I. 3. 24. repositam, 45. 2, and cf. Mur. 21. 31-33. 'boundl up.' commisi ut: cf. me videri nolui: regular or Ep. III. 2. 28. me vivo... vivo irreg. construction? See on Sull. me: the first is abl. of separa58. 40. tion, the second abl. abs. occi17, 18. utinam... reliquis- deret, 'die out,' 'cease.' quod iem, i.e., that by an honorable... venerunt: cf. Ep. XIV. 5.

Page  404 404 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. 30 fletu putas scripsisse? eodem, quo te legere certe scio. An ego possum aut non cogitare aliquando de te aut umquam sine lacrimis cogitare? cum enim te desidero, fratrem solum desidero? ego vero suavitate prope aequalem, obsequio filium, consilio parentem; quid 35 mihi sine te umquam aut tibi sine me iucundum fuit? Quid, quod eodem tempore desidero filiam? qua pietate, qua modestia, quo ingenio! effigiem oris, sermonis, animi mei. Quid filium venustissimum mihique dulcissimum? quem ego ferus ac ferreus e complexu dimisi 40 meo, sapientiorem puerum quam vellem, sentiebat enim miser iam, quid ageretur. Quid vero tuum filium, imaginem tuam, quem nleus Cicero et amabat ut fratrem et iam ut maiorem fratrem verebatur? Quid, quod mulierem miserlrimam, fidelissimam coniugem, me 45 prosequi non sum passus, ut esset, quae reliquias com4 munis calamitatis, communes liberos tueretur? Sed tamen, quoquo modo potui, scripsi et dedi litteras ad te Philogono, liberto tuo, quas credo tibi postea redditas esse, in quibus idem te hortor et rogo, quod pueri tibi 50 verbis meis nuntiarunt, ut Romam protinus pergas et properes: primum enim te praesidio esse volui, si qui essent inimici, quorum crudelitas nondum esset nostra calamitate satiata; deinde congressus nostri lamenta41, how does this clause differ 8; for desidero cf. Ep. I. 3. 16. from that in 1. 20? sapientiorem, i.e., for his age; ~ 3. 30. certe scio, 'I am fully what? tuum filium: Q. Tullius convinced.' Not quite so strong as Cicero, born in 67 or 66, died with certo scio, ' I know with certainty.' his father in the proscription of 43. Could certum scio have been used verebatur, 'respected.' here? See on Ep. V. 3. 14. ~ 4. 46-50. Sed tamen: cf. 38-43. Quid filium: sc. after Ep. VI. 16. 14. quod... quid, from 1. 36, quod... desi- nuntiarunt, 'as the slaves have dero: for quid, quod, see on I 16. told you in my name.'

Page  405 EP. XVI., ~ 3-6. 405 tionem pertimui; digressum vero non tulissem, atque etiam id ipsum, quod tu scribis, metuebam, ne a me 55 distrahi non posses. His de causis hoc maximum malum, quod te non vidi, quo nihil amantissimis et coniunctissimis fratribus acerbius videtur accidere potuisse, minus acerbum, minus miserum fuit, quam fuisset cum 5:9 congressio, tur vero digressio nostra. Nunc, si potes 5 id, quod ego, qui tibi semper fortis videbar, non possum, erige te et confirma, si qua subeunda dimicatio erit: spero, si quid mea spes habet auctoritatis, tibi et integritaten tuam et amorem in te civitatis et aliquid etiam misericordiam nostri praesidii laturam; sin eris 65 ab isto periculo vacuus, ages scilicet, si quid agi posse de nobis putabis. De quo scribunt ad me quidem multi multa et se sperare demonstrant; sed ego, quod sperem, non dispicio, cumr inimici plurimum valeant, amici partim deseruerint me, partim etiam prodiderint, 70 qui in meo reditu fortasse reIprehensionem sui sceleris pertimescunt. Sed, ista qualia sint, tu velim perspicias mihique declares. Ego tamen, quamdiu tibi opus erit, si quid periculi subeundum videbis, vivami: diutius in hac vita esse non possum; neque enim tantum vilium 75 habet ulla aut prudentia aut doctrina, ut tantum dolorem possit sustinere. Scio fuisse et honestius 6 54-57. non tulissem, 'could Sull. 2. 20. praesidii, partitive not have borne:' the idea of pos- witll aliquid the object of latusibility lies in the thought, not ram. the mood: cf. Sull. 44. 34; sup- 67-73. De quo refers to agi ply the protasis suggested on posse. multi multa: different Ep. XV. 1.12. quod...vidi, cases of the same word acquire as in ~ 2. 20 or in ~ 2. 26? emphasis by juxtaposition. dis~ 5. 65. nostri, gen. pl. of picio: for meaning see on Sull. ego, obj. of misericordiam, not 40. 7. partim, as in Mur. 51. connected at all with praesidii: 26. tibi opus: sc. me vivere, for this awkward position see on from the following vivam.

Page  406 406 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. moriendi tempus et utilius; sed non hoc solum, multa alia praetermisi, quae si queri velim praeterita, nihil 80 agam, nisi ut augeam dolorem tuum, indicem stultitiam meam. Illud quidem nec faciendum est nec fieri potest, me diutius, quam aut tuum tempus aut firma spes postulabit, in tam misera tamque turpi vita commorari, ut, qui modo fratre fuerim, liberis, coniuge, 85 copiis, genere ipso pecuniae beatissimus, dignitate, auctoritate, existimatione, gratia non inferior, quam qui umquam fuerunt amplissimi, is nunc in hac tam afflicta perditaque fortuna neque me neque meos lugere diutius 7 possim. Quare quid ad me scripsisti de permutatione? 90 quasi vero nunc me non tuae facultates sustineant, qua in re ipsa video miser et sentio quid sceleris admiserim, cum de visceribus tuis et filii tui satisfacturus sis quibus debes, ego acceptam ex aerario pecuniam tuo ~ 6. 78-80. moriendi tempus: cf. Ep. XIII. 2. 29. quae... praeterita: for trans. cf. Ep. IV. 8. 80. nihil, nisi ut: for nihil nisi, ' nothing except,' 'only,' cf. IV. 23. 9; II 10. 15; nisi is a mere connective, and when a clause follows, as here, it takes the construction necessary after the governing verb, here again. 82-87. tempus, as in I. 22. 11. tam misera: for tam see on. 17. 16. ut... possim (l. 89), in app. with illud, 1. 81. genere... pecuniae, i.e., he had acquired with clean hands all that he had: see p. 13, ~ 3. inferior, quam qui, etc.: see on Sull. 87. 14. tam afflicta: for tam see on I. 11. 10, and distinguish this use carefully from that in 1. 83. ~ 7. 89-93. permutatione, 'a bill of exchange.' Quintus had probably offered to raise some ready money for his brother by drafts on Rome, to be discounted by bankers at Thessalonica. visceribus, 'sorely needed means,' lit. 'bowels,' i.e., to pay his debts. Quintus would have to make sacrifices that would embarrass him greatly. quibus debes, 'your creditors.' ego, etc., adversative asyndeton; insert 'while.' acceptam ex aerario. Cicero had drawn from the public treasury on his brother's account (tuo nomine, see on Mur. 82. 14) large sums due the latter for his expenses as propraetor. He had looked upon them of course as a temporary loan, but the confiscation of his property made repayment very doubtful.

Page  407 EP. XVI., ~ 6-9. 407 nomine frustra dissiparim. Sed tamen et inde Antonio, quantum tu scripseras, et Caepioni tantundem solutum 95 est: mihi ad id, quod cogito, hoc, quod habeo, satis est; sive enim restituimur sive desperamus, nihil amplius opus est. Tu, si forte quid erit molestiae, te ad Crassum et ad Calidium conferas censeo: quantum Hortensio credendum sit, nescio. Me summa simulatione 8 amoris summaque assiduitate quotidiana sceleratissime 101 insidiosissimeque tractavit adiuncto Q. Arrio; quorum ego consiliis, promissis, praeceptis destitutus in hanc calamitatem incidi. Sed haec occultabis, ne quid obsint: illud caveto -et eo puto per Pomponium fovendum tibi 105 esse ipsum Hortensium -, ne ille versus, qui in te erat collatus, curn aedilitatem petebas, de lege Aurelia, falso testimonio confirmetur; nihil enim tam timeo quam ne, cum intelligant homines, quantum misericordiae nobis tuae preces et tua salus allatura sit, oppugnent te vehe-llo mentius. Messalam tui studiosum esse arbitror; Pom- 9 peium etiam simulatoremn puto. Sed haec utinam ne experiare! quod precarer deos, nisi meas preces audire 94-99. tamen refers to the preceding dissiparim: cf. Ep. III. 2. 34; not quite tlle same use therefore as in ~ 4. 47. inde = ex ea: cf. unde, Mur. 26. 8. Antonio, Caepioni, creditors of Quintus whom Cicero had paid in full with some of the funds obtained from the treasury. Crassum, the triumvir. Calidium. MI. Calidius was an eminent lawyer, and when praetor the next year proposed Cicero's recall. Hortensio: cf. Ep. XV. 2. 22 f. Cicero's suspicions of Hortensius were probably unjust. ~ 8. 102. Q. Arrio, a man of low birth and little learning, who gained by tireless industry a respectable place as a lawyer. 106. versus... collatus, ' that epigram which was ascribed to you.' Quintus was fond of writing verses, and seems to have satirized the Aurelian law (see on Mur. 24. 8), but we know nothing of the circumstances. ~ 9.111-114. Messalam, consul in 61: cf. Sull. 20. 31. experiare, ' meet these trials.' quod... desissent: see on Ep. XIV. 1. 10.

Page  408 408 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. desissent; verumtamnen precor, ut his infinitis nostris 115 malis contenti sint; in quibus non modo tamen nullius inest peccati infamia, sed omnis dolor est, quod optime 10 factis poena maxima est constituta. Filiam meam et tuam Ciceronemque nostrum quid ego, mi frater, tibi commendem? quin illud maereo, quod tibi non minorem 120 dolorem illorum orbitas afferet quam mihi; sed te incolumi orbi non erunt. Reliqua, ita mihi salus aliqua detur potestasque in patria moriendi, ut me lacrimae non sinunt scribere! etiam Terentiam velim tueare mihique de omnibus rebus rescribas; sis fortis, quoad 12s rei natura patietur. Idibus Iuniis, Thessalonica. XVII. (AD ATT. II. 10.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. 1 Acta quae essent usque ad vii. Kal. Iunias cognovi ex tuis litteris: reliqua exspectabam, ut tibi place bat, Thessalonicae; quibus allatis facilius statuere potero, 116, 117. quod optime: quod refers to the general idea of the preceding words, not to dolor alone: wliat would have been clearer? factis, although a noun, is modified by optime on account of its verbal origin. ~ 10. 119-124. quin, 'nay, rather.' te incolumi =- si incolumis fueris: for incolumi see on Sull. 61. 19. Reliqua, adverbial acc. = Quod reliquum est, Ep. XIV. 5. 47, or de reliquis rebus: cf. Ep. XIV. 4. 34. ita... detur ut, etc.: see on IV. 11. 8. sis: see on Ep. XIV. 3. 23; what mood should we expect? XVII. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written from Thessalonica to Atticus in Rome on the 18th of June. Cicero continues his lamentations, and asks for sympathy and news.

Page  409 EP. XVI., ~ 9; XVII., ~ 2. 409. ubi sim: nam, si erit causa, si quid agetur, si spem videro, aut ibidem opperiar aut me ad te conferam; sin, 5 ut tu scribis, ista evanuerint, aliquid aliud videbimus. Omnino adhuc nihil mihi significatis nisi discordiam istorum, quae tamen inter eos de omnibus potius rebus est quam de me; itaque, quid ea mihi prosit, nescio, sed tamen, quoad me vos sperare vultis, vobis obtemperabo. 10 Nam, quod me tam saepe et tam vehementer obiurgas 2 et animo infirmo esse dicis, quaeso, ecquod tantum malum est, quod in mea calamitate non sit? ecquis umquam tam ex amplo statu, tam in bona causa, tantis facultatibus ingenii, consilii, gratiae, tantis praesidiis 15 bonorum omnium concidit? possum oblivisci, qui fuerim? non sentire, qui sim? quo caream honore, qua gloria, quibus liberis, quibus fortunis, quo fratre? quem ego, ut novum calamitatis genus attendas, cum pluris facerem quam me ipsum semperque fecissem, 20 vitavi ne viderem, ne aut illius luctum squaloremque aspicerem aut me, quem ille florentissimum reliquerat, perditum illi afflictumque offerrem. Mitto cetera intolerabilia; etenim fletu impedior. Hic utrum tandem sum accusandus, quod doleo, an, quod commisi, ut haec 25 non aut retinerem - quod facile fuisset, nisi intra parietes meos de mea pernicie consilia inirentur -, aut certe ~ 1. 4-8. sim, as in Ep. XIII. 1. 4. ibidem, 'in the place just mentioned.' ad te, 'to your house:' see on I. 19. 4. He means to Butlrotum (Ep. XIII. 1. 6), where news could be had more easily. ista, 'those hopes of yours:' cf. Ep. XV. 2.26. discordiam istorum: Clodius had already begun his attacks upon Caesar and Pompeius: see p. 45, ~ 82. ~ 2. 11-20. quod... obiurgas: explain the clause. pluris facerem... fecissem, 'since I cared, and always had cared more, etc.:' for )pluis cf. permagni, Ep. V. 3. 28. 24-27. Hic, 'under these circumstances:' see on II. 13. 14; cf. Ep. III. 4. 47. haec non aut, etc.: i.e., he should have maintained his ground or lost it only with his life.

Page  410 410 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. 3 vivus non amitterem? Haec eo scripsi, ut potius relevares me, quod facis, quam ut castigatione aut obiurga30 tione dignum putares, eoque ad te minus multa scribo, quod et maerore impedior et, quod exspectem istinc, magis habeo, quam quod ipse scribam: quae si erunt allata, faciam te consilii nostri certiorem; tu, ut adhuc fecisti, quam plurimis de rebus ad me velim scribas, 35 ut prorsus ne quid ignorem. Data xmII. Kal. Quinctiles Thessalonica. XVIII. (AD. ATT. III. 13.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. 1 Quod ad te scripseram me in Epiro futurum, posteaquam extenuari spem nostram et evanescere vidi, mutavi consilium, nec me Thessalonica commovi, ubi esse statueram, quoad aliquid ad me de eo scriberes, 5 quod proximis litteris scripseras: fore, uti secundum comitia aliquid de nobis in senatu ageretur; id tibi Pompeium dixisse. Qua de re, quoniam comitia habita consilia, the advice of his friends to leave Rome. ~ 3. 31-33. quod exspectem, etc., 'because I have more to expect from your direction than to write myself.' consilii nostri, obj. gen. with certiorem: what case would Caesar have used? XVIII. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written from Thessalonica to Atticus in Rome on the 5th of August, explaining his stay at Tliessalonica, excusing his despondency, and appealing again for help and news. ~ 1. 1-6. Quod, etc.: three examples of this clause in this letter. scripseram: cf. Ep. XVII. 1. 5. secundum comitia, 'after the consular elections,' at which Q. Metellns Nepos and P. Cornelius Lentulis Spinther were elected for 57. Pompeius had promised Atti

Page  411 EP. XVII,, ~ 3; XVIII., ~ 2. 411 sunt tuque nihil ad me scribis, proinde habebo ac si scripsisses nihil esse, neque me temporis non longinqui spe ductum esse moleste feram; quem autem motum te 10 videre scripseras, qui nobis utilis fore videretur, eum nuntiant, qui veniunt, nullum fore. In tribunis pl. designatis reliqua spes est; quam si exspectaro, non erit, quod putes me causae meae aut voluntati meorum defuisse. Quod me saepe accusas, cur hunc meum 2 casum tam graviter feram, debes ignoscere, cum ita me 16 afflictum videas, ut neminem umquam nec videris nec audieris magis. Nam, quod scribis te audire me etiam mentis errore ex dolore affici, mihi vero mens integra est; atque utinam tam in periculo fuisset! cum ego iis, 20 quibus meam salutem carissimam esse arbitrabar, inimicissimis crudelissimisque usus sum, qui, ut me paullum inclinari timore viderunt, sic impulerunt, ut omni suo scelere et perfidia abuterentur ad exitiumr meum. Nunc, quoniam est Cyzicum nobis eundum, quo rarius ad me 25 cus to do something for Cicero after the elections. 9-14. n e q u e... moleste feram, 'nor shall I regret that I was led astray by the hope of no distant date (for my return).' motum, 'a movement:' see on discordiam, Ep. XVII. 1. 7. designatis: how many? All were favorably disposed to Cicero, and four of them, Sestius, Milo, Fabricius, and Fabius, were either his personal friends or bitter enemies of Clodius. non erit, quod, i.e., it will not be on account of your reproaches. Atticus had ventured to reprove Cicero for his weakness and despondency. ~ 2. 15-25. accusas, cur,' chide me (asking) why, etc.,' a confusion of accusas quod and rogas cur. mentis errore... affici: cf. what Cicero himself says on tlis point in Ep. XIII. 3. 42, 43. tam: sc. integra. in periculo, 'at the crisis,' another reference to his mistake in not opposing rogatio I. with force: cf. Eps. XVI. 6. 78, XIII. 2. 29. crudelissimis... usus sum: for meaning of the verb cf. II. 18. 28. ut, as in III. 3. 25. abuterentur, not 'abuse,' which could not be joined with scelere, but as in Sull. 47. 22; I. 1. 1. Nunc: comment upon its meaning and give examples. Cyzicum: he did not go to Nsia at all. quo =-?

Page  412 412 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. litterae perferentur, hoc velim diligentius omnia, quae putaris me scire opus esse, perscribas. Q. fratrem meum fac diligas, quem ego miser si incolumem relinquo, non me totum perisse arbitrabor. Data Nonis Sextilibus. XIX. (AD ATT. III. 19.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. 1 Quoad eiusmodi mihi litterae a vobis afferebantur ut aliquid ex iis esset exspectandum, spe et cupiditate Thessalonicae retentus sum; posteaquam omnis actio huius anni confecta nobis videbatur, in Asiam ire nolui, 5 quod et celebritas mihi odio est et, si fieret aliquid a novis magistratibus, abesse longe nolebam: itaque in Epirum ad te statui me conferre, non quo mea interesset loci natura, qui lucem omnino fugerem, sed et ad salutem libentissime ex tuo portu proficiscar et, si ea o0 praecisa erit, nusquam facilius hanc miserrimam vitam vel sustentabo vel, quod multo est melius, abiecero; 28. quem: translate carefully! B. 287 4. What is the regular incolumem: cf. Ep. XVI. 10. tense? fieret: the subjunctive is 120. due to the dependence upon abesse. non quo.. sed, a common XIX. variation for the more correct non INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written quo... sed quod; for mood of from Thessalonica to Atticus in interesset cf. Ep. II. 1. 2; for Rome on the 16th of September. its meaning and for case of mea He has concluded after all to go cf. IV. 9. 1. Notice that interesset back to Epirus. is personal here, and here only. ~ 1. 3-7. posteaquam... 8-11. lucem, 'the public videbatur: for tense see A. 324, gaze,' a common metaphor. susa; G. 563, 564; H. 518, Note 1; tentabo... abiecero: for the

Page  413 EP. XVIII., ~ 2; XIX., ~ 1-3. 413 ero cum paucis, multitudinem dimittam. Me tuae lit- 2 terae numquam in tantam spem adduxerunt, quantam aliorum; ac tamen mea spes etiam tenuior semper fuit quam tuae litterae. Sed tamen, quoniam coeptum est 15 agi, quoquo modo coeptum est et quacumque de causa, non deseram neque optimi atque unici fratris miseras ac luctuosas preces nec Sestii ceterorumque promissa nec spem aerumnosissimae mulieris Terentiae nec miserrimae Tulliolae obsecrationem et fideles litteras tuas: 20 nihi Epirus aut iter ad salutem dabit aut quod scripsi supra. Te oro et obsecro, T. Pomponi, si me omnibus 3 amplissimis, carissimis iucundissimisque rebus perfidia hominum spoliatum, si me a meis consiliariis proditum et proiectum vides, si intelligis me coactum, ut ipse me 25 et meos perderem, ut me tua misericordia iuves et Q. fratrem, qui potest esse salvus, sustentes, Terentiam liberosque meos tueare, me, si putas te istic visurum, exspectes, si minus, invisas, si potes, mihique ex agro tuo tantum assignes, quantum meo corpore occupari 30 potest, et pueros ad me cum litteris quam primum et quam saepissime mittas. Data xvI. Kal. Octobres. future perfect -here in close con- 18-22. Sestii: see on Ep. nection with a simple future-in XVIII. 1. 13. miserrimae apodosis see on IV. 11. 1. Tulliolae: for adjective and 12. cum paucis, ' with only proper noun see on I. 4.4. supra, a few of my people.' multitu- ~ 1. 11. dinem, ' the larger number.' ~ 3. 28, 29. me, object of both ~ 2. 13-15. in tantam... visurum and exspectes. istic, quantam, a preposition is not 'there,' where you are, i.e., at used before a relative (quantam) Rome: cf. istinc, Ep. XVII. 3. 31. which is correlative to a demon- si minus... invisas, 'if not, strative (tantan) already governed that you will visit me.' If Atticus by the same preposition (in) wlen does not think that he will soon the same verb is to be supplied see Cicero at Rome he is urged to (adduxerunt) in the relative visit him in Epirus. si minus: clause. coeptum est: for voice see on I. 22. 6. invisas depends slee on Sull. 65. 8. upon ut, 1.26, as do six other verbs.

Page  414 414 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. XX. (FAM. Xiv. 2.) TULLIUS S. D. TERENTIAE ET TULLIOLAE ET CICERONI SUIS. 1 Noli putare me ad quemquam longiores epistolas scribere, nisi si quis ad me plura scripsit, cui puto rescribi oportere; nec enim habeo, quod scribam, nee hoc tempore quidquam difficilius facio. Ad te vero 5 et ad nostram Tulliolam non queo sine plurimis lacrimis scribere; vos enim video esse miserrimas, quas ego beatissimas semper esse volui idque praestare debui 2 et, nisi tam timidi fuissemus, praestitissem. Pisonem nostrum merito eius amo plurimlnm: eum, ut potui, o1 per litteras cohortatus sum gratiasque egi, ut debui. In novis tribunis pl. intelligo spem te habere: id erit firmum, si Pompeii voluntas erit, sed Crassum tamen metuo. A te quidem omnia fieri fortissime et aman-. 5-8. non queo: cf. Ep. XIV. 3. 31. praestare: for meaning see INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written on IV. 24. 24. praestare debui: from Thessalonica to his family in reg. or irreg. tenses? Cf. III. 22. Rome on the fifth of October. 37. fuissemus: the plural inSALUTATION: Read all the notes cludes his advisers as well as himon Ep. XIV. Sal. self. Pisonem, the husband of ~ 1. 1-4. Noli putare: see on Tullia. Sull. 47. 21. nisi si: cf. II. 6. 3: ~ 2. 9-12. merito eius, 'as he what is nisi? nec habeo, quod deserves.' novis tribunis = t. scribam, 'I have nothing to designatis of Ep. XVIII. 1. 13. write,' scribam being subj. of id firmum: the pronoun refers to characteristic: for non habeo quid spem habere, not to spem alone, scribam (subj. of ind. question) hence the gender; notice a similar see on Mur. 26. 7. difficilius: use of quod in Ep. XVI. 9. 116. cf. Ep. XIII. 3. 41 f. voluntas: sc. firma.

Page  415 EP. XX., ~ 1-3. 415 tissime video, nec miror, sed maereo casum eiusmodi, ut tanltis tuis miseriis meae miseriae subleventur: nam 15 ad me P. Valerius, homo officiosus, scripsit, id quod ego maximo cum fletu legi, quemadmodum a Vestae ad tabulam Valeriam ducta esses. Hem, mea lux, meum desiderium, unde omnes opem petere solebant! te nunc, mea Terentia, sic vexari, sic iacere 20 in lacrimis et sordibus, idque fieri mea culpa, qui ceteros servavi, ut nos periremus! Quod de domo 3 scribis, hoc est de area, ego vero turn denique mihi videbor restitutus, si illa nobis erit restituta; verum laec non sunt in nostra manu: illud doleo, quae 25 impensa facienda est, in eius partemn te miseram et despoliatam venire. Quod si conficitur negotium, omnia consequemur; sin eadem nos fortuna premet, etiamne reliquias tuas misera proiicies? Obsecro te, mea vita, quod ad sumptum attinet, sine alios, qui 30 possunt, si modo volunt, sustinere, et valetudinem 16, 17. P. Valerius, unknown. a Vestae: the word aedes or templum is quite commonly omitted with the genitive of the deity. 18-20. t a b u 1 a Valeriam, supposed to have been a bank: see p. 44, ~ 80. opem petere, by asking her to intercede for them with Cicero. te... vexari, iacere, etc.: for mood see A. 274; G. 534; H. 539, III.; B. 334. 22. ceteros servavi; in his consulship cf. III. ~ 25 ad fin. ut.. periremus, 'only to, etc.' Quod...scribis: case of this clause? domo: for the fate of his city home see p. 44, ~ 80; for its cost see on Ep. III. 10. 150. ~ 3. 23-25. hoc est, 'that is,' explanatory, for which we use id est in the ab. i.e. de area: even if he were paid damages for the building he would not be satisfied unless the site were restored to him. in nostra manu,' unller our control.' 26, 27. impensa, attracted into the relative clause. The chief expenses would be in buying votes, hiring gladiators to offset those of Clodius, and supporting Cicero in exile. in partem...venire, ' to share.' conficitur negotium: cf. Ep. III. 5. 76. The negotium here is Cicero's recall. 30, 31. quod... attinet, 'as to the expense:' the clause is like that in 1. 22. sine, imperative of sino. sustinere: sc. sumptum.

Page  416 416 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. istam infirmam, si me amas, noli vexare; nam mihi ante oculos dies noctesque versaris: omnes labores te excipere video; timeo, ut sustineas. Sed video in te 35 esse omnia; quare, ut id, quod speras et quod agis, con4 sequamur, servi valetudini. Ego, ad quos scribam, nescio, nisi ad eos, qui ad me scribunt, aut de quibus ad me vos aliquid scribitis. Longius, quoniam ita vobis placet, non discedam; sed velim quam saepissime 40 litteras mittatis, praesertim si quid est firmius, quod speremus. Valete, mea desideria, valete. D. a. d. III. Non. Oct. Thessalonica. XXI. (AD FAM. XIV. 1.) TULLIUS TERENTIAE SUAE, TULLIOLAE SUAE, CICERONI SUO SALUTEM DICIT. 1 Et litteris multorum et sermone omnium perfertur ad me iicredibilem tuam virtutem et fortitudinem esse teque nec animi neque corporis laboribus 32-35. infirmam: and yet Ter- plain the abbreviations, and give entia is said to have lived to the the date in tlie short form. age of 103. timeo, ut: meaning of ut after a word of fearing? XXI. in te esse omnia: for meaning INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Comcf. Ep. III. 2. 20. menced at Thessalonica and fin~ 4. 36-41. Ego, etc. Terentia ished at Dyrrachium, to his family seems to have urged Cicero to use at Rome. his eloquence in his own behalf SALUTATION: cf. with that of by writing to men of influence. Ep. XX., and notice the tender Longius, from Rome, i.e., than repetition of suae, instead of Thessalonica. D. a. d. etc.: ex- suis.

Page  417 EP. XX., ~ 3-4; XXI., ~ 1-3. 417 defatigari. Me miserum! te ista virtute, fide, probitate, humanitate in tantas aerumnas propter me 5 incidisse, Tulliolamque nostram, ex quo patre tantas voluptates capiebat, ex eo tantos percipere luctus! Nam quid ego de Cicerone dicam? qui cum primum sapere coepit, acerbissimos dolores miseriasque percepit. Quae si, tu ut scribis, fato facta pu- lo tarem, ferrem paullo facilius, sed omnia sunt mea culpa commissa, qui ab iis me amari putabam, qui invidebant, eos non sequebar, qui petebant. Quod 2 si nostris oonsiliis usi essemus neque apud nos tantum valuisset sermo aut stultorum amicorum aut 15 improborum, beatissimi viveremus: nunc, quoniam sperare nos amici iubent, dabo operam, ne mea valetudo tuo labori desit. Res quanta sit, intelligo, quantoque fuerit facilius manere domi quam redire; sed tamen, si omnes tribunos pl. habemus, si 20 Lentulum tam studiosum, quam videtur, si vero etiam Pompeium et Caesarem, non est desperandum. De familia, quomodo placuisse scribis amicis, facie- 3 mus. De loco, nunc quidem iam abiit pestilentia, sed, quamdiu fuit, me non attigit. Plancius, homo 25 officiosissimus, me cupit esse secum et adhuc retinet. Ego volebam loco magis deserto esse in Epiro, quo ~ 1. 4-13. Me miserum: for kind of a word? habemus, i.e., case cf. Sull. 42. 23; II. 7. 9. te on our side. Lentulum, the... incidisse: for mood see on consul-elect: sc. habemus, nostri. Ep. XX. 2. 20. te ista virtute: ~ 3. 23-25. De familia: on the what ought strictly to accompany phrase cf. Ep. XIV. 4. 34, so in te in this construction? See on the next line; for familia see on I. 4. 4. sapere coepit: cf. Ep. II. 18. 17. We do not know to XVI. 3. 40. qui petebant, the what he refers; he wrote about the regents: see p. 42, ~ 76. slaves in Ep. XIV. ~ 4. Plancius, ~ 2. 17-21. dabo operam, 'I quaestor in Macedonia: see Ep. will take pains.' valetudo: what XV. Int. Note.

Page  418 418 EPISTOLJAE SELECTAE. neque Piso veniret nee lmilites, sed adhuc Plancius me retinet: sperat posse fieri, ut mecum in Italiam decedat; 30 quem ego diem si videro et si in vestruin complexum venero ac si et vos et me ipsum recuperaro, satis magnum mihi fructuin videbor percepisse et vestrae pietatis 4 et meae. Pisonis humanitas, virtus, amor in omnes nos tantus est, ut nihil supra possit: utinam ea res ei vo35 luptati sit! gloriae quidem video fore. De Q. fratre nihil ego te accusavi, sed vos, cum praesertim tam pauci 5 sitis, volui esse quam coniunctissimos. Quibus me voluisti agere gratias, egi et me a te certiorem factum esse scripsi. Quod ad me, mea Terentia, scribis te 40 vicumr vendituram, quid, obsecro te - me miserum!-, quid futurum est? et, si nos premet eadem fortuna, quid puero misero fiet? Non queo reliqua scribere - tanta vis lacrimarum est -, neque te in eundem fletlum adducam; tantumn scribo: si erunt in officio amici, pecunia 45 non deerit; si non erunt, tu efficere tua pecunia non poteris. Per fortunas miseras nostras, vide, ne puerum perditum perdamus; cui si aliquid erit, ne egeat, mediocri virtute opus est et mediocri fortuna, ut cetera con 28-32. Piso, the consul who had obtained Macedonia as his province in return for aid against Cicero: see on Ep.VII. 1. 10. fructurn... percepisse: cf. Sull. 1.3. ~ 4. 33-36. Pisonis, the husband of Tullia, a relative of the consul just mentioned. De Q. fratre: cf. ~ 3. 23. There seems to have been a family quarrel, and Terentia thought that Cicero blamed her. vos, all his relatives in Rome. cum praesertim: cf. III. 28. 24, a less common order than praesertim cum. ~ 5. 38-42. voluisti agere: see on Ep. XX. 4. 36. Terentia had sent him the names of those who had aided her. certiorem factum: sc. de eorum officiis. puero, the young Marcus: for case see on Ep. XIV. 3.27. 46-48. puerum, etc: notice alliteration. cui si, ' for if he has some (means), so as not to be in want, he will require (only) moderate energy and moderate good fortune to acquire all else.' For ellipse of 'only' before mediocri cf. pauca, Ep. III. 8.120; XIX. 1. 12.

Page  419 EP. XXI., ~ 3-7; XXII., ~ 1. 419 sequatur. Fac valeas et ad me tabellarios mittas, ut 6 sciam, quid agatur et vos quid agatis. Mihi omnino 50 iam brevis exspectatio est. Tulliolae et Ciceroni salutem die. Valete. D. a. d. vi. K. Decembr. Dyrrhachii. Dyrrhachium veni, quod et libera civitas est et in me 7 officiosa et proxima Italiae; sed, si offendet me loci celebritas, alio me conferam; ad te scribam. 55 XXII. (AD FAM. xiv. 3.) TULLIUS S. D. TERENTIAE SUAE ET TULLIAE ET CICERONI. Accepi ab Aristocrito tres epistolas, quas ego lacrimis 1 prope delevi; conficior ernim maerore, mea Terentia, nec ~ 6. 49-51. tabellarios: see Exc. V. ~ 1. quid agatis: the words quid agis (agitis) mean both 'what are you doing' and 'how do you do;' in which sense here? brevis exspectatio, 'a short time to wait.' He expected his recall to come as soon as Clodius went out of office (when?), or at the worst no later than the inauguration of the new consuls, but he was disappointed. ~ 7. 53-55. Dyrrhachium veni, etc.: on this addition to the letter see Int. Note and Exc. V. ~ 15 ad fin. libera civitas: the 'free states' were cities or communities which, in return for some service rendered to Rome, were permitted to administer their own affairs without interference on the part of the governor of the province in which they were situated. Cyzicus also was a civitas libera. In such a city a Roman citizen would still be within reach of Roman law, but would be free from petty annoyances at the hands of an unfriendly promagistrate. ad te scribam: sc. quo me contulerim. XXII. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written from Dyrrachium to his family at Rome on the last of November. The letter shows his impatience to know aboutthe course of the new tribunes. ~ 1. 1, 2. ab Aristocrito, 'at the hands of Aristocritus,' a slav. or freedman, so Dexippus ~ 3. 21. maerore... mea magis: notice the alliteration.

Page  420 420 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. meae me miseriae magis excruciant quam tuae vestraeque, ego autem hoc miserior sum quam tu, quae es 5 miserrima, quod ipsa calamitas communis est utriusque nostrum, sed culpa mea propria est. Meum fuit officium vel legatione vitare periculum vel diligentia et copiis resistere vel cadere fortiter: hoc miserius, tur2 pius, indignius nobis nihil fuit. Quare cum. dolore o1 conficior, turn etiam pudore: pudet enim me uxori meae optimae, suavissimis liberis virtutem et diligentiam non praestitisse; nam milli ante oculos dies noctesque versatur squalor vester et maeror et infirmitas valetudinis tuae, spes autem salutis pertenuis ostenditur. Inimici 15 sunt multi, invidi paene omnes: eiicere nos magnum fuit, excludere facile est; sed tamen, quamdiu vos eritis in spe, non deficiam, ne omnia mea culpa cecidisse 3 videantur. Ut tuto sim, quod laboras, id mihi nunc facillilnum est, quem etiam inirici volunt vivere in his 20 tantis miseriis; ego tamen faciam, quae praecipis. Amicis, quibus voluisti, egi gratias et eas litteras Dexippo dedi meque de eprum officio scripsi a te certiorem 4, 5. miserior... miserrima: for this use of the comparative see on III. 13. 48-50. utriusque, obj. gen. with communis, itself governing a part. gen. of pronouns (nostrum, cf. Mur. 37. 8), and agreeing with nouns as an adj.; for its use in the plural see on Sull. 62. 28. 6-8. mea propria: for construction of propria see on imperii I. 12. 26; for that of mea see on I. 7. 22. officium: could this noun have been omitted? See on III. 27. 5. legatione, tendered by whom? See p. 42, ~ 76. copiis, armed bands of roughs and gladiators. hoc, abl. after comp.: what in 1. 4? ~2. 10-17. pudet me: for construction cf. Sampsiceramun1 poenitere, Ep. V. 2. 6. eiicere... excludere: how put in Ep. XXI. 2 19? cecidisse, 'failed:' what does it mean in Eps. XIII. 1. 14 and VII. 1. 3? ~ 3. 18-22. tuto sim: for the adverb cf. I. 19. 8. quod laboras, 'as to which you are troubled:' for case of quod cf. Sull. 51. 23. de officio: what other construction is possible? Cf. Ep. XVII. 3. 33.

Page  421 EP. XXII., ~ 1-5. 421 esse factum. Pisonem nostrum mirifico esse studio in nos et officio et ego perspicio et omnes praedicant: di faxint, ut tali genero mihi praesenti tecum simul et cuIm 25 liberis nostris frui liceat! Nune spes reliqua est in novis tribunis pl. et in primis quidem diebus; nam, si inveterarit, actum est. Ea re ad te statim Aristocritum 4 misi, ut ad me continuo initia rerum et rationem totius negotii posses scribere, etsi Dexippo quoque ita impe- 30 ravi, statim ut recurreret, et ad fratrenl misi, ut crebro tabellarios mitteret; nam ego eo nomine sum Dyrrhachii hoc tempore, ut quam celerrime, quid agatur, audiam, et sum tuto; civitas enim haec semper a me defensa est. Cum inimici nostri venire dicentur, tur in Epirum 35 ibo. Quod scribis te, si velim, ad me venturam, ego 5 vero, cum sciam magnam partem istius oneris abs te sustineri, te istic esse volo. Si perficitis, quod agitis, me ad vos venire oportet; sin autem - sed nihil opus est reliqua scribere. Ex primis aut summum secundis 40 litteris tuis constituere poterimus, quid nobis faciendum sit: tu modo ad me velim omnia diligentissime perscri 24-28. di faxint: for form and use see on Mur. 84. 23. The prayer was not granted (Ep. XVI. 9. 113!), as Piso died before Cicero was recalled. primis diebus, i.e., after their term began. When? inveterarit, 'gets stale:' is the good or bad sense of this word more common? See on Sull. 24. 7. actum est: see on its compound Ep. XIV. 3. 24. ~ 4. 29-35. initia... negotii, 'the first steps in the proceedings and the progress of the whole struggle.' eo nomine, 'for this purpose,' looking forward to the clause ut... audiam: how is it translated when it refers to a preceding statement? inimici, the Catilinarians living in Greece, p. 40, ~ 71. ~ 5. 39-44. sin autem —, the blank can be filled from Eps. XIX. 3. 30; XV. 2. 28; VIII. 1. 2. summum,' at most,' adv. ace. ita; for its use here see on III. 21. 5. Of the letters contained in this selection this is the last written in exile. For the general impression made by them upon the reader see p. 46, ~ 85.

Page  422 422 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. bas, etsi magis iam rem quam litteras debeo exspectare. Cura, ut valeas et ita tibi persuadeas, mihi te carius 45 nihil esse nec umquam fuisse. Vale, mea Terentia; quam ego videre videor: itaque debilitor lacrimis. Vale. Pr. Kal. Dec. XXIII. (AD ATT. IV. 1.) CICERO ATTICO SAL. 1 Cum primum Romam veni fuitque, cui recte ad te litteras darem, nihil prius faciendum mihi putavi, quam ut tibi absenti de reditu nostro gratularer; cognoram enim - ut vere scribam - te in consiliis mihi dandis XXIII. INTRODUCTORY NOTE: Written from Rome to Atticus in Epirus in the middle of September, 57, i.e., after his return from exile and about ten months after the preceding letter. The events of this intervening period are outlined p. 45, ~~ 83, 84. This letter describes his return to Rome and doings in the city since his return. The important dates are given here for convenience: Aug. 4th. His recall was passed in the comitia centuriata. Aug. 5th. He landed at Brundisium. Sept. 4th. He entered Rome amid great enthusiasm. Sept. 5th. He gave thanks to the Senate and to the People. Sept. 7th. He resumed his place in the Senate, proposed a consultur giving Pompeius charge of the corn supply, and delivered a contio. Sept. 8th. The Senate passed the consultum. ~ 1. 1-4. recte, 'safely.' absenti: Atticus had given up almost eighteen months to Cicero's affairs, and had hurried back to Epirus to look after his own neglected business as soon as Cicero's recall was certain, without waiting for his actual return. gratularer, ' express my joy,' a common meaning. Notice the singular verb placed next to the editorial nostro. ut vere scribam, 'to write candidly:' for the clause cf. Ep. III. 7. 100; 2. 26.

Page  423 EP. XXII., ~ 5; XXIII., ~ 1-3. 423 nec fortiorem nec prudentiorem quam me ipsum, nec 5 etiam pro praeterita mea in te observantia nimium in custodia salutis meae diligentem, eundemtque te, qui primis temporibus erroris nostri aut potius furoris particeps et falsi timoris socius fuisses, acerbissime discidium nostrum tulisse plurimnumque operae, studii, diligentiae, 10 laboris ad conficiendum reditum meum contulisse: itaque hoc tibi vere affirmo, in maxima laetitia et exop- 2 tatissima gratulatione unum ad cumulandum gaudium conspectum aut potius complexumn mihi tuum defuisse; quem semel nactus numquam dimisero ac, nisi etiam ls praetermissos fructus tuae suavitatis praeteriti temporis omnes exegero, profecto hac restitutione fortunae me ipse non satis dignum iudicabo. Nos adhuc, in nostro 3 statu quod difficillime recuperari posse arbitrati sumus, splendorem nostrum illum forensem et in senatu aucto- 20 ritatem et apud viros bonos gratiam magis, quam optaramus, consecuti sumus; in re autem familiari, quae quemadmodum fracta, dissipata, direpta sit, non ignoras, valde laboramus tuarumque non tamn facultatumn, quas ego nostras esse iudico, quam consiliorum ad colligendas 25 5. me ipsum: what case would of nactus? numquam dimibe more correct? See on Ep. I. sero: for the exaggeration cf. Ep. 3. 27. ~ 2. 13-16. gratulatione, 'exultation,' almost the same thing as laetitia, i.e., the feeling of Cicero himself, not the expression of their feelings toward him by others. Which in Caes. I. 53. 6? conspectum, 'your face,' 'your (joyous) looks:' cf. Sull. 26.7, and aspectus IV. 11. 16. quem: where is its antecedent? Cf. Sull. 79, 26; I. 7.22. semel nactus = ubi semel nactus ero: princp. parts III. 4. 53; for tense Ep. XIX. 1. 11. suavitatis... temporis: for the double gen. cf. Ep. V. 2. 12. 17, 18. restitutione: for case cf. odio, supplicio, III. 22.17. me ipse: comment upon tleir position. For case of ipse see on I. 19. 3. ~ 3. 19-24. quod: for gender see on Ep. XVI. 9. 116. facultatum: for meaning cf. Caes. I. 18. 4; for case A. 223; G. 389 Rein. 2; H. 410 V., 1; B. 2121 a.

Page  424 424 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. 4 et constituendas reliquias nostras indigemus. Nunc, etsi omnia aut scripta esse a tuis arbitror aut etiam nuntiis ac rumore perlata, tamen ea scribam brevi, quae te puto potissimum ex meis litteris velle cognoscere. 30 Pr. Nonas Sextiles Dyrrhachio sum profectus, ipso illo die, quo lex est lata de nobis. Brundisium veni Nonis Sextilibus: ibi mihi Tulliola mea fuit praesto natali suo ipso die, qui casu idem natalis erat et Brundisinae coloniae et tuae vicinae Salutis; quae res animadversa 35 a multitudine summa Brundisinorum gratulatione celebrata est. Ante diem VI. Idus Sextiles cognovi, curm Brundisii essem, litteris Quinti mirifico studio omnium aetatum atque ordinum, incredibili concursu Italiae legem comitiis centuriatis esse perlatam. Inde a Brun40 disinis honestissimis decretis ornatus iter ita feci, ut undique ad me cum gratulatione legati convenerint. 5 Ad urbem ita veni, ut nemo ullius ordinis homo nomenclatori notus fuerit, qui mihi obviam non venerit, prae~ 4.29. potissimum: for trans- to natalis coloniae only: see on lation cf. Sull. 93. 15; 45. 5; Mur. in qua, Ep. IX. 1. 4. 75.15. 35-41. summa goes with gratu30-34. sum profectus... latione. concursu, 'gathering,' de nobis: for number of verb because all voting had to be done and of pronoun cf. ~ 1. 3. mihi, at Rome: seep. 61, ~ 41. comitiis governed by the compound idea of centuriatis, p. 45, ~ 83: for its fuit praesto (= adfuit): see A. description see p. 59, ~ 30 foll. 227 note 2; G. 356 Rem. 7; B. iter: a journey that occupied a 187 II. natalis.. coloniae, 'the month, though it could be made in anniversary of the planting of the five days: see Exc. V. ~ 3. legati, colony at Brundisium,' in 244. et 'deputations,' with compliment-... Salutis, 'and of the building of ary resolutions from all over Italy. the temple of Safety in your neigh- ~ 5. 42,43. nemo... homo: see borhood.' The temple of Saltus on Sull. 25. 25. nomenclatori: (dedicated in 303) was on the Qui- see on Mur. 77, 33. mihi, govrinal hill, near the house of Atti- erned by obviam venerit: see on ~ 4. cus. quae res refers of course 32.

Page  425 EP. XXl1I., ~ 4-6. 425 ter eos inimicos, quibus id ipsum, se inimicos esse, non liceret aut dissimulare aut negare. Cum venissem ad 45 portam Capenam, gradus templorum ab infima plebe completi erant, a qua plausu maximo curn esset mihi gratulatio significata, similis et frequentia et plausus me usque ad Capitolium celebravit, in foroque et in ipso Capitolio miranda multitudo fuit. Postridie in 50 senatu, qui fuit dies Nonarum Septeinbr., senatui gratias egimus. Eo biduo cum esset annonae summa 6 caritas et homines ad theatrum primo, deinde ad senatum concurrissent, impulsu Clodii mea opera frumenti inopiam esse clamarent, cum per eos dies senatus de 55 annona haberetur et ad eius procurationein sermone non solum plebis, verum etiam bonorum Pompeius vocaretur idque ipse cuperet multitudoque a me nominatim, ut id 44-49. id ipsum, etc.,'this very theatrum: where the ludi Romani fact, thatthey, etc.' portam Cape- (Sept. 4th-10th) were then being nam, at the foot of mons Coelius: celebrated. impulsu Clodii, 'at see Plan A. Cicero here left the the instigation of C.,' who wanted via Appia, passed northward be- to force Cicero to take a decided tween the Coelian and Palatine stand for or against giving Ponihills, then to the left down the via peius charge of the importation of Sacra (Plan B) to the forum and grain. mea opera, 'my fault,' thence proceeded to the Capitol. lit. 'by my doing:' the crowds templorum, cannot now be iden- that had flocked into Rome to vote tified. celebravit, 'attended.' for Cicero's recall had naturally 50-52. Postridie... qui: with caused a rise in prices of provisions, what does qui agree? dies Nona- which had previously been high. rum, for which we find elsewhere 56,57. ad procurationem, 'to the more natural dies Nonae: for direct it.' bonorum: it is evident the case cf. Ep. XV. 1. 15. sena- that the senate was opposed to intui... egimus: we have speeches vesting Pompeius with such extenpurporting to be those in which he sive powers, and these words sound gave thanks to senate and people. like an apology to Atticus for sup~ 6. 52-54. Eo biduo, 'two porting Pompeius against the condays after,' an anomalous expres- servatives after all his coolness sion for duobus post diebus. ad toward Cicero.

Page  426 426 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. decernerem, postularet, feci et accurate sententiam dixi, 60 cum abessent consulares, quod tuto se negarent posse sententiam dicere, praeter Messallam et Afranium. Factum est senatus consultum in meam sententiam, ut cum Pompeio ageretur, ut earn rem susciperet, lexque ferretur; quo senatus consulto recitato continuo cuin 65 more hoc insulso et novo plausum in meo nomine recitando dedisset, habui contionem, quam omnes magistratus praesentes praeter unum praetorem et duos 7 tribunos pl. dederunt. Postridie senatus frequens et omnes consulares nihil Pompeio postulanti negarunt; 70 ille legatos quindecim cum postularet, me principem nominavit et ad omnia me alterum se fore dixit. Legem consules conscripserunt, qua Pompeio per quinquennium ornnis potestas rei frumentariae toto orbe terrarum daretur; alteram Messius, qui omnis pecuniae dat.75 potestatem et adiungit classem et exercitum et maius imperium in provinciis, quam sit eorum, qui eas obtineant: illa nostra lex consularis nunc modesta videtur, 59-63. decernerem, pregnant: see on IV. 10. 16; 7.4. feci, 'I did so:' the verbfacio, as the English 'do,' is used to avoid the repetition of a preceding verb (here decrevi) of any meaning. accurate, 'in a set speech.' Messallam, consul in 61: see on Sull. 20. 31. Afranium, consul in 60: see on Ep. III. 12. 171. What is he there called? ut... ageretur, 'that Pompeius should be urged,' as if Pompeius required urging: see 1. 58 above! 64-68. recitato, 'read,' i.e., to the people. more... novo, 'in this tasteless modern style.' in... recitando, 'at the reading of my name,' which would be signed to the resolution: see p. 76, ~ 109. dedisset: sc. plebs. dederunt, ' allowed:' see p. 62, ~~ 42, 43. Cicero as a private citizen could deliver a contio only by permission of a maistrate. senatus f r e q u e n s: see on III. 7. 21; p. 76, ~ 108 ad fin. ~ 7. 71-74. me... dixit,' and said that I should be in all things his second self.' orbe: why is no preposition used? See on Sill. 42. 6. Messius: C. Messius, a tribune and tool of Pompeius. His proposal would have given Pompeius greater power even than in the war rgainst the pirates and

Page  427 EP. XXIII., ~ 6-8. 427 haec Messii non ferenda. Pompeius illam velle se dicit, familiares hane. Consulares duce Favonio fremunt; nos tacemus, et eo magis, quod de domo nostra nihil adhuc so pontifices responderunt: qui si sustulerint religionein, aream praeclaram habebimus, superficiem consules ex senatus consulto aestimabunt; sin aliter, demolientur, suo nomine locabunt, rem totam aestimabunt. Ita sunt 8 res nostrae, ut in secundis, fluxae, ut in adversis, bonae. 85 In re familiari valde sumus, ut scis, perturbati. Praeterea sunt quaedam domestica, quae litteris non committo: Q. fratrem insigni pietate, virtute, fide praeditum sic amo, ut debeo. Te exspecto et oro, ut matures venire eoque animo venias, ut me tuo consilio egere non 90 would have placed Caesar in Gaul the pontifices: see p. 70, ~ 81. under his orders. 81-83. sustulerint r e 1 i g i o79. familiares hanc: sc. eum nem, 'annul, the consecration.' velle dicunt. Favonio. M. Fa- superficiem... aestimabunt, vonius was a determined aristo- 'will estimate the (value of the crat, jealous of Pompeius, and a destroyed) building.' sin aliter, devoted admirer of Cato. He ' but if they (the pontifices) decide had held at this time no higher otherwise, the consuls will tear rank than quaestor, but his energy down (the temple erected by Clomade him leader even of the con- dius), contract for one in their sulares. own names, and estimate the 80. de domo nostra: see p. amount of my whole loss.' 44, ~ 80. Cicero had asked for 84. locabunt: see on III. 20. damages for the destruction of the 36. Ita = tales. building (superficiem, 1. 82), and ~8. 85. ut in secundis, 'for for the restoration of the site (Ep. prosperity:' for this ' parenthetXX. 3. 23), upon a part of which ical-elliptical' use of ut see on Clodius had built and dedicated Sull. 89. 41. a temple to Libertas. If the con- 86. re familiari: cf. ~ 3. 22. secration was valid the site could 87. q u a e d a m domestica, not be restored, though damages probably an allusion to some diswould have to be paid for it as agreement with Terentia; their well as for the building. The estrangement began soon after question as to the validity of Cicero's return. Cf. Ep. XXI. consecration had been referred to 4. 35 f.

Page  428 428 EPISTOLAE SELECTAE. sinas. Alterius vitae quoddam initium ordimur: iam quidam, qui nos absentes defenderunt, incipiunt praesentibus occulte irasci, aperte invidere; vehementer te requirimus. 91-93. Alterius.. ordi- pleonasm. occulte... invimur, 'I am now beginning a dere, owing of course to the fact new life, so to speak,' i.e., he that Cicero had instantly taken had to build up his fortunes sides with Pompeius in the matter anew. quoddam: cf. Sull. 53. of the food supply. See on bono10. initium ordimur, a common rum ~ 6. 57.

Page  429 M. TULLI CICERONIS PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. I. Si quis antea, iudices, mirabatur, quid esset, quod 1 pro tantis opibus rei publicae tantaque dignitate imperii iiequaquam satis multi cives forti et magno animo invenirentur, qui auderent se et salutem suam in discriTITLE. P. Sestio, no cogno- duction (exordium), statement of len, tribune Dec. 58-Dec. 57, and the case (narratio or propositio), active in forwarding Cicero's re- its division into parts (divisio), the call. Read p. 45, ~~ 82, 83; p. 87, proof of the speaker's views (con~ 87, and quote the passages in I. firmatio), the refutation of those 21. 30, and Ep. XIX. 2. 18 in which of his opponents (confutatio or he is mentioned by name. The lex refutatio), and the peroration (conPlautia (or Plotia) de vi of 89 clusio orperoratio). This arrangewas intended to punish the fre- ment was subject to modification. quent breaches of public order Cicero himself in one of his rhewhich the slender police force of torical works (p. 15, ~~ 6, 7) makes the city could not prevent, and but four parts, running narratio was aimed especially at the use of and divisio together on the one arms and employment of armed hand, and on the other confilmatio bands. Cases brought under it and confutatio. Besides these, were tried in one of the quaes- the rhetoricians encouraged the tiones perpetuae (Exc. II. ~ 1), use of digressions (digressiones), presided over by a iudex questionis and they were freely employed (ib. ~ 4), whose identity cannot be (Exc. II. ~ 13). According to fixed in the case of Sestius. Cicero's principles this oration O r a tio: Writers on rhetoric may be divided as follows: I. Exin Cicero's time divided forensic ordium, ~~ 1, 2; II. Propositio orations into six parts, the intro- and Divisio, ~~ 3-5; III. Con429

Page  430 430 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. 5 men offerre pro statu civitatis et pro communi libertate, is hoc tempore miretur potius, si quem bonum et fortem civem viderit, quam si quem aut timidum ant sibi potius quam rei publicae consulentem. Nam ut omittatis de unius cuiusque casu cogitando recordari, uno 10 aspectu intueri potestis eos, qui cum senatu, cum bonis omnibus rem publicam adflictam excitarint et latrocinio domestico liberarint, maestos, sordidatos, reos de capite, de fama, de civitate, de fortunis, de liberis dimicantis; eos autem, qui omnia'divina et humana violarint, vex15 arint, perturbarint, everterint, non solum alacris laetos firmatio and Confutatio, ~~ 6-143; IV. Conclusio, ~~ 144-147. Into part III. he has introduced several digressions: (1) On the year 58, ~~ 15-71, itself interrupted by (2) an explanation of his motives for yielding to his enemies without a struggle, ~~ 36-52, and (3) a dissertation on the two rival political parties in Rome, ~~ 96-132. It is possible that these digressions were expanded to their present length when the speech was revised for publication (p. 16, ~ 10 ad fin.). EXORDIUM: ~~ 1. 2. The object of every exordium is to awaken the interest and win the sympathy of the jury. ~ 1. 1-5. Si... miretur (1. 6).. si: for tle double protasis cf. Ep. XIV. 4. 38, and notice that miretur is the apodosis of the second protasis si... viderit (1. 7). opibus, from which meritorious citizens might expect rewards. dignitate, from which they might expect honor and glory. invenirentur, subj. as giving the thought of quis 1. 1. auderent, characteristic. statu civitatis: cf. Sull. 63. 14. 7-9. quam si quem: sc. viderit. timidum aut... consu1 e n t e m: show the chiasmus. sibi consulentem, ' selfish:' for cases with consulere see on IV. 3. 1. ut omittatis... recordari, ' without calling up in imagination,' a restrictive clause = tt non recordemini, for wliich see on Mur. 5. 1-3, and notice the absence of the usual correlative ita. 11, 12. latrocinio: cf. I. 31. 5. maestos, sordidatos: see Exc. II. ~ 14. capite, 'civil existence:' see p. 54, ~ 6; the word is explained by the following ablatives, i.e., capitis deminutio (the penalty of the lex Plautia) involved the loss of reputation, citizenship, property, and control of children (patria potestas). 14, 15. divina... everterint: the arrangement must be carefully noticed. The four verbs go in two pairs: see on I. 32. 25,

Page  431 CAP. 1, ~ 1-2. 431 que volitare, sed etiam fortissimis atque optimis civibus periculum moliri, de se nihil timere. In quo cum multa 2 sunt indigna, turn nihil minus est ferendum, quam quod iam non per latrones suos, non per homines egestate et scelere perditos, sed per vos nobis, per optimos viros 20 optimis civibus periculum inferre collantur et, quos lapidibus, quos ferro, quos facibus, quos vi, manu, copiis delere non potuerunt, hos vestra auctoritate, vestra religione, vestris sententiis se oppressuros arbitrantur. Ego autem, iudices, quoniam, qua voce mihi in agendis 25 gratiis commemorandoque eorum, qui de me optime meriti sunt, beneficio esse utendum putabam, ea nune uti cogor in eorum periculis depellendis, iis potissimum vox haec serviat, quorum opera et mihi et vobis et populo Romano restituta est. 30 and cf. II.. 5, 6; III. 16. 17; then divina is to be taken closely with the first pair and humana with the secondl giving the ' interlocked' arrangement for which quote the excellent example in Caes. I. 10. 5. 16, 17. volitare, moliri, timere, precisely parallel with the participle dimicantis, 1. 13: for the change of construction see on II. 5. 9, where the force of volitare is also explained. In quo, as in Sull. 93. 16; 31. 19, refers to the thought of 11. 14-18. ~ 2. 20-22. scelere: see on Sull. 16. 31; cf. IV. 20. 6. vos nobis: notice the juxtaposition of the contrasted words, and how the emphasis is heightened by the anaphora of the next line instead of simple apposition; for the plural nobis see on Mur. 20. 21. manu, 'outrage,' a synonym for vi with which it is often joined as here. 23-25. auctoritate... religione... sententiis, a kind of liendiadys, 'the moral weight of your oath-hound verdict.' When were tle jurors sworn? How did they give their verdict? quoniam: crowded out of place by the stress put upon ego: cf. si I. 17. 13, quid II. 15. 26. agendis gratiis; see on Ep. X. 1. 1. 26-29. commemorando... beneficio: see on II. 9. 5. qua mihi... esse utendum: for the impersonal use of the gerundive see A. 294 c; G. 428 Rem. 3; H. 544 note 5; B. 337 7 b. potissimum, as in Sull 93. 15. serviat: explain the mood.

Page  432 432 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. 3 Ii. Et quamquam a Q. Hortensio, clarissimo viro atque eloquentissimo, causa est P. Sesti perorata nihilque ab eo praetermissum est, quod aut pro re publica conquerendum fuit aut pro reo disputandum, tamen 5 adgrediar ad dicendum, ne mea propugnatio ei potissimum defuisse videatur, per quern est perfectum, ne ceteris civibus deesset. Atque ego sic statuo, iudices, a me in hac causa atque hoc extremo dicendi loco pietatis potius quam defensionis, querellae quam elo10 quentiae, doloris quam ingenii partis esse susceptas. 4 Itaque si aut acrius egero aut liberius, quam qui ante me dixerunt, peto a vobis, ut tantum orationi meae concedatis, quantum et pio dolori et iustae iracundiae concedendum putetis. Nam neque officio coniunctior 15 dolor ullus esse potest quam hic meus susceptus ex hominis de me optime meriti periculo, neque iracundia II. PROPOSITIO (or NARRATIO) and DIVISIO, ~~ 3-5; in ~ 5 is given the DrvIsIo proper. ~ 3. 1-2. Q. Hortensio: see on Sull. 3. 33; associated with Cicero in what other cases that you know of? Cicero seems to have soon been reconciled with Hortensius: see on Ep. XVI. 7. 99. perorata, 'completely pleaded.' In public trials there was ordinarily but one leading counsel assisted by subscriptores (see Exc. II. ~ 7) for the prosecution; for the defence there were several (usually four) counsel (patroni), all upon equal footing. Each speaker gave his attention to some one charge; but in the case of Sestius, Hortensius had dealt with all the legal points, leaving Cicero free to work upon the political or personal feelings of the jury. The other patroni were M. Crassus and L. Licinius Calvus, accordto a scholiast. nihilque, rarely found for the regular nec quicquan 4-10. disputandum, not precisely our 'dispute,' but rather 'assert,' 'maintain.' ei potissimum, as in ~ 2. 28: when the object compared is expressed, what is used instead of potissimnum? cf. ~ 1. 8. extremo loco: see p. 16, ~ 9. pietatis, 'loyalty,' to a friend, so pio ~ 4. 13. partis: for number and meaning see on Mur. 6. 11. ~ 4. 11-14. acrius, 'with more feeling.' liberius, 'with more freedom of speech.' putetis, attracted to concedatis. officio coniunctior, 'more conformable to duty;' offcio is dative.

Page  433 CAP. 2, ~ 3-5. w 433 magis ulla laudanda est quam mea inflammata eorum scelere, qui cum omnibus meae salutis defensoribus bellum esse sibi gerendum iudicaverunt. Sed quoniam 5 singulis criminibus ceteri responderunt, dicam ego de 20 orni statu P. Sesti, de genere vitae, de natura, de moribus, de incredibili amore in bonos, de studio conservandae salutis communis atque otii contendamque, si modo id consequi potero, ut in hac confusa atque' universa defensione nihil a me, quod ad vestram quaestionem, 25 nihil, quod ad reum, nihil, quod ad rem publicam pertineat, praetermissum esse videatur. Et quoniam in gravissimis temporibus civitatis atque in ruinis eversae atque adflictae rei publicae P. Sesti tribunatus est a Fortuna ipsa collocatus, non adgrediar ad illa maxima 30 atque amplissima, priusquam docuero, quibus initiis ac fundamentis haec tantae summis in rebus laudes excitatae sint. ~ 5. 20-23. criminibus: see de vi. reum, i.e., his character on Sull. 6. 36. ceteri, distinguish in respect to other matters than from alii: see on Sull. 9. 25. those with which the court was omni statu, ' the whole position:' concerned. rem publicam: see the word is explained by the fol- p. 47, ~ 87 ad fin. These lines lowing ablatives, de genere....(26, 27) give the three chief points de studio; give an illustration of Part III. of the speech: AD from ~ 1. Notice that these ex- QUAESTIONEM, ~~ 75-95. 144-147, planatory words are not connected AD REUM, ~~ 6-13. 71, AD REM P., by conjunctions: such an arrange- ~~ 15-70. 72-74. 96-143. ment is called asyndeton explica- 27-32. esse videatur: for this tivum. studio... otii, aneces- ending of the sentence see on sary periphrasis for our 'con- Sull. 3. 41. ruinis,' fall,' 'crash,' servatism,' for which there is no not 'ruins,' which is a post-classiprecise equivalent in Latin. cor- cal sense. Fortuna: the ancients munis: position? understood by Fortune an inscru24-26. confusa atque uni- table divine agency, as we do by versa, -'comprehensive and gen- Providence. haec, nom. pl. femieral:' seeon~3.2. quaestionem, nine: see A. 101 a; H. 186 I., as concerned only with the ques- footnote 7. laudes, 'meritorious tion of Sestius' guilt or innocence acts.'

Page  434 434 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. 6 ii. Parente P. Sestius natus est, iudices, homine, ut plerique meministis, et sapiente et sancto et severo; qui curn tribunus pl. primus inter homines nobilissimos temporibus optumis factus esset, reliquis honoribus non 5 tam uti voluit quam dignus videri. Eo auctore duxit honestissumi et spectatissumi viri, C. Albini, filiam, ex qua hic est puer et nupta iam filia. Duobus his gravissumae antiquitatis viris sic probatus fuit, ut utrique eorum et carus maxime et iucundus esset. Ademit o0 Albino soceri nomen mors filiae, sed caritatem illius necessitudinis et benivolentiam non ademit. Hodie sic hunc diligit, ut vos facillime potestis ex hac vel adsi7 duitate eius vel sollicitudine et molestia iudicare. Duxit uxorem patre vivo optumi et calamitosissumi viri filiam, III. CONFIRMATIO and CONFUTATIO, ~~ 6-143. Life of Sestius to his Tribunate, ~~ 6-13. (a) Descent and Family Affairs, ~~ 6,7. ~ 6. 2-5. sapiente... severo: notice the alliteration. primus, i.e., the first of the candidates to get a majority of the tribal votes (p. 60, ~34): cf. Cicero's election to the praetorship, p. 20, ~ 22. Sestius' honor was increased by the fact that his rivals were homines nobilissimi, and that the election occurred temporibus optimis, i.e., before the days of bribery and corruption. Eo auctore: under the patria potestas the consent of the father was necessary to a matrimonium iustum. du x it: notice the change of subject with no pronoun to mark it. 7-9. hio: what does the pronoun imply? Cf. ~ 2. 23 and Sull. 88. 36; 62.5. antiquitatis, 'of the stern old type;' so homi.nes antiqui means 'men of old-fasliioned integrity,' 'of the old school.' carus et iucundus: cf. Sull. 62.28. Ademit... mors: the connection (adfinitas) between father-in-law and son-in-law was legally severed by the death or divorce of the daughter and wife. 10-13. soceri nomen: for the gen. see on Sull. 37.19. Hodie,' today even,' though Sestius had married again. sic, ut... potestis: turn in English: 'how much he loves him, you can, etc.' adsiduitate, as in Mur. 21. 29: see Exc. II. ~ 14. molestia, ' dejection.' ~ 7. 14, 15. uxorem: sc. alteram. et, 'and yet:' the copilative is more sympathetic thani an adversative conjunction. calamitosissumi: for the sense cf. calamitas, Eps. XV. 1. 3; XI. 1. 8,

Page  435 CAP. 3, ~ 6-8. 435 L. Scipionis. Clara in hoc P. Sesti pietas extitit et 15 omnibus grata, quod et Massiliam statim profectus est, ut socerum videre consolarique posset fluctibus rei publicae expulsum in alienis terris iacentem, quem in maiorum suorum vestigiis stare oportebat, et ad eum filiam eius adduxit, ut ille insperato aspectu complexuque si 20 non omnem, at aliquam partem maeroris sui deponeret, et maximis praeterea adsiduisque officiis et illius aerumham, quoad vixit, et filiae solitudinem sustentavit. Possum multa dicere de liberalitate, de domesticis officiis, de tribunatu militari, de provinciali in eo magistratu 25 apstinentia; sed mihi ante oculos obversatur rei publicae dignitas, quae me ad sese rapit, haec minora relinquere hortatur. Quaestor hic C. Antoni, collegae mei, 8 iudices, fuit sorte, sed societate consiliorum meus. Inpedior non nullius officii, ut ego interpretor, religione, 30 L. Scipionis, consul in 83, was comitia tributa; that Sestius was deserted by his soldiers on Sulla's of the latter class is shown by the return from the east, and died in word magistratu, which is used exile at Massilia. hoc is masc. only of an elective office. de 19-23. eum... ille: both provinciali, 'of his integrity in refer to Scipio; ille is a little the province while holding that more emphatic than is, trans. office:' the adj. takes the place of 'that exile.' si non... at, 'if a phrase, here in provincia. not all, at least, etc.' solitudi- 27. relinquere hortat u r, a nem, bereft of her father: cf. very rare construction for ut relinCicero's advice in regard to Tullia quam hortatur, found in but one during his own banishment, Ep. other passage in Cicero. Notice XIV. 3. 26 f. the asyndeton between rapit and 25. tribunatu militari: dis- hortatur. tinguish carefully the 'tribune of (b.) Official Life of Sestius to the soldiers' from the 'tribune his Tribunate, ~~ 8-13. of the people,' and see for the ~ 8. 28-30. Quaestor... fuit former the introduction to your sorte: see p. 67, ~~ 66, 67. C. Caesar. Of the tribuni militares Antoni: see on Ep. II. Salutapart were chosen by the com- tion. offlcii religione; see on mander, part were elected in the Sull. 10 33.

Page  436 436 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. quo minus exponam, quam multa P. Sestius, cum esset cum collega meo, senserit, ad me detulerit, quanto ante provident. Atque ego de Antonio nihil dico praeter unum, numquam ilium illo summo timore ac periculo 35 civitatis neque communem metum omnium nec propriam non nullorum de ipso suspicionem aut infitiando tollere aut dissimulando sedare voluisse. In quo collega sustinendo atque moderando si meam in illum indulgentiam coniunctam cum summa custodia rei 40 p ublicae laudare vere solebatis, par prope laus P. Sesti esse debet, qui ita suum consulem observavit, ut et illi quaestor bonus et bonis omnibus optimus civis videretur. 9 iv. Idem, cum illa coniuratio ex latebris atque ex tenebris erupisset palamque armata volitaret, venit cum exercitu Capuam, quam urbem propter plurimas belli oportunitates ab illa impia et scelerata manu temptari 5 suspicabamur; C. Mevulanum, tribunum militum Antoni, Capua praecipitem eiecit, hominem perditum et non obscure Pisauri et in aliis agri Gallici partibus in 31, 32. quam multa, not 40-42. vere, 'justly,' 'as it quot, for the latter cannot be used deserved.' o b s e r v a vi t, 'paid substantively owing to its lack of respect.' ita... ut: in what case and gender endings; in the sense? quaestor bonus, etc.: same way tot cannot be used sub- point out the chiasmus in this line. stantively for tarn multi or tam multa. cum esset cum: see on ~ 9. 3-5. belli oportuniIV. 12. 20. cum collega, 'in tates: how does this agree with the service of my colleague,' op- the statement about Campania in posed to ad me detulerit below. Still. 53. 11? For Capua and 38, 39. sustinendo.. mode- gladiators see on II. 9. 2. C. rando, metaphor from controll- Me v ulan u m, otherwise uning horses. indulgentiam, prob- known. ably a reference to the province of 7. Pisauri, an important town Macedonia: see p. 28, ~ 42 and Ep. in the ager Gallicus, for which II. Int. note. see on II. 5. 2. Case?

Page  437 CAP. 3-4, ~ 8-10. 437 illa coniuratione versatum. Idemque C. Marcellum, cum is non Capuam solum venisset, verum etiam se quasi armorum studio in maximam familiam coniecis- 10 set, exterminandum ex illa urbe curavit. Qua de causa et turn conventus ille Capuae, qui propter salutem illius urbis consulatu conservatam meo me unum patronum adoptavit, huic apud me P. Sestio maximas gratias egit, et hoc tempore eidem homines nomine commutato 15 coloni decurionesque, fortissimi atque optimi viii, beneficium P. Sesti testimonio declarant, periculum decreto suo deprecantur. Recita, quaeso, L. Sesti, quid decre-10 rint Capuae decuriones, ut iam puerilis tua vox possit aliquid significare inimicis vestris, quidnam, cum se 20 conroborarit, effectura esse videatur. DECURIONUM 8-11. C. Marcellum, not elsewhere mentioned by Cicero. quasi.. studio, 'as if on account of his fondness for arms:' cf. the plea of Cethegus III. 10, 10. in... coniecisset, 'had attached himself to a numerous band;' for meaning of familiam see on Sull. 54. 18. exterminandum: for meaning cf. III. 3. 4; for construction see on III. 20. 36: cf. IV. 13, 55. 12. et tur, correlative with et hoc tempore, 1. 15. conventus, a word applied to a community with no rights of self-government, whose local affairs were administered by magistrates sent from Rome. Capua had been reduced to this position as a punishment for having sided with Hannibal in the second Punic war (Creighton, p. 44 f; Allen, p. 123 f; Myers, p. 65; Pennell, p. 67), but in 59 a colony had been planted there, and since then (how long?) the people (nomine commutato) had been called coloni. 13-16. unum patronum: see on IV. 23. 4. Strictly speaking Capua had no right to a patronus as merely a conventus when it selected Cicero, but in practice such technicalities were frequently disregarded. decuriones: after 59 the local affairs of Capua, as of all the coloniae, were administered in imitation of the government of Rome by a senate (decuriones) and two higher magistrates (duoviri). ~ 10. 18-21. L. Sesti, the hic puer of ~ 6. 7. Case? aliquid, adv. ace. = aliquo modo. vestris: including whom? videatur, 'what it is quite likely to accomplish.' Cicero frequently introduces the verbs videri and putare into sub

Page  438 438 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. DECRETA. Non recito decretum officio aliquo expressum vicinitatis aut clientelae aut hospitii publici aut ambitionis aut commendationis gratia, sed recito 25 melnoriam perfuncti periculi, praedicationem amplissimi beneficii, vocem officii praesentis, testimonium praeteriti 11 temporis. Atque illis temporibus eisdem, cum iam Capuam metu Sestius liberasset, urbem senatus atque omnes boni deprehensis atque oppressis domesticis 30 hostibus me duce ex periculis maximis extraxissent, ego litteris P. Sestium Capua arcessivi cum illo exercitu, quem tur secum habebat. Quibus hic litteris lectis ad urbem confestim incredibili celeritate advolavit. Atque ut illius temporis atrocitateln recordari 35 possitis, audite litteras et vestram memoriam ad timoris praeteriti cogitationem excitate. LITTERAE CICERONIS CONSULIS. junctive clauses where they seem in translation by repeating non realmost pleonastic, for the purpose cito, ' nor do I, etc.' ambitionis either of implying contingency or... gratia: sc. from expressum of rounding out his periods more by zeugma (cf. III. 24. 14; 16.16; sonorously. For videri cf. ~ 5. 27; 11. 19. 9), a word of general meanfor putare, ~ 4. 14. DEICURIONUM ing, e.g. factum: 'or given with a DECRETA, 'the resolutions of the view to securing good will or favor.' town council:' for the mere title 25, 26. memoriam... perisee on Mur. 57. 39. culi, 'a record of danger sur22. recito, as L. Sestius is his mounted;' for perfuncti cf. the mouthpiece. officio... vicinita- participles in Mur. 20. 22; II. 4. tis, etc., 'forced (from them) by 21; I. 26. 14. vocem... praesome obligation of neighlborliness, sentis, 'the expression of living etc.:' see Exc. II. ~ 14 ad fin. gratitude.' 23, 24. clientelae, hospitii: ~ 11. 27. Atque, 'and furthersee on IV. 23. 4. aut ambitio- more;' so in ~ 3. 7, and often. nis: this aut is not correlative to 32-36. Quibus hic litteris: thosebefore hospitii and commen- notice the repetition of the antedationis, but separates the five cedent; how does this differ from genitives into two groups of three the use of voce, ~ 2. 25? Notice and two respectively (a + b + c) the subject hic. in the ab. abs. + (d + e): this may be indicated LITTERAE, etc.: cf. ~ 10. 21.

Page  439 CAP. 4-5, ~ 10-12. 439 v. Hoc adventu P. Sesti tribunorum pl. novorum, L! qui tum extremis diebus consulatus mei res eas, quas gesseram, vexare cupiebant, reliquaeque coniurationis impetus et conatus sunt retardati. Ac posteaquam est 12 intellectum M. Catone tribuno pl., fortissimo atque 5 optimo civi, rem publicam defendente per se ipsum senatum populumque Romanum sine militum praesidio tueri facile maiestate sua dignitatem eorum, qui salutem communem periculo suo defendissent, Sestius cum illo exercitu summa celeritate C. Antonium consecutus 10 est. Hic ego quid praedicem, quibus hic rebus consulem quaestor ad rem gerendam excitarit, quos stimulos admoverit homini studioso fortasse victoriae, sed tamen nimium communem Martem belli casumque metuenti? ]ongum est ea dicere, sed hoc breve dicam: Si M. 15 Petrei non excellens animus et amor rei publicae, non praestans in re publica virtus, non summa auctoritas apud milites, non mirificus usus in re militari extitisset, 1, 2. tribunorum... novorum: those whlo went into office Dec. 10th, 63, especially Q. Metellus Nepos and L. Calpurnius Bestia: see p. 39, ~ 69. extremis diebus, because Cicero's term expired Dec. 31st. ~ 12. 5. M. Catone: for Cicero's opinion of him see Ep. IV. 7. 81; lie had stood for the tribunate with the avowed purpose of opposing Bestia and Nepos. 10-14. C. Antonium, then facing Catilina in Etruria, p. 32, ~ 53. praedicem, excitarit: explain the mood. consulem quaestor: for position cf. vos nobis, ~ 2. 20. tamen: where is the concession? c o m m u n e m Martem belli, 'doubtful success in battle.' Mars, god of war (see vocab.), is often used of 'success,' 'victory,' and is styled communis as being neutral. 15, 16. Longum est: for mood cf. Sull. 80. 5; I. 12. 26. M. Petrei, a sturdy old soldier, of the type of Labienus, who commanded in the final battle (Feb., 62) against Catilina, when Antonius was, or pretended to be, unfit for duty. See Exc. IV. 59. 4-6; 60. 1 and 5. 17, 18. in re publica: sc. gerenda, 'in administration:' used of war as well as of civil affairs, and therefore not contrasted with re militari. extitisset, ' had been displayed.'

Page  440 440 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. neque adiutor ei P. Sestius ad excitandum Antonium, 20 cohortandum, accusandum, inpellendum fuisset, datus illo in bello esset hiemi locus, neque umquam Catilina, cum e pruina Appennini atque e nivibus illis emersisset atque aestatem integram nanctus Italiae callis et pastorum stabula praeoccupare coepisset, sine multo sanguine 25 ac sine totius Italiae vastitate miserrima concidisset. 13 Hunc igitur animum adtulit ad tribunatum P. Sestius, ut quaesturam Macedoniae relinquam et aliquando ad haec propiora veniam. Quamquam non est omittenda singularis illa integritas provincialis, cuius ego nuper in 30 Macedonia vidi vestigia non pressa leviter ad exigui praedicationem temporis, sed fixa ad memoriam illius provinciae sempiternam; verum haec ita praetereamus, ut tamen intuentes et respectantes relinquamus; ad tribunatum, qui ipse ad sese iam dudum vocat et quodam modo absor35 bet orationem meam, contento studio cursuque veniamus. 19-21. adiutor: for trans. cf. least those of Apulia (see on III. Ep. III. 1. 15. datus... locus, 14. 20), were thought to be favor'place would have been given to able to Catilina's plans. winter in that war:' cf. the Eng. ~ 13. 26-29. Hunc animum, a3 'give place to one;' i.e., had it not described in ~ 12. 20. ut... relinbeen for Sestius and Petreius, An- quam... veniam: for the clause tonius would have seized upon the cf. Ep. XXIII. 1.4. quaesturam, excuse of winter to stop operations, in Macedonia, under Antonius: and Catilina would have escaped see Ep. II. Sal., and p. 69, ~ 75. from the trap in which he was Quamquam: use wlen first in a caught: see p. 38, ~ 68; Exc. IV. sentence? integritas provinci57. 2-5. alis: see on ~ 7. 25. nuper: when 22-24. cum... emersisset, was Cicero in Macedonia? 'when (= if) he had once emerged.' 32-35. ita... ut: as in ~ 8. pruina... nivibus: cf. II. 23. 41. intuentes et respectantes, 36. Italiae callis, the mountain 'noticing and looking back at passes into Gaul, to secure his them.' iam dudum vocat: for retreat if necessary. pastorum tense cf. I. 12. 31. absorbet, stabula, as shelter for his men, in 'swallows up:' the metaphor is lieu of the huts of the castra from a whirlpool. contento... stativa; besides, the pastores, at cursu: cf. Mur. 33. 27.

Page  441 CAP. 5-6, ~ 12-15. f 441 311 VI. De quo quidem tribunatu ita dictum est a Q. 14 Hortensio, ut eius oratio non defensionem modo videretur criminum continere, sed etian meinoria dignam iuventuti rei publicae capessendae auctoritatem disciplinamque praescribere. Sed tamen, quoniain tribu- 5 natus totus P. Sesti nihil aliud nisi meum nomen causamque sustinuit, necessario mihi de isdem rebus esse arbitror si non suptilius disputandum, at certe dolentius deplorandum. Qua in oratione si asperius in quosdam homines invehi vellem, quis non con- 10 cederet, ut eos, quorum sceleris furore violatus essem, vocis libertate perstringerem? Sed agam moderate et huius potius tempori serviam quam dolori meo; si qui occulte a salute nostra dissentiunt, lateant; si qui fecerunt aliquid aliquando atque eidem nunc tacent 15 et quiescunt, nos quoque simus obliti; si qui se offerunt, insectantur, quoad ferri poterunt, perferemus, neque quemquam offendet oratio mea, nisi qui se ita optulerit, ut in eum non invasisse, sed incucurrisse videamur. 20 Sed necesse est, antequam de tribunatu P. Sesti 15 Tribunate of Sestius (Dec. 58 -Dec. 57) ~~ 14, 15, interrupted by the first Digressio. ~ 14. 4-8. reipublicae... disciplinam, 'a pattern and lesson hIow men should work in public life.' nihil aliud nisi... sustinuit, 'did nothing else but support,' 'merely supported;' the phrase is elliptical (for the verb to be supplied 'see Sull. 35. 23) and occurs frequently in Cicero and later writers. si non... at certe: which word is unnecessary? cf. ~ 7. 20, 21. suptilius, 'more minutely,' than Hortensius. 9-19. Qua oratione, 'this part of my speech:' so in Sull. 35. 24. sceleris furore: for trans. cf. Sull. 4. 7 and 13; Mur. 16. 20. perstringerem: cf. for meaning Sull. 46. 17. si qui... aliquid aliquando: for the accumulation of indefinites cf. Ep. XIV. 1. 7. atque eidem: see on Sull. 20. 29. simus obliti: for mood cf. lateant 1. 14; obliti is used as a pred. adj. incucurrisse, ' to have chanced upon him.'

Page  442 442 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. dicere incipiam, me totum superioris anni rei publicae naufragium exponere, in quo colligendo ac reficienda salute communi omnia reperientur P. Sesti facta, dicta, 25 consilia versata. viI. Fuerat ille annus iam in re publica, iudices, cum in magno motu et multorum timore intentus est arcus in me unum, sicut vulgo ignari rerum loquebantur, re quidem vera in universam rem 5 publicam traductione ad plebem furibundi hominis ac perditi, mihi irati, sed multo acrius otii et communis salutis inimici. Hunc vir clarissimus mihique multis ~ 15. 22-25. anni rei publicae: for the double gen. cf. Ep. XXIII. 2. 16. anni, the year 58, preceding Sestius' tribunate. naufragium means both' wreck,' 'ruin,' and 'fragments of the wreck,' 'ruins;' in the former sense with exponere, in the latter with colligere. Point out the chiasmus here. facta, dicta, consilia: for arrangement see on III. 3. 20 and 21. First Digressio: The year 58, ~~ 15-71; (a) Clodius ~~ 15, 16. 1-4. u e r a t, ' had passed.' annus, the year 59, in which Clodius became a plebeian and was elected tribune. Read p. 41, ~~ 75 -77. quidem, adversative: cf. II. 2. 25. 5. traductione. A patrician might become a plebeian by making formal renunciation of the privileges of his rank (transitio adplebem), orhe might be adopted into a plebeian family, thus losing all his own family privileges. This second method (adrogatio) was an act of great formality and required the consent of the ponti fices (p. 70, ~ 81), because the sacra (Mur. 27. 32) of the patrician family might be injured, and the consent of the patrician body, the comitia curiata (p. 59, ~ 28). Clodius attempted the first and simple process, but was prevented by Metellns the consul; then under the guidance of the tribune Herennius he tried to get the adrogatio sanctioned by the whole body of the people (comitia centuriata) instead of by tlhe patricians (see on Ep; IV. 4. 57), and this also failed. Finally Caesar took offence at some political allusions in Cicero's speech for Antonius (see Ep. II. Sal. ad fin.) and rushed the adoption through the comitia curiata; but the act was attended by so many informalities that Cicero denied its validity and refuses to call it by its formal name. hominis, Clodius. 6, 7. mihi irati, with good reason: read p. 41, ~ 74, and Ep. III. ~~ 9, 10. inimici: notice that this word governs otii and salutis as a noun, but is modified by the adv. acrius as if an adjective.

Page  443 CAP. 6-7, ~ 15-16. 443 repugnantibus amicissimus, Cn. Pompeius, omni cautione, foedere, execratione devinxerat nihil in tribunatu contra me esse facturum. Quod ille nefarius ex o0 omnium scelerum colluvione natus parurn se foedus violaturum arbitratus est, nisi ipsum cautorem alieni periculi suis propriis periculis terruisset. Hanc tae- 16 tram immanemque beluam vinctam auspiciis, alligatam more maiorum, constrictam leguln sacratarum catenis 15 solvit subito lege curiata consul vel, ut ego arbitror, exoratus vel, ut non nemo putabat, mihi iratus, ignarus 8-13. omni, execratione, 'every sort of security, pledge, and protest,' or (cf. ~ 2. 23) 'every sort of security and pledge under oath.' esse facturum: sc. from Hunc, 1. 7, a subject referring to Clodius. Quod, with foedus, 1. 11. ex... natus, 'born of the rottenness of every crime.' parum = non satis. ipsum cautorem, etc., 'the very man (Pompeius) who had taken precautions for another's (Cicero's) safety.' propriis: Pompeius was made to believe that a plot to assassinate him had been laid by Cicero. ~ 16. 14. vinctam auspiciis: the auspicia privata were the exclusive possession of the patricians, as were also the auspicia publica in early times. If such irregular 'transfers' as that of Clodius were to be allowed there was danger that no patricians would be left (see on Mur. 16. 16.) to take the auspices at such times as the state had no magistrates - as it in fact had none at the beginning of the year 52. For the auspicia see p. 71, ~~ 83-85. 15. more maiorum: the constitution (see on I. 28. 15) discouraged the practice of transitio and adrogatio, except under certain conditions, none of which existed in case of Clodius. legum sacratarum, certain laws, a violation of which caused the offender to be pronounced sacer ('devoted,' 'accursed') and gave any one the right to kill him with inpunity. The law which provid(ed that the tribunes should be chosen exclusively from the plebeians was such a lex sacrata, and if the adrogatio of Clodius was invalid lis election to the tribunate was a breach of the law. Notice the climax in the words vinctam, alligatam, constrictam, and how it is marked by the number of modifying words with each. 16. solvit: sc. his vinclis. subito: see on 1. 5 above, consul, 'the consul' (Caesar), not. as consul,' for Caesar's power to further the adoption of Clodius lay in his beingpontifex maximus, pnd thus presiding over the meeting of the comitia curiata that

Page  444 444 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. quidem certe et inprudens inpendentium tantorum scelerum et malorum. Qui tribunus pl. felix in ever20 tenda re publica fuit nullis suis nervis (qui enim in eius modi vita nervi esse potuerunt hominis fraternis flagitiis, sororiis stupris, omni inaudita libidine ex17 sanguis?); sed fuit profecto quaedam illa rei publicae fortuna fatalis, ut ille caecus atque amens tribunus pl. 25 nancisceretur - quid dicam? consules? Hocine ut ego nomine appellem eversores huius imperii, proditores vestrae dignitatis, hostes bonorum omnium, qui ad delendum senatum, adfligendum equestrem ordinem, extinguenda omnia iura atque instituta maiorum se 30 illis fascibus ceterisque insignibus summi honoris atque imperii ornatos esse arbitrabantur? Quorum, per deos immortales! si nondum scelera vulneraque inusta rei publicae vultis recordari, vultum atque incessuin animis 34 intuemini; facilius eorum facta occurrent mentibus 18 vestris, si ora ipsa oculis proposueritis. viii. Alter sanctioned it. At the same meeting Pompeius acted as augur (p. 72, ~ 88). vel: see on II. 1. 4. 18-22. quidem, as in ~ 15. 4. nullis, an emphatic non. nervis: see on Sull. 24. 13. inaudita: the violation of the mysteries of the Bona Dea, p. 41, ~ 73. (b.) The Consuls, Gabinius and Piso, ~~ 17-24. ~ 17. 23. sed fuit profecto: a slight anacoluthon: we should expect a phrase in the ablative to balance suis nervis, 1. 20 above. quaedam: how used? illa introduces the clause ut... nancisceretur, cf. II. 21. 1, but is attracted in gender to fortuna: cf. Sull. 89. 48; II. 23. 31. 25-31. quid dicam: see on Sull. 51. 22. The object of nancisceretur is to be some appropriate word for Piso and Gabinius, who entered upon office three weeks after Clodius - he hesitates to call them consuls. Hocine: for the form, A. p. 67, footnote; G. 102. III. Rem. 1; H. 186 VI. 1; B. p. 50 foot note 2. ut... appellem: for the clause cf. I. 24. 31; 22. 1. insignibus: see p. 64, ] 51. honoris, imperil, i.e., the consulship. 18. 1. Alter, 'the one,' Gabinius, correlative to alter, ~ 19. 12.

Page  445 CAP. 7, ~ 16-18. 445 unguentis affluens, calamistrata coma, despiciens conscios stuprorum ac veteres vexatores aetatulae suae, puteali et faeneratorum gregibus inflatus, a quibus conpulsus olim, ne in Scyllaeo illo aeris alieni tam- 5 quam fretu ad columnam adhaeresceret, in tribunatus portum perfugerat, contemnebat equites Romanos, minitabatur senatui, venditabat se operis atque ab iis se ereptum, ne de ambitu causam diceret, praedicabat ab isdemque se etiam invito senatu provinciam 10 sperare dicebat; eamque nisi adeptus esset, se inco 2-4. unguentis affluens: cf. II. 10. 26; 5. 11. calamistrata, 'frizzled;' case of coma? conscios... aetatulae, 'the partners of his vices and the corrupters of his tender years.' puteali... inflatus, 'puffed up by the well-curb and the hordes of usurers.' A puteal was the enclosure, open at the top like a well-curb, erected around a spot made sacred by a stroke of lightning. This particular one (puteal Libonis) was at the eastern end of the forum, and near it was the tribunal of the praetor urbanus (p. 66, ~ 60), before whom Gabinius had often been arraigned for debt. Now that he was consul he was rather proud of his experience near the puteal, as he could while in office (p. 64, ~ 52) bid defiance to his creditors. 5,6. Scyllaeo.. fretu: the strait between Sicily and Italy was difficult of navigation, and at two particularly dangerous points pillars had been erected as guides to the pilots. In the forum also there was a pillar (columna Mae nia) on which were posted the names of bankrupts. Translate: 'lest he might stick fast to the pillar in that Scylla-like strait of debt, so to speak, he had turned for refuge into the harbor of the tribunate;' that is, to avoid bankruptcy Gabinius had stood for the tribunate in 67, as afterwards for the consulship in 58. Scyllaeo, for the less rhetorical Siculo, from the celebrated rock in the channel. fretu, for the more common freto. tribunatus: for the case cf. soceri, ~ 6. 10. 8-11. operis, as in Sull. 68. 15. ereptum, ne... diceret: cf. Caes. I. 4. 2. de ambitu: see Ep. VI. 15. 4. ab isdem, i.e., by their votes in the comitia. provinciam: for the ordinary way of assigning the provinces see on IV. 23. 2; for the way Gabinius got his, see on Ep. VII. 1. 10; for a similar but unsuccessful plan see on Ep. III. 8. 116. incolumem: for meaning cf. Eps. XVIII. 2. 28; XVI. 10. 120; Sull. 61. 19. Gabinius feared prosecution for his conduct in office, and

Page  446 446 PRO P., SESTIO ORATIO. 19 lumem nullo modo fore arbitrabatur. Alter, o di boni! quam taeter incedebat, quam truculentus, quim terribilis aspectu! Unum aliquem te ex barbatis illis, 15 exemplum imperii veteris, imaginel antiquitatis, columen rei publicae diceres intueri. Vestitus aspere nostra hac purpura plebeia ac paene fusca, capillo ita horrido, ut Capua, in qua ipsa turn imaginis ornandae causa duumviratum gerebat, Seplasiam sub20 laturus videretur. Nam quid ego de supercilio dicam, quod turn hominibus non supercilium, sed pignus rei publicae videbatur? Tanta erat gravitas in oculo, tanta contractio frontis, ut illo supercilio annus il]e 20 niti tamquam vade videretur. Erat hic omniurn sermo: 25 ' Est tamen rei publicae magnum firmumque subsidiurn; habeo, quern opponam labi illi atque caeno; vultu me wished to stave it off a little by a proconsulship. ~ 19. 12-17. Alter, 'the other,' Piso, cf. ~ 18. 1. barbatis, i.e., old-fashioned: see on Mur. 26. 18. imperii veteris, 'of the ancient state;' vetus as in III. 19. 17. What is its proper meaning? antiquitatis: see on ~ 6. 8. diceres: for mood cf. putes, Ep. III. 10. 150; the,tense ('would have') is regular for past time. Vestitus, an exaggerated term for the latus clavus and border of the toga (p. 56, ~ 17 and p. 64, ~ 51). nostra, as in Ep. III. 13. 190. What other meanings has it had? Cf. Ep. IX. 1. 1; Mur. 47.7. purpura plebeia, ' homely purple,' as compared with the brighter dye of Tyre which was then the fashion. 18-22. imaginis ornandae, i.e., to add a title to the list of the offices he had filled which would be written beneath his bust (p. 55, ~~ 12, 13) in the halls of llis descendants. duumviratum: -see on ~ 9. 16. Such offices were frequently filled by distinguished Romans, so it is merely the motive (imaginis ornandae) of Piso that Cicero ridicules. Seplasiam, the street upon which the perfunmers lived: they would become bankrupt if Piso's style were generally adopted. oculo: Piso is said to have had a cast in one eye. ~ 20. 25, 26. tamen, 'in spite of all,' i.e., notwithstanding the. character (~ 18) of Gabinius; for omission of the concessive clause with tamen cf. Sull. 1. 7; IV. 23. 5. labi illi atque caeno, 'that pestilent and dirty fellow.' vultu, 'mere look.'

Page  447 CAP. 8, ~ 19-21. 447 dius fidius collegae sui libidinem levitatenlque franget; habebit senatus in hunc annum, quem sequatur; non deerit auctor et dux bonis.' Mihi denique homines praecipue gratulabantur, quod habiturus essem contra 30 tribunum p1. furiosum et audacem cum amicum et adfinem, turn etiam fortem et gravem consulem. r IX. Atque eorum alter fefellit neminem. Quis enim clavum tanti imperii tenere et gubernacula rei publicae tractare in maximo cursu ac fluctibus posse arbitraretur hominem emersum subito ex diuturnis tenebris lustrorum ac stuprorum, vino, ganeis, lenociniis 5 adulteriisque confectum, cum is praeter spem in altissimo gradu alienis opibus positus esset, qui non modo tempestatem inpendentem intueri temulentus, sed ne lucem quidem insolitam aspicere posset? Alter multos 21 plane in omnis partis fefellit. Erat enim hominumn 10 opinioni nobilitate ipsa, blanda conciliatricula, com 27-32. dius fidius: see on Sull. 83. 9. gratulabantur, 'congratulated:'" what other meaning in Ep. XXIII. 1. 3? habiturus essem: mood? adfinem, through his son-in-law (then living): see on Ep. XIV. Sal. Tullia. 1-4. alter, Gabinius: where is its correlative? clavum, gubernacula: the former is strictly but a part, the handle, of the latter; the latter is always plural when used metaphorically. in maximo cursu, etc. = ubi maximus erat cursus, etc.: for a slightly different (concessive) force of a phrase with in cf. Ep. VI. 16. 13; II. 18. 12. ex diuturnis, etc., 'from the daylight darkness (= dim light) of dens of infamy.' 6-8. confectum, as in II. 24.5. altissimo gradu: see p. 69, ~~ 77, 78. alienis, of Caesar, Crassus, and Pornpeius. qui non modo, etc., 'who, in his besotted condition, was unable, I don't say to... but merely to, etc.:' for the correlatives see on II. 20. 35. tempestatem... temulentus: notice the ponderous force of the four quadrisyllables, of which chiastically the first and fourth begin with t, the second and third with i. ~ 21. 10, 11. in omnis partis, 'in every way,' for which is used with precisely the same force omnni ex parte. nobilitate, 'rank,' 'family,' not ' nobility,' which suggests character to an English ear. blanda conciliatricula, 'a flattering commenda

Page  448 448 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. mendatus. Omnes boni semper nobilitati favemus; et quia utile est rei publicae nobiles homines esse dignos maioribus suis, et quia valet apud nos clarorum ho15 minum et bene de re publica meritorum memoria etiam mortuorum. Quia tristem semper, quia taciturnum, quia subhorridum atque incultum videbant, et quod erat eo nomine, ut ingenerata familiae frugalitas videretur, favebant, gaudebant et ad integritatem 20 maiorum spe sua hominem vocabant materni generis 22 obliti. Ego autem (vere dicam, iudices) tantum esse in homine sceleris, audaciae, crudelitatis, quantum ipse cum re publica sensi, numquam putavi; nequam esse hominem et levem et falsa opinione hominum 25 ab adulescentia commendatum sciebam. Etenim animus eius vultu, flagitia parietibus tegebantur; sed haec opstructio nec diuturna est neque obducta ita, ut curiosis oculis perspici non possit. x. Videbamus genus vitae, desidiam, inertiam; inclusas eius libidines, qui paulo propius accesserant, intuebantur; denique tion;' notice the slighting diminutive. boni: in wlat sense? rei publicae, dat. with esse, not with utile. tristem: sc. Pisonem or a pronoun referring to him. 17-20. subhorridum, as described in ~ 19; sub- with an adjective denotes a small amount of the quality (= 'rather,' ' somewhat'), and is thus opposed to per-. eo nomine. Cicero is thinking of the agnomen Frugi of one branch of the Pisones, but the consul belonged to a different branch, the Caesonini. f a v ebant, gaudebant et vocabant, (a+b)+c: see on II. 14. 4-7. ad integritatem... vocabant, ' and by their hopes (of him) encouraged him to (aspire to) the character of his sires.' materni generis: his mother was a Gaul. ~ 22. 23-25. cum re p. = et res p. nequam, indeclinable adj. ab adulescentia, 'by (not 'from') his (strict life in his) youth.' For ab cf. Sull 92. 7; II. 25. 29; for the pregnant use of adulescentia cf. Asia, Mur. 11. 8. 2. desidiam, inertiam, 'lack of energy and ability;' the deses does not use the powers he has, the iners has none to use.

Page  449 CAP. 9-10, ~ 21-24. 449 etiam sermo nobis ansas dabat, quibus reconditos eius sensus tenere possemus. Laudabat homo doctus 23 philosophos nescio quos neque eorum tamen nomina 6 poterat dicere, sed tamen eos laudabat maxime, qui dicuntur praeter ceteros esse auctores et laudatores voluptatis; cuius et quo tempore et quo modo, non quaerebat, verbum ipsum omnibus animi et corporis 10 partibus devorarat; eosdemque praeclare dicere aiebat sapientis omnia sua causa facere, rem publicam capessere hominem bene sanum non oportere, nihil esse praestabilius otiosa vita plena et conferta voluptatibus; eos autem, qui dicerent dignitati esse servien- 15 dum, rei publicae consulendum, officii rationem in omni vita, non commodi esse ducendam, adeunda pro patria pericula, vulnera excipienda, mortem oppetenlam, vaticinari atque insanire dicebat. Ex his assi-24 duis eius cotidianisque sermonibus, et quod videbam, 20 quibuscum hominibus in interiore parte aedium viveret, 4. ansas, 'handles:' keep up the metaphor by translating tenere, 'grasp.' ~ 23. 6-9. nescio quos, 'certain:' see on I. 31. 2. Cicero often uses this indefinite expression to avoid the appearance of too great familiarity with Greek literature, which was regarded as beneath the notice of Roman statesmen. For his study of philosophy see p. 17, ~ 13 ad fin. eos, the Epicureans, whose philosophy was of a much nobler type than Piso understood it to be. cuius: sc. from what precedes vo l up t a t i s laudatores essent: 'what pleasure they praised, and when and how, etc.' 10, 11. a n i m i partibus: cf. partes mentis, Ep. XIII. 3. 43. dicere aiebat: when one word of saying (dicere) depends upon another (aiebat) Cicero generally uses different words; such phrases as dicere dicunt are very rare in his writings. 12-15. sua causa facere, 'do all things with a view to their own comfort' = sibi consulere as in ~ 1. 8. serviendum: cf. ~ 14. 13. eos autem, the Stoics: see on Mur. 3. 1 ad fin. 16-19. rationem... ducendam, 'regard must be had.' in omni vita, ' in every path of life.' vaticinari atque insanire, ' were fanatics and fools.'

Page  450 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. et quod ita domus ipsa fumabat, ut multa eius sermonis indicia redolerent, statuebam sic, boni nihil ab illis nugis esse exspectandum, mali quidem certe nihil 25 pertimescendum. Sed ita est, iudices: Ut, si gladium parvo puero aut si inbecillo seni aut debili dederis, ipse impetu suo nemini noceat, sin ad nudum vel fortissimi viri corpus accesserit, possit acie ipsa et ferri viribus vulnerare, sic, cum hominibus enervatis 30 atque exsanguibus consulatus tamquam gladius esset datus, qui per se pungere neminern umquam potuissent, ii summi imperii nomine armati nudatam rem publicam contrucidaverunt. Foedus fecerunt cum tribuno pl. palam, ut ab eo provincias acciperent, 35 quas ipsi vellent, exercitum et pecuniam, quantam vellent, ea lege, si ipsi prius tribuno pl. adflictam et constrictam rem publicam tradidissent. Id autem foedus meo sanguine ictum sanciri posse dicebant. 25 Qua re patefacta (neque enim dissimulari tantum 40 scelus poterat nec latere) promulgantur uno eodemque tempore rogationes ab eodem tribuno de mea pernicie et de provinciis consulum nominatim. ~24. 22-27. domus... redolerent, 'his very house smoked so that many hints of his talk were perceptible by the smell,' i.e., the atmosphere of the house reeked of his talk of sensual gratification. quidem: cf. ~ 16. 18. Ut, 'as,' introduces, but does not influence, the mood of noceat, 1. 27, and is correlative with sic, 1. 29. dederis... noceat: for the condition cf. I. 19. 2; how does dederis differ from des in protasis? 31, 32. pungere, 'scratch:' a weak word is used for the sake of contrast to the savage contrucidaverunt, 1. 33. summi imperil: cf. ~ 17. 31. 35-38. exercitum et pecuniam, for use in their provinces. ictum = si ictum esset,' if solemnized with my blood;' the making of a treaty was concluded by the offering of a sacrifice. ~ 25. 41. rogationes: for these bills see Ep. VII. Int. Note 'I.' and note on 1. 10.

Page  451 CAP. 10-11, ~ 24-26. 451 XI. Hic tum senatus sollicitus, vos, equites Romani, excitati, Italia cuncta permota, omnes denique omnium generum atque ordinum cives summae rei publicae a consulibus atque a summo imperio petendum esse auxilium arbitrabantur, cum illi soli essent praeter 5 furiosum ilium tribunum duo rei publicae turbines, qui non modo praecipitanti patriae non subvenirent, sed ear nimium tarde concidere maererent. Flagitabatur ab iis cotidie cum querellis bonorum omnium, turn etiam precibus senatus, ut meam causam susci- 10 perent, agerent aliquid, denique ad senatum referrent; non modo negando, sed etiam inridendo amplissimum quemque illius ordinis insequebantur. Hic subito cum 26 incredibilis in Capitolium multitudo ex tota urbe cunctaque Italia coAvenisset, vestem mutandam omnes 15 meque iaml omni ratione privato consilio, quoniam publicis ducibus res publica careret, defendendum (c.) The Proceedings of Clodius and the Consuls against Cicero and his Supporters, ~~ 25-35. 1-7. vos, the Knights upon the jury. summae rei publicae: cf. Ep. III. 9. 124; see on I. 11. 13. Sometimes, as here, the phrase may be trans. 'the supreme peril of the state,' but it is the context alone that gives the idea of danger. a,' from,' not ' by.' summo imperio, as in ~ 24. 32. cum, ' while,' concessive. praecipitanti patriae: cf. Sull. 87. 15. 11-13. agerent aliquid, 'take some action,' i.e., not yield passively to Clodius. non modo... insequebantur, 'not only (met them) with a flat refusal, but followed them with raillery;' there is a slight zeugma in insequebantur, which refers only to the pursuit of the beaten soldiers of Cicero, and leaves the actual combat unmentioned. ~ 26. 15. vestem mutandam, 'mourning must be put on:' see p. 43, ~ 78 ad fin. Public mourning was shown by the laying aside by each ordo of its insignia: the curule magistrates put off the toga praetexta; the senators exchanged the latus clavus for the clavus angustus; the Knights put off the clavus angustus and the gold ring; the commons put off the toga which, though not their insignia, at least distinguished them from slaves and foreigners.

Page  452 452 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. putarunt. Erat eodem tempore senatus in aede Concordiae, quod ipsum templum repraesentabat memo20 riam consulatus mei, cum flens universus ordo cincinnatum consulem orabat; nam alter ille horridus et severus consulto se domi continebat. Qua turn superbia caenum illud ac labes amplissimi ordinis preces et clarissimorum civium lacrimas repudiavit, me ipsum 25 ut contempsit helluo patriae! nam quid ego 'patrimonii' dicam, quod ille tum amisit? Venistis ad senatum vos, inquam, equites Romani et omnes boni veste mutata vosque pro meo capite ad pedes lenonis inpurissimi proiecistis, cum vestris precibus ab latrone illo 30 repudiatis vir incredibili fide, magnitudine' animi, constantia, L. Ninnius, ad senatum de re publica rettulit, senatusque frequens vestem pro mea salute mutandam censuit. 27 xII. 0 diem illum, iudices, funestum senatui bonisque omnibus, rei publicae luctuosum, mihi ad domesticum maerorem gravem, ad posteritatis memoriam gloriosum! Quid enim quisquam potest ex omni me 19. quod templum = quae aedes, for the repetition of the antecedent in the rel. clause cf. ~ 11. 32; for the substitution of a synonym (templum) for such antecedent (aede) cf. Sull. 21. 4; III. 22. 31; Mur. 38. 17. 20-25. flens: this may be mere hyperbole (cf. 1. 28), but that it is not necessarily so is shown by Caes. I. 20. 5; cf. also p. 47, ~ 85 ad fin. cincinnatum consulem: who? Cf. calamistrata coma, ~ 18.2. caenum, labes: cf. ~ 20. 26. ut contempsit, 'how that waster, etc.' ut is exclamatory; for contempsit see on Mur. 15. 6. 28-31. pro meo capite: meaning of cap u t? proiecistis, rhetorical exaggeration, as the Knights were not even allowed by the consul to enter the presence of the senate. L. Ninnius: see p. 43, ~ 79; p. 45, ~ 82; as tribune he had the right to summon the senate, and bring business before it (p. 66, ~ 62). ~ 27. 1-4. diem: for case cf. me, Ep. XXI. 1. 4. ad maerorem: for ad cf. I. 12. 28. ex omni memoria, 'from all history.'

Page  453 CAP. 11-12, ~ 26-28. 453 moria sumere inlustrius quam pro uno cive et bonos 5 omnis privato consensu et universurn senatum publico consilio mutasse vestem? quae quidem turn mutatio non deprecationis causa est facta, sed luctus. Quem enim deprecarere, cum omnes essent sordidati, cumque hoc satis esset signi esse inprobum, qui mutata veste 10 non esset? Hac mutatione vestis facta tanto in luctu civitatis omitto quid ille tribunus omnium rerum divinarum humanarumque praedo fecerit, qui adesse nobilissimos adulescentes, honestissimos equites Romanos, deprecatores salutis meae iusserit eosque operarum 15 suarum gladiis et lapidibus obiecerit; de consulibus loquor, quorum fide res publica niti debuit. Exanima- 28 tus evolat ex senatu non minus perturbato animo atque voltu, quam si annis ante paucis in creditorum conventum incidisset; advocat contionem, habet orationem 20 talem consul, qualem numquam Catilina victor habu 6-11. publico consilio, 'by resolution of an official body,' ' officially.' deprecationis causa, sed luctus: both genitives are governed by causa; 'not for the purpose of entreaty, but on account of sorrow;' notice the not uncommon zeugma in causa. Quem deprecarere, 'whom were you to entreat?' as all loyal men were mourners, and the disloyal cannot be addressed with prayers. For number, mood, and tense of the.verb cf. ~ 19. 16. omnes: sc. boni: cf. 1. 5. cumque hoc, etc., 'when the not being in mourning was sign enough that a man was disloyal.' Notice the rare enclitic an d conjunction. inprobum: cf. III. 28. 17. qui... esset de fines hoc which is subject of esset: for qui = si quis cf. II. 27. 26. veste, abl. of quality. 12-17. omitto, etc., for the rhetorical figure see on I. 14. 14; the thing omitted is stated in the clause qui... obiecerit, 11. 13-16. adesse... iusserit, i.e., before him in a contio. deprecatores, here only with a gen. of the thing desired. operarum, as in ~ 18. 8. loquor, opposed to omitto, 1. 12. fide: for case A. 254 b; G. 403, Rem. 3; H. 425 II. 1 (1) note; B. 218 3. ~ 28. 18-21. evolat, Gabinius, of whom only Cicero now speaks in spite of de consulibus above. annis ante paucis: for construction cf. post, etc. Ep. XIII. 1. 3. victor = si victorfuisset.

Page  454 454 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. isset: errare homines, si etiam tum senatum aliquid in re publica posse arbitrarentur; equites vero Romanos daturos illius diei poenas, quo me consule cum gladiis 25 in clivo Capitolino fuissent; venisse tempus iis, qui in timore fuissent (coniuratos videlicet dicebat), ulciscendi sui. Si dixisset haec solum, omni supplicio esset dignus; nam oratio ipsa consulis perniciosa potest rem 29 publicam labefactare; quid fecerit, videte. L. Lamiam. 30 qui cum me ipsum pro summa familiaritate, quae mihi cum patre eius erat, unice diligebat, turn pro re publica vel mortem oppetere cupiebat, in contione relegavit edixitque, ut ab urbe abesset milia passuum ducenta, quod esset ausus pro civi, pro bene merito civi, pro 35 amico, pro re publica deprecari. xIII. Quid hoc homine facias aut quo civem inportunum aut quo potius hostem tam sceleratum reserves? qui, ut omittam cetera, quae sunt ei cum conlega inmani impuroque coniuncta atque communia, hoc 5 unum habet proprium, ut ex urbe expulerit, relegarit non dico equitem Romanum, non ornatissimum atque optimum virum, non amicissimum rei publicae civem, non illo ipso tempore una cum senatu et cum bonis 24. illius diei, 'that (wellknown) day,' Dec. 5th, 63, when the Knights garrisoned the Capitolium to protect the senate in the temple of Concordia. 26-29. ulciscendi sui: see on I. 7. 17. dixisset in strong contrast withfecerit, 1. 29. ipsa, 'mere,' a meaning often left to the context: cf. vultu, ~ 20. 26. labefactare: for the metaphor see on IV. 22. 42. ~ 29. 32. in contione relegavit: banishment by administrative process was not unexampled in the case of peregrini (p. 55, ~ 9) and socii, but Cicero rightly denies its legality in the case of cives Romani. 1. homine facias: for case see on Ep. XIV. 3. 26; for mood cf. ~ 19. 16. quo = ad quid: notice its repetition for emphasis with potius.

Page  455 CAP. 12-13, ~ 28-30. 455 omnibus casum amici reique publicae lugentem, sed civem Romanum sine ullo iudicio ut edicto ex patria 1o consul eiecerit. Nihil acerbius socii et Latini ferre30 soliti sunt quam se, id quod perraro accidit, ex urbe exire a consulibus iuberi. Atque illis turn erat reditus in suas civitates ad sugs Lares familiaris, et in illo communi incommodo nulla in quemquam propria 15 ignominia nominatim cadebat. Hoc vero quid est? exterminabit cives Romanos edicto consul a suis dis penatibus, expellet ex patria, deliget, quem volet, damnabit atque eiciet nominatim? Hic si umquam vos eos, qui nunc estis, in re publica fore putasset, si denique 20 imaginem iudiciorum aut simulacrum aliquod futurum in civitate reliquom credidisset, umquam ausus esset senatum de re publica tollere, equitum Romanorum 10. ut edicto: the ut is re- distinction between them is not peated from 1. 5; cf. Ep. X. quite clear, the former seem to 1. 6, 7; Sull. 41. 16; III. 4. 23. have been especially connected ex patria, stronger than ex urbe, with the house (homestead), the 1. 5, because it implies in itself, as latter with the family wherever it ex urbe does not, that the ban- might go. ished are cives. 17-19. dis penatibus: see ~ 30. 11. socii et Latini: the further on Sull. 86. 1; IV. 18. 11. first noun strictly includes the nominatim, legislation for or second (cf. Sull. 86. 1.; I. 11. against a particular individual 8, 9), but the Latins had been the (privilegium, see Ep. VII. Int. most prominent among the socii, Note) was contrary to Roman law, with rights peculiar to themselves. and Cicero extends the principle Since 89 the socii et Latini had, correctly enough to edicts of the of course (see on Sull. 24. 10), been consuls. citizens. 20. qui nunc estis, 'as you 14. Lares familiaris: these now are,' with full judicial powers. deities, together with the penates, 21. imaginem aut simulawere the guardians of the house crum, 'a shadow or a sign,' i.e., and family, and are often used Gabinius thought he had nothtypicallyof the home. They were ing to fear from the courts, if probably the deified spirits of re- he once got a province and an mote ancestors, and while the army.

Page  456 456 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. preces aspernari, civium denique omnium novis et inau25 ditis edictis ius libertatemque pervertere? 31 Etsi me attentissimis animis summa cum benignitate auditis, iudices, tamen vereor, ne quis forte vestrum miretur, quid haec mea oratio tam longa aut tam alte repetita velit, aut quid ad P. ~esti causam eorum, qui 30 ante huius tribunatum rem publicam vexarunt, delicta pertineant. Mihi autem hoc propositum est ostendere, omnia consilia P. Sesti mentemque totius tribunatus hanc fuisse, ut adflictae et perditae rei publicae, quantum posset, mederetur. Ac si in exponendis vulneribus 35 illis de me ipso plura dicere videbor, ignoscitote. Nam et illam meam cladem vos et omnes boni maximum esse rei publicae vulnus iudicastis, et P. Sestius est reus non suo, sed meo nomine; qui cum omnem vim sui tribunatus in mea salute consumpserit, necesse est meam 40 causam praeteriti temporis cum huius praesenti defensione esse coniunctam. 32 xIv. Erat igitur in luctu senatus; squalebat civitas publico consilio veste mutata; nullum erat Italiae municipium, nulla colonia, nulla praefectura, nulla Romae 24, 25. novis et inauditis, in the case of cives Romani: see on ~ 29. 32. ius libertatemque, e.g., in the banishment of Lamia. ~ 31. Cicero shows that this digression is pertinent to the case of Sestius. 28-34. tam alte repetita, ' going so far back.' ante tribunatum: Sestius became tribune only three weeks before the consulship of Piso and Gabinius expired. mederetur, not an uncommon metaphor: cf. II. 17. 10. 35-40. ignoscitote: for form see on III. 23. 2. meo nomine, i.e., the alleged unlawful acts of Sestius were performed for Cicero's sake, not his own. praeteriti temporis: for case and meaning cf. Ep. XXIII. 2. 16. ~ 32. 1-3. igitur, resumptive, carrying the thought back to ~ 27. Italiae modifies the three following nominatives as Romae (1. 3) modifies four. civitas, 'the citizens:' here in the earlier sense applied to residents of the city only. municipium, colonia: see on II. 24.8, 9. praefectura'

Page  457 CAP. 13-14, ~ 30-33. 457 societas vectigalium, nullum collegium aut conciliumn aut omnino aliquod commune consilium, quod tur 5 non honorificentissime de mea salute decrevisset: cum subito edicunt duo consules, ut ad suum vestitum senatores redirent. Quis umquam consul senatuin ipsius decretis parere prohibuit, quis tyrannus miseros lugere vetuit? Parumne est, Piso, ut omittam Gabi- 1o nium, quod tantum homines fefellisti, ut neglegeres auctoritatem senatus, optumi cuiusque consilia contemneres, rem publicam proderes, consulare nomen adfligeres? etiamne edicere audeas, ne maererent homines meam, suam, rei publicae calamitatem, ne hunc suum dolorem veste significarent? Sive illa vestis mutatio ad luctum ipsorum sive ad deprecandum valebat, quis umquam tam crudelis fuit, qui prohiberet quemquam aut sibi maerere aut ceteris supplicare? Quid? sua sponte homines in amicorum 33 see on III. 5. 35. These are the three classes of country towns with Roman citizenship. 4, 5. societas vectigalium: cf. Mur. 69. 14, and see on Ep. IV. 7. 74, for case of vectigalium see on Sull. 16. 30. collegium: see on Sull. 7.39. In 64 the most dangerous of these 'clubs' or 'unions,' i.e., those organized for political purposes, had been suppressed, and only those suffered to remain, which (e.g., the guild of smiths) had some legitimate and useful ends. concilium, any (occasional) gathering, called for some one specific purpose. consilium, any (standing) body taking common action: for several bodies of men to which this word has been applied cf. Ep. III. 5. 68; 4. 48; Sull. 13. 27; I. 2. 14. 7-11. duo consules, 'the two:' for uterque consul, cf. ~ 6. 8. suum, ' tleir usual.' miseros, object of lugere. Parum, as in ~ 15. 11. ut omittam: cf. ~ 29. 3. quod... fefellisti, subject of est, 1. 10; for the fact cf. ~ 21 ad init. ut neglegeres, explains tantunm. 12. auctoritatem, in its technical sense: see p. 76, ~ 111; cf. I. 3. 30. 14-19. audeas: for the mood cf. ~ 29. 1; how does the person and number there differ? ad... valebat, 'amounted to a sign of.' sibi: for the case see on mihi, 1V. 11. 16. ceteris, indirect object.

Page  458 458 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. 21 periculis vestitum mutare non solent? pro te ipso, Piso, nemone mutabit? ne isti quidem, quos legatos non modo nullo senatus consulto, sed etiam repugnante senatu tibi tute legasti? Ergo hominis desperati et proditoris rei 25 publicae casum lugebunt fortasse, qui volent; civis florentissimi benivolentia bonorum et optimne de salute patriae meriti periculum coniunctum cum periculo civitatis lugere senatui non licebit? Eidemque consules, si appellandi sunt consules, quos nemo est quin 30 non modo ex memoria, sed etiam ex fastis evellendos putet, pacto iam foedere provinciarum producti in circo Flaminio in contionem ab illa furia ac peste patriae maximo cum gemitu vestro illa omnia, quae turn contra me contraque rem publicam agebantur, voce ac sen ~ 33. 21. periculis: the general word is often used as here in the special sense of danger threatened by a criminal trial: cf. Sull. 49. 22; 20.30. te ipso, Piso, an apostrophe (cf. ~ 32. 10) to Piso, who was absent in Macedonia at the time of the trial, with a hint at the prosecution which awaited his return. 23. repugnante senatu: to the senate belonged by custom the right of appointing the legates to the pro-magistrates, as well as of assigning the provinces themselves, the troops, supplies, etc. (p. 74, ~~ 97, 98); but it had long allowed the pro-magistrates to nominate their legates, reserving for itself merely the right to reject the nominees. This right Piso had disregarded. 25-29. civis, Cicero: notice the chiasmus and anaphora in the modifying words. si... consules: cf. ~ 32. 13, consulare... adfligeres. 30, 31. ex memoria, ex fastis: the fasti were the lists of magistrates, in which were to be found, of course, many names of men who had long since been forgotten. pacto... foedere: cf. ~ 24. 33. circo Flaminio, named for the consul who fell in the battle against Hannibal at Lake Trassimenus. It was outside the walls (see Plan A), and Clodius chose it for the place of meeting in order that Caesar might be present, who, being cum imperio (p. 69, ~ 76), could not enter the city. 32-34. ab illa peste, Clodius. The tribunes could summon whom they pleased before them in a contio: cf. the similar act ~ 27. 13-16. voce ac sententia, 'loudly expressed opinion:' figure?

Page  459 CAP. 14-15, ~ 33-34. 459 tentia sua comprobaverunt. xv. Isdemque consulibus sedentibus atque inspectantibus lata lex est, NE AUSPICIA VALERENT, NE QUIS OBNUNTIARET, NE QUIS LEGI INTERCEDERET, UT OMNIBUS FASTIS DIEBUS LEGEM FERRI LICERET, UT LEX AELIA, LEX FUFIA NE 5 VALERET;qua una rogatione quis est qui non intellegat universam rem publicam esse deletam? Isdemque 34 consulibus inspectantibus servorum dilectus habebatur pro tribunali Aurelio nomine collegiorum, cum vicatiln homines conscriberentur, decuriarentur, ad vim, ad 10 manus, ad caedem, ad direptionem incitarentur. Isdem 2-4. sedentibus, i.e., inactive, making no objection. lata lex: for Clodius' political tactics see p. 42, ~ 77. He first repealed the Aelian and Fufian laws (see on Ep. III. 13. 182), which for about a hundred years had given the curule magistrates by virtue of the auspices their only means of holding the tribunes in check, and then restored the collegia (see on ~ 32. 4), which had been suppressed for six years. These two measures enabled him to bid defiance to conservative opposition. NE... VALERENT: see p. 71, ~ 84. NE... OBNUNTIARET: see p. 72, ~~ 88, 89. NE... INTERCEDERET, not a third provision, but a summary of the two just mentioned. 5-7. UT LICERET. The Roman year before Caesar's reformation of the calendar (in 46) consisted of 355 days. Of these there were 118 on which no public business could be transacted (dies nefasti: see on Mur. 25. 20). The remaining 237 (diesfasti) were business days, except that the lex Fufia had set aside 43 on which it forbade the assemblies to meet for legislative purposes. By repealing this law therefore Clodius really added 43 days to his term as tribune. UT VALERET, not a separate idea, but (cf. 1. 3) a general summary of all that goes before. deletam, of course from the standpoint of the optimates, who had lost their only means of opposing the tribunes. ~ 34. 9-11. pro tribunali Aurelio, 'in front of the tribunal of Aurelius,' in the forum, near the temple of Castor (1. 12). nomine collegiorum, 'on the pretext of (forming) clubs.' The second inportant step of Clodius towards securing control of the comitia: see on 1. 2 above. vicatim, 'by streets:' cf. our ' ward clubs' for political purposes. decuriarentur, 'were organized,' lit. 'into bands of ten,' as if for military purposes. Isdem consulibus: complete the ab. abs. from 11. 7 and 1.

Page  460 460 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. que consulibus arma in templum Castoris palam comportabantur, gradus eiusdem templi tollebantur, armati homines forum et contiones tenebant, caedes lapi15 dationesque fiebant, nullus erat senatus, nihil reliqui magistratus, unus omnem omnium potestatem armis et latrociniis possidebat non aliqua vi sua, sed, cum duo consules a re publica provinciarum foedere retraxisset, insultabat, dominabatur, aliis pollicebatur, terrore ac 20 metu multos, pluris etiam spe et promissis tenebat. 35 Quae cum essent eius modi, iudices, cum senatus duces nullos ac pro ducibus proditores aut potius apertos hostes haberet, equester ordo reus a consulibus citaretur, Italiae totius auctoritas repudiaretur, alii 25 nominatim relegarentur, alii metu et periculo terrerentur, arma essent in templis, armati in foro, eaque non silentio consulum dissimularentur, sed et voce et sententia comprobarentur, cum omnes urbem nondunm excisam et eversam, sed iam captam atque oppressam 30 videremus: tamen his tantis malis tanto bonorum studio, iudices, restitissemus; sed me alii metus atque aliae curae suspicionesque moverunt. 12. templum Castoris, on the south side of the forum, near the eastern end. It was used as a stronghold by the followers of Clodius, as it practically commanded the forum. 15. nihil reliqui magistratus: sc. erant, 'the rest of tle magistrates counted for nothing.' nihil is predicate, magistratus is subject. reliqui: excepting whom? 17, 18. latrociniis: see on I. 31. 5. duo, as in ~ 32. 7. re publica: trans. carefully! ~ 35. 21-25. cum: notice its correlative in 1. 30. alii nominatim: Lamia only; for the plural cf. IV. 6. 28; I. 4. 5; 3. 24. metu et periculo: cf. ~ 33, 34. 27. voce et sententia: not as in ~ 33, 34: the voce refers to their words in the contio, the sententia to their votes in the senate. 31. restitissemus: p r i n cp. parts? This verb forms the apodosis to the condition implied in the co-ordinate clause sed... moverunt: express this in the conditional form.

Page  461 CAP. 15-16, ~ 34-37. 461 xvI. Exponam enim hodierno die, iudices, omnem ra- 36 tionem facti et consilii mei neque huic vestro tanto studio audiendi nec vero huic tantae multitudini, quanta mea memoria numquam ullo in iudicio fuit, deero. Nam si ego in causa tam bona tanto studio senatus, consensu 5 tam incredibili bonorum omnium, tam parato populo, tota denique Italia ad omnem contentionem expedita cessi tribuni pl., despicatissimi hominis, furori, contemptissumorum consulum levitatem audaciamque pertimui, nIimium me timidum, nullius animi, nullius consilii fuisse con- 10 fiteor. Quid enim simile fuit in Q. Metello? cuius 37 (llausam etsi omnes boni probabant, tamen neque senatus publice neque ullus ordo proprie neque suis decretis Italia cuncta susceperat. Ad suam enim quandam nagis ille gloriam quam ad perspicuam salutem rei 15 publicae spiritus sumpserat, cum unus in legem per vim latam iurare noluerat; denique videbatur ea condicione tam fortis fuisse, ut cum patriae caritate constantiae gloriam commutaret. Erat autem res ei cum Second Digression: Cicero's Reasons for yielding to his Enemies without a Struggle, ~~ 36-52. ~ 36. 1-10. omnem rationem, 'a full explanation.' mea memoria, abl. of time. deero, 'disappoint.' despicatissimi, a much stronger word than contemptissumorum: for the passive sense cf. ~ 10. 25. nullius animi fuisse, 'showed no courage, etc.;' for the gen. cf. Ep. VI. 15. 3. ~ 37. 11-13. in Q. Metello, 'in the case of Q. Metellus (Numidicus).' In 100 the tribune Saturninus carried a law for the distribution of the lands in Gaul which had been occupied by the Cinlbri; the law also provided that every senator should take an oath to observe it faithfully or forfeit his seat in the senate. Metellus alone refused to take the oath and went into exile. He was recalled in 99. publice: what does this word always imply? proprie, 'individually.' 14-19. quandam, 'if I may say so:' cf. Sull. 35. 20. cum... commutaret, with verbs of exchanging either the thing given or the thing received is put in the abl. with cum: Which here? res, 'struggle

Page  462 462 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. 20 exercitu C. Mari invicto, habebat inimicum C. Marium, conservatorem patriae, sextum iam ilium consulatum gerentem; res erat cum L. Saturnino, iterum tribuno pl., vigilante homine et in causa populari si non moderate, at certe populariter abstinenterque versato. Cessit, 25 ne aut victus a fortibus viris cum dedecore caderet aut victor multis et fortibus civibus rem publicam orbaret. 38 Meam causam senatus palam, equester ordo acerrime, cuncta Italia publice, omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant. Eas res gesseram, quarum non unus 30 auctor, sed dux omnium voluntatis fuissem, quaeque non modo ad singularem meam gloriam, sed ad communem salutem omnium civium et prope gentiurm pertinerent; ea condicione gesseram, ut meum factum semper omnes praestare tuerique deberent. xvII. Erat autem mihi contentio non cum victore exercitu, sed cum operis conductis et ad diripiendam urbem concitatis; habebam inimicum non C. Marium, terroreni hostium, 5 spem subsidiumque patriae, sed duo inportuna prodigia, quos egestas, quos aeris alieni magnitudo, quos levitas, 39 quos inprobitas tribuno pl. constrictos addixerat; nee 20-24. invicto: see on II. stantives in -tor and -trix are not 19. 11. at certe: cf. ~~ 14. 8; 7. infrequently used as adjectives. 21. populariter abstinenter, prodigia, quos: for the gender of 'in the interests of the people, the rel. see A. 182 a; G. 616 3 I.; unselfishly.' H. 445 5; B. 254. quos egestas, ~ 38. 27-34. palam: how does etc., 'whom their poverty, etc.;' this word differ from publice, but it is better to reverse the cases 1. 28? unus auctor, as Metel- of the rel. and pers. pronouns: lus: cf. ~ 37. 16. non modo.. 'whose poverty, etc.... them.' sed: what is its formula here? addixerat, 'had made over,' a in Sull. 76. 19? praestare: see legal term used of the kraetor on IV. 24. 24. who assigned a disputed piece of property to one of the claim2-7. victore, 'victorious: ' sub- ants.

Page  463 CAP. 16-17, ~ 37-39. 463 mihi erat res cum Saturnino, qui quod a se quaestore Ostiensi per ignominiam ad principem et senatus et civitatis, M. Scaurum, rem frumentariam tralatam scie- 10 bat, dolorem suum magna contentione animi persequebatur, sed cum scurrarum locupletium scorto, cum sororis adultero, cum stuprorum sacerdote, cum venefico, cum testamentario, cum sicario, cum latrone; quos homines si, id quod facile factu fuit, et quod fieri debuit, quodque 15 a me optimi et fortissimi cives flagitabant, vi armisque superassem, non verebar, ne quis aut vim vi depulsam' reprehenderet aut perditorum civium vel potius domesticorum hostium mortem maereret. Sed me illa moverunt: Omnibus in contionibus illa furia clamabat se, 20 quae faceret contra salutem meam, facere auctore Cn. Pompeio, clarissimo viro mihique et nunc et, quoad licuit, amicissumo. M. Crassus, quocum mihi omnes erant amicitiae necessitudines, vir fortissimus, ab eadem illa peste infestissimus esse meis fortunis praedicabatur; 25 C. Caesar, qui a me nullo meo merito alienus esse debe ~ 39. 8-13. qui quod: see on II. 17. 2. a se quaestore, 'from him when q.' Ostiensi: see on Mur. 18. 30. per ignominiam, 'as a deliberate insult:' these are the emphatic words. principem et senatus et civitatis: the former is a recognized and official title: see p. 73, ~ 105; the latter a merely complimentary term: cf. Sull. 3.31. dolorem... persequebatur, ' he avenged the affront with a great outburst of passion.' He went over f rom the conservatives to the democrats: see on ~ 37. 11. scurrarum, 'rakes:' for the following terms of abuse, all more or less deserved, cf. II. ~ 7. scorto etc., Clodius. sororis, the wife of L. Lucullus. stuprorum sacerdote, an allusion to the Bona Dea scandal. 16-26. optimi, etc. See p. 43, ~ 79. superassem, 'slould conquer,' not 'had conquered,' a future condition in O. 0., dependent upon verebar. illa: for meaning cf. Sull. 85. 34; 59. 44; III. 13. 48. et quoad licuit: sc. antea, 'and formerly, as long as was allowed him,' i.e., by Caesar and Crassus. omnes... necessitudines, ' all sorts of friendlyrelations.' nullo... merito,'for no fault of mine.' alienus, 'estranged,' a very mild word.

Page  464 464 PRO P. SESTIO ORATIO. / bat, inimicissimus esse meae saluti ab eodem cotidianis 40 contionibus dicebatur. His se tribus auctoribus in consiliis capiendis, adiutoribus in re gerenda esse usurum 30 dicebat; ex quibus unum habere exercitum in Italia maximum, duo, qui privati turn essent, et Romae esse et parare, si vellent, exercitum posse idque facturos esse dicebat. Nec mihi ille iudicium populi nec legitimam aliquam contentionem nec disceptationem aut 35 causae dictionem, sed vim, arma, exercitus, imperatores, castra denuntiabat. XVIII. Quid ergo? inimici oratio, vana praesertim, tam improbe in clarissimos viros coniecta me movit? Me vero non illius oratio, sed eorum taciturnitas, in quos illa oratio tam improba confereba5 tur; qui tum quamquam ob alias causas tacebant, tamen hominibus omnia timentibus tacendo loqui, non infitiando confiteri videbantur. Illi autem aliquo tum timore perterriti, quod acta illa atque omnis res anni superioris ~ 40. 28-34. His tribus: sc. perpetuae, which had superseded uti from esse usurun: cf. Sull. 22. the iudicium poptli. discepta25; 1. 16. habere: for the infin. tionem, 'argument,' as to points mood after a relative in O. 0. see of law involved. A. 336 c (p. 372); H. 524 1 (1); B. 314 4. in Italia. Caesar re- 1-2. Quid ergo: see on Sull. 84. mained In Italy until Cicero and 21. tam improbe... coniecta, Cato had been disposed of: see 'so unblushingly ascribed:' for p. 42, ~~ 75. 76. Find in [the Intro- coniecta might have been used duction to] your Caesar the time conlata: cf. 1. 4, and Ep. XVI. 8. of his arrival in Gaul in 58. et 107.... et connect esse and posse. 6-8. tacendo loqui: for figure idque: explain the use of -que cf. Sull. 82. 36; III. 10. 19; I. 18. here after et... et. iudicium 29. acta illa, etc.: the irregular popul, 'a trial before the people,' proceedings of Caesar's consulthe ancient appeal to the comitia ship (59), when his colleague Bibucenturiata which was now rarely lus, after unsuccessful efforts at resorted to: see p. 59, ~ 31. legiti- opposition, shut himself up in his mami contentionem, 'a struggle house and washed his hands of in the courts,' i.e., the quaestiones all responsibility.

Page  465 CAP. 17-19, ~ 39-42. 465 labefactari a praetoribus, infirmari a senatu atque a principibus civitatis putabant, tribunum popularem a 10 se alienare nolebant suaque sibi propiora esse pericula quam mea loquebantur. Sed tamen et Crassus a con- 41 sulibus meam causam suscipiendam esse dicebat, et eorum fidem Pompeius implorabat neque se privatum publice susceptae causae defuturum esse dicebat; quem 15 virum studiosum mei, cupidissimum rei publicae conservandae domi meae certi homines ad ear rem positi monuerunt, ut esset cautior, eiusque vitae a me insidias apud me domi positas esse dixerunt, atque hanc eius suspicionem alii litteris mittendis, alii nuntiis, alii coram 20 ipsi excitaverunt, ut ille, cum a me certe nihil timeret, ab illis, ne quid meo nomine molirentur, sibi cavendum putaret. Ipse autem Caesar, quem maxime homines ignari veritatis mihi esse iratum putabant, erat ad portas, erat cum imperio; erat in Italia eius exercitus, inque 25 eo exercitu ipsius tribuni pl. inimici mei fratrem praefecerat. xix. Haec ergo cum viderem (neque enim erant 42 occulta), senatum, sine quo civitas stare non posset, 9-12. infirmari: a mild word (cf. ~ 39. 26), chosen purposely for rescindi. popularem, 'influential with the commons.' mea: case? Cf. Ep. I. 3. 26 and 27. a consulibus: see on Sull. 23. 2. ~ 41. 14-19. privatum publice: for position see on ~ 2. 20; for privatum cf. ~ 40. 31; it has here a concessive force. cupilissimum... conservandae, 'a most zealous conservative:' see on ~ 5. 22. domi meae: join with positi; for cases see on I. 19. 6. Cicero elsewhere says that his enemies introduced spies into his house. apud me domi: pleonasm, so coramn ipsi, 1. 20. 22-26. ab illis... cavendum, 'must be on guard against them.' erat cum imperio, the technical expression for the proconsul: see p. 68, ~ 73. inque: Cicero attaches -que to the monos