Style Sheet for the Fragments

General Guidelines:

The Board of Fragments welcomes submissions by email. Please send an electronic copy of the paper in Word to Essays should be written for the non-specialist reader. In their essays, authors should explicitly address the methodological and hermeneutical contributions they are offering readers in other disciplines and sub-fields. They should be sure to make such concerns central to their essays.

The editors prefer that essays be concise and not exceed 12,000 words. Authors are also required to attach an abstract of no more than 250 words in length. Please include with your submission, full contact information including your email address. The editors ask that submissions be presented in a manner that facilitates review and editing. In addition, authors are asked to use Unicode fonts.

Authors of essays accepted for publication must secure permissions to reproduce photographs or other illustrations and tables. Figures and images should be saved as pdfs. We will accept 300 dpi minimum, but we prefer 600 dpi (archival-quality pdfs).

General Matters of Style:

1. Spelling: For manuscripts written in English, authors should use American spelling preferences and comma usage.

2. Capitalization: Authors should be consistent in their use of capitalization. Overcapitalization should be avoided. The abbreviations 'vol.', 'no.', and 'pt.' are not normally capitalized.

3. Italics: The titles of works and periodicals should normally by italicized. Foreign words should only be italicized if there is risk of confusion with an identically spelled English word, if the word is being cited by the author, or if the word is likely to be unfamiliar to readers (in this last case, only the first appearance of the word in the text should be italicized). Foreign words employed by the author instead of translations, and familiar words and phrases in a foreign language should be set in roman type. Latin scholarly terms and abbreviations (with the exception of sic) are not italicized.

4. Non-Roman Scripts: Non-roman scripts may be used in those instances where necessary, such as in the titles of published works or in terms and textual references where transliteration into roman script is impossible or inadequate.

5. Subheadings: In general, only very complex or technical works should have more than one level of subheadings. When such levels of subheadings are used, however, they should be differentiated by type style and placement, rather than by a system of numbers and/or letters. Main (or principal) subheadings should be presented in small caps on a line separate from the text; secondary subheadings should be in italic type on a separate line from the text. If further subdivisions of the text are necessary, tertiary subheadings should be in italics and set in at the beginning of a paragraph.

  • Secondary Subheading
  • Tertiary subheading. The text of the paragraph follows this subheading.

6. Abstracts: Every article submission to Fragments must be accompanied by an abstract of the text in English. Abstracts should be no longer than 100 words. Five key words from the text should be included with the abstracts. Authors must also provide their university or institutional affiliation, their mailing address and their electronic mail address for publication.

Bibliographical References and Citations (after the Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed.):

1. Either of two style formats for citations and bibliography may be followed: the social sciences format or the humanities format. In both formats a list of references cited must be supplied at the end of the manuscript, in the form of a bibliography.

General Notes:

  • 1.1. Authors' first names can either be spelled out in full or abbreviated to initials, as long as only one style is used consistently throughout citations and bibliography.
  • 1.2. When the bibliography lists several works by the same author, his or her name should not be repeated. Instead, the name should be replaced by a 3-em dash (----). If another author or editor is added, however, the original author's name must be repeated.
  • 1.3. For works with more than one author, the names should always be listed in teh order in which they appear on the title page. In the bibliography, only the first name is inverted. in citations, works with more than three authors should give name of the first-listed author followed by 'et al.' or 'and others' without intervening punctuation.
  • 1.4. Only the major and relevant place of publication should be listed.
  • 1.5. When referencing inclusive page numbers, the second number is abbreviated to include only teh changed part of the first number (e.g., 3-10; 107-8; 415-532).
  • 1.6. Abbreviations and transliterations should follow accepted formatas, e.g., Encyclopedia of Islam. All abbreviations used must be explained at the top of the bibliography.

2. Social Sciences Format:

This format, also known as the author-date system, is composed of two primary elements: the in-text citation, enclosed in parentheses, and the bibliography, or list of sources cited.

2.1 Citations: Citations are located in the text, and should be in the form (Author Year: Page number).
(Smith 1992): 12)
(Jones 1993: 35, n. 4)
(Doe and Jones 1990: 123-6)
(Doe et al. 1986: 45-60)
(Smith 1992: 14; Jones 1993: 45)

Page numbers must be included when referencing a specific idea or information set; if the reference is to a work in general, however, it should take the form: (Author Year).
(Smith, Doe and Jones 1997)

2.1.1. Citations normally appear before a mark of punctuation.
The general decline in social conditions in this period is considered to be a primary cause of the uprising (Smith 1992).

If part of the citation is already included in the text, only the remaining pertinent information needs to be included in parentheses.
Smith (1992) is the latest scholar to argue that social conditions were a primary cause of the uprising.

2.1.2.The abbreviations for editor, translator, etc., are ommitted from the text citations.

2.1.3. Footnotes should be used sparingly and only to clarify points briefly. Lengthy or cumbersome references to primary sources may be given in footnotes if they would otherwise impede the natural flow of the text.

2.2. Bibliography: Bibliography should contain all references cited in the manuscript in the following form:

2.2.1. Article in journal:
Doe, J.J. 1992. The Article I Wrote. Journal 14: 32-42

Article in edited book:
Doe, J.J. 1992. The Article I Wrote. In The Book They Edited, ed. J.J. Doe, and J.A. Doe, pp. 1-29. Place: Publisher.

Doe, J.J., and J.A. Doe. 1992. The Book We Wrote. Place: Publisher.
Doe, J.J., ed. 1988. The Book I Edited. Place: Publisher.

2.2.2. Edition, volume, and series information, if applicable, should be included after the title of the work, and punctuated by periods.
Doe, J.J. 1990. The History of the World Vol. 5, The Past. Academic History, no. 35. Place: Publisher.

2.2.3. If there is more than one work published by the same author in the same year, these works should be distinguished by an 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. after the year (the order of the works determined by the alphabetical order of the titles).
Doe, J.J. 1992a. Early History. Journal 14:32-42.
----. 1992b. Later History Place: Publisher.

3. Humanities format:

In the humanities format, citations in the text are given in the form of footnotes, and a full bibliography of the sources cited is provided at the end of the text.

3.1. Footnotes: Footnotes are used to give references and to explain or expand points made in the text. The first time a given source is cited in the text, the footnote should provide a full reference; subsequent citations of that source may take the form of Author's last name, Shortened title, Page reference (if applicable).

3.1.1. Article in Journal:
5. John Doe, "The Article I Wrote," Journal 14 (1992): 14.
Subsequent citations: Doe, "Article," 16, n. 4.

Article in edited book:
5. Samantha Smith and Timothy Walls, "The Article We Wrote," in The Book They Edited, ed. John Doe and Jane Doe (Place: Publisher, 1988), 14.
Subsequent citations: Smith and walls, "Article," 21-6.

5. John Doe, The Book I Wrote (Place: Publisher, 1990), 55-6.
Subsequent citations: Doe, Book, 88.
5. John Doe et al., The Book We Wrote, vol. 2, The Second Volume (Place: Publisher, 1993), 65-73.
Subsequent citations: Doe et al., Book, 2: 122.
5. John Doe, ed., The Book I Edited (Place: Publisher, 1995), 134.
Subsequent citations: Doe, ed., Book, 135-9.

3.1.2. In order to avoid interrupting the flow of the text, footnotes are usually placed after the punctuation of a sentence (or clause, if unavoidable).
The general decline social conditions in this period is considered to be a primary cause of the uprising.14

3.1.3. Series information included in the bibliography can be omitted from footnotes.

3.2. Bibliography: Bibliography should contain all references cited in the manuscript in the following form:

3.2.1. Article in journal:
Doe, John. "The Article I Wrote." Journal 14 (1992): 1-29.
Article in editied book:
Doe, John. "The Article I Wrote." In The Book They Edited, ed.
John Doe, and Jane Doe, pp. 31-56. Place: Publisher, 1994.

Doe, John, and Jane Doe. The Book We Wrote. Place: Publisher, 1990.
Doe, John, ed. The Book I Edited. Place: Publisher, 1991.

3.2.2. Edition, volume, and series information, if applicable, should be included after the title of the work, and punctuated by periods.
Doe, John. The History of the World. Vol. 5, The Past. Academic History, no. 35. Place: Publisher, 1988.