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Author: Spangenberg, Johann.
Title: The su[m] of diuinitie drawn out of the holy scripture very necessary, not only for curates [et] yong studentes in diuinitie: but also for al christen men and women what soeuer age they be of. Drawn out of Latine into Englyshe by Robert Hutten.
Publication info: Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, Digital Library Production Service
2011 April (TCP phase 2)

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Print source: The su[m] of diuinitie drawn out of the holy scripture very necessary, not only for curates [et] yong studentes in diuinitie: but also for al christen men and women what soeuer age they be of. Drawn out of Latine into Englyshe by Robert Hutten.
Spangenberg, Johann., Hutton, Robert, d. 1568,, Turner, William, d. 1568,

[Imprinted at London: By John Day and Wyllyam Seres, dwellynge in Sepulchres Parish at the signe of the Resurrection a litle aboue Holbourne Conduite], Anno. 1548.
Alternate titles: Margarita theologica. English. Sum of divinitie.
A translation, by Robert Hutton, of: Spangenberg, Johann. Margarita theologica.
Edited by William Turner.
Imprint from colophon.
With a final colophon leaf.
Signatures: A-S (S7,8 blank).
Reproduction of the original in the Bodleian Library.

title page
Vvilliam Turner to the Reader.
The Table of the pla∣ces contayned in thys boke.
¶What is a pastoure of the church?
☞ What is the office of a pastoure?
☞ What is required in a pastoure that he be apt?
❧What is lawfull vocacion?
☞Howe is vocation?
☞Is it not lawfull to desire the office of a pastour?
☞What is peticion?
☞By what testimony can they proue that it is lawfull so to axe the office?
☞What is to be propounded vnto hym whych wyl take vpon hand the office of a pastoure?
☞What is the summe of christen Doctryne to be taughte in the Churche?
☞Whiche is the mooste briefe partition of the whole scripture?
¶ Of the law.
☞ What is the law?
☞How many kyndes of lawes be there?
☞ What is gods lawe?
☞ What is mans law?
☞An other diuision.
¶What is the lawe of nature?
¶What is gods lawe?
¶Howe many kyndes of Moyses lawe be there?
☞What is moral law-
☞Where is the moral lawe set furth?
☞What dierence is betwene the law of nature and the moral lawe, or the ten commā∣dementes?
☞ Wherefore then was the lawe deliuered vnto Moyses, seynge the lawe of nature was before?
Howe manye naturall lawes be dystry∣buted?
☞Bind the ten cōmaūdemētes al mē or no?
☞What is the particion of the ten commā∣dementes?
☞ Resite the ten commaundementes.
¶ What do the preceptes commaūde vs?
☞ What be the iudiciall or polytyke lawes of Moyses?
☞Whiche be ceremoniall lawe?
¶ What is the effecte of goddes lawe, and howe many offices be thereof?
☞ Maye a man by hys owne power fulfyll the law of God or no?
☞ May a man be iustifyed by the lawe?
❧ Wherefore then be Moyses lawes gyuē seinge they iustify not?
¶Of the Gospel.
¶What is the Gospel?
☞What difference is betwene the law and the Gospell?
¶ Of promissions ☞ Howe manye promissions of the holye scripture be ther?
¶Whiche was the first promesinge of the Gospell?
❧Is not the promise of ye gospel vniuersal
☞What is the worke of the Gospell?
❧What is the summe of the Gospell?
Of sinne.
¶ What is sinne?
☞Which be the causes of syne?
☞ If God be not the cause of synne are the contingenes or changinges to be graunted?
☞ What is contengentes or changinges?
☞ How many kyndes of necessity be there?
☞ What is to be iudged of destenye?
☞ How many kindes of synne be there?
☞ What is originall sinne?
☞ What is the cause of originall synne?
☞What is the matter of original synne?
❧What is the formal cause of original sin.
☞What is cōcupscence?
☞ Whiche be the effectes of synne?
¶Remayneth not original synne in holy mē? Or how is original syn forgeuē in baptisme?
☞ Wherefore remaineth punishement, that is to saye bodely death and other miseries se∣inge synne is forgyuen?
☞What is actual synne?
What maketh the personne vi∣ciouse?
☞ What Maketh the personne acceptable vnto God?
☞How many kindes of affections be in the nature of man?
☞Howe be sinnes knowen?
☞What iudgest thou of mortal synne and veniall synne?
☞From whence come veniall sinnes then?
☞What is mortall synne?
☞ What thynkest thou of the diuision of actual synnes whyche olde writers vsed, that is, inwarde actual synne, and outwarde?
☞What sayest thou of the synnes of omi∣ssion and wylful ignoraunce?
☞What is to be required in them which be conuerted?
Of Grace.
¶What signifyeth thys worde Gratia?
¶What is Gratia then?
☞ Howe shall thys be vnderstanded, when it is sared we be iustifyed by grace?
☞Whiche be the causes of grace?
☞Howe chaunceth grace vnto vs.
☞Haue we then merit in reconciliation?
☞Which be the effectes of grace?
☞By what menanes doth grace deliuer vs from syn and death, seinge syn remayneth as yet infixed in our flesh, and also bodely death?
☞Wherfore maketh Paule difference be∣twen Grace and the reward?
❧What signifyeth the spirite of grace and prayer in the prophet zacharie?
¶Of Iustification.
☞What signifye these two wordes, to be iustifyed and iustification?
☞What doeth iustification conteyne?
☞How is iustification?
❧ Whiche be the causes of iustification.
☞Doth not our wyll somthinge?
☞ What is the meanynge of thys sayenge, we be iustifyed by faith?
☞ What doth this worde Gratis excepte?
☞Wherfore is it necessary to make this ex∣ception
☞ Shew the testimonies of this exceptyon.
❧ Is not this proposition true, we be iusti∣fyed only by fayth.
☞I argue contrary?
☞We be iustifyed wyth fayeth
¶Therfore be we iustifyed by workes
☞If we be not iustified with good workes ☞What nede we then to do good workes?
☞I axe of Paule nowe conuerted or rene∣wed is Paule iustified after his conuersion wyth fayeth only or wyth fayth and workes, or new obedience also?
¶Of good workes
☞What is to be holden in the doctriee of workes?
❧Saythe regester of good works cōtained in the ten commaundementes.
☞ The .ii. question.
¶The third Question.
☞Testimonies, that synne remayneth as yet in sayntes?
¶The fourth Questiō.
☞ Testimonies that this new obedience is acceptable.
¶The fifte Question.
☞Whiche be the causes then, which should prouoke vs vnto good workes?
☞ Whiche is the first cause?
☞ Which is the seconde cause?
☞ For geue ye, and ye shalbe forgeuen: ☞Whiche is the third cause?
Which is the fourth cause?
☞ Whiche is the fyfte cause?
❧But what of euel workes. Do they hurt vs or no?
☞Do good works deserue euerlasting life?
☞ Wherefore then is euerlastynge lyfe cal∣led a rewarde, as it is sayed, he shall gyue vn∣to euerye one accordyng vnto hys workes. &c,▪
¶ Of Repentaunce.
☞ What is repentaunce?
☞ Howe manie thynges be necessary to them whyche do repente.
☞ What is contrition.
☞ From whence come these sorowes and feares in vs?
☞ What then is fayeth necessarye to them whych do repent?
☞Seruile feare
☞Childly feare.
☞ But what seye ye of confession and sa∣tisfaction?
☞What is the common confession, which is done vnto the prieste.
☞ I reason agaynst you.
☞ What is fatisfaction?
☞How many kindes of satisfactiō is ther?
☞What is satisfaction of repentaunce?
☞What is satisfaction after the papystes?
☞ From whence commeth satisfactyon of the papistes?
What is to be iudged of remission of payne, and whether the keys can charg one wyth pu∣nyshment or take it away or no?
¶ Of absolucion
☞What is absolution?
☞ Maye a man haue ofter then once remissi¦on of synnes?
☞ Dooe the Nouatians and Catharines rightly deny, that they which fall after Bap∣tisme dooe not obtayne remissyon of synnes?
☞ But what say ye to the places of the Epi¦stel to the Hebrues .vi. It is impossible yt they which be once lightened &c. And .x. the whiche sinne voluntarily. &c.
☞ Is there a synne whyche can not be for∣gyuen
☞ Which is syn agaynste the holye gooste?
☞ Is not euerye fal, after the trueth be once knowen, synne whiche can not be forgyuen?
☞ What is the effecte of repentaunce
¶Of faith
☞ What is fayth?
☞Howe standeth this faith in our herte?
❧ Proue ye faith signifieth truste of mercy
☞What is the meaning of thys sentēce, the ryghtuouse shal lyue by hys fayth.
☞What then? Is the knowledge of the hi∣storie to be wythdrawen from fayth?
☞ What is the profession of the Christen fayeth?
☞Reherse the apostles Crede?
☞Saye the crede of ye counsel at Nicenum.
¶Say the crede of Athanasius?
¶ Of God
☞ What is God?
☞Shewe wytnes of the vnite of God.
☞ Howe manye persones of the godhead be there?
☞ What signifieth a person here?
How prouest yu that their be thre personnes
❧ What is the father?
☞ Who is the sonne?
☞ What signifieth, in the begynnyng was the worde.
Wherefore is he called logos or the word?
☞ Proue that logos or the worde signifieth a person, whiche is by it owne nature God.
☞ What is the holy gost?
☞ Shewe witnesses, whyche proue that the holy gost is a personne and by nature God.
☞ Howe proueste thou that the holy gooste doth proced equally from the father & the son?
¶ Of the creation
☞What is the creation?
☞ What is a creature?
☞ Who doeth kepe thynges created?
☞Howe is God knowen in hys creatures as creator of thynges?
☞Howe oughte the thynges created to be vsed?
¶ Of the strength and power of man, or of fre wyl.
☞ What is fre wyll?
☞ Nowe is it to be axed, howe oure wyll is fre, and howe it can obeye the lawe of God.
☞Consideryng thys infirmity and weake∣nes if is to be enquired, howe muche mannes wyll can accomplishe.
☞Wherefore then can men not satisfy the lawe of god?
☞Shew scripture,
☞ If ye teach so, men wyl be affrayd from the desire of obeynge, beleuynge, and doynge good workes?
Can a man do somthing by hys owne powre?
☞But what iudgest thou of the opinion of the manicheis?
Of the diuisiō of fre wil
☞What is fre wyl before the fale
☞What is fre wyll after the fal?
☞ What then is lefte vnto oure arbitr∣mente in spiritual thinge?
¶Of predestination.
☞What is predestination?
☞Wherupon must predestinatiō beginne▪
How many maners of predestination be ther?
☞Shew places of the scripture whiche de∣clare the promisse to be vniuersal.
¶Of the difference betwene ye new & olde Testamēt.
☞What is the difference betwene the new testament and olde?
☞ Wherefore is that called the olde Testa∣ment and thys the newe Testament?
☞ Indureth the olde Testament no more?
☞ What signifie these two wordes in Saynct Paule. ☞The letter and spirite?
¶Of abrogation of the lawe.
☞What is the abrogation of the lawe?
☞Be the vngodly deliuered from the lawe?
☞ Whiche be the causes of the abro∣gation of the lawe?
☞ Is the whole lawe abrogated?
☞ Wherefore then it is not lawefull to o∣mytte the ten commaundementes?
¶ Of Christen libertie, whyche is the effecte of the lawe abrogated.
☞ What is Christen libertie.
How many degrees of christē libertie be there?
☞ Vnto what thynge is thys doctrine of Christen libertye profitable?
☞But thou saiest, obedience is necessarye, althoughe the powers do abuse the right. For ☞Christ sayth: vpon the chayre of Moy∣ses sitte the Scribes and Phariseis &c. ☞What soeuer they shal commaund you, do it.
☞But what saye ye of the ceremonies, whiche be instituted of Christe?
¶ Of Councels.
☞Be councels taught in the Gospel by Christe or no?
¶ Of Reuenging:
☞What commaundeth he of reuengynge?
☞ But what of this sētence? is it lawful to resiste force wyth force?
Of Pouertie.
☞What commaūdeth it of pouertye?
☞What is pouertie?
☞ Howe many kyndes of forsakynge of ryches be there?
¶Of Chastitie.
What commaundeth it of chastitie?
☞What is chastitie?
☞ Yet Paule sayeth, as concerninge virgi∣nes I haue no commaundement of the Lorde but I gyue councel. &c
☞Wherefore then do papistes preferre single lyfe?
☞Wherefore then doeth Paule prayse and councell virginitie and singlenes?
¶Of the churche
☞What is the churche?
☞When dyd the churche begynne?
☞Howe many kindes of churches be ther?
☞Which is the hipocriticall church?
☞What is the true churche?
☞ But what is to be iuged of them whiche be excomunicate?
☞ What difference is betwene the hypocri∣ticall churche, and the true churche?
Of ecclesiastical pouer.
☞What is the keye or power of ye church?
☞ Howe many kyndes of ecclesiasticall power be there?
What is the powre of order?
☞ What is powre of iurisdiction?
☞ What difference is betwene Eccle∣siastical power, and politicke power?
☞ Whē hath the church receiued the keyes?
☞ Auayleth not the ministrynge of euyll mi∣nisters?
☞ Is not obedience due vnto ministers of the churche?
¶ Of offension.
☞What is offension?
❧How many kindes of offension be there?
☞What is offension taken?
☞Geue exemples?
☞What is offence geuen?
☞ But what is to be done in indifferent thynges?
☞ Be there not diuerse opinions concer∣nyng the sacramentes?
☞Wherefore hath Christ instituted sacra∣mentes?
¶Of Baptisme.
☞What is Baptisme?
☞Where is Baptisme instituted?
☞For what purpose is it instituted?
¶What doeth baptisme signifie?
☞What is the vse of Baptisme?
☞ May baptisme be receiued agayne or no?
☞What difference is betwene the baptisme of Iohn and of the Apostles?
¶Of the baptisme of Infantes prouynge that chyl∣dren oughte to be baptised.
☞ But the Anabaptistes obiect, saiyng. Se∣ing childer do not vnderstande the worde they can not beleue, wherfore the Sacramentes do not profects them.
¶Of the Supper of the Lorde.
☞What is the Lordes supper?
☞ By how many names is thys sacrament named?
¶Wherfore is it called the supper of the lord?
☞Why is it called a Testamente?
☞Why is it called communion?
☞ Why is it called Eucharistia?
☞Saye the wordes of the Lordes supper.
What is the principal ende of this supper?
☞ What is the holsome vse of this supper?
☞I reason agaynste the where thou sayests the vse of the Lordes supper to be, to confirme and establishe our fayeth.
What is the worthy preperation, and to whō ought thys sacrament to be ministred?
☞ What difference is betwene a sacrament and a sacrifice?
¶Of sacrifices.
☞How many kindes of sacrifices be there?
❧ What is sacrificiam propiciatorium?
☞What is a sacrifice of thankes geuing?
☞Whiche be sacrifices Eucharisticall or of prayse?
¶ Of the crosse and aduersities.
☞What is the crosses
☞ Howe shall we conforte oure selues in the crosse and aduersitie?
Wherfore doth the scripture so diligent∣ly setfurth and intreat these cōfortes?
¶What is true patience
But what euyl worketh impatience?
¶Of humiliation or Lowlines
☞What is humiliation?
¶Of prayer
☞What is prayer?
☞ Howe manye kyndes of prayer bee there?
❧ What is inuocation?
How many thinges be required in in∣uocation or prayer,
❧ What is the fyrst?
But thou wilte saye, my misbelue & my vnworthynes doth affraye me?
What is the seconde?
☞What is the thirde?
☞ What is the fourth?
☞ What is to be axed of hym?
Of the lordes prayer
☞ What is the praier of the Lorde?
¶ Of the office of Rulers.
☞What is the office of Rulers?
❧ What is a tiraunt?
☞Is the office of rulers grounded vpon ho∣ly scripture or no?
☞ Is then the office of Rulers, the ordinaunce of God?
☞Wherfore then doe so many vngodly and iuell persons spoyl & hold offices & Empies?
☞Vnto what thynges must the Rulers haue respect?
☞Wherfore vnto God?
Wherfore vnto their selfe?
Wherfore muste they haue respecte vnto their subiects?
☞What do the Rulares owe vnto their subiects? Thre thinges
☞What dooe the subiectes owe vnto their rulers?
Is the power of Rulers infinite?
☞But what if they shal commaunde any thing agaynst Godes lawe?
☞Be these politicke workes accep∣table vnto God?
☞Wherfore dooe hipocrites then so greatli prayse monastical workes?
¶ Of matrymony
☞What is Matrymonye?
☞Whose Ordinaunce is it?
☞Betwene How many may Mariage be made at one tyme?
☞ Wher was it instituted?
☞ When was it instituted?
¶Wherfore was it instituted?
¶What is to be done in Matrimonye
☞ What is to be suffered? What is the crosse of mariag?
☞ May matrymony be dessolued or no?
☞What are to be obserued in matrymony?
☞ Is mariage fre for al men?
¶Of inuocation of Sayntes.
☞Are saints to be called vpon for mediators?
☞Ought the sayntes to be worsheped?
☞Yet by lordes and Earles must we goes vnto the kynges or Princes.
☞ How must we then worship saintes?
Of buryall
☞ Wherupon cometh burieng of the dead?
❧Wher must the place of buryeng be?
☞How must buryal be celebrated?
¶Of the rysyng again of the dead.
☞What is the resurrection of the dead?
❧How canst thou proue the resurrection of the dead?
☞Brynge forth wytnesse out of the olde Testament.
☞Shal al men ryse both good and euel?
☞Proue that the vngodly shal also rise wyth there bodies vnto punishment?
☞How shal the resurrection be?
☞How shall this alteration be?
☞Howe shall they aryse?
☞ Shewe a figure of the resurrection by ye creatures?
☞But what shall come of them whom the last daye shal fynde yet lyuyng in fleshe?
¶Of the end of the worlde, of the iudgment or ye last day of the lorde.
☞What is the consumation of the world?
☞ What is the last iudgement or the day of the lord?
☞How many commings of ye lord be ther?
Howe shal he come to iudge?
Wherfore to iudge?
What tokens shall goe before?
☞ What tokens shall appeare vpon the same day?
☞What token shal folowe?
☞Can the houre and the day of the iudge∣ment be knowen?
¶ Of Euerlastyng lyfe What is euerlastynge lyfe?
☞What is euerlastyng deathe?
☞Who hath promised euerlastyng lyfe?
¶Vnto whome?
¶Which be the effects and vertues of euerla¦styng lyfe?