|Author:||Thorndike, Herbert, 1598-1672.|
|Title:||An epilogue to the tragedy of the Church of England being a necessary consideration and brief resolution of the chief controversies in religion that divide the western church : occasioned by the present calamity of the Church of England : in three books ... / by Herbert Thorndike.|
|Publication info:||Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, Digital Library Production Service
2012 November (TCP phase 2)
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An epilogue to the tragedy of the Church of England being a necessary consideration and brief resolution of the chief controversies in religion that divide the western church : occasioned by the present calamity of the Church of England : in three books ... / by Herbert Thorndike.
Thorndike, Herbert, 1598-1672.
London: Printed by J.M. and T.R. for J. Martin, J. Allestry, and T. Dicas ..., 1659.
Reproduction of original in Union Theological Seminary Library, New York.
Church of England -- History.
Church of England -- Government.
Church of England -- Controversial literature.
Truth -- Early works to 1800.
Grace (Theology) -- Early works to 1800.
A PREFACE To all Christian Readers.
table of contents
OF THE PRINCIPLES OF Christian Truth.
The First BOOK.
CHAP. I. All agree, that Reason is to decide controversies of Faith. The objection, that Faith is taught by Gods Spirit, answered. What Reason decideth questions of Faith. The resolution of Faith ends not in the light of Reason, but in that which Reason evidenceth to come from Gods messengers.
CHAP. II. The question between the Scripture and the Church, which of them is Judge in mat∣ters of Faith. Whether opinion, the Tradition of the Church stands better with. Those that hold the Scripture to be clear in all things necessary to salvation, have no reason to exclude the Tradition of the Church. What opinions they are, that deny the Church to be a Society or Corporation by Gods Law.
CHAP. III. That neither the sentence of the Church, nor the dictate of Gods Spirit, can be the reason why the Scriptures are to be received. No man can know that hee hath Gods Spirit, without knowing that hee is a true Christian; Which supposeth the truth of the Scripture. The motives of Faith are the reason why the Scriptures are to be believed: And the consent of Gods people the reason that evidences those motives to be infallibly true. How the Scriptures are believed for themselves. How a Circle is made in rendering a reason of the Faith. The Scriptures are Gods Law to all, to whom they are published, by Gods act of publishing them; But Civil Law, by the act of Soveraign Powers, in acting Christianity upon their Sub∣jects.
CHAP. IV. Neither the Dictate of Gods Spirit nor the authority of the Church is the reason of believing any thing in Christianity. Whether the Church be before the Scripture, or the Scripture before the Church. The Scriptures contain not the Infallibility of the Church. Nor the consent of all Christians.
CHAP. V. All things necessary to salvation are not clear in the Scriptures to all understandings. Not in the Old Testament. Not in the Gospel. Not in the Writings of the Apostles. It is necessary to salvation to believe more than this, that our Lord is the Christ. Time causeth obscurity in the Scriptures, aswell as in other Re∣cords. That it is no where said in the Scriptures, that all things necessary to salvation are clear in the Scriptures. Neither is there any consent of all Chri∣stians to evidence the same.
CHAP. VI. All interpretation of Scripture is to be confined within the Tradition of the Church. This supposeth that the Church is a Communion instituted by God. What means there is to make evidence of Gods Charter, upon which the Cor∣poration of the Church subsisteth. The name of the Church, in the Scri∣ptures, often signifieth the Whole or Cathelick Church.
CHAP. VII. That the Apostles delivered to the Church a Summary of Christianity, which, all should be baptized were to profess. Evidence out of the Scriptures. Evidence out of the Scriptures for Tradition regulating the Communion of the Church, and the Order of it. Evidence for the Rule of Faith, out of the records of the Church. For the Canons of the Church, and the pedegree of them from the Or∣der established in the Church by the Apostles. That the profession of Christianity, and that by being baptized, is necessary to the salvation of a Christian.
CHAP. VIII. That the Power of Governing the whole Church was in the Apostles and Disciples of Christ, and those whom they took to assist them in the parts of it. The Power of their Successors must needs be derived from those. Why that Succession which appeares in one Church, necessarily holdeth all Churches. The holding of Coun∣cils evidenceth the Ʋnity of the Church.
CHAP. IX. The Keyes of the Church given the Apostles, and exercised by Excommu∣nication under the Apostles. The ground thereof is that profession, which, all that are baptized are to make. That Penance and abatemeut of Pe∣nance hath been in force ever since and under the Apostles. In particular, of excluding Hereticks.
CHAP. X. Evidence of the Apostles act from the effect of it, in preserving the Ʋnity of the Church. Of the businesse of Marcion and Montanus. That about keeping Easter. That of the Novations, of rebaptizing Hereticks, of Paulus Samo∣satenus, of Dionysius Alexandrinus, and Arius. Of communicatory leters, and the intercourse of the Church under and after the Apostles.
CHAP. XI. Ʋpon what grounds the first book de Synedriis holds that the Church cannot excommunicate. Before the Law there was no such Power, nor by it. Christians went for Jewes under the Apostles. His sense of some Scri∣ptures. What the Leviatha saith in general concerning the Power of the Church. Both suppose that Ecclesiastical Power includeth Temporal, which is not true. Of the Oxford Doctors Paraenesis.
CHAP. XII. That the Law expersly covenanted for the Land of Promise. A great Ob∣jection against this, from the Great precept of the Law. The hope of the world to come under the Law, and the obedience which it requireth, was grounded upon reason from the true God, the Tradition of the Fathers, and the Doctrine of the Prophets. The Love of God above all by the Law extendeth no further than the precepts of the Law, the love of our Neigh∣bor onely to Jewes. Of the Ceremonial, Judicial and Moral Law.
CHAP. XIII. That the Law tendreth no other promise but that of the Land of Canaan. How the Resurrection is signified by the Prophets. Expresse texts of the Apostles. Their arguments, and the arguments of our Lord do suppose the mystical sense of the Scriptures. That this sense is to be made good throughout the Scripture, wheresoever the ground of it takes place; Chri∣stianity well grounded supposing this. What parts of Scripture may be que∣stionable, whether they have a mystical sense or not. The sayings and do∣ings of our Lord have it; As also those passages of the Old Testament, which are fulfilled by the same. The sense of the Fathers.
CHAP. XIV. The Leviathans opinon, that Christ came to restore that kingdome of God which the Jewes cast off when they rejected Samuel. It overthroweth the foundation of Christianity. The true Government of Gods ancient people. The name of the Church in the New Testament cannot signifie the Syna∣gogue. Nor any Christian State.
CHAP. XV. How the Power of the Church is founded upon the Law. The Power of the Kingdome, Priesthood, Prophets, and Rulers of that people all of divine right. How farre these qualities and the powers of them are to continue in the Church. The sense of the Fathers in this point. That the acts of S. Paul and the rest of the Apostles were not of force by virtue of the Law. What Ecclesiastical Power should have been among the Jewes, in case they had received the Gospel, and so the State had stood.
CHAP. XVI. The Church founded upon the Power given the Apostles. What is the sub∣ject mater of Church Lawes. The right of the Church to Tithes and Oblations is not grounded upon the Law, though evidenced by it, and by practice of the Patriarchs. Evidence of the Apostles Order in the Scri∣ptures. The Church of Jerusalem held not community of Goods. The o∣riginal practice of the Church.
CHAP. XVII. The Power of Excommunication in the Church is not founded in the Law. What argument there is of it in the Old Testament. The allegorical sense thereof is argumentative. It was not necessary that the Christians should incurre persecu∣tion for using the Power of the Keyes, and not by virtue of the Law.
CHAP. XVIII. The difference between S. Pauls anathema and that of the Jewes. It is not necessa∣ry that the Christians anathema should signifie cursing. That the incestuous per∣son at Corinth was Excommunicated by S. Paul. Jurisdiction of the Church. Telling the Church, binding and loosing, holding him that is bound for a Heathen or a Publicane, signisie the same. The coherence of our Lords discourse. Of Excommunication and Indulgence by private persons in the Ancient Church. That Excommunication and the Power of the Church could not come in force by the voluntary consent of the first Christians. How it may be said to be volunta∣ry. Of the confederacy of the primitive Christians.
CHAP. XIX. That Power which was in Churches under the Apostles, can never be in any Chri∣stian Soveraign. The difference between the Church and the Synagogue in that regard. The interest of Secular Power in determining maters of Faith presup∣poseth the Society of the Church, and the act of it. No man can be bound to professe the contrary of that which hee believeth. Every man is bound to professe that Christianity which hee believeth. The Church is the chief Teacher of Christianity through Christendom, as the Soveraign of Civil Peace, thorough his Dominions. Why the Church is to decide maters of Faith rather than the State, neither being infallible.
CHAP. XX. The rest of the Oxford Doctors pretense. The Power of binding and loosing sup∣poseth not onely the Preaching of the Gospel, but the outward act of Faith. Chri∣stians are not at liberty to cast themselves into what formes of Churches the Law of Nature alloweth. They are Judges in chief for themselves in mater of Religion, supposing the Catholick Church; not otherwise. Secular Power cannot punish for Religion, but supposing the act of the Church, nor do a∣ny act to inforce Religion, unlesse the Church determine the mater of it.
CHAP. XXI. How the Tradition of the Church limits the interpretation of Scriptures. How the declaration of the Church becomes a reasonable mark of Heresie. That which is not found in the Scriptures may have been delivered by the Apostles. Some things delivered by the Apostles, and recorded in the Scriptures; may not oblige. S. Austines Rule of Apostolical Traditions.
CHAP. XXII. The Authority of the Fathers is not grounded upon any presumption of their Lear∣ning or Holinesse. How farr they challenge the credit of Historical truth. The pre-eminenee of the Primitive. The presumption that is grounded upon their ranks and qualities in the Church. Of Arnobius, Lactantius, Tertulli∣an, Origen, Clemens, and the approbation of posterity.
CHAP. XXIII. Two instances against the premises, besides the objection concerning the beginning of Antichrist under the Apostles. The general answer to it. The seven Trum∣pets in the Apocalypse fore-tell the destruction of the Jewes. The seven Vials, the plagues inflicted upon the Empire for the ten persecutions. The correspon∣dence of Deniels Prophesie inferreth the same. Neither S. Pauls Prophee nor S. Johns concerneth any Christian. Neither the opinion of the Chiliasts, nor the giving of the Eucharist to Infants new Baptized, Catholick.
CHAP. XXIV. Two sorts of means to resolve whatsoever is resolvable concerning the Scripture. Upon what terms the Church may, or is to determine controversies of Faith. And what obligation that determination produceth. Traditions of the Apostles oblige the present Church, as the reasons of them continue or not. Instances in our Lords Passeover and Eucharist. Penance under the Apostles, and afterwards. S. Pauls vail, eating blood, and things offered to Idols. The power of the Church in li∣miting these Traditions.
CHAP. XXV. The power of the Church in limiting even the Traditions of the Apostles. Not eve∣ry abuse of this power, a sufficient warrant for particular Churches to reforme themselves. Heresie consists in denying something, necessary to salvation to be be∣lieved. Schism, in departing from the unity of the Church, whether upon that, or any other cause. Implicite Faith no virtue; but the effect of it may be the work of Christian charity.
CHAP. XXVI. What it is to adde to Gods Law; What to adde the Apocalypse. S. Pauls Anathe∣ma. The Beraeans. S. Johns Gospel sufficient to make one believe; and the Scrip∣tures, The man of God perfit. How the Law giveth light, and Christians are taught by God. How Idolatry is said, not to be commanded by God.
CHAP. XXVII. Why it was death to transgress the determinations of the Jews Consistory, and what power this argueth in the Church. A difference between the authority of the Apo∣stles, and that of the Church. The being of the Church to the worlds end, with power of the Keyes, makes it not infallible. Obedience to Superiors, and the Pillar of truth inferre it not.
CHAP. XXXI. The Fathers acknowledge the Sufficience and clearness of the Scriptures, as, the Traditions of the Church. They are to be reconciled, by limiting the terms which they use. The limitation of those sayings which make all Christian truth to be contained in the Scriptures. Of those which make the authority of the Church the ground of Faith.
CHAP. XXXII. Answer to an Objection, that choice of Religion becomes difficult upon these terms. This resolution is for the Interest of the Reformation. Those that make the Church Infallible cannot, those that make the Scripture clear and sufficient may own Tradition for evidence to determine the meaning of the Scriptures, and Controversies of Faith. The Interest of the Church of England. The pre∣tense of Rushworthes Dialogues, that wee have no unquestionable Scripture, and, that the Tradition of the Church never changes.
CHAP. XXXI. That the Scriptures which wee have are unquestionable. That mistakes in Copying are not considerable to the sense and effect of them. The meaning of the He∣brew and Greek, even of the Prophets, determinable, to the deciding of Contro∣versies. How Religion delivered by Tradition becomes subject to be corrupted.
CHAP. XXXIV. The Dispute concerning the Canon of Scripture, and the translations thereof, in two Questions. There can be no Tradition for those books that were written since Prophesie ceased. Wherein the excellence of them above other books lies. The chief objections against them are questionable. In those parcels of the New Testament that have been questioned, the case is not the same. The sense of the Church.
CHAP. XXXIII. Onely the Original Copy can be Authentick. But, the truth thereof may as well be found in the translations of the Old Testament, as in the Jewes Copies. The Jewes have not falsified them of malice. The Points come neither from Moses, nor Esdras, but from the Talmud Jewes.
CHAP. XXXIV. Of the ancin est Translations of the Bible into Greek first; With the Authors and authority of the same; Then into the Chaldee, Syriack, and Latine. Ex∣ceptions against the Greek, and the Samaritane Pentateuch. They are helps ne∣vertheless to assure the true reading of the Scriptures, though with other Co∣pies; whether Jewish or Christian. Though the Vulgar Latine were better than the present Greek, yet must both depend upon the Original Greek of the New Testaent. No danger to Christianity by the differences remaining in the Bible.
OF THE COVENANT OF GRACE.
The second BOOK.
CHAP. 1. Two parts of that which remains. How the dispute concerning the Holy Trinity with Socinus belongs to the first. The Question of justification by Faith alone. The Opinion of Socinus concerning the whole Covenant of Grace. The opinion of those who make justifying Faith the knowledge of a mans Predestination, op∣posite to it in the other extream. The difference between it and that of the Anti∣nomians. That there are mean Opinions.
CHAP. II. Evidence what is the Condition of the Covenant of Grace. The contract of Bap∣tism. The promise of the Holy Ghost annexed to Christs, not to Johns Baptism. Those are made Christs Disciples as Christians that take up his Crosse in Bap∣tism. The effects of Baptism according to the Apostles.
CHAP. III. The exhortations of the Apostles, that are drawn from the patterns of the Old Testament, suppose the same. How the Sacraments of the Old and New Testament are the same, how not the same. How the New Testament and the New Covenant are both one. The free-will of man acteth the same part in dealing about the New-Covenant, as about the Old. The Gospel a Law.
CHAP. IV. The consent of the whole Church evidenced by the custome of chatechising. By the opinion thereof concerning the salvation of those that delayed their Baptism. By the rites and Ceremonies of Baptism. Why no penance for sins before, but after Baptism. The doctrine of the Church of England evident in this case.
CHAP. V. The Preaching of our Lord and his Apostles evidenceth, that some act of Mans free choice is the condition which it requireth. The correspondence betwen the Old and New Testament inferreth the same. So do the errors of Soci∣nians and Antinomians concerning the necessity of Baptism. Objections deferred.
CHAP. VI. Justifying Faith sometimes consists in believing the truth. Sometimes, in trust in God grounded upon the truth. Somtimes in Christianity, that is in imbracing and professing it. And that in the Fathers as well as in the Scriptures. Of the informed and formed Faith of the Schools.
CHAP. VII. The last signification of Faith is properly justifying Faith. The first by a Metonymy of the cause: The second of the effect. Those that are not justified doe truly believe. The trust of a Christian presupposeth him to be justified. All the promises of the Gospel become due at once by the Covenant of Grace. That, to believe that we are Elect or Justified, is not Justifying Faith.
CHAP. VIII. The objection from S. Paul; We are not justified by the Law nor by Workes, but by Grace and by Faith. Not meant of the Gospel, and the workes that sup∣pose it. The question that S. Paul speakes to, is of the Law of Moses and the Workes of it. He sets those workes in the same rank with the workes of the Gentils by the light of nature. The civil and outward workes of the Law may be done by Gentiles. How the Law is a Pedagogue to Christ.
CHAP. IX. Of the Faith and Justification of Abraham and the Patriarkes, according to the Apostles. Of the Prophets and righteous men under the Law. Abra∣ham and Rahab the harlot justified by workes, if justified by Faith. The promises of the Gospel depend upon works which the Gospell injoyneth. The Tradition of the Church.
CHAP. X. What Pelagius questioneth concerning the Grace of Christ, what Socinus further of the state of Christ before his birth. The opposition between the first and se∣cond Adam in S. Paul, evidenceth originall sinne. Coucupiscence in the unre∣generate, and the inability of the Law to subdue it, evict the same. The second birth by the holy Ghost evidenceth that the first birth propagateth sinne.
CHAP. X. The Old Testament chargeth all men as well as the wicked to be sinfull from the wombe. David complaineth of himselfe as born in sinne, no lesse then the Wise man of the children of the Gentiles. How Leviticall Lawes argue the same. And temporall death under the Old Testament. The book of Wisdome and the Greek Bible.
CHAP. XII. The Haeresie of Simon Magus the beginning of the Gnosticks. That they were in being during the Apostles time. Where and when the Haeresie of Cerin∣thus prevailed, and, that they were Gnosticks. The beginning of the Encra∣tites under the Apostles. It is evident that one God in Trinity was then glorified among the Christians, by the Fullnesse of the Godhead which they intro∣duced in stead of it.
CHAP. XIII. The Word was at the beginning of all things. The apparitions of the Old Testa∣ment Prefaces to the Incarnation of Christ. Ambassadors are not honoured with the honour due to their Masters. The Word of God that was afterwards incarnate was in those Angels that spoke in Gods Name. No Angel honour∣ed as God under the New Testament. The Word was with God at the begin∣ning of all things, as after his return.
CHAP. XIV. The Name of God not ascribed to Christ for the like reason as to creatures. The reasons why the Socinians worship Christ as God do confute their limitati∣ons. Christ not God by virtue of his rising againe. He is the Great God with S. Paul, the true God, with S. John, the onely Lord, with S. Jude. Other Scriptures. Of the forme of God, and of a servant in S. Paul.
CHAP. XV. Not onely the Church but the World was made by Christ. The Word was made flesh in opposition to the Spirit. How the Prophets, how Christians, by receiving the Word of God, are possessed by his Spirit. How the title of Sonne of God importeth the Godhead. How Christ is the brightnesse and Image of God.
CHAP. XVI. The testimonies of Christs Godhead in the Old Testament are first understood of the figures of Christ. Of the Wisdome of God in Solomon and elsewhere. Of the writings of the Jewes as well before as after Christ.
CHAP. XVII. Answer to those texts of Scripture that seem to abate the true Godhead in Christ. Of that creature whereof Christ is the first-borne, and that which the Wisdome of God made. That this beliefe is the originall Tradition of the Church. What meanes this dispute furnisheth us with against the Arrians. That it is reason to submit to revelation concerning the nature of God. The use of reason is no way renounced by holding this Faith.
CHAP. XVIII. The necessity of the grace of Christ, is the evidence of originall sinne. How the exaltation of our Lord depends upon his humiliation, and the grace of Christ upon that▪ All the work of Christianity is ascribed to the grace of Christ. Gods predestination manifesteth the same.
CHAP. XIX. Evidences of the same in the Old Testament; Of Gods help in getting the Land of Promise, and renewing the Covenant: And that for Christs sake. That Christianity cannot stand without acknowledging the grace of Christ. The Tra∣dition of the Church; In the Baptisme of Infants: In the Prayers of the Church; In the decrees against Pelagius and other records of the Church.
CHAP. XX. Wherein Originall sinne consisteth; What opinions are on foot. That it is not Adams sinne imputed to his posterity. Whether man were at the first created to a supernaturall end, or not. An estate of meer nature, but innocent, pos∣sible. Originall sinne is Concupiscence. How Baptisme voids it. Concern∣ing the late novelty in the Church of England about Originall sinne.
CHAP. XXI. The opinion that maks the Predetermination of mans will by God the sourse of his freedom; And wherein Jansenius differs from it. Of necessity upon supposition & absolute. The necessity of the Will following the last dictate of the understanding is onely upon supposition, As also that which Gods foresight creates. The diffe∣rence between indifferent and undetermined.
CHAP. XXII. The Gospel findeth man free from necessity, though not from bondage. Of the Antecedent and Consequent Will of God. Praedetermination not the root, but the rooting up of Freedome and of Christianity. Against the opinion of Jansenius.
CHAP. XXIII. A man is able to doe things truely honest under Originall sin. But not to make God the end of all his doings. How all the actions of the Gentiles are sins. They are accountable onely for the Law of nature. How all men have or have not Grace sufficient to save.
CHAP. XXIV. Though God determineth not the will immediately, yet he determineth the effect thereof by the meanes of his providence, presenting the object so as he foresees it will chuse, The cases of Pharoah, of Solomon, of Ahab, and of the Jewes that crucified Christ. Of Gods foreknowledg of future conditionalls that come not to passe. The ground of foreknowledg of future contingencies. Difficult objections answered.
CHAP. XXV. The grounds of the difference between sufficient and effectuall. How naturall occa∣sions, conduce to supernaturall actions, The insufficience of Jansenius his doctrine. Of sufficient grace under the Law of Moses and Nature.
CHAP. XXVI. Predestination to grace absolute, to glory respective: Purpose of denying effectuall Grace absolute, of punishing respective. The end, to which God predestinates, is not the end for which he predestinates. Grace the reward of the right use of Grace. How much of the question the Gospell determines not. That our indea∣vours are ingaged no lesse, then if predestination were not, it determineth. Of the Tradition of the Church; and of Semipelagians, Predestinatians and Arminians.
CHAP. XXVII. The question concerning the satisfaction of Christ with Socinus. The reason why Sacrifices are figures of Christ, common to all sacrifices. Why, and what Sacrifices the Fathers had, what the Law added. Of our ransom by the price of Christs propitiatory Sacrifice.
CHAP. XXVIII. Christ took away our sinne by bearing the punishment of it. The Prophesie of Esay LIII. We are reconciled to God by the Gospel, in consideration of Christs obe∣dience. The reconcilement of Jews and Gentiles, Men and Angels, consequent to the same. Of purging and expiating sinne by Christ, and making propitiati∣on for it. Of Christs dying for us.
CHAP. XXIX. The grant of Grace, in consideration of Christ, supposes satisfaction made by him for sinne. Neither our sinnes imputable to Christ, nor his sufferings to us, for∣mally and personally, but, as the meritorious causes which satisfaction answer∣eth. The effect of it, the Covenant of Grace, as well as help to performe it. The Fathers saved by the Faith of Christ to come. The Gospel a new Law. The property of Satisfaction and Punishment in Christs sufferings. Of the sense of the Catholike Church.
CHAP. XXX. God might have reconciled man to himself without the coming of Christ. The promises of the Gospel depend as well upon his active as passive obedience. Christ need not suffer ell panes that we might not. The opinion that maketh justi∣fying Faith to be trust in God not true; Yet not prejudiciall to the Faith. The decree of the Council of Trent, and the doctrine of the Schoole; how it is not prejudiciall to the Faith. As also that of Socinus.
CHAP. XXXI. The state of the question concerning the perseverance of those that are once justi∣fied. Of three senses, one true, one inconsistent with the Faith, the third neither true nor yet destructive to the Faith. Evidence from the writings of the Apo∣stles. From the Old Testament. The grace of Prophesie when it presupposeth sanctifying grace. Answer to some Texts, and of S. Pauls meaning in the VII. of the Romans. Of the Polygamy of the Fathers. What assurance of Grace Christians may have. The Tradition of the Church.
CHAP. XXXII. How the fullfilling of Gods Law is possible, how impossible▪ for a Christian. Of the difference between mortall and vniall sinne. What love of God and of our neighbour was necessary under the Old Testament. Whether the Srmon in the Mount correct the false interpretation of the Jewes, or inhanse the obli∣gation of the Law. Of the difference between matter of Precept and matter of Counsail; and the Perfection of Christians.
CHAP. XXXIII. Whether any workes of Christians be satisfactory for sinne, and meritorious of hea∣ven, or not. The recovery of Gods grace for a Christian fallen from it, a work of labour and time. The necessity and efficacy of Penance to that purpose, ac∣cording to the Scriptures, and the practise of the Church. Merit by virtue of Gods promise, necessary. The Catholicke Church agrees in it, the present Church of Rome allowes merit of justice▪
OF THE LAWES OF The Church.
The Third BOOK.
CHAP. I. The Society of the Church founded upon the duty of communicating in the Offices of Gods Service. The Sacrament of the Eucharist, among those Offices, pro∣per to Christianity. What opinions, concerning the presence of Christs Body and Blood in the Eucharist, are on foot.
CHAP. II. That the natural substance of the Elements remains in the Sacrament. That the Body and Bloud of Christ is neverthelesse present in the same, when it is recei∣ved, not by the receiving of it. The eating of the Sacrifice of Christ upon the Crosse necessarily requireth the same. This causes no contradiction nor impro∣perty in the words of our Lord.
CHAP. III. That the presence of Christs body in the Eucharist depends not upon the living Faith of him that receives, but upon the true profession of Christianity in the Church that celebrates. The Scriptures that are alleged for the dependence of it upon the communication of the properties. They conclude not the sense of them by whom they are alleged. How the Scripture confineth the flesh of Christ to the Heavens.
CHAP. IV. The opinion which maketh the Consecration to be done by rehearsing the operative words. That our Lord consecrated by Thanksgiving. The Form of it in all Liturgies, together with the consent of the Fathers. Evidence, that there is no Tradition of the Church for the abolishing of the Elements.
CHAP. V. It cannot be proved by the Old Testament that the Eucharist is a Sacrifice. How, by the New Testament it may be so accounted. Four reasons thereof, depending upon the nature of Justifying Faith premised. The consent of the Catholick Church. The concurrence of the Church of England to the premises.
CHAP. VI. The reason of the Order by which I proceed, brings me to the Baptism of Infants in the next place. The power of the Keyes seen in granting Baptism, as well as in communicating the Eucharist. Why Socinians make Baptism indifferent: Why Antinomians make it a mistake to Baptize. The grounds upon which I shake off both: With answer to some objections.
CHAP. VII. The ground of baptizing Infants Originall sinne, though not instituted till Christ rose again. No other cure for it. Infants of Christians may be Disciples, are ho∣ly. The effect of Circumcision under the Law, inferreth the effect of Baptism un∣der the Gospel.
CHAP. VIII. What is alleadged to impeach Tradition for baptizing Infants; Proves not, that any could be saved regularly, who dyed unbaptized; but, that, baptizing at yeares was a strong means to make good Christians. Why the Church now Baptize, In∣fants. What becomes of Infants dying unbaptized, unanswerable. What those In∣fants gt who dye baptized.
CHAP. IX. What controversie the Reformation hath with the Church of Rome about Penance. Inward repentance that is sincere, obtaineth pardon alone. Remission of sinnes by the Gospel onely: The condition of it by the Ministrey of the Church. What the power of binding and loosing contains more then Preaching, or taking away of∣fenses. Sinne may be pardoned without the use of it. Wherein the necessity of using it lyeth.
CHAP. X. The Sects of the Montanists, Novations, Donatists, and Meletians, evidence the cure of sinne by Penance, to be a Tradition of the Apostles. So doth the agree∣ment of primitive practice with their writings. Indulgence of regular Penance from the Apostles. Confession of secret sinnes in the Primitive Church. That no sinne can be cured without the Keyes of the Church, there is no Tradition from the Apostles. The necessity of confessing secret sinnes, whereupon it stands.
CHAP. IX. Penance is not required to redeem tho debt of temporall punishment when the sinne is pardoned. What assurance of forgivenesse, the law of auricular Confession, as it is used in the Church of Rome, procureth Of injoyning Penance, after absolution performed. Setting aside abuses, the Law is agreeable to Gods. Of the order taken by the Church of England.
CHAP. XI. The Unction of the sick pretendeth onely bodily health, upon supposition of the cure of sinne by the Keyes of the Church. Objections answered. The Tradition of the Church evidenceth the same.
CHAP. XII. The ground of the Right of the Church in Matrimonial causes. Mariage of one with one insolubly is a Law of Christianity; The Law of Moses not injoyning it. The Law of the Empire not aiming at the ground of it. Evidence from the primitive practice of the Church.
CHAP. XIV. Scripture alleged to prove the bond of Mariage insoluble in case of adultery, unef∣fectuall. S. Paul and our Lord speak both to one purpose, according to S. Je∣rome, and S. Austine. The contrary opinion more reasonable, and more general in the Church. Why the Church may restrain the innocent party from marying again. The Imperial Lawes could never be of force to void the Power of the Church. Evidence for it.
CHAP. XIV. Another opinion, admitting the ground of lawfull Impediments. What Impedi∣ments arise upon the Constitution of the Church, generally as a Society, or parti∣cularly, as of Christians. By what Law some degrees are prohibited Christians. And, of the Polygamy of the Patriarchs. Mariage with the deceased wives Sister, and with a Cousin Germane, by what Law prohibited. Of the Profession of Conscience, and the validity of clandestine Mariages. The bounds of Eccle∣siasticall Power in Mariage upon these grounds.
CHAP. XVI. Of the Power of making Gouernours and Ministers of the Church. Upon what ground the Hierarchy of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons standeth, in opposition to Presbyteries and Congregations. Of the Power of Confirming, and the evidence of the Hierarchy which it yieldeth. Of those Scriptures which seem to speak of Presbyteries or Congregations.
CHAP. XVII. The Power given the XII. under the Title of Apostles, and the LXX. Disciples. That the VII were Deacons. Of the first Presbyters at Jerusalem, and the In∣terest of the People. Presbyters appropriated to Churches, under the Apostles. S. Pauls Deacons no Presbyters. No ground for Lay Flders.
CHAP. XVIII. The Apostles all of oequall power; S. Peter onely chiefe in managing it. The ground for the pre-minence of Churches, before and over Churches. Of Alex∣andria, Antiochia, Jerusalem and Rome. Ground for the pre-eminence of the Church of Rome, before all Churches. The consequence of that Ground. A sum∣mary of the evidence for it.
CHAP. XIX. Of the proceedings about Marcion and Montanus at Rome. The businesse of Pope Victor about keeping Easter; a peremptory instance. The businesse of the No∣vatians evidenceth the same. Of the businesses concerning the rebaptizing of He∣reticks, Dionysius of Alexandria, Paulus Samosatenus, S. Cypriane, and, of the Donatists under Constantine.
CHAP. XX. Of the constitution and authority of Councils. The ground of the pre-eminences of Churches in the Romane Empire. The VI. Canon of the Council of Nicaea. The pre-eminence of the Church of Rome, and that of Constantinople. Some in∣stances against the superiority of Bishops, out of the records of the Church; what offices every Order by Gods Law, or by Canon Law, ministreth.
CHAP. XXI. Of the times of God service; By what Title of his Law the first day of the week is kept Holy. How the Sabbath is to be sanctified by Moses Law. The fourth Com∣mandment, the ground upon which the Apostles inacted it. Ʋpon what ground the Church limiteth the times of Gods service. Of Easter, and the Lent Fast afore it. Of the difference of meats, and measure of Fasting. Of the keeping o four Lords Birthday, and other Festivals, and the regular hours of the day for Gods service.
CHAP. XXII. The people of God ied to build Synagogues, though not by the leter of the Law. The Church to provide Churches, though the Scripture command it not. Prescribing the form of Gods publick service, is not quenching the Spirit. The Psalter is prescribed the Church for Gods Praises. The Scriptures prescribed to be read in the Church; The Order of reading them to be prescribed by the Church.
CHAP. XXIII. The consideration of the Eucharist prescribed by Tradition, for the mater of it. Lords Prayer prescribed in all services. The mater of Prayers for all estates prescribed. The form of Baptism necessary to be prescribed. The same reason holdeth in the forms of other Offices.
CHAP. XXIV. The Service of God to be prescribed in a known Language. No pretense that the Latine is now understood. The means to preserve Unity in the Church, notwith∣standing. The true reason of a Sacrifice inforceth Communion in the Eucha∣rist. What occasions may dispense in it. Communion in both kindes commanded the People. Objections answered. Who is chargeable with the abuse.
CHAP. XXIV. Prayer the more principall Office of Gods service then Preaching. Preachings, neither Gods word, nor the meanes of salvation, unlesse limited to the Faith of Gods Church. What, the edification of the Church by preaching further requires. The Order for Divine service according to the course of the Church of England; According to the custome of the universall Church.
CHAP. XXV. Idolatry presupposeth an immagination that there is more Gods then one. Ob∣jections out of the scripture that it is the worship of a true God under an I∣mage. the Originall of worshipping the elements of the world: The Devil: And Images. Of the Idolatry of the Magicians, and of the Gnosticks. What Ido∣latry the cases of Aron and of Jerboam involve. Of the Idolatries practised under the Kings and Judges, in answer to objections.
CHAP. XXVI. The Place, or rather the State of happy and miserable Soules otherwise understood by Gods people before Christs ascension, then after it. What the Apoca∣lypse, what the rest of the Apostles declare. Onely Martyrs before Gods Throne. Of the sight of God.
CHAP. XXVII. The Soules of the Fathers were not in the Devils Power till Christ; Though the Old Testament declare not their estate. Of Samuels soul. The soul of our Lord Christ, parting from his body, went with the Thiefe to Paradise. Of his triumph over the powers of darknesse. Prayer for the dead signifieth no deli∣vering of soules out of Purgatory. The Covenant of Grace requires imper∣fect happinesse before the generall judgement. Of forgivenesse in the world to come, and, paying the utmost farthing.
CHAP. XXVIII. Ancient opinions in the Church, of the place of soules before the day of judge∣ment. No Tradition that the Fathers were in the Ʋerge of Hell, under the Earth. The reason of the difference in the expressions of the Fathers of the Church. What Tradition of the Church for the place of Christs soule, during his death, The Saints soules in secret mansions, according to the Tradition of the Church. Prayer for the dead supposeth the same. No Purgatory according to the Tradition of the Church.
CHAP. XXIX. The ground upon which Ceremonies are to be used in the service of the Church; Instances out of the Scriptures and Tradition of the Apostles. Of the equivo∣cation of the word Sacrament, in the Fathers. The reason of a Sacrament in Baptisme and the Eucharist. In extreme Ʋnction. In Marriage. In Con∣firmation, Ordination, and Penance.
CHAP. XXX. To worship Christ in the Eucharist, though believing transubstantiation, is not Idolatry. Ground for the honour of Saints and Martyrs. The Saints and the Angels pray for us. Three sorts of prayers to Saints: The first, agreeable with Christianity: The last may be Idolatry: The second a step to it. Of the Reliques of the Saints Bodies. What the second Commandement prohibiteth or alloweth. The second Councile of Nicea doth not decree Idolatry; And yet there is no decree in the Church for the worshiping of Images.
CHAP. XXXI. The ground for a Monasticall life in the Scriptures; And in the practice of the primitive Church. The Church getteth no peculiar interest in them who pro∣fesse it, by their professing of it. The nature and intent of it renders it subordi∣nate to the Clergy. How farre the single life of the Clergy hath been a Law to the Church. Inexecution of the Canons for it. Nullity of the proceed∣dings of the Church of Rome in it. The interest of the People in the acts of the Church; And in the use of the Scriptures.
CHAP. XXXII. How great the Power of the Church, and the effect of it is. The right of judging the causes of Christians caseth, when it is protected by the State. An Ob∣jection; If Ecclsiasticall Power were from God, Secular Power could not limit the use of it. Ground for the Interest of the State in Church matters. The in∣consequence of the argument. The concurrence of both Interests to the Law of the Church. The Interest of the State in the indowment of the Church. Con∣currence of both in matrimoniall causes, and Ordinations. Temporall penalties upon Excommunication from the State. No Soveraigne subject to the greater Excommunication, but to the lesse. The Rights of the Jewes State and of Chri∣stian Powers, in Religion, partly the same, partly not. The infinite Power of the Pope not founded upon acts of Episcopacy, but upon the Secular Powers of Christendome.
A CONCLUSION To all CHRISTIAN READERS.
Faults escaped in the firse Booke.