Aristotle's master-piece: or the secrets of generation display'd in all the parts thereof; ... Very necessary for all midwives, nurses and young-married-women.
Aristotle.
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Aristotle's Master-Piece: OR, The Secrets of Generation Display'd, &c.

CHAP. I. Of Marriage, and at what Age Virgins and Youths are capable of the Marriage-Bed, and the Reasons that prompts them to desire it, with the Signs of Barrenness, and how long a Man or VVoman are capable of having Children.

THAT Marriage is an Ho|nourable State, ordain'd by God in Paradice, and since confirm'd by our Blessed Saviour, who wrought his first Miracle at a Wed|ding, I hope no Body will deny. There|fore it is convenient that PARENTS will take care of their Daughters Chastity; Page  2 and when they find them inclinable to Mar|riage, not violently to restrain their Affecti|ons, but rather to provide for them, if pos|sible, such Husbands as may be for their Ad|vantage, and with whom they may live comfortably in that blessed State, lest being crossed in their Purposes, and delayed, they part with their Honour dishonourable ways.

The propension and inclination of Maids to Marriage, is to be discovered by many Symptoms; For when they arrive to Maturity (which is usually about the 14th or 15th Year of their Age, according to their respe|ctive Habits or Constitutions) then their Menses, or Natural Purgations begin to flow: and the Blood, which is no longer ta|ken to augment their Bodies, abounding, incites their Minds and Imaginations to Venery. External Causes also may pro|mote and excite them to it; for the Spirits being brisk, and in a manner inflamed▪ when they arrive at this Age, if they eat salt, sharp Things, Spices, &c. whereby the Body be|comes still more and more heated, then the In|clination and Proneness to Venerial Embraces is very great: nay, sometimes almost inse|parable. And a due use of these Enjoy|ments being denied to Virgins, very often produces very dismal Effects, as green and Weasel-Colour, short Breathings, Trem|blings of the , &c. But if they hap|pen Page  3 to be married to their own Content, those Afflictions vanish, and their Native Beauty returns more gay than before. Nor is their eager gazing, and desiring to associate themselves with Men a less Sign that Na|ture prompts them to desire what she ordained their due; of which being sometimes by obdurate Parents debarr'd in a lawful Way, they break the Bounds of Modesty rather than endure such violent Agitations and Conflicts within themselves, and so satiate their Desires in unlawful Love. The same may in all particulars be observed in young brisk Widows. whom Death (that Enemy of sweet conjugal Love) has separated from the Bosom of their Husbands.

At 14 Years of Age, commonly the Menses in Virgins begin to flow, and their they are capable of conceiving, and so conti|tinue generally to Forty-four; at what time for the most part they are no longer capable of Generation, unless such as are exceeding healthful, strong of Body, and have used themselves to Temperance, who have ap|peared to be delivered of Children till 55 Years; but such Prodigies rarely happen, altho' the Menses continue longer in some Women than in others, but many times such Efflux proceeds not from any natural cause, but by reason of some violent Straining, or other Violence, and doth often endanger Page  4 the Life of the Party: And therefore Young Men that marry Women surmounting the Age aforesaid, if they expect Children un|less by Miracle, must labour against the Wind: Though if an Old Man, that is not worn out by Diseases and Incontinency, marry a brisk lively Lass, there is hopes even to Threescore and Ten, and some that are extraordinary lusty, till Fourscore.

Hypocrates, that Famous and Learned Physician, is of Opinion, that a Youth at 16 Years, or between that and 17, having much Vital Strength, may be capable of getting Children, and that Force and Heat of procreating Matter continually increases till 45, 50, and 65. And at the end of the latter begins to flag, the Seed by little and little becoming unfruitful, the natural Spi|rits being extinguished, and the Humours dried up; and in general, most Physicians to this day do observe it; but as to parti|culars, as I have before mentioned, it of|ten hapneth otherwise; nay, 'tis reported by a credible Author, that in the Reign of Ereus, King of Swedeland, a Man was mar|ried at an Hundred Years old to a Bride of Thirty, and had many Children by her; but looked so fresh, that such as knew him not, took him not to exceed that Age.

In Campania, where the Air is temperate, serene, and calm, Men of 80 Year usually Page  5 marry Young Virgins, and have Children by them; which argues that Age in Men hin|ders not Procreation, unless they be exhau|sted in their Youth, and their Members shrivelled up. If any ask why a Woman is sooner barren than a Man? I answer, The Cause is the natural Heat, which is more predominant in the latter than in the former: For since a Woman is more moist than a Man, as her Monthly Purgations do most evidently demonstrate, as also the softness of her Body; 'tis also apparent that he doth exceed her in native Heat; and as for that Heat, it is the chief thing that concocts the Humours into good and proper Aliment; which the Woman want|ing, grows fat; when a Man, by reason of that Heat, melts his Fat by Degrees and his Humours are dissolved, and by the Be|nefit thereof they are elaborated into Seed. And this may, for the better confirmation of what I propose, be added, That the Woman generally is not so strong as a Man, nor so wise and ingenious in contriving her Affairs, whereby the Faculties are hin|der'd in their Operation. And so I con|clude my Assertion.

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CHAP. II. General and Particular Rules laid down by Learned Physicians▪ how to proceed in getting a Male, or Female Child, and of the Em|bryo and perfect Birth, and the fittest Season for Copulation.

WHEN a young likely Couple have entered the holy State of Wedlock, and are desirous of mutual Enjoyment for Generation-sake, which is the chief end for which Wedlock was ordained, and rather covet to be bless'd with one Sex than ano|ther, let them know fitst for certain, that the success of such things depends upon Di|vine Providence tho' secondary Causes must be active and instrumental therein, and those are especially two; First, The Genital Hu|mour, which is brought by the Arteriae Prae|parantes to the Testes in the Form of Blood, and there elaborated into Seed by the Semi|nifical Faculty resident in them. To which may be added the Appetite and Desire to Copulation, which fires the Imagination with unusual Fancies, or by the sight of a brisk, charming Beauty, whose Wit and Liveliness may much intice, and more in|flame the Courage; But if Nature be en|feebled, then are there fit Artificial Reme|dies to restore it, viz. Such Meats as most Page  7 conduce to the affording such Aliment as proves to make Seed abound, and restore the Decays of Nature, that the Faculties may freely operate: For as dung and good muturing restores Ground that is worn out, and heartless, even so seasonable and pro|per Diet operates to the restoring the faint Heart, weak Spirit, coldness and driness of the Genital parts, and reduceth the weakness of the Nerves to their Tempera|ment, and removes Impediments, obstruct|ing the Procreation of Children. Then since Diet may and will after the evil state of the Body to a better, it is necessary that such as are subject to Barrenness, should eat such Meats only as tend to render them fruitful; and among such things as are inducing and stirring up thereto, are all Meats of good Juice, that nourish well, and make the Body lively and full of Sap, of which faculty are all hot moist Meats: for according to Galen, the substance of Seed is made of the pure con|cocted and windy superfluity of Blood; from whence we may conclude there is in many things a power to accumulate or heap up Seed, as also to augment it, and other things of force to cause Erection, as Hen-Eggs, Pheasants, Wood-cocks, Gnatsappers Thrushes, Black-birds, young Pidgeons, Spar|rows, Patridges, Capons, Almonds, Pine-Nuts, Raysons, Currants, all strong Wines Page  8 moderately taken, especially those made of the Grapes of Italy; but Erection is chiefly caused and provoked by Styrium, Eringoes, Cresses. Erysimum, Parsnip, Artichoaks, Tur|nips, Rapes, Asparagus, Candy'd Ginger, Gal|linga, Acorns bruised to Powder, and drank in Muscadine, Scallions, Sea-Shell-Fish, &c. All these (tho' excellent Restoratives) will not have present Operation, but you must use yourself to them for a considerable time or else you will reap little or no benent by them. The Act of Coition being over, (wheren the force of Imagination is certainly very prevalent in the causing of the Child to be of this or that Sex) the Woman (say the Antients) must gently repose on her Right Side, with her Head lying low, and her Body sinking down, that by sleeping in that posture, the Cell on the Right Side of the Matrix may prove the Place of Conception, in which is the greatest force of Generative Heat, which is the chief Inducement to the Procreation of Male Children, and rarely fails to answer the expectation of those that experience it, especially if they keep them|selves warm, and without much Motion, leaning for the most part to the Right, and drinking a little of Spirit of Saffron, and Juice of Hysop in a Glass of Mallaga, or Aligant, when they lie down and rise, for the space of a Week. Now the fittest time (they say) Page  9 for the Procreation of Male Children is, when the Sun is in Leo, and the Moon's in Virgo, Scorpio or Sagittarius.

This Order they will also have observed for a Female Child, by lying as aforesaid on the left side, and strongly fancying a Female in the time of Procreation, especially if the Woman drink the Decoction of Female Mercury, 4 days from the 1st day of Purgation; the Male Mercury (both Herbs so called) having the like Operation in case of a Male Child; for the Juice or Decoction of those Simples are of Force, the one to purge the Right, and the other the Left Side of the Womb, and thereby open the Receptacles, making way for the Seminary of Generation: And the best time to copulate for this Sex is, when the Moon is in the wane, and the sign in Libra or Aquarius, for then they will be of a most gentle, affable temper, very fair, and perfect in all their members. Avicenna, an Author of good repute, describes the time of Procreation thus: When (saith he) the Menses are spent, and the Womb is cleansed, which is commonly 5 days, or 7 at most, if a man lie with his wife from the first day she is purged to the fifth, she will conceive a Male; but from the fifth to the eight a Female, and from the eighth to the twelfth a Male again: But after that number of days, perhaps neither distinctly, but both in an Hermophradite.

Page  10In a word, They that would be commen|ded to their Wedlock Actions, and be happy in the fruit of their Labour, must observe to copulate at distance of time, not too often, nor yet too seldom, for both these hurt Fruit|fulness alike; for to eject immoderately weakens a Man and wasts his Spirits, and too often causes the Seed by long continuance to be ineffectual and not Manly enough. And thus much for the first general and particu|lar; from whence I shall proceed to the se|cond, which is to give the Reader to under|stand how the Child is formed in the Womb, and what Accidents it is incident to, how, nourished, and how brought forth,

Certain it is, there are various Opinions concerning this matter: therefore I shall for the satisfaction of the curious, lay down the Opinion of the Learned, as thus, Man con|sists of an Ovum, or Eg impregnated in the O|varia or Testieles of the Woman, by the more subtile part of Man's Seed; but there is a forming Faculty and Virtue in the Seed from a Divine and Heavenly Gift, it being a|bundantly endued with Vital and Etherial Spirit, which gives Shape and Form to the Embryo; so that all the parts and bulk of the Body which is made up in the space of many months, and is by Degrees fram'd and form'd into a decent and comely Figure of a Man, do consist in that, and are adumbrated Page  11 thereby: On which holy David contempla|ting, fell into his Divine Rapture and Ad|miration, expressed in Psal. 138. I will praise thee▪ O Lord, because I am wonderfully made: Thy Works are wonderful. My Soul searcheth and knoweth it right well. Thou knowest all my Bones when I was Fashioned in the secret place, and when I was wonderfully formed in my Mo|ther's Womb. Thy Eyes beheld me yet unmade, and in thy Book were all my Members written, which day by day were fashioned. Thy Know|ledge is wonderful unto me, whereby I was made, I cannot understand it, &c. And Physicians that have narrowly contemplated Man's Nature, constitute four different Times, wherein this Microsm, or little World, is framed, and perfected in the Womb.

The first is immediately after Coition, and is said to be perfected in the first Week, if no Efflux happen, which sometimes fall out through the slipperiness of the Matrix, or the Head thereof that shifts over like a Rose-bud, opening on a sudden, by reason of some cold Distemper, or over-weariness in Travel.

The second time of forming is constitu|ted when Nature, and the force of the Womb, by the use of her own imbred For|ces and Virtue, makes a manifest Mutation in the Conception, so that all the Substance seems Congealed Flesh and Blood, which Page  12 happens about the Twelfth and Fourteenth day after Copulation; and though this Con|creation, or Fleshly Mass abound with hot fiery Blood, yet it remains undistinguishable without form of Figure, and may be called the rough Draught, or Embrio, and well likened to Seed which is sown in the Ground, which through kindly Heat and Moisture, grows up by degrees into a per|fect Form, either in Plant or Grain; or as when a Potter Fashons a Vessel out of a rude lump of Clay.

The third time to make up this Fabrick, is set when the principle Parts shew them|selves evidently and perspiciously; as the Heart, from whence proceeds the Arteries; the Brain, from which the Nerves proceed like many small Threads running through the whole Body; and the Liver, whose Office it is to seperate the Bile from the Blood, brought to it by the Vana Portae. The two first are the Seeds and Fountains of Life, that nourish and support each part of the Body; in framing which, the Faculty of the Womb is busied from the time of Conception to the Eighteenth Day of the first Month.

But Lastly, which time reacheth to the 28 or 30th day, the outward parts are seen exquisitely elabourted and distinguished by Joints, and then the Child begins to grow Page  13 and pant; from which progress of days, by reason the Limbs are divided, and the whole frame is perfect, it is no longer held an imperfect Child or Embrio, that is, a Con|cretion that springs forth, but is held to be a perfect and absolute Child. Males for the most part are perfect by the 30th day, but Females seldom, till the 42 or 45 day; and the reason why the one is sooner perfected than the other, is, That the heat of the Womb is greater in producing the Male than the Female: For heat extends the Humour like soft Wax, diffusing and dilating it, and then by its force, Contracting, Framing, and Fashoning it, so Heat and Vigour of the Body, and Alacrity of Nature in the Man, makes the Male to move in 3 Months but the Female rarely under 4, at which time also his Hair and Nails comes forth, and the Child begins to stir, kick and tumble in the Womb; so that the motion is plainly perceived, and the Woman are troubled with Nauseating and Loathing of their Meat, and oftentimes covet, and greedily long for things contrary to Nutriment; as Coals, Rubbish, Chalk, Lime, Starch, Oat-meal, raw Flesh and Fish, or the like, which De|sire proceeds from a former contraction of evil Humours, occasioning impure Blood in their contained Vessel within, and often occasions Abortion and Miscarriages; some Page  14 Women, as it has been noted by divers Authors of Credit, have been so extravagent in their Longings, that they have coveted Hob-Nails, Leather, Man's Flesh, Horse-Flesh, and the Flesh of divers Ravenous Beasts, for want of which they have cast their Birth untimely, or the Child has con|tinued Dead in the Womb for many days, to the eminent hazard of the Woman's Life: But to proceed in this great Mystery, I shall unfold by what means the Infant is sustain'd in the Womb, and what posture it there remains in.

The Disputes among both Philosophers and Physicians, with what, and by what way the Faetus is nourished, have been ve|ry great; some affirming by Blood only, from the Vmbilical Vein; others only by Chyle, received in by the Month, but the Truth is, it is nourished diversly, accord|ing to the different degrees of Perfection, that an Ovum, or Egg passes from a Con|ception to a Faetus, ready for the Birth.

But before we proceed, it will not be amiss to explain what we mean by this Ovum, or Egg. You must know then, that there are in the Generation of the Faetus two Principles, Active, and Passive: The Active is the Man's Seed,, which is elabora|ted in the Testicles out of the Arterial Blood, and Animal Spirits. The Passive Page  15 Principle is an Ovum, or Egg, impregnated by the Man's Seed. For to say that Wo|man has true Seed, is false, and erroneous. But the manner of Conception is thus; The most Spirituous part of Man's Seed in the Act of Generation, reaching up to the Ovarium, or Testicles of the Woman (which contain divers Eggs, sometimes more, some|times fewer) secundates one of them, which being convey'd by the Ovi-ducts, to the bottom of the Womb, presently begins to swell bigger and bigger, and imbibes the moisture that is sent plentifully thither, af|ter the same manner that Seeds in the ground suck the fertile moisture thereof to make them sprout.

When the parts of the Embryo begin to be a little more perfect, and the Chorion becomes so thick, that the Liquor cannot soak through it, the Vmbilical Vessels be|gin to be formed, and to extend the side of the Amnios, which they pass through, and also through the Allantides and Chorion and are implanted in the Placenta, which gathering upon the Chorion, joyns into the Vterus. And now the Arteries that before sent out the nutritious juice into the Cavity of the Womb, open by the Orifices into the Placenta, where they deposite the said Juice, which is drunk up by the Vmbilical Vein, and conveyed by it first to the Liver Page  16 of the Foetus, and then to the Heart, where its more thin and spirituous part is turned into Blood, whilst the grosser part of it de|scending by the Aorta, enters the Vmbilical Arteries, and is discharged into its Cavity by those Branches of them that run through the Amnios,

Assoon as the Mouth, Stomach, and Gul|let, &c. are formed so perfecty that thFaetus can swallow, it sucks in some of the grosser Nutritious Juice, that is deposited in the Amnios, by the Vmbilical Arteries▪ which descending into the Stomach and Intestines, is received by the Lacteal as in Adust Persons.

The Faetus being perfected at the times before specified in all its parts, it lies e|qually ballanced in the midst of the Womb as in the Center, all on a Head, and being something long, is turned round, so that the Head, a little inclines, and it lays his Chin on its Breast, his Heels and Ancles upon its Buttocks, its Hands on its Cheeks▪ and its Thumbs to its Eyes; but its Legs and Thighs are carried upwards, with its Hams bending, so that they touch the bottom of its Belly; the former, and that part of the Body which is over against us, as the Fore|head, Nose, Face, are turned towards the Mother's Back, and the Head inclining downwards towards the Cocyx or Rump|bone Page  17 that joins to the Os· Sacrum, which bone together with Os Pubis, in the time of the Birth part, and are loosned; whence t is, that Male Children commonly come with their Faces downwards, or with their Heads turned somewhat Oblique, that their Faces may be seen; but the Famale Chil|dren with their Faces upwards, tho' some|imes it happens that Births follow not ac|ording to Nature's Order, but Children ome forth with their Feet straddling, their Necks bowed, and their Heads lying Oblique, with their Hand stretch'd out, which great|y endangers themselves and the Mother, iving the Midwife great Trouble to intro|uce them into the World; but when all hings proceed orderly and naturally, the Child, when Nature's set Bounds are ac|complished, is desirous to break its bounds and come forth of the Womb; and by in|clining himself, he rowls downward; for he cannot longer be obscured in those hi|ding-places, and the heat of the Heart can't subsist without external respiration; where|fore being grown great, he is more and more desirous of Nutriment and Light; when coveting the Etherial Air▪ he by strug|glig to obtain it, breaks the Membranes and Coverings, whereby he was restrained and fenced against Attrition; and for the most part, with bitter pangs of the Mother, Page  18 issueth forth to view the Days, commonly in the ninth Month; for then the Matrix divided and the Os Pubis being loosned▪ the Woman strives what she can to cast forth her Burthen, and the Child doing the like to get forth, by the help of its inbred strength, the Birth comes to be perfect▪ but if the Child be dead, the more dange|rous is the Delivery, tho' Nature, as a kind Commiserator, often helpeth the Women's Weakness herein; But the Child that is quick and lively, labours no less than the Woman.

Now these are Births at Seven or Eight Months, and some Women go to the Tenth Month. But of these, and the Reason of them, I shall speak more largely in another place, and at present proceed to unravel other Mysteries of Nature.

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CHAP. III. Reason why Children are often like their Parents, and what the Mothers Imagination contributes thereto, whence grows the Kind, viz. whether the Man or Woman is the Cause of the Male or Female Child, &c.

THat if a Woman in the Act of Copula|tion affords most Seed, her Likeness will ve the greater Impression upon the Child; if on the contrary, then will follow the ntrary effects; or if a proportionable uantity proceed from either, then will Similitude depend upon neither.

Lactantius is of Opinion, That when a an's Seed falls on the left side of the Womb Male Child may be gotten; but by rea|n it is the proper place for a Female, there ill be something in it greatly resembling Woman, viz. It will be fairer, whiter, and smoother, nor very subject to have Hair on the Body or Chin, long lank Hair on the Head, Voice small and sharp, and the courage feeble; and arguing yet fur|ther, he says that a Female may perchance procreated, if the Seed fall on the right de; but then thro' extraordinary Heat, will be very large boned, full of Cou|rage, Page  20 endued with a Big Voice, and hav her Chin and Bosom hairy, not being clear as other of the Sex, subject to quarel with her Husband, when married, fo the Superiority, &c. In case of the Simili|tude, nothing is more powerful than th Imagination of the Mother; for if she conceive in her Mind, or do by Chance faste her Eyes upon any Object, and imprint it i her Memory, the Child in its outward par frequently has some representation theof; so whilst a Man and Woman are in th Act of Copulation, if the Woman earnestl behold his Countenance, and fix her Mind thereon; without all peradventure, th Child will resemble the Father; nay so powerful is its operation, that though Woman be in unlawful Copulation, yet Fear, or any thing else causes her to fix he Mind upon her Husband, the Child wi resemble him, tho he never got it, Th same effect, according to the Opinion of th Learned, Proceeds from Imagination i cause of Warts, Mold-spots, Stains, Dashes and the Figures of strange things, tho' indeed they sometimes happen thro' Fright or extravagant Longing: Many Wome there are, that seeing a Hare cross them when great with Child, will through th strength of Imagination, bring forth a Child with a hairy Lip. Some Children again arPage  21orn with flat Noses, wry Mouths, great lubber lips, and ill-shap'd Bodies, and most scribe the reason to the strange conceit of he Mother, who has busied her Eyes and Mind upon some ill-shaped or distorted Creatures; therefore it properly behoves all Women with Child to avoid any mon|trous Sight, or, at least, to have a steadfast Mind, not easily fixed upon any thing more than another. And this Opinion Plinyonfirms in his 7th Book of natural things, nd the 12th Chapter. The famous Sir Tho|mas More likewise confirms it, and discants merrily on a Passage of his times, wherein Person having divers Children, would own none but what was like him, when n the end it was proved, by the assveration of the Mother, that all except that, were of is own begetting; but whilst another Man was mounted in his Saddle, she fear|ng that he would come and detect her in he Act, had her Imagination so fixed on him, that, as she conceived, the similitude ould proceed from no other cause; where|fore it is apparent, that likeness can confirm o Child to be a lawful Father's own; Yet Manners, Wit, and Apprehension of the Mind, daily Examples teach us, that Chil|dren are commonly of the same Condition with their Progenitors, and of the same na|ure, but there is much in this; whether Page  22 Venery be used with great or weak for many are less inclined to it, and not hot, and consequently not so desirous Copulation, but rather decline it, unle Civility to their Wives cause them to copliance therein, and then they proceed faining and drowsily, whence it happens th the Children fall short of their Parent's Nture, Wit and Manners, and hence it is th wise Men frequently beget stupid slothf Children of eeble Minds, because they ar not much given to those Delights. But I said on the contrary, when the Progentors are hot in Venerious Actions, and dliberally and abundantly employ themselve therein, it oftentimes happens that th Children are of the same Desires, Manner and Actions of the Mind, with their Parents And thus much for the first Point: now shall proceed to the second, which is shew what share each of the Parents hav in begetting the Child, &c. And first we wi give the Opinion of the Ancients about it.

Though it is apparent (say they) tha the Seed of Man is the chief efficient and beginning of Action Motion and Generation, yet that the Woman does afford Seed, and effectually contributes in tha particular to the Procreation of the Child, i evinced by strong Reasons. In the fir place Seminary Vessels had been givePage  23 them in vain, and genital Testicles inter|verted, if the Woman wanted Seminal Excres|sence; for being Nature doth nothing in vain, therefore it must be granted, that they were made for the Use of Seed and Procreation, and fixed in their proper Pla|ces, both the Testicles and Receptacles of Seed, whose nature and force is to operate, and afford fruitful virtue to the Seed: and to prove this there needs no stronger Ar|gument (say they) than that, if a Woman do not use Copulation to eject her Seed, she oftentimes falls into strange Diseases, as appears by young Widows and Virgins, A second Reason they urge, That although the Society of a lawful Bed consist not alto|gether in these things, yet it is apparent, that the Female Sex is not better won and appear more blithe and jocund than when they are often satisfied this way, which is an inducement to believe that they have greater Pleasure and receive more Con|tent than a Man: For since by Nature much Delight accompanies Ejection by the brea|king forth of the swelling Spirit, and the stiffness of the Nerves, in which case the Operation of the Woman's Part is double, she suffering both ways, even by Ejection and Reception, whereby she is more recrea|ted and delighted in the Venereal Act.

Hence it is (they say) that the Child Page  24 more frequently resembles the Mother than the Father, because the Mother con|fers the most towards its Generation: And they think it may be further instanced from the great love they bear them; for that besides their contributing Seminal Matter, they, during the time they are in the Womb▪ feed and nourish the Child with the purest Fountain of Blood; which Opinion Galen confirms, by allowing the Child to parti|cipate more of the Mother than the Fa|ther, and refers the Difference of the Sex to the Influence of Menstrual Blood; but the Reason of the Likeness he attributes to the Force of the Seed; for as Plants receive more from fruitful Ground than from the Industry of the Husbandman, so the Infant in more abundance receives from the Mo|ther than the Father; for first, the Seed of both is heaped and fostered in the Womb, and there grows to perfection, being nourished with Blood. And hence they will have it that Children for the most part affect their Mother best, for it proceeds from the nearness of Nature by a natural Instinct, because the Mothers force was most employed about 'em. For 9 Months, and sometimes 10, she nourisheth the Child with her purest Blood, then her love towards it newly born, and the Likeness do clearly demonstrate, that the Woman Page  25 affordeth Seed, and that Women do con|tribute more towards making the Child than Men. But in all this the Antients were very much in an Error, for the Te|sticles (so called) in Womem, do not afford any Seed, but are two Eggs, analogous to those of Fowls and other Creatures; nei|ther have they any such Office as those of Men, but are indeed Ovarium, wherein those Eggs are nourished by the sanguinary Vessels dispersed through them, and from whence one or more, (as they are fecundated by the Man's Seed) separated, and are con|veyed into the Womb by the Ovi duces, The Truth of this is plain; for if you boile them, their liquor will have the same colour, taste, and consistency with the Whites of Birds Eggs; to say they want shells is nothing at all; for the Eggs of Fowls while they are in the Ovary, nay, after they have fallen down into the Vterus, have no Shell. And though when they are laid they have one, yet that is no more than a Fence which Nature has provided them against outward Injuries, while they are hatched without the Body, whereas those of Wo|men, being hatced within the Body, need no other Fence than the Womb, by which they are sufficiently guarded.

And thus much for the clearing of this Point also; and now to the third thing pro|posed, Page  26viz. Whence grows the Kind, and whether the Man or the Woman is the Cause of the Male or Female Infant.

The primal Cause, as justly due in this and all other Cases, we must ascribe to God the Ruler and Disposer of all things, yet many things by his high Sufferance, proceed in regular order, by the Rules of Nature, and are carried on by their in-bred Motion, according to their usual and natu|ral Course, without Variation, tho' indeed by favour from on high. Sarah conceived Isaac; Hannah, Samuel; and Elizabeth, John the Baptist; but these were to fulfil the Almighty's Decree; nor since those times have the Prayers of the righteous been un|successful in obtaining Children; but pas|sing over such Supernatural and Extraor|dinary Causes that have their peculiar Ef|fects, I shall proceed to speak of things natural and common. The Antient Phy|sitians and Philosophers say, That since there are two Principles, out of which the Body of Man is made, and which ren|der the Child like the Progenitors, and to be of one or the other Sex, viz. Seed com|mon to both Sexes, and menstrual Blood proper to the Woman only: The Simili|tude (say they) must needs consist in the Force of the Male or Female Seed, so that it proves like to the one or the other, as Page  27 more or less Plenty is afforded by either, but that the difference of Sex is not referr'd to the Seed, but to the Menstrual Blood, which is proper to the Woman; for were that force (say they) altogether retained in the Seed, the Man's Seed being of a hot|ter quality than the Woman's, Male Chil|dren would be superabundant, and none of the other Sex (or very rarely) would be propagated, whereof the kind of the Creature is attributed to the Temperament of the active qualities, which consist in Heat and cold, and to the substances or nature of the Matter under them, that is, to the flow|ing of the Menstrual Blood: Now the Seed (say they) affords both Force to procreate and form the Child, and Matter for its Generation, and that in the menstrual Blood there is both Matter and Force; for as the Seeds most helps the material Principles, so likewise the menstrual Blood, the potential Seed, is (saith Galen) Blood well conco|cted by the Vessels that contain it, so that Blood is not only the Matter of generating the Child, but also Seed, in possibility that Menstrual Blood hath both Principles, as Matter and Faculty of offering. The An|cients say further, That the Seed is not the strongest Effient, the Matter of it being very little in quantity, but that the poten|tial or efficient Faculty of it is very feeble: Page  28 Wherefore if the material part or Prin+ciple of Generation, according to which the Sex is made, were only (say they) in the menstrual Blood, then would the Chil|dren be all, or mostly Females, as if the efficient force was in the Seed, they would be all Males; but that since both have Operation in menstrual Blood, Matter pre|dominates in quantity, and in the Seeds Force and Virtue. Deservedly (saith Galen) the Child receives its Sex rather from the Mother than from the Father, although his Seed do contribute something to the material Principles, though more weakly. But as for Similitude, although Imagina|tion (say the Antients) be of extraordinary Force, it is referred rather to the Father than the Mother, as to the Quality of the Seed, at, or for a short time after Copula|tion, but continues not long so to do, for that the Woman's Seed receiving Facul|ty from the menstrual Blood, for the space of Nine Months, over-powers the Man's as to that Particular, because the men|strual Blood flowing into the Vessels, ra|ther cherishes and augments the one than the other; from which it may be more ea|sily conjecturd, that the Woman not on|ly affords Matter to make the Child, but Force and Virtue to perfect the Concep|tion, though the Woman's Seed be fit Nu|triment Page  29 for the Man's by Reason of the moisture and thinness of it, being more fit to frame and make up Conception thereby; for as with soft Wax and moist Clay, the Workman can frame what he intends, so (say they) the Man's Seed mixing with the Woman's, as also with the Menstrual Blood, helps effectually to make the form and perfect Part of Man; but (with all the Respect and Difference imaginable to the Wisdom of the Ancients) we must needs say, that their Ignorance in Anatomy has led them into many and great mistakes; and their Hypothesis of the Formation of the Embryo, from a Commixture of Seeds, and the Nutrition of it from the menstruous Blood being altogether false, their Opinion in this Case must needs be false also.

Therefore (to conclude this Chapter) we say, That although a strong Imagination of the Mother may sometimes determine the Sex, (that is, make it Male or Female, accor|ding as her Imagination is) yet the main A|gent in this Case is the Plastick or Formative Principle, which is the Efficient in Forming the Child, that gives it this or that Sex, accor|ding to those Laws and Rules that are prescri|bed to it by the wise Creator of all things.

Page  30

CHAP. IV. A serious Discourse of the Soul of Man, That it is not propagated from the Parents, but is infused by God, and can neither die nor cor|rupt; and what day of Child-bearing it is infused, Of the Immortality thereof and Certainty of its Resurrection.

THE Soul of Man is of so Divine a Na|ture and Excellency, that Man him|self cannot any wise comprehend it, it be|ing the infused breath of te Almighty, Immortal and Incomprehensible, but by him that gave it, it being as it well may be termed, a part of himself; for Moses by ho|ly Inspiration relating the Oginal of Man, tells us that God had breathed into his Nostrils the Breath of Life, and beme a living Soul. Now, as for all other Creatures, at his word, they were made and had Life; but the Creature that God hath appointed to set over his works, was favoured with the more immediate hand of the Almighty, forming him out of the Dust of the Earth; and se|condly, condescending to breath into his Nostrls the Breath of Life, which implies that there was more care and (if we may so tem it) labour used about Man, than about all other Creatur on cated things, he only partaking and participating with Page  31 the Divine Nature, being made in his like|ness, bearing the Image of God, that is, in Innocence and Purity, whilst he stood firm, but in his Fall, that lively Image was defa|ced; yet such was the Infinite love of God towards him, that altho' he Rebelled a|gainst him, he would not altogether cast him off, but found a way to restore him. Nay, so much in esteem was he thought, not deserving the least favour, that the Son of God, the second Person in the Glorious Trinity; when the fulness of Time was come, laying aside his Crown of Stars, left the Right hand of Glory, Majesty, and the bright effulgence that adorned him, and descending, took upon him our Nature. O infinite and unspeak|able Love! Nay more, endured Shame, Reproach, Scourging, Buffetting, Spting on, and the Death of the Cross, that he might bruise the Head of the Serpnt, and deliver the beloved Man from the Jaws and Brink of utte Ruin. And the better to conirm his love towards us is ascended on high, leading Captivity Captive, where he is so far from forgetting us, that he is become our Mediato, and makes daily Intercession for us to the Father, whose of|fendd Jstice he has satied as to the O|riginal Sin. But to come nearer to my pur|pose.

Page  22If Man would understand the Ex|cellency of the Soul, for as it is capa|ble of comprehending it self, let him (after serious Recollection, descend into himself and search diligently his own Mind, and there he shall find so many admirable Gifts and excellent Ornaments, that it must needs strike him with Wonder and A|maz, ment, as Reason, Vnderstanding, true Choice, Ability of Wit, Memory, and divers other Faculties, that absolutely ap|prove the Soul to be more admirable, than that any should imagine it be finite, or subject to Annihilation, yet by Reason of its many Offices and Operations, whilst in the Body it is specified under sundry deno|minations. For (as S. Augustine saith) when it enlivens the Body it is called the Soul, when it gives it Knowledge, the Judgment; the Mind, when it recalls things past, the Memory; whilst it discourseth and discer|neth, Reason; whilst it contemplates, the Spirits; whilst it is in the sensitive Parts, the Senses; and as these are the principal Offices whereby the Soul declares its Pow|er, and performs it Actions; for placed in the highest Part of the Body, and the nearest Heaven, it difuseth or disperseth effectual|ly its Force into every Member, not propa|gated from the Parents, nor mixed with gross Matter, but the infused Breath of Page  33 the Almighty, immediatly proceeding from him, nor passing from one to ano|ther, as fondly and absurdly the Pythagoreans have insinuated in their Opinions about the Transmigration of the Soul; and so vain were they that they did not only imagine the Souls of the deceased Men passed into new-born Infants, but into Beasts also; and from thence it was they forbid the eating of Flesh, and abstained themselves from so doing, lest, as they fondly fansied, they might (as Tertullian records it) eat their Grandfather in a Calf. But such frivolous and superstitious Notions are to be rejected by Christians, and those true ones obser|ved, which are both reasonable and agree|able to humane Capacities: For Orthodox Divines conclude in general, that the Soul is given to any Infant by Infusion, when he or she is perfected in the Womb, which happens about the 45th Day after Concep|tion, especially for Males that in likelyhood will be born at the end of Nine Months, but in Femals, who are of a weaker Con|stitution, and not so soon formed and be perfected thro' the defect of Heat) not till the 50th Day.

And altho this Day in all cases cannot be perfectly set down, yet Hypocrates has un|dertaken to give his absolute Opinion, when the Child has its perfect form, whom Page  34 it begins to move, and when born, if in due Season; for in his Book of the Nature of Infants, he affirmeth, That if it be a Male, and he be perfect on the thirtieth day, and move at the sixtieth, he will come forth at the Seventh Month; but if he be per|fectly formed on the 35th day, he will move on the 70th, and be born in the 8th Month. Again, if he be perfectly formed on the 45th day he will move on the 90th day, and be born in the Ninth Month. Now from these passing of Days and Months, it plain|ly appears that the day of Forming being doubled makes up the day of moving; and that day three times reckoned makes up the day of Birth.

As for Example, where 35 perfect the Form, if you double it, it makes 70; the day of Motion, and three times 70 amounts to 210 Days or 7 Months, allowing 30 Days to one Month, and so you must con|sider the rest: But as for the Female, it is longer perfecting in the Womb, and the Mother ever goes longer with a Boy than a Girl, so that there is difference in the Ac|compt; for a Female formed in 30 Days moves not till the 70 day, and is born in the 7 Month; when she is formed in the 40 day she moves not till the 80 day, and is born in the 8 Month; but if she be perfectly formed on the 45 Day, she moves on the 90, and Page  35 is born in the 9th month; but she that is for|med on the 50th day moves on the 100th day, then will she be born in the 10th month. And thus I have more largely demonstrated it to the Reader, that he may know the reasona|ble Soul is not propagated by the Parents, but is infused by God, when the Child hath its perfect Form, and is exactly di|stinguished in its Lineaments.

Now as the Life of every other Creature, as it is testified in the 17th Chap. of Leviti|cus, is in the Blood, so the life of Man con|sisteth in the Soul; the which although subject to Passion, by Reason of the gross Composure of the Body, in which it has a temporary Confinement, yet it is immor|tal, and cannot in it self corrupt, or suffer change, it being a spa of the Divine mind, and a bla of Almighty Breath, that di|stinguishes Man from other Creatures, and renders him Immoal; and that every Man has a peculiar Soul, it plainly appears by the vast difference between the Wit, Judg|ment, Opinion, Manners, Affections, &c. in Men. And this David observes, when he says, God hath in particular faoned the Hearts and Minds of all Men, and has given to every one its own being, and a Soul of its own Nature. Hence Solomon rejoyced that God had given him a happy Soul, and Bo|dy agreeable and suitable to it.

Page  36It has caused many Disputes amongst the Learned, especially Philosophers, in what part of the Body the Soul chuses to reside; and some have given their Opinion that its Residence is in the middle of the Heart, and from thence communicates its self to every Part; which Solomon in the Fourth of his Proverbs seems to assert, when he says, Keep thy Heart with all thy Diligence, because Life proceedeth therefrom: but many curious Physicians searching the Works of Nature in Man's Anatomy, &c. do give their Opinion, That its chief Seat is in the Brain, from whence proceed the Senses, Faculties and Actions, dif|fusing the Operation of the Soul through all Parts of the Body, whereby it is enli|vened with Heat and Force; but it doth communicate particular Force to the Heart by Arteries, Carotides, or sleepy Arteries, that part upon the Throat; the which, if they happen to be broke or cut, cause Barrenness, and if stopped, an Apoplexy; for there must necessarily be some Ways, thro' which the Spirits Animal and Vital may have intercourse and convey Native Heat from the Soul. For although the Soul is said to reside in one place, it ope|rates in every part, exercising every Member, which are the Souls Instruments by which she manifesteth her Power; but Page  37 if it so happen, that any of the Original Parts are out of Tune, the Work is confu|sed; as it may appear in case of Idiots, Mad|men, &c. Though in some of them the Soul by forcibly working recovers her super|natural Vigour, and they become right af|ter a long Despondency of Mind, and in some it is lost in this Life; For as Fire un|der Ashes, or the Sun obscured from our sight by thick Clouds, afford not their full Lustre, so the Soul overwhelmed in moist or faulty Matter. is darkned, and Reason thereby overclouded; and altho' Reason shines less in Children than in those that are arrived to maturity, yet no man must ima|gine that the Soul is an Infant and grows up with the Child; for then would it again decay; but it suits it self to the Weakness of Nature, and the Imbecility of Body wherein it is placed, that it may the bet|ter operate. And as the Body is more and more capable of receiving its Influence, so it shews it self in its proper Lustre, having force and endowments at the time it enters the former Child in the Womb, for the substance of it can receive nothing less: and thus much to prove that the Soul comes not from the Parents, but is infused by God. And the next thing now to be handled is its Immortality, and thereby I shall demon|strate the certainty of its Resurrection.

Page  38That the Soul of Man is a Divine Ray, infud by God, I have already made appa|rent, and now come to shew you that what|ever immediately proceeds from him, must participate of his Nature, and from thence consequently be as immortal as the Origi|nal; for although all other Creatures are indued with Life and Motion, yet want they a reasonable Soul; and from thence 'tis concluded, that Life is in their Blood and that being corruptible, they perish, and after expiring are no more. But Man being indued with a reasonable Soul, and stamped with the Divine Image, is of a dif|ferent Nature; and though his Body be corruptible, yet his Soul cannot perish, but must, when it is expelled its Earthly Taber|nacle, return to God that gave it, either to receive reward or punishment; now that the Body can sin of it self is impossible, because wanting the Soul, it cannot act nor Proceed to any thing, either good or evil, for could it do so, additional Sins might be accumulated, even in the Grave; but 'tis plain, that after Death there is a Cessation; for as death leaves us, so Judgment finds us. And St. John, in the Fifth Chapter of his Gospel, tells us. That the hour shall come, that all that are in the Grave shall hear his Voice, and they that have done well shall com forth to the Resurrection of Life, and they that have Page  39 done evil, to the Resurrection of Condemnation, And Holy Job. in the 14 and 19 Chapter, speaking to the same Purpose, says, For I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the Earth: And though after Skin Worms destroy this Body, et in my Flesh shall I see God, when I shall see or my self, and mine Eyes shall behold, and not ther, though my Reins be consumed within . By this 'tis plainly proved, that the Soul is made of Immortal Essence, incapa|ble of Death, having a place assigned it af|ter its separation from the Body, tll the day of the general Resurrection, not in the rave in a Mansion prepared by the Almighty for its Reception; and that through the mightyworking of him that is able to subdue all things to himself, it shall gain enter the same Body that was laid own, tho' the dust thereof be scattered to four Winds of Heaven; nay, such force vigour shall it have, that it shall (as were) take up the Body; for Job posi|vely says, I shall rise out of the Earth at the day, &c. Which being applicable to future Tense, may be meant two ways, shall, or will arise; plainly foreseeing Resurrection, he claimed it as the Pro|ise of his Creator: Nay, so far were the eathens, by the light of Nature, from ubting the Immortality of the Soul, that Page  40Plato in his Phaedo thus reasons, viz. What consists out of Elements, (says he) is Immortal, and can never die, The Soul is not made of Elements, nor of created matter, but came from God, and therefore it cannot dye, &c, Then may it be without difficulty granted, that the Body which has been a long Compa|nion of the Souls, will once again enjoy it, never more to be separated, for the Body at the Resurrection shall be incorruptible, and so as far from a capacity of perishing any more than the Soul, made so by him that first created it. For St. Paul speaking of the Resurrection, saith, He shall change our vile Bodies and make them like his glorious Body. The Consideration of which make him in another place cry out, O the depth of the Riches, of the Wisdom and Knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his Judgments and his ways past finding out, For who hath known the mind of the Lord, or who hath his Counsellor? For by him, and through and to him, are all things. Nay, the Resur|rection of a Man's Body may be proved by the renewing of many inconsiderable Crea|tures, and their returning to Life after they seem dead; nay some of them thereby also changed; as who hath not observed that when a Grashopper is grown old, and hath cast his Skin, a lively new shrill Insect will come forth of it? From a dying and Page  41uggish. Caterpiller, comes out a lively ainted Butterfly: From Ants, a winged ly. The Silk-worm having spent her owels in weaving out her web, after ma|y days, seeming dead and motionless, be|omes a Butterfly, proving for increase laying a number of Eggs, and then ex|ires. But above all, the Phaenex, that Learned Lactantius writes of, may put in mind, if not confirm to us the Re|urrection; for after she has lived in the Arabian Fields (as some affirm) about 600 ears, and finding her self wasted with ge and infirmity, she gathers the Sprigs f Cassi, Myrrh, Frankincense, and other romatick Combustables, when labouring ith her wings, she firing them by the eat of the Sun, which in those Countries excessive, she expires upon the Funeral ile, when out of her Ashes springs a orm, and from that Worm another aenez to supply her place: Nay, further we not behold Grain thrown into the round, continue there for a Season, as if st and dead; but when warmth and moi|ure gives it force, it springs up, and bears hundred-fold? Yea, Herbs and plants, hilst Winter with his Icy Arms grasps Earth, seem dead, retiring (as it were) to the Grave, and wait the Resurrection the Spring. But to conclude, as to this Page  42 point, the infinite Love towards Man may con|vince him that he was not made to be anni|hilated since the second Person of the Tri|nity condescended to take his Nature upon him, even He who is the Wisdom of the Father, and of whom the wise Man testi|fies it the 3d of Proverbs, viz. I was with God in the beginning, before any thing made: I was with him from Eternity, when compassed in the Depth by Law; I was when he sustained the Heavens above, and Earth beneath; I was with him, ordering things, and was continually delighted befo him, recreating my self in the Earth; and Delight was with the Sons of Men.

CHAP. V. Of Monsters, and monstrous Births, and the reson thereof, according to the Opinion of sudry Learned Men, with serious Considerati whether Monsters are endued with reasona Souls.

THAT many Monstrous Births ha happened, (contrary to the Course Nature) is evident, not only in this, in former Ages; wherefore I shall ta some Pains, for the Satisfaction of Page  43Reader, to enquire into the cause of such preposterous Forms.

Now a Monstrous Habit, or Shape of Bo|dy, is contracted divers ways, as from Fear, sudden Frights, exstraordinary Passion he Influence of the Stars, the Mother's strange Imaginations, and divers Phantasms which the Mind conceive, deform the Bo|dy, and render the Children of an impro|er Shape, and many times not perfect in either Sex; sometimes the whole course of Nature is changed, either when the Principles of Generation are vitiated, on the Organs unfit; so that the natural Fa|culties, to propogate and form the Child, cannot perform their Office exactly; for as the most ingenious Artist can bring no|thing to perfection, if his Materials be bad, or out of order, so Nature wanting the force of her Faculties▪ or not having fit matter, must of necessity proceed to prepo|sterously in forming the Child. As in the Art of melting Metals it may be observed, if the Matter be Impure, and not well cleansed, the Vessels or Receiver Oblique, and full of Windings, not well joyned, the Corners set awry, and full of Chinks' or Plates; if loosed, or holds ill together, it is apparent, Men cast ill-shaped Figures, So if the Womb, or the Matter be unfit, or ill tempered, 'tis impossible, without an ex|traordinary Page  44 over-ruling Providence; but above all, unseasonable or intemperate Ve|nery, is the cause of so many monstrous Shapes.

So the Low-Countrey Women especially those living near the Sea-side, being rest|less, and troubled in Copulation, bring forth mishapen Embroy's, or rude and de|formed Burthens, not only without moti|on, but some that pant, and are alive, and these most commonly happen in case of Sailors, or Mariners who coming home, rashly Marry, or run upon their Wives without any due regard to their Menstrual Flux, or the Wombs cleansing it self to the Season of the Year, or the Moon, or Sun's Progress through the Coelestial Signs; not are the Women without regard to the Health or Shape of their Posterity, less de|sirous to receive them, after a long separa|tion, which is not only exceeding hurtful to themselves, from thence proceed not monstrous and untimely Births only, but dangerous Diseases often, to those who rashly proceed. The first (say the Antiants) is because the Seed mixing with Menstru|al Blood, contract an unnatural Mass of corrupt Matter, which either turns to Mis|carrage, Abortion, or a Monstrous and Deformed Birth; for by that means the Fa|culty of the Womb (say they) loseth its Page  45 force to Generation, and success of Breed|ing the Child, or if it try to come to any thing. it is at most some monstrous Form, not shaped like a man, unless in some parts which, after a long continuance in the Womb, will come forth with great pain and labour, not like to this: There is an Efflux that greatly trobles such, as by their inconsiderate rashness are subject to it.

Our Women, because Conception begins in the forth Moon, when the Menses flow down by force, and that Planet in Conjun|ction, call it a Moon-birth, or many kinds. And some are of Opinion that this Copu|lation may be made without the help of a Man, by force of Imagination, in those that are extreamly Lascivious; for that by often feeling, and touching their Husbands, at the same time strongly fancying them|selves in the Act, their Seed flows to the Blood, and is by the Heat of the Womb formed into a foul Mass, but arrives at no perfection. And to the same purpose is it when Men strive against the Stream; en|tring into Copulation in the forth and si|lent Moon, and in the forth day of its Conjunction; for then not observing Na|ture's Rules, he either loseth his labour, or Generates a monstrous Birth, or if it chance, which is almost next to a miracle to be perfect, it is by the Latins called a Page  46 Birth of the Fourth Moon, because the Pro|duct is commonly unhappy in all the Series of its Life, having had its entrance by Ge|neration, contrary to Nature's Orders▪ which Moses considering, or being so com|manded by God, strictly commanded the Hebrew Men not to touch a Woman that was unclean of her Blood; and those that have been so rashly profligate of either Sex have many times by sad Experience found their wilful Folly too late, but especially the Female Sex; for by the violent Con|cussion and Motion us'd in Copulation and evil Mixture, the Contagion by Degrees will seize upon the whole Body, causing the Pox and Leprosie: The like Effects i has upon Men if the Woman be infected▪ especially if he deal with Whores at such times, who commonly are infected, and may be accounted so many walking-Con|tagions, or Emissaries of the Prince o Darkness, for the Destruction of Mankind and at this Day the greatest Pest and Grie|vance of the Nation.

These things rightly considered, no Ma need wonder at so many mis-shapen Births and monstrous People, with Scald-Heads bowed and distorted Legs. Arms and Backs wry Necks, crumpled Feet, incident to Swel|lings in the Groin, Buboes and Emeroids as also that their minds are dull, stupid, for|getful, Page  47 foolish, mad and unreasonable, which attended the effects of unseasonable and un|reasonable Venery, which every Creature but Man observes in the Season Nature has allot|ted; and when their Female have conceived, they desire no longer, but rest satisfied.

Therefore let Man, who is endued with a rational Soul, and ought above all other Creatures to have Dominion over his Ap|petite and Affection, consider how cruel he is to his Posterity, that brings such mischief upon them, and chiefly they are here to be understood, that are conceived in the fourth Moon, when the Woman's natural Flux is upon her; therefore all Men ought to re|strain, neither should the Woman dare to copulate with Man, as better knowing when that is upon her than some rash inconside|rate and unexperienced Novices of the Masculine Gender do; for the Children then conceived, want all, or most of those Gifts and Properties, that Children begot|ten at seasonable times are endued withal, being capable of nothing that is good nor great; and if it so happen they do any thing well, they have ill success in their Under|takings, by Reason their natural Faculties are short, not by their own, but their Pa|rents Fault, who undecently in Procreation violate Nature's Law, whence it is that many things are wanting to them, or else Page  48 give them sparingly, and with some ill qualities that others obtain bountifully, and then suffer no less loss in their mind, for they want almost their common Senses and are extream dull, without the sharp|ness of wit, quickness of Invention, Coun|cil and Prudence, that others have Lavi|ius Leminus, a famous Physitian, tells of a monstrous Birth from his own knowledge, the Relation of which I take in his words, as I find them in his Book of Generation: In former Years (says he) there was a Woman, an Islander, who had Married a Mariner, that took Physick of me; and after Copulation, having Conceived by him, her Bel|ly began to Swell to such a vast magnitude, that one would have thought it could not have held to support the Burthen, When nine Months were expired, the Midwife was called; and first with great trouble she was delivered of a rude lump, which I conceive was a Superfatation, after a lawful Concep|tion; there was fastned unto it on both sides two Handles like two Arm;, for the length and the fashon of them; it panted and seemed to be alive as sea Fishes, called Va|tica; and by the Dutch, Elschowe, which float in the Sea in Summer, in infinite num|bers; and being taken out, they run abroad and when you handle them, melt with a burning and prickling, left behind them; Page  49 whence they had their Name, after this a Monster came forth of her Womb, with a crooked Back, long round Neck, and fiery Eyes, and a pointed Tail, being very nimble-footed; for as soon as it came forth it gave the affrighted Midwife the slip, and run up and down the Room to seek a hi|ding place, till at last, one Woman more couragious than the rest, fell upon it with a Cushion and smothered it: This Monster had sucked the Blood from the Child, which came forth after it, being a Male, and so eaten the Flesh, that it scarcely lived to be Christned; nor could the Woman be in a long time restored to her Strength: And farther adds, that upon his Enquiry, she told him, that it had proceeded (as she thought) from unreasonable, and extraor|dinary and insatiate Venery: Hereupon (says he) I prescribed her a wholsom Course of Life, and Medicines to restore her Forces; for she was become wonderful Lean.

These and many such like things should teach all Men and Women to use Decency, and orderly Proceedings, in their mutual Embracings, lest Nature wronged thereby, monstrous Births ensue, in which Respect some lascivious People are much to be con|demned, who suppose they may do what they list▪ and will by no means have their Pleasure bounded; and above all, Pocket Page  50 and Gouty People are most lascivious; th one thro' the Heat contracted in the Blood, and the other through the polite Windi|ness passes through the Veins, and afflicts the Nerves; Others again observe not whe|ther their Stomach be full or empty, or the Meat be raw or digested, whether it be by Day or Night; nay, never regard the season or opportunity of Time, but as their Lusts and Desires prompts them; but such insatiable Lechers are, or at least seem to be, wilfully ignorant to what end they were created Male and Female which was to beget Children and propa|gate their Kind; not for obscene Purposes▪ and beastly pleasures; but at last they pay for their unruly Lust, when the Disorder of Body, as Aches, Gout, and many Dis|eases contracted thereby, Rack and Tor|ment them.

The last thing in this Chapter to be con|sidered is, whether monstrous Births have Reasonable Souls, and whether such shall appear at the Day of Resurrection; in dis|cussing of which, I shall cite the Opinions of such learned Divines and Physitians as have made curious search, and diligently weigh|ed these great Mysteries. And first, it is their Opinion, not jointly, but severall, that all those that are like Men, according to the rder of Generation, deduced from our Page  51 primitive Parents, proceeded by natural means from either Sex, though they are deformed, and of monstrous shape, having notwithstanding a Reasonable Soul shall, when they have run the Date of Mortality, be capable of Resurrection to Immortality: but those that proceed not from Man, but by the Woman's unnaturally mixing with other Creatures, shall not participate of Immortality, but perish as brute Beasts, because such a monstrous Birth is not ca|pacitated to receive a divine Part or Soul, which should entail him to the Resurre|ction.

There are indeed amongst the number of Men and Women, that tread the Ter|restial Globe, divers that are monstrously deformed, and of horrid Aspect, with di|storted Jaws, and Goggle-Eyes, and many other marks of Deformity; but these tho' by their Parents rashness in indecent or un|seasonable Copulation or the Defect of Na|ture being thus disordered, yet are they referred to the number of Men and Wo|men, because they speak, understand and act, which demonstrate them to have rea|sonable Souls; and therefore shall they stand upon the Earth at the last Day, and at the Resurruction all Deformity shall be done away, and they shall appear in per|fect Shape, and the Organical Parts ren|der Page  52 the Soul, that shall then return a free scope to act and operate; but imperfect and abortve Births, or Mis|chances, where the Limbs are not fashon|ed or very imperfect, want a reasonable Soule, it not being as yet infused by the Almighty, shall have no part in the Resu|rection.

Many Phisicians there are and indeed most of them make diffrence betwen a Mischance and Abortion: The former of which (say they) is when there is a Con|ception, but through the slipperiness, or weakness of the womb, it drops out e'er any shape is contracted, being only a Rude unframed Mass, properly called Rudiments of a Child, that should have been, and a shadow of what was begun; but Abor|tion oft times shews the parts of the Infant perfectly composed, which if it be cast forth by fright or untimely force, and has not accomplished the day to receive the Soul, then it shall not participate of Im|mortality; but if it be quick and cast out, though it live not an our after, it is first enlivened, then it has received an Imortal Soul, for although many things are wanting in it, and it come not to its full Magnitude, yet in the Resurrection, all shall be made up, that time would have produ|ced. And as Children have many things, Page  53 inpossibility, that with times progress, shews themselves as Teeth, Nails, Hair, and full|stature of Body, which increases by de|grees, and come to perfections; so in the Resurection, all things that are defective, shall be made perfect. Whosoever there|fore is both of the seed of Man, and not of some foul Matter, or vitious Humour con|curring though his shape be monstrous, yet, as I said, he shall rise again from Death to Life, all defects being repared by the Divine Powers, that then will manifest it self no less then in Creation; nay more, for St. Austin is of the Opinion, it is ea|sier to Create Men, then to Raise them when they are Dead, &c. Though the Earthly Matter, where-ever scattered, is not perished in sight of God, who can with his Word recal it from the Four Winds of Heaven, and restore it to its pristin Vigour, nay though vanished into Air, and other Elemnets, or what Leanness or Hunger have consumed, or Diseases have wasted, or what is burnt to Ashes, or is passed in the first Principles, or in the sub|stance of some other Body, for the Flesh shall be restored to whome it was taken, as his due that was borrowed from him, by he mighty working of him, who is able o subdue all things to himself: Those hat are Men shall find this to be true, and Page  54 those monstrous Shapes that proceed from them, indued with rational Souls, and par|ticipating the same Nature with them shall participate the same Benefit of the Re|surrection.

CHAP. VI. A more peculiar and exact Treatise of this hap|py Estate of Matrimony, as 'tis appointed by▪ and the true Felicity that redounds thereby either Sex, and to what end it was ordained.

CErtainly the joyning of Hearts in a ma|trimonial State is of all Conditions the happiest; for then a Man has whom to un|ravel his Thoughts to, as well as a sweet Companion in his Labour; he has an |ternus Sensus, another Self, one in whose Breast, as in a safe Cabinet, is reposed his inmost Secrets, especially where reciprocal Love and inviolate Faith is centred; for there no Cares, Fears, Jealousies, Mistrust o Hatred can ever interpose; for what Man, as 'tis observed in Holy Writ, ever hated his own Flesh, and indeed a Wife is no less, rightly considered; for our grand Paren well observed, she is, or ought to be so e|steemd of every honest Man, Bone of hi Bone, and Flesh of his Flesh, &c. Nor waPage  55 it the least care of the Almighty, to or|dain so near a Union, and especially for two Causes; the first for Increase of Posterity, the second to bridle and bound Man's wan|dering Desires and Affections; nay, that they might be yet happier, when God had joyn'd them together, he blessed them, as 'tis in the 2d of Genesis. Colamela, no mean Au|thor, considering and contemplating on this happy State, tells us out of the Oeconomy of Xenophon, That Matrimonial Conjunction appointed by Nature is not only the most pleasant, but profitable course of Life that may be entred on for the Preservation and Increase of Posterity; wherefore, since the Harbour of Marriage is most safe, sure and delightful Station of Mankind, who is ex|ceeding prone, by the dictates of Nature, to propagate his Like, he does in no wise provide amiss for his own Tranquility, who enters it, especially when he comes to Ma|turity of Years; for there are many Abuses and Errors in Marriage, contrary to what is ordained; the which in the ensuing chap|ter I shall expose to View; But to proceed,

Seeing our blessed Saviour and his Apostles dete|sted obscene and unlawful Lusts, and pronoun|ced those to be excluded the Kingdom of Hea|ven, that polluted themselves with Adultery and Whoring, I cannot conceive any objection be made Page  56 hereto, or what Face such lewd Persons can have to colour their Impieties; who ha|ting Matrimony, make it their Study how they may live freely and licentiously without Marriage; but certainly, in so doing, they rather seek to themselves Torment, Anxiety, and Disquietude, than certain Pleasure be|sides the Hazard of their Immortal Souls; for certain it is, that Mercenary Love, or as the Wise Man calls them, Harlots Smiles, cannot he true and sincere; and therefore not pleasant, but rather a Net laid to be|tray such as thrust them, into all Mischief, as Solomon observes by the young Man, who turned aside to an Harlot's House, going, said he, as a Bird to the Snare of the Fow|ler, or as an Ox to the Slaughter, till a Dart is struck through the Liver. Nor in this Case can they have Children, those sweet and endearing Pledges of Conjugal Love, or if they have, they will rather redound to their Shame than Comfort; Harlots likewise are like Swallows, Singing and Chattering to their Morning Walk, and Summer Season of Prosperity, but the black stormy Winter of Adversity coming, they take Wing, and pass into other Regions to expand themselves before a warmer Sun; but a vertuous, chast Wife, fixing intire Love upon her Husband, and sub|mitting to him as her Head, and him by whose Direction she ought to steer in all lawful Courses, Page  47 will like a faithful Companeon, share paitient|ly with him in both Adversities, run with cheerfulness through all Difficulties and Dan|gers, though never so hazardous, to preserve or assist him in Poverty, Sickness, or whatever else is incide to Human Frailty, acting ac|ording to her Duty in all things, when a roud imperious Harlot, will do no more hen she list, even in the prosprous Day, nd is lik a Horse-leach, ever craving, and ever satis fied, still seeming displeased if she ave not every thing she desires not regard|ng the Ruin and Misery of him, she with flatter|ng and feigning Charms pretends to admire, and upon him, using to confirm her Hypocrisie, with Crocodile's Tears, Vows and Swoonings, when her Gallant is to depart for a while, seems, to deny her imodrate Desire; but his lasts no longer then she can gratifie her Appetite, and prey upon his Fortunes. Conradus Gesner tells us a Story, That young Man travelling from Athens to hebes, met by the way a Beautiful Lady, to his Appearance she seemed adorned with all Perfections of Beauty, glittering with Gold and Precious Stones, who salu|ed him, and invited him to her House in an djacent Vilage, pretending to be exceedingly namour'd of him, & declar,d she had a long ime watch'd the opportunity to find him a|one, that she might declare the extream Passion Page  58 she conceived for him. When he came to her House he found it, to appearance, very sump|tuously built, and gloriously furnish'd with whate'er could seem costly and gay, which so far wrought upon his Covetous Inclination, that he resolv'd to put off his intended Journey, and comply with her desire; but whilst she was leading him to see the pleasant Places, came by Holy Pilgrim; who peceiving in what danger the Youth was, resolved to see him in his righ Senses, and shew him what he imagined real▪ was quite otherwise; so that by powerful Prayer the Mist was taken from before the Youth's Eyes, whenas he beheld his Lady ugly, deformed and monstrous, and tha whate'er had appear'd gloreous and beautiful was only Trash. Then he made her confeswhat she was, and her design upon the Young Man, which she did, saying, She was a La|miae or Fury, and that she had enchanted hi on purpose to get him unto her Power, that sh might devour him▪ This Passage may fitly alluded to Harlots, who draw thos that follow their mis-guided Lights, int Places of Danger and Difficulty, even til they have shipwracked their Fortunes and leave them to struggle with the tempestuous Waves of Adversity. But on th contrary, a loving, Chast, and even-tempered Wife seeks what she may to peve such danger, striving on the one hand to preserve Page  59 it asmuch as the other does to destroy it: And in a word, as there is no content in the Embraces of a Harlot, so there is no Joy greater than in reciprocal Love, and the indearing Embraces of a Loving, Obe|dient, and Chast Wife; nor is that the prin|cipal end for which Matrimony was ordai|ned; but further, that Man might lawfully procreate his like, and increase his Gene|ration, to replenish the Earth. To con|clude, a Virtuous Wife is a Crown and Ornament to her Husband, and her Price is above Rubies; but the Ways of an Har|lot are deceitful.

CHAP. VII. Of Errors in Marriage, and what they too fre|quently are, and the Prejudice that arises thereby.

IF any be desirous to enter into the Holy State of Matrimony, let them observe their Ability and Constitution of Body, and not run themselves rashly upon Inconveni|encies; for those who marry too young may rightly be termed to marry unseason|ably; not considering their Inability; nor examining the Force of Nature; as divers there are, before they are ripe for the con|summation Page  60 of so weighty a matter, who either rashly of their own accords, (by the instigation of Bawds. Procures, or Mar|riage-brokers, or forced thereto by their Parents, who covet a larg Dowrey) take upon them this Yoke, to their great Preju|dice: Lavinus Lemnius says, That he has known some of them who before the expi|ration of a year, have been thereby so in|feebled and weakned, that all their vital Moisture was exausted; so that he was upon their applying themselves to him, ob|liged with Medicaments to restore their Strength that was fallen, and sunk down wherefore his advice is, That it is no way convenient to suffer Children, or such as are not of Age to mary, or get Children: But whosoever proposes to marry, must chieft observe this, that he choose one to his Companion and Partner in his Felicity, that is of an honest Stock and proceeding from temperate Parents. though her Dow|ry be not so large as he could wish; that he observe the Conversation, and find there|in that she is chaste, well bred, and of good manners. For a woman, (as the Comedi|an saith) if she hath good Conditions▪ she has Portion enough. That of Alcamena in Plau|tus is a witty saying; which all Maids and others of the Female Sex, should retain shew in remembrance: I do not think Page  61 (saith she) that to be my Dowry, which is called so: But Chastity, Modesty, and a setled desire to fear God, to love my Pa|rents; and agree with my Kindred; to obey my Husband, to be bountiful, and to do good to such as are Virtuous and Ho|nest. Now, if she proved as good as she promised, such a Wife was to be valued above the Price of Rubies.

'Tis Duty incombent upon Parents, to be careful in bringing up their Children in the way of Virtue, and have ever a re|gard that they fully not their Honour and Reputation, especially the Females, and most of all Virgins, when they grow up to be marriageble; for if through the unnatu|ral severity of rigid Parents they be crossed and frustrated in their love, many of them, out of a mad humour, if temptations lie in their way, throw themselves into the un|chaste Arms of a subtle charming Temp|ter; being through ahe softness of good Nature, and strong Desire, to pursue their Appetites, easily induced to believe Men's Flatteries, and feigned Vows of promised Marriage, to cover the shame; and then too late the Parents find the effects of their rash Severity, which brought a lasting stain upon their Family. Now, as 'tis an Error in marrying too young, so it is unequality of Mariage between Age and Youth, as a Page  62 young Man, who to make his Fortune, marries to a Woman, that for Age might be his Grand-mother, between whom, for the most part Jealousies and Discontents happen; nor is it possible such Women should have Children, be the Man never so sprightly and young, The like may be said, though with a little more excuse, when an old doting Fellow marries a young Virgin, in the Summer Season of her youth and Vigour, who whilst he strives and vain|ly strains to please her, is the sooner wed|ded to the Grave. For, as in Child-hood, or green Youth, 'tis unfit and unreasonable to think of Marriage, so in old Age to mar|ry unequal, is altogether the same; for they that enter upon it too soon, are soon exhausted, and fall into Consumption, and divers other Diseases; and those that Pro|crastinate and marry unseemly, fall into the like ill conveniences on the other side, having only the Honour to be dubbed a Knight of the Forked Order, and have their Names inrolled in the Collony of Cuckoldom; especially if their Wives have not been trained up in the Paths of Virtue, and lie to much open to Importunity and Temptation of lewd and debanched Men▪ And thus much for Errors or Over-sights in rash, and unseasonable preposterous Mar|riages.

Page  93

CHAP. VIII. The Opinions of the Learned concerning Children conceived and born within the space of Seven Months, with lively Ar|guments upon the Subject▪ to prevent Suspitions of Incontinency, and the bit|ter Contests that thereon too often arise between Man and Wife: To which is added Rules for knowing the Dispo|sition of Man's Body by the General Parts.

CErtain it is, that many bitter Quarels have arisen through Misunderstanding, when solid Reason would have rectified the Judg+ment, and have prevented the Conception of such an Evil; and from whence does this arise, but through Suspicion and Jealousie, when indeed it is many times founded upon a slender Founda|tion, as the new Married Woman's being brought to Bed before the Expiration of Nine Months, which is Vulgarly taken from the time of Con|ception to the Birth: To remove which ground|less Suspicion, I shall endeavour, not that i 'tis common dare I avouch, but that 'tis possible, and has been frequently known, that Children have been born at Seven Months; but the matter being wholy left the Lawyers, who de|cide Page  62 [ gap: 1 page〈1 page duplicate〉 ] Page  93 [ gap: 1 page〈1 page duplicate〉 ] Page  64 Controversies to the Phisicians to Judge of, it is in their power to determine, by inspect|ing the Child, whether it is a Child of seven, eight, nine, or ten Months. Paul the Councellor has this Passage in his ninettenth Book of Pleadings, viz. It is now a received Truth, that a perfect Child may be born in the seventh Month, by the Authority of the learned Hypocrates. And therefore we must believe, that a Child born at the end of the seventh Month, in lawfull Matrimony, may be lawfully begotten. Galen, in Chap. 6. of his third Book, handleth this Argument but rather according to Mens Opinion, then accord|ing to the truth of the business, or from na|tural Reasons, who supposeth there is no cer|tain time set for bearing Cheldren. And from the Authority of Pliny. who makes mention of a Woman that went thirteen Months with Child: But as to what concerns the seventh Month, saith Lemnus, I know many married people in Holland that had Twins, who lived extream old Age, their Bodies lusty, and their Minds apt and lively; wherefore their Opinion is foolish, and of no moment, who asserts, That at Seven Months a Child cannot be perfect and long lived, and that he cannot in all parts be perfect till the ninth Month: and thereupon this learned Author proceeds to tell a passage from his own know|ledge, as follows: Of late, saith he, there Page  65 happened a great Disturbance amongst us, which ended not without Blood-shed; and was occasioned by a Virgin whose Chastity had been violated, descending of Noble Family, and ever before that time held to be of unspotted Fame: Now seve|al there were who charged the Matter up|on a Person of Note, viz. a Judge, Presi|dent of a City in Flanders, who strongly denied the Fact, saying, that he was ready o swear it upon the Holy Evangelist, that he never had carnal Copulation with her, nd that he would by no means therefore e taken for the Father of the Child that was not his: and further alledged, that he erily believed that it was a Child born in even Months, and that himself was many miles distant from the Mother of it when t was conceived; whereupon the Judges efore whom the Hearing was decreed. That the Child should be viewed by the ble Physicians, as also experienced Women, nd that they should make their Report, who having made diligent Inquiry, all of hem with one accord concluded the Child without respecting who was the Father) was a Child born within the Space of se|en Months, that it was carried in the Mo|ther's Womb but Twenty seven Weeks and ome odd Days, but if she could have car|ried Page  66 it to 9 Months, the Childs Parts and Limbs would have been more firm and strong, and the structure of the Body mor compact and fast, for the Skin was exceeding loose, and the Breast-bone that defends the Heart, and the Sword-like Gristle that lies over the Stomach, were hige than naturally they should be not plain bu crooked and sharp-ridged, or pointed lik those of young Chickens that are hatche in the beginning of the Spring. And ben a Female Infant, it wanted its Nails upo her Fingers, and the utmost Joints of he Fingers, upon which from the musculou or cartilaginous matter of the Skin, Nai that are very smooth do come, and by degrees harden, she had instead of Nails, thin Skin or Film; as for her Toes, the was not the least Appearance of Nails bout them, by reason that they wanted Heat that was communicated to the Figers from the nearness of the Heart. The and the like weighty Matters being considred, and above all, one Gentlewoman Quality that assisted, affirmeth, that had been the Mother of 19 Children, an that divers of them had been born an lived at 7 Months; they without favour any made their Report, that the Infant a Child of 7 months annd so must be acounted, tho' it was born within the venth Page  67 Month, for that in such Cases the re|volution or circuit of the Mood ought to be observed, which perfects it self in 4 bare Weeks, or somewhat less than 28 Days, in which space of her Revolution the Blood being agitated by the Moons Force, the Courses of the Woman flow from them, which being spent, and the Matrix clean|sed from the menstrual Blood which hap|pens on the 5th Day; then if on the 7th Day a Man lie with his Wife, the Copula|tion is most natural, and the Conception best, and a Child then gotten may be born in the 7th Month and prove very healthful, so that upon this report, the supposed Fa|ther was pronounced innocent, upon proof that he was 100 miles distance all that Month in which the Child was begot: And as for the Mother, she strongly denied that she knew the Father, being forced in the Dark, and that through Fear and Sur|prize was left in Ignorance.

As for Coition, it ought not be had, un|less the Parties be in health, lest it turn to the disadvantage of the Children so begotten, creating in them through the abundant ill Humours, divers lingring and languishing Diseases; wherefore Health is no where bet|ter to be discerned than by the Genitals of the Man, wherefore Midwives and other skilful Women in former days were wont Page  68 to see the Testicles of Children, thereby to conjecture or guess at their temper or state of Body, and young men may know there|by the Signs or Symptoms of Life and Death; for if the Cases of the Testicles be loose and feeble, and the Gods fall down, it denotes the natural Faculties, and the vital Spirits, which are the proper Props of Life, are fallen: But if the secret Part be wrinkled and raised up, it is a Sign all will be well: But that the Event may exactly answer the Prediction, it is necessa|ry to consider what Part of the Body the Disease possesseth; for if it chance to be the upper Part that is afflicted, as the Head or Stomach, then will it not so well ap|pear by the Members, which frequently are unconcerned with such Grievances; but the lower part of the Body exactly sym|pathizing with them, their Liveliness on the contrary, makes it apparent: for Na|ture's Force, and the Spirits that have their Intercourse, first manifest themselves there|in, which occasions Midwives to feel the Genitals of Children, to know in what Part the Grief is resident, and whether Life or Death be portended thereby, the Symptoms being strongly communicated by the Vessels that have their intercourse with the principal Seat of Life.

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CHAP. IX. The cause of the Green-Sickness in Virgins, with its Symptoms, and Directions for its Cure: Together with the chiefest Occasion of Barrenness in Women, and by what means to remove the Cause, and render them fruit|ful.

THE former of these Inconveniences is too apparent in Virgins, especially such as are of a Flegmatick Complection, evidently shewing it self by discolouring the Face, in making it look Green, Pale, or of a dusky Yellow, which proceeds from raw undigested Humours, nor only doth it appear to the Eye, but sensibly afflicts such as it possesses, with difficulty of brea|thing, Pains in the Head, Palpitations of the Heart. unusual beatings, and small throb|ings of the Arteries in the Temples, Neck and Back, many times casting them into Fe|vers, if the Humour be very vitious, also loathing of Meat, and the distension of the Hypocondriack Part, by reason of the Inordinate Efflux of the Menstruous Blood to the greater Vessels, and by reason of the a|bundance of Humour, the whole Body is often troubled with swelling, or if not, at least the Thighs, Legs, and Ankles, all Page  70 above the Heels: And also there is a Wea|riness of the whole Body, without any reason at all for it.

The Galenits say, That this Distemper proceeds chiefly from the Obstruction of those Vessels that are about the Womb, occasioned by the abundance of gross vis|cid and crude Humours, arising from the several inward causes; but there are also outward , which have a share in the production of i, as taking cold in the Feet, drinking of Water, Intemperance in Diet, and also the Eating of things wholly contrary to Nature, viz. raw, or burnt Flesh, Ashes; Coals, old Sos, Chalk, Wax, Nut-shells, Mortar, Lime, Oat-meal, To|baeco-pipes, which occasion not only a Suppression of the Menses, but likewise ob|structions through the whole Body, There|fore the first thing necessary to eradicate the Cause, is Matrimonial Conjunction, and such Copulation that may prove to the satisfaction of her that is afflicted; for by that means the Menses will begin to flow according to their natural and due Course, and the Humours being diffus'd and disper|sed, will soon waste themselves, and then no more matter being administred to in|crease them, they will vanish, and a good temperament of Body will return: But in case such a Conjunction cannot be had so Page  71 soon as necessity requires, then let thDamsel blood in the Ankle, and if she be about 16, you may likewise do it in the Arm, though suffer her not to bleed overmuch especially if the Blood be good. If the Dis|ease be of any Continuance, then it is to be eradicated by Purgation: Perpetration of the Humour being first considered, which may be done by the Virgins drinking De|coction of Cuaiacum, with Dittany of Creet. But the best Purge in this Case ought to be made of Aloes, Agarick, , Rhubr. And then for strengthening the Bowels, and opening Obstructions, Chlyheet Medicines are chiefly to be used. The Diet must be moderate, and sharp things, as Vinegar, &c. to be by all means avoided, And for the unobstructing of the Humour, take Prepa|red Steel, Bezoar-Stone, the Root of Scor|zonera, and the Oyl of Chrystal, in small Wine, and let the Diet be moderate, but in no wise let Vinegar be used therewith, nor upon any other Occasion. And in so doing observing, the Humours will be dilated, dis|sipated and transfused, by which Means the Complexion will return, and the Body be lively and full of Vigour. And now since Barenness daily occasions Discontent, and that Discontent creates Difference be|tween Man and Wife, or by immoderate Grief frequently calls the Woman into Page  72 one or other violent Distemper; I shall somewhat largely treat thereof.

Sterility proceeds from divers Causes, but most commonly from some Defect in the Organs of Generation. Upon the Woman's Part it most commonly happens from the strict Closure of the Mouth of the Womb, which will not admit the Seed, and some|times from the straitness of the Share-bone, which denies Entrance to the Penis; some|times also from Ulcers or Exorescences in the Neck of the Womb. To these may be added too much Fatness, which straitens the Passage of the Matrix.

Most of the Antients are of Opinion, that Conception is hindered commonly by the Humidity and Moisture of the Womb, when by reason thereof it cannot retain the Seed, or by bad Humours heaped up there, and corrupting it, or strange Defect of the Menstruous Blood. But certain it is, that it proceeds, either from some Tumour, Ul|cer, Excrescence, or by some faults or o|ther of the Womb, Ovaria,, or Oviducts: For if the Eggs are not impregnated with the Aura virilis, or Seminal Spirits, there can be no Conception, the Testicles of Women having no such Office as those of Men, but containing Eggs analogous to those of Fowl and other Creatures.

Page  73Now, if the Orifice of the Womb be closed that the Seed cannot enter, or ra|ther the Two Wings or Nymphae, so far that the Penis cannot pass the Neck of the Womb, it must be opened with an Instru|ment; and subject to this Defect in Nature are many Women, especially in hot Countries, but most of all in Egypt, where the Chy|rurgeons are forced with Silver Instruments to make way for the Instrument of Genera|tion, a thing not altogether unpracticable in England.

In Case the Neck of the Womb be so strait that the Yard cannot enter, then is the Case to be whter t be Naturally from some Swel|ling or thin or without, and if any , it is or the most part it be a Natural Straitness, Tent dip|ped in Oil of Eggs, and drink sweetned with Sugar-Candy▪ and Evening, and by the Operatin thereof the Womb will in all parts or if it so happen in a Young , Nature will increase the Passage, and produce things fitting to their Satisfactin; but let no Man by Viole endeavour to force the Passage, the Vessels; Nay, endanger it self, which has Page  74 been broke with such violent intrusion, and so cost the Woman her Life.

If the Neck of the Womb be ulcerated, or any Excrescences happen there, which equally hinder Copulation, then may they be known by the Pain and Shooting, upon the least Compressure, and the Issuing forth of Putrid Humour, and sometimes Blood, if the Ulcers be great, and the Menses flow, the Water hot, Pains arising in the Fore|part of the Head, and oftentimes they oc|casion Gentle Feavers,

And all these Obstructins of Generation happen divers ways, sometimes from ex|ternal Causes, viz, Rash Physick, hard La|bours, or excessive Copulation; and some|times from internal, as the Corruption of the Secudine, the Courses too long retained or obstructed Heat, and overflowing of the Vrinal Vessels, Viulent Gonorrheas, Pox, Inflamations turned into Aposthumes▪ Hu|mours flowing from divers parts of the Body and settling there; all which must be duly considered.

Now some are in the outward part, and may be the easier come at, and External Applicaions are most convenient to be ap|plied thereto; but those that cannot be come at, must be cured if possible, by In|jection; the best Injection in this Case is as follows, viz.

Page  75Break Four Eggs, and take the Whites only, the which heat with an equal quan|tity of Rose-Water mingled with Plantain-Water, Litharge of Gold, Camphire, Bole-Amoniack, Ceus, of each a Dram, half a Dram of Green Coperas, all which well Beaten▪ Dissolved, and mixed together, strained through a Fine Cloath, and with a Syring eject it Morning and Evening till the Gref cease; and if it smart that it can|not well be endured, you may sometimes inject warm Milk to cleanse the Putrified Matter.

Others there are that are not so violent, and therefore admit of any easie Cure, not being so deep, known by a Putrid Greenish Matter that flows from them. To Cure this, Take Water wherein Barly has been boiled, Honey of Roses, new Milk and Sugar, with the Decoction of Lentils and after that gentle Astringents must be ap|plied; some again are sordid, having much contagious Humour flowing from them; to cure which, stronger Medica|ments must be applied: Others there are that eat into the Flesh, having a green con|tagion flowing from them, to cleanse which, Aloes and Wormwood concocted in White-wine are most requisite.

Page  67Another sort of Ulcers there are which ap|pear long eating away the Skin from off the Neck of the Womb, and are discerned by the Blood and Pain they occasion im|mediately upon the Concression appearing in the neck of the Womb, much like Chil|blains, occasioned by ill Lying, extraordi|nary Venery, by violent Inflammation or Flux of sharp Humours: The best Cure, af|ter a gentle Purge, is an Astringent Cly|ster, and after that to anoint them with the Grease that fryes out of a Ladle often used in a Kitchen, when it is held to the Fire, mixed with Vnguentum Album, or Pomatum. If the Defect be in the Seed, through ten|derness of Age in the Woman, then the best Remedy is, convenient Diet, mode|rate Exercise, and temperate Air, together with the Patience in the Man, till Nature in process of time operates so effectually, that all things appear and conspire to mutual satisfaction.

If the Woman be stricken in Years, and the Time of breeding Children be past, which in some happens sooner, and others later, according to their several Constitutions, but generally be|tween 44 and 45, unless strong Preparatives; viz. an extraordinary Diet, easie Lodging, and a moderate Exercise restore them, those Women must despair of further Generation: Page  77 For as the Learned in this Art frequently ob|serve, Where is neither Buds nor Blossoms can be no Fruit.

If Sterility be occasioned by Obstructi|ons in the Vessels which it often does, then the Cause must be enquired into, and this often happens, the which is known by the small desire to Venery, and that little or no Satisfaction receiv'd thereby, a settling in the Courses, and a slimy Flegmatick mat|ter mixed therewith, as also by their In|ordinate flowing occasion'd by the Plenty of Humours collected in the Womb, which by reason of the abundance of windy Va|pours contracted therein, cause Obstructi|ons, to which may be added a cold Fleg|matick Constitution, and from thence it is▪ that sudden Paleness arises in the Face; to remedy this, the Party must alter her Diet, not eating any Cold, Raw, Flegmatick Substance, but rather such things as are apt to stir up Cholerick Hot Humours in the Body, as Anniseeds, or Carraway-seeds, in her Bread, store of Penny-Royal in her Broth: let her likewise, each Morning for a Week together, make a Posse, in which she must boil the Roots of Birth|wort. Angelica, Sage, Rosemary, Cinnamon, and Borage: The taking the Male Herb Mercury, Dittany, Centaury, Marigolds, Cubebs, Saffron, Mugwort, and Clove-Gilliflowers, Page  78 of each a handful, boil them in White-wine, and eject the Concoction by little and little at sundry times, as the Cold or Obstruction can be perceived, a|nointing the Belly and Reins of the Back, one Day with Oyl of Cinnamon, next with the Oyl of Nutmeg or Mace, and the third with the Oyl of Myrrh and so continuing to do for a together. When the Wo|man lies down. Nature will be wonder|fully restored, and recover such Force as to remove the Obstruction.

Many there are that conceive Barrenness is frequently caused by Inchantation, but those Opinions are altogether frivolous and vain.

If the Womb be defective in its Reten|tive Faculty, Men frequently labour in vain; in such a Case the Women must avoid Sor|row, Anger, or much Sleep, Eating new Cheese, Milk, and raw Food, especially Lettuce, Endive, Spinage, Beets, Nuts, Cherries, Pussane, Onions, Garlick, and the like, they all being hurtful to Genera|tion: Nor must she drink nor use Vinegar, nor eat the Fat of Met too frequently, but the Womb must be cleansed from the over-aundant Moisture, with the Deco|ction of Hats-Tongue, (an herb so call'd) Cummin, Fennel, and Aniseed, and strengthned with the Syrup of Wormwood, Page  79 and for a gentle operative Purge in this Case, take half an Ounce of Laudanum, Bees-wax, Sheeps Suet, and Agarick, of each a like quantity, melt and bruise them, after which make them up into little Pills, and take three in the Morning, and next to them take of this Confection to the Bigness of a Nutmeg, viz. The shavings of Ivory▪ Ash-Keys, yellow and wild Rpe-seed, Silver-Montanus, with red and white Behen, of each One Dram, Cinnamon, Galinga, Long-Pepper, Cloves and Mace, Balsam|wood, Rosemary-Flowers, Blatiae, Beza|ria, Gentle-Marjoram, and Penny-royal, of each 4 Scruples; Balm, Bugloss, Citrons, Reils, of each 2 Scruples, Pearl dissolved, or beaten to Powder, One Scruple, Musk, two Grains, White Sugar, One Pound and an half bruise them and seeth them over a gentle Fire, in as much Malmsey as will make them into a Confection. This Con|fection is indeed of a most singular and ap|proved one in all cases on Barrness, where Cold or Obstructions of the Vessels do occasion Weakness in the Womb.

Other causes of Barrenness there are when the Womb grows ft (as we have said before▪ o that the Caul swelling and bearing beyond its bounds with its Fatness obstructs the Passage into the Womb▪ to prevent which the Woman must not sleep Page  80 over-much, especially in the day-time, nor feed riotously, but exercise her self in walk|ing or moderate Exercises, and often use Purgation and strong Glisters, made of Herbs and Drugs that are hot and dry, which will in a short time remove such Obstructions.

But a more dangerous Cause of Barren|ness than yet I have named, are the Whites, which are contracted by an inordinate E|rudition of an Excrementous Humour, collected through the Vitiousness of the Blood, incident to young and old at such times as they are capable of Generation; and therefore the cure must be hastened by reason that in short time it derides Art, and renders Women inevitably Barren, occasio|ning Leanness, Consumption, Melancholy, Dropsie Falling of the Womb, Swoon|ing, , which renders it Diffi|cult and dangerous in long continuance, though in the beginning it may be easily re|moved, In the Cure of this let Phlebo|tomy or Blood-Letting be avoided, for as much as the bad Humour must be by no means recalled to dense the Blood, the Disease it self being a sufficient Weakning of the Body and vital Spirits. First then, to discuss the Humour in order to its Ex|purgation, Take two ounces, of Guaiacum, the like quantity of China and Leutick|wood, Page  81 boil them in Water and Honey, drinking a Pint fresh made every Morning, Then to dry up the Contraction of the Vessels or Humors that lodged there, take the Root of Filipendula, beat it to Powder, and drink it in White-Wine, Morning and Evening: As also for Astrin|gents, use Bones Burnt, and beat to pow|der, likewise the Ashes of Capons Dung ejected after a long time steeping in fair Water: The Patient must likewise avoid sleeping upon her Back, lest the Humor descend and contract in the Vessels of the Womb, but let her be rubbed often to di|sperse them, that they settle not in any one place.

Sometimes this occasion of Barrenness happens through the violent Attraction of the Womb, and then appears Signs of af|flictions of the Womb, the Flux not being so great, to cure which, Suffumations are the most proper. and those may be made of Frankincense, Laudanum, Santalum, or Mastick: The Woman upon such Occa|sion, having great regard to her self, that she take not cold, or proceed to intemperate Diet.

Many Women there are, whose violent Lusts contracts a heat that either destroys the Eggs, or hinders them from being im|pregnated. In this case, 'tis requisite to a|void Page  82 hot Air, soft Lying, hot Meats, and Spices, and requisite to bleed in the Basi|lick Vein, purge moderately with Decoctum Epithymi and Juice of Roses. each two Drams and a half, Whey half a Pint, mix them together, and drink them fasting in the Morning, and so to continue 4 hours af|ter; or, for want of the former, you may take Trifera Saasenica and Rhubarb, of each half a Dram pulverized and mixed with 2 Ounces of Syrup of Roses, Violets or Endive; but the most excellent Restora|tive to cool and moderate the Temper in this Case, is Diet-drink made as followeth, viz. Take Pistachia-Nuts, and Eringo-Roots, of each half an Ounce, of Saffron a Dram, Lignum-Aloes, Galinga, Carophila|ta, Mace, red and white Behen and Balm-flowers, of each 4 Scruples, Shavings of Ivory, Rhind of Cassia, each 2 Scruples, Syrup of confected Ginger, 12 Ounces, White Sugar 6 Ounces, add to these 12 Ounces of Balm-Water, and set them o|ver a gentle Fire, permitting them to seeth, then take it off, suffer it to cool, and put more Water to it, stirring the Ingredients: lastly, increasing them with a Scruple and a half of Musk and Amber, then strain the liquid Part, and boil t up again into a Conserve, of which let the Woman eat three times a day, but not exceeding the Page  83 bigness of a Walnut at a time, The times most convenient are mornings, noons and Nights, and this let her continue till she inds her Body in Temper.

Another sort of Barrenness proceeds from the Obstruction; of those Vessels hrough which the monthly Purgatione low, in which case open the Basilick Vein, nd take from thence a moderate quantity f Blood, after which take Hiera compositand Opponax, of each half a Dram, and Dram of Syrup of Gilliflowers, make hem into 7 Pills, take them in the mor|ing, and sleep upon them a considerable ime, then drink off half a pint of sugared Water, and 3 hours after, a proportion of Syrup of Vinegar compounded; For want of this, take Syrup of Eupatory, 3 quar|ers of an ounce, Female Mugwort, and Elecampane-Root, of each an ounce with Syrup of Vinegar a proportionable quan|tiy, mix them together, and take them when made into an Electuary, morning and Evening, to the Quantity of a Hazel-Nat at a time; and if the Courses flow not within a short time after, let a pessary of Musk, Amber, Wood of Alloes, and Ash Keys, of each two Grains, Saffron half a Scruple, Hares Renet an Ounce, be put into the Womb Tent-wise, and continue there for the space of a day, and it will re|move Page  84 the Obstruction, cause the Course to flow, and in a short time render the Wo|man capable of Generation. And thus Reader, have I, with much caution, per|formed my promise in these particulars and the next thing I shall proceed to▪ a|mongst other matters relating to the My|stery of Generation, are the Signs of Vir|ginity, &c.

CHAP. X. Virginity, what it is, in what it consists, and how violated; together with the Opinions of the Learned, in the Point of Mutation of Sexes in the Womb, during the Operation of Nature in framing the Body.

SEeing many ignorant People have boast|ed of their Knowledg as to the first Particular, and some Virgins have un|dergone hard Censure, through the igno|rant Determinations of such as have taken upon them to discuss the Matter: I thought it altogether necessary to clear the Point, that so for the future the Conceited might not be indulged in their own Opinion, nor by traducing others, prejudice the Female Sex, whose Vertues are frequently such as do not require our Admiration, but Imita|tion. Page  85 Then since the mysterious Word iginity has puzled many to define it, I an the Cause from whence it arises, for Word barely in it self signifies the ime, chief, or best of any thing: But as the Point in hand, the main matter bears following Construction. It is observed the curious Searchers into Nature's Se|ets, that in young Maids or Females, in Sinus Pudoris, or in that place that is by me called the Neck of the Womb, is that endulous Production, vulgarly called Hymen, but more rightly the Claustrum irginale, and in French it is termed the teon de Rose, or Roies Bud, for that it uch resembles the Bud of a Rose expan|ed, or a Clove-Gilliflower, from whence derived the Word Deflora, to Deslower, the Deflowering of Virgins, because most of Opinion that the Virginity is altoge|er annihilated, when this Duplication is actured and dissipated by Violence, and at when it is found perfect and intire, Penetration has been made. Also some earned Physitians are of Opinion that ere is not either Hymen or Skin expan|ed containing Blood in it, which divers magine in the first Copulation, flows from he fractured Expanse.

Page  86Now this Claustrum Virginale, or Flow is, as it were composed or consisting oCaruncles▪ or little Buds, like Myrtle-berr which in Virgins are full and Plump, but Women flag and hang loose; and these placed in the four Angles of the Sinus doris, joyned or held together by Membranes and Ligatures like Fibr each of them scituate in the Intesticles Spaces between each Caruncle, with wh in a manner they are proportionably stended, which Membranes being once lacerated denote Devirgination, and macurious Coxcombs, prying into this the first night of their Marriage, and findi their Wives defective in this Point, ha ever after held them in evil esteem, concding it happened thro' the Effect of Coplation with some other, who had been etertained in the Chambers of Venus. N one I knew, that upon this vain Fancy to such Conceit, that he would never go to with his Wife; when, to undeceive Idiots it is affirmed by the Learned, such Fracture may happen divers ways, Accidents as well as Copulation with viz. By extraordinary Straining, viole Coughing, immoderate Sneezing, stoppi of Urine, and violent motion of the Vesse in forcibly sending down the Humou which pressing for Passage, break the gatures Page  87 or Membrane, so that the intireness or fracture of this thing commonly taken for the Virginity or Maiden-head, is no absolte sign of Dishonesty; though cr|tain it is▪ that in Coplation t'is more fre|quenty broke than othewie.

Once at in Assize hld for the County of Rutland, a Young Man was put upon Tryal of Life and Death, which yal was foun|ded upon an Idctment, for forcing a Vir|gin whn dvers Questons asked, and the Maid sweaing positively to the Matter, naming the Time, Place and Manner of the Action; it was, upon mature elbration, resolved that she should be searched by a skifl Chyrurgion and two Midwives, who were to make their Report upon their Oaths, which after due Examination they accordingly did affirm, that the Mem|branes were intire and not dilacerated, and that it was their Opinion for that Reason, that her Body had not been penetrated; which so far wrought upon the Jury, that the Prisoner was acquitted, ad the Maid afterward confessed she swore against him ot of Revenge, because he had promised to marry her, and then declined it: And thus much concerning Virginity. And now I shall proceed to the scond Particular, which is, Reader, to shew you the Opinions of divers, learned Men, in relation to nature's Page  88 Operation in changing Sexes in the Womb.

This Point is of much necessity, by rea|son of the different Opinions of Men rela|ting to it. Therefore before any thing positive can be asserted, it will be altogether convenient to recite what has been deliver|ed, as well in the Negative as the Affirma|tive. And first, of the first, Severus Plinius, who argues for the Negatives, writes thus▪ The Genital parts (saith he) of both Sexes, are one so unlike other, in Substance, Com|position, Situation, Figure, Action, and Vse, that nothing is more unequal, and by how much more all other parts of the Body (the Breast excepted, which in Women swell more because of their secondary Use) have an exact Resemblance, so much the more in Resemblance are the Genital Parts of one Sex, compared with the other, una|like; and if their Figure be thus different▪ much more is their Use. The Venerial Appetite also proceeds from different Causes for in Men it proceeds from a Desire of E|mission, and in Women from a Desire o Completion, in Women also the chief of those Parts are concave and apt to receive, but in Men they are only por and in a Woman solid.

These things considered, I cannot bu wonder (added he) how any one can ima|gine that the Genital Member of FemalPage  89 Births should be changed into those that be ong to Males) since by those parts only he difference and distincton of Sexes is made, nor can I well impute the reason of his vulgar Error to any thing but the mi|ake of unexpert Midwife, who have een deceived by the evil confirmation of he parts which in some Male Births may ave happened to have had some small protrusion, not to have been discerned, as ppear'd by the Example of a Child Chri|stened at Paris, by the name of Joan, as fit had been a Girl, when as afterwards proved a Boy, and on the contrary the over-far extension of the Clytoris in Female Births may have occasioned the like mi|akes. Thus far Plyny proceeds in the Ne|ative, yet notwithstanding his Negation, here are not wanting divers learned Phy|cians that have asserted the Affirmative, of which number Galen is one, A Man (saith ) is different from a Woman in nothing se, but having his Genital Members without Body: And this is certain, That if Na|re having formed a Man, would convert im into a Woman, she hath no other Task to perform, but to turn his Genital Members inward, and a Woman into a Man y doing the contrary. but this is to be nderstood of the Child, when it is in the Womb, and not perfectly formed; for di|vers Page  90 times Nature hath made a Femal Child, and it has so remained in the Belly o the Mother for a Month or two, and afterwards plenty of Heat increasing in the Genital Members, upon some oceasion they have issued forth, and the Child has becom a Male, yet retaining some certain Gestures unbefitting the Masculine Sex, as Femal Actions, a shrill Voice, and more feeble tha ordinary. Contrariwise, Nature havin often made a Male, and cold Humour flowing to it, the Genitals have been inverted, yet still retaining a Man-like Fashion both in Voice and Gesture.

Now these Opinions consider'd; I am rather inclinable to believe the latter as thing altogether probable, for there is no that vast difference between the Member of the two Sexes, as Pliny would have believe there is, for the Woman has in manner the same Members with the tho' they appear not outwardly, but inverted for the conveniency of Generaton, the main difference being, that one more solid than the other, and that th chief reason of changing Sexes is, and mu be attributed to heat or cold suddenly slowly contracted, which operates according to its greater or lesser Force. And th much for these two particulars, leavin which I shall proceed to lay down seasonble Page  91 and necessary Instructions or directions for Midwives, &c. opening in that Dis|course a Cabinet of many rare Secrets, not vulgarly known, and indeed only fitting to be known to such as may observe and put hem in practice for the publick Good, and n no wise convert them to obscenity.

CHAP XI. A Midwife, how she ought to be qualified.

THose that undertake this great Task, ought by no means to enter upon it rashly or un+advisedly, but with all imaginable Caution, well weighing and preconsidering that she is ccountable for all the Mischief that befalls rough her wilful Ignorance or Neglects; herefore let not unskilful Women take upon hem this Office barely upon pretence of their Maturity of Years and Child-bearing; for in such for the most part there are divers things wanting that ought to be observed, which is the Occasion so many Women and Children are lost. Now, as for a Midwife, in relation to her Person, these things ought to be observed, viz. She must not be too old nor too young, neither xtraordinary fat, nor weakned by leanness, ut in a good habit of Body, not subject to Diseases, Fear nor sudden Frights; her BodyPage  92 well-shaped and neat in her Attire, her Hand smooth and small, her Nails ever pared short, not suffering any Rings to be upon Fingers during the time she is doing her Office, nor any thing upon her Wrists that may obstruct; and to these ought to be added Activity and a convenient Strength with much Caution and Diligence; no subject to Drowsiness nor Impatience.

As for her Manners, she ought to be cour|teous, affable, sober, chaste, and not sub|ject to Passion; bountiful and compassio|nate to the Poor, and not covetous wher she attends upon the Poor, and not cove|tous when she attends upon the Rich.

Her Temper Chearful and Pleasant, tha she may the better comfort her Patients i their Afflictions; no must she at any tim make over-much haste, though her Busness be urgent in another Place, left by endangering the Mother or Child she disgrac her self and forfeit Heaven's blessing upo her Endeavours for the future.

Of Spirit she ought to be prudent, wa and cunning, but above all, to have th Fear of God before her Eyes, and to employ the Talent he has lent her to Glory.

Page  93

CHAP XII. Things worthy to be observed by Midwives, tending to their Advancement, and what they ought to avoid, &c.

LET her that undertakes this Office attended with many Circumstances of Danger and Disgrace, take good heed to what I shall relate. In the first place, let her be diligent to leave nothing unsearched, which may be advantagious to her Practice, never imagining her self so perfect but she may add to her Knowledge by Study and Experience; yet never let her apply any Remedies in that Case, unless she has try'd them, or known them try'd with Success, or at least is conscious of their Force, that they will do no harm, doing nothing in that nature to practice upon Poor or Rich, but speaking freely of what she knows, and giving Reason for the further Confirmation thereof, by no means daring to give directi|ons for such Medicine as will cause Abor|tion, to pleasure those that have unlawful|ly conceived, which to do, is a high degree of wickedness, and may be ranked with Murther▪ but if any come to her with spe|cious Pretences, let her send them to able Physicians, and neither for fair Words nor Page  94 lucre, be won to hearken to them. If she be sent for, let her know to whom she goes, and be careful therein, lest by laying any one that has an infctious Disease, as the Pox, &c. she get it, and so spoil other Wo|men as a Midwife once did, who laying a Strumpet that had an inveterate Pox, which occasioning a Bubo upon her right Hand, and she not leaving off her Calling, spoiled divers Women, not the Women only, but the Men also, to whom it was communicated by their Wives, which made them think hard of each other, and for a long time could not imagine how it hap|pened; but at last it was discovered by an able Physician, and the Midwife for ever af|ter debarr'd her Practice, and not so only, but follow'd with Curses even to her grave. She must likewise observe that she enter|tains no great-belly'd Women at Bed and Board in her House, lest thereby she bring a Scandal upon her self, and so lose her Practice. If the Birth at any time be hard and difficult, she must not be dismayed, but chear up the Woman, and try her utmos Skill to make the Labour easie, Directions for which shall hereafter be inserted; nor must she ever think of any thing but doing well, and using her utmost Skill, causing all necessary things that are proper for the Work, Consolation of the Woman, and Page  95 Reception of the Child to be in a readiness; and above all let her use her diligence, ei|ther by perswasion or otherwise, to keep the Woman from being unruly in her Pangs, lest thereby she destroy both her self and her Child, and not in any wise to proceed too hastily in her Business, but wait God's leisure in all things, and by no means let her suffer her Wits to scatter by dismay or doubt, if things go not well, for fear it disorders the Senses, and a Person that keeps her Wits together, is capable of giving Assistance in weighty Affairs, for when we are most at a Plunge, then there is most need of Prudence to set things right. And seeing she can never be an expert Mid|wife that has no farther Knowledge than of the external Parts, I shall not think it amiss, briefly with modesty to proceed in describing the generative Part of a Woman; as they have been anatomized by the Lear|ned of the present and past Ages, and shew the Use of such Vessels, &c. as are contri|buting Generation.

Page  96

CHAP. XIII. Of the Genitals of Women, External and In|ternal to the Vessels of the Womb.

WAS it not for the benefit of Practiti|oners and Professors of the Art of Midwifry, I should above all things spare to treat of these particulars, because they may be turned by some Lascivious and lewd Persons into ridicule, but they being absolutely necessary to be known, I will hope the best, and proceed in order.

The parts that offer themselves to view, without any Deduction, at the bottom of th Belly are the Fissra Magna, or the Great Chink, with its Libia, or Lips, the Mns Veneris, and the Hair. These parts are called by the general Name of Pudend because when they are bared they bring Pudr, or Shame upon a Woman The Fis|sura magna reaches from the lower part of Os Pubis to within an Inch of the Anus. It is less and closer in Maids, than in those that have born Children; and has two Lips, which towards the Pubes, grow thicker and more full or preturbeant, and meeting upon the middle of the Os Pubis make that rising that is called Mons Veneris or the Hill of Venus.

Page  97The next things that offer, are the Nym|phae and Clytoris, the former of which is of a membrany and filmy Substance, spongy, soft▪ and partly fleshy, being of a bloody Colour in the shape of Wings, two in num|ber, though from their Rise they are joined in an acute Angle poducing there a fleshy Substance, which cloaths the Clyeoris, and many times they spread so a that incision is required to make way for the Man's In|strument of Generation,

The Clytoris is a substance in the upper Part of the Division, where the two Wings concur, and is the Sat of Venereal Pleasure, being like a Yard in Situation, Substance, Composition and Erection growing some|times out of the Body two Inches, but that never happens, unless thro' extream Lust or extraordinary Accident. But to proceed, this Clytoris consists of two spongy and skinny Bodies, containing a distinct Origi|nal from the Pubis Bone, the Head of it being covered with a tender Skin, having a hole or passage like the Penis, or Yard of a Man, though not quite through, in which, and the bigness, it only differs from it.

The next things in course are the Fleshy Knobs, and the grat Neck of the Womb. And these Knobs are behind the Wings, be|in four in number, much resembling Myr|tle-Berries, being placed in Quadrangle, Page  98 one against the other, and in this Place i incerted to the Orifice of the Bladder which opens it self into the Fissure to evacuate the Urine, for securing of which from Cold or the like inconveniency, one o these Knobs are placed before it, and shut up the Passage.

The Lips of the Womb that next appear, being separated, disclose the Neck thereof, in which two things are to be ob|served, viz. The Neck it self, and the Hy|men, but more properly the Claustrum Vir|ginale, of which I have before discoursed▪ But the Neck of the Womb is to be under|stood the Channel that is between th aforesaid Knobs and the inner Bone o the Womb, which receives the Penis like a Sheath; and that it may the better be di|lated for the Pleasure of Procreation, the Substance of it is Sinew, and a little Spongy and in this Concavity are divers Folds, o Orbicular Plghts, made by Tunicles wrinkled like an expanded Rose; in Vir|gins they plainly appear, but VVomen that have been used often in Copulation they are extinguished; so that the inner side o the Wombs Neck appears smooth, and i old VVomen it becomes more hard and grisly▪ And now note, that although thi Channel be sometimes writhed and crook|ed, sinking down, yet in the time of Co|pulation, Page  99 Labour or the monthly Purga|tions, and is erected and extended, which over-extension occasioneth the great Pain in Child-birth.

The Hymen, or Claustrum Virginale, is that which closes the Neck of the Womb, being, as I have before cited in the Chapter relating to Virginity, broken in the first Copulation, its use being rather to stay the untimely Courses in Virgins, than to any other end, and commonly when 'tis broke in Copulation, or by any other Accident, a small quantity of Blood flows, with some between the Duplicity of the two Tunicles which constitute the Neck of the Womb, there are many Vens and Arteries running along, and arising from the Vessels, descend|ing on both sides the Thighs, and passing in|to the Neck of the Womb, being extreamly large, and the reason of their Largeness is, for that the Neck of the Bladder requires to be filled with abundance of Spirit, there|by to be extendd and dlated for its bet|ter taking hold of the Penis▪ great Heat be|ing required in such motions, which be|coming more Intense by the Act of Fria|tion does consume a considerable uantity of Moisture, in supplying which large Ves|sels are altogether necessary.

Page  100Another Cause of the Longness of those Vessels there is, viz. by Reason the Mense have their Way through them, which of|ten occasion Women with Child to con|tinue their Purgations; for although the Womb is shut up, yet the Passage in the Neck of the Womb through which these Vessels pass, are open: In this Cause there is further to be observed▪ that as soon as you penetrate the Pudedum, there appears two little Pits, or Holes, wherein is con|tained an Humour, which by being ex|punged in the time of Copulation greatly delights the Woman.

Page  101

CHAP XIV. A Description of the Wombs Fabrick, the prepa|ring Vessels and Testicles in Women, as also of the deferent or ejaculatory Vessels, &c.

IN the lower part of the Hypogastrion, where the Hips are widest and broadest (they being greater and broader therea|bouts than those of Men, which is the rea|son they have likewise broader Buttocks than Men) is the Womb joined to its Neck, and is placed between the Bladder and strait Gut, which keeps it from sway|ing or rowling, yet give it liberty to stretch and dilate it self, and again to contract as Nature in that case disposes it: Its Figure is in a manner round, and not unlike a Gourd, lessening a little and growing more acute toward one end, being knit to|gether by its proper Ligaments, its Neck likewise is joined by its own Substance, and certan Membranes that fasten it to Os Sa|crum and the Share-bone. As to its large|ness, that much differs in Woman, especial|y the Difference is great between such as ave born Children, and such as have orn none. In Substance it is so thick, that exceeds a Thumbs Breadth, which after Conception, it is so far from decreasing, Page  102 that it augments to a greater Proportion, and the more to strengthen and confirm it, it is interwoven with Fibres overthwart, strait, and winding, and its proper Ves|sels are Veins, Arteries and Nerves, and amongst these are two little Veins, which pass from the Spermatick Vessels to the Bottom of the Womb, and two larger from the Hypogastricks, which visit both the Bottom and the Neck, the Mouth of these Veins, piercing as far as the inward Concavity.

The Womb hath also two Arteries on both sides, the Spermatick Vessels and the Hypo|gastricks. which still attend or accompany the Veins, and besides these there are di|vers little Nerves and intwined in the Form of a Net, which extend throughout even from the Bottom to the Pudenda them|selves, being chiefly placed for Sense and Pleasure moving in Sympathy between th Head and Womb,

Now it is to be farther noted, that b reason of two Ligaments that hang on either side of the Womb, from the Share-bone and piercing through the Peritonaeum, an are joyned to the Bone it self: that thWomb is moveable upon sundry Occasions often falling low, or rising high; as for thNeck of Womb, it is of an exquisite Feeling, so that if it be any time out of Order Page  103 by being troubled with a schirrous Brawn, Over-fatness▪ Moisture, or Relaxation, the Womb is subjected thereby to Barrenness: In those that are with Child there frequent|ly stays a most glutinous Matter in the Entrance to facilitate the Birth; for at the time of Delivery the Mouth of the Womb is opened in a strange Manner, to such a Wideness as is conformable to the bigness of the Child, suffering an equal Dilation from the Bottom to the Top.

As for the Preparatery or Spermatick Ves|sels in Women, they are made of two Veins and 2 Arteries, not differing from those in a Man, but only in their largeness and man|ner of Insertion; for as to their Number there are so many Veins, and the like pro|portion of Arteries, as in Men, the Right Vein issuing from the trunk of the hollow Vein descending, and the left from the emulgent Vein, and on the side of them are two Arteries, which grow from the Aorta.

As to the Longitude and Latitude of these Vessels they are narrow, and shorter in Women than in Men; only observe where they are wrinkled or crumpled, they are more wreathed and conorted than in Men, as shrinking together, by reason of their shortness, they may by their Loosness be the better stretched out when Occasion requires it. And these Vessels in Women Page  104 are carried on with an oblique Course thro' the leser Guts to the Testicles or Stones, but are in the mid-way divided into two Branches, the greater going to the Stones, constituing the various or windy Body, and wonderful Inoculating; the lesser Branch endng in the Womb, in the side of which it dsperseth it self, and ciefly at the higher Part of the bottom of the Womb, for the Nourishment thereof, and that part of the Courses may purge through these Vessels; and seeing the Testicles in Wo|men are seated near the Womb, for that cause these Vessels fall not from the Perito|naeum, neither make they such Passages as in Men, nor extend themselvs to the Share-bone.

The Stones in Women, commonly cal|led the Testicles, perform not the same Action as Men; they are also different in their Situation, Magnitude, Temperament, Substance Form and Covering. As for their Seat, it is in the Hollowness of the Abdo|men, neither are they extreamly pendulous, but rest upon the Muscles of the Loins, that so they may, by contracting the grea|ter heat, be more fruitful, their Office be|ing to contain the Ova, or Eggs, which being impregnated by the Man's Seed, in|gender Man; yet they Differ from those of Men in Figure, by reason of their less|ness Page  105 or flatness at either end, not being so ound or Oval. The External Superficies being likewise more unequal, appearing like the Composition of a great many Knots and Kernels mixed together, there is also another difference in their Substance, they being much more soft and pliable, loose, not so well compacted.

Their magnitude and temparament be|ing also different, for they are much colder and lesser then those in Men; as for their covering or inclosure, it likewise differs ex+treamly, for as Men's are wrapped or co|vered in divers Tunicles, by reason they are externally Pendulous, and subject to divers Injuries, unless so fenced by Nature so Womens Stones being internal and less subject to casualty, are covered with one Tunicle or Membrance, the which though it closely adhere to them, yet are they like|wise half covered with the Peritonaeum.

The Different or Ejaculatory Vessels are two obscure Passages, and on either side, nothing differing from the Spermatick Veins in substance; rise they do, on one part from the bottom of the Womb, not eaching from the other extremity either to the Stones, or any other part, but shut up and unpassable, adhering to the Womb as the Colon does to the blind Gut, and winding half way about; the Testicles Page  106 are every way remote to them, yet though they touch them not, they are tied to them by certain Membranes, resembling the Wings of a Bat, or Flutter-mouse through which certain Veins and Arteries passing from the End of the Testicles, in these beginning, or may be termed here to have their Passages, proceeding from the Corners of the Womb to the Testicle and are accounted the proper Ligament by which the Testicles and Womb are united, and strongly knit together, and these Ligaments in Women are the Cre|mesters in Men, of which I shall speak more largely, when I come to describ the Masculine parts conducing to Gene|ration.

Page  107

CHAP. XV. A Discourse of the Vse and Action of the seve|ral Parts in Women appropriated to Genera|tion, &c.

THE Externals commonly called the Pudenda, are designed to cover the great Orifice, and that to receive the Penis or Yard in the act of Cotion, and give Passage to the Birth and Vrine. The use of the Wings and Knobs like Mirtle-berries are for the security of the Internal parts, shutting the Orifice and Neck of the Bladder, and by their swelling up cause Titulation in those parts, and also to ob|struct the unvoluntary Passage of the Urine.

The Action of the Cftoris in Women, is like that of the Penis in Men, viz. Erection; and its outer end is like the Glans of the Penis, viz. and has the same Name. And as the Glans in Man is the Seat of the greatest Pleasure in Copulation, so is this in Women, whence 'tis called Amoris dulce|do and Aestum Veneris.

The Action and Use of the Neck of the Womb is also equal with that of the Penis, viz. Erection, occasioned divers ways. First, in case of Copulation, it is e|rected and made strait for the Passage of the Penis to the Womb. Secondly, Whilst Page  108 the Passage is repleated with Spirit and Vi|tal Blood, it becomes more strait for embra|cing the Penis, as for the Convenience of E|rection it is twofold; First, Forasmuch as if the Neek of the Womb was not erected, the Yard could have no convenient Passage to the Womb. Secondly, It hinders any hurt or damage that might ensue through the vio|lent Concussion of the Yard during the time of Copulation.

As for the Vessels that pass thro' the Neck of the Womb, their Office is to repleat it with Blood and Spirit, that still as the Moi|sture consumes the Heat contracted there in Copulation, it may by those Vessels be re|newed. But their principal Business is to convey Nutriment to the Womb.

The Womb it self has many Properties at|tributed to it, as First, Retention of the fe|cundated Egg, which is properly called Conception.

Secondly, To cherish and nourish it, til by the help of Nature, it has framed the Child, and brought it to Perfection. And then it strongly operates in sending forth the Birth when the time of its remaining there is expired, dilating and spreading it self in a wonderful Manner: And indeed is the Field of Man's Generation, being de|signed for no other Purpose, and so aptly Page  109 removed from the Senses, that nothing of Injury can proceed from thence, retaining in it self a Power and Strength to operate and cast forth the Bith, unless by Accident or the like it be rendred deficient. When to strengthen and enable it, besides the Helps of Nature, sundry Remedies are to be applied by skilful Hands Direction. For which shall be hereafter mentioned.

The Use of the preparing Vessels is this: The Arteries convey the Blood to the Testicles, where part of it is spent in the nourishment of them, and the Production of those little Bladders (which do in all things resemble Eggs) through which the Vasa Praeparantia run, and are obliterate in them. And as for the Veins, their Office is only to bring back what Blood remains from the uses aforesaid.

The Vessels in this kind are much shorter in Women than in Men, by reason of their nearness to the Stones, which Defect is yet legthenned and made good by the many In|tricacies or Windings, to which those Ves|sels are subject, for in the middle Way they drive themselves into two Branches, tho' different in Magnitude, for one being grea|ter than the other, passes by the Stone.

The Stones in a Woman are very useful for when they are defective, Generation Page  110 is at an end; for altho' those little Blad|ders, which are on their outward Superfi|cies, contain nothing of Seed, as the fol|lowers of Galen and Hipocrates did erro|neously imagine, yet they contain several Eggs commonly to the number of twenty in each Testicle) one of which being im|pregnated by the most spirituous part of the Man's Seed in the Act of Coition, descends through the Ovi-ducts into the Womb, and from thence, in process of time becomes a living Child.

Their Figure is not exactly round, but flat and dispersed on the sides; in their low|er part Oval, but in their upper, where the Blood-Vessels enter them, more plain; and have but one Membrane to encompass 'em, probably that the Heat may have the easier Access.

Page  111

CHAP. XVI. Of Conception and the Infallible Signs thereof; as also whether it be a Male or Female that is conceived, or both at once, commonly called Twins.

THE next thing convenient to be ob|served in this Treatse, and as it falls in course, is Conception and its Symp|toms, very material, and worthy more, not only by , but all oung Wo|men. Nw the signs of onception three or four days after convenient and satisfa|ctory, are,

Pains n the Head, Vertigo and Dimness of the Eye the Apple the Eyes crease, the Eyes themselves swell, and become of a dull or dark colour, the Veins waxng red, and shut with Blood: Again, if the Eyes sink, or Eye-brows grow loose, va|rious colours appear in the Eyes, and little red Pimples suddenly arise in the Face, and almost as suddenly disappear. Thirdly, if the Veins between the Eyes and Nose are extended with Blood, the Veins under the Tongue look greenish, the Neck flush|eth with heat, the Back-bone cold, the Veins and Arteries swell, and the Pulses are observed more easily. Fourthly, if Page  112 the Veins in the Breast appear Blackish and afterwards turn yellow the Teats look fiery, and upon drinking cold Drink, the woman feels it as it were in her Breast. Fifthly, If she on a sudden fall to loath|ing her Meat and Drink, coveting thing unreasonably, and not fit for Sustenance be troubled with Pukings, weakness of Sto|mach, sore declining, and there be little Worms found about the Navel. Sixthly▪ If the lower part of the Belly swell, and weakness be contracted in her Loins with inward Gripings and retention of the Cour|ses 7 days after Copulation. After which act, there is a cold and trembling seizes on the Members External. Seventhly, it is a certain sign of Conception, if the Midwife putting up her finger, find the Interior Neck of the Womb exactly closed. If the womb wax round and swell, the Courses stay, the Thighs swell with some pain, the whole Body grows Weak, the Face at times becomes Pale, the Urine white with a little Cloud after some standing at the top of it, if many Atoms appear in it▪ Eightly, If Urine be put in a Glass three days, and the Woman have conceived, cer|tain live things will appear to stir in it: If a bright Needle be put in a whole Night and she have conceived, divers little red Specks will be thereon, but if not, it will Page  113 be blackish or rusty. Nor are these Imagi|nations, but the proved Assertions of the Learned in Physick, and Skilful in Mid|wifry, who have made it their Study to search into the Depths of Natures Secrets: And next comes a nicer Point to be treated of, not without the Patronage of such whose Wisdom and inefatigable Labour have rendred them famous to Posterity; The which take as followeth,

After Conception, and the Child be come o some Perfection, so that the Sex may be distinguished, if it happen to be a Male-Child, then the Right Eye of the Women will, to appearance, move swifter, and sparkle more than the Left: The right Pap will rise, swell, and be more hard than the left, and the Teats colour will change more suddenly, and the Increase of the Milk will be speedy; and if it be milked out and set in the Sun, it will look like Pearl, contracting it self into a more solid Matter than ordinary; or if upon milking it out, you cast it upon the Womans Urine, will sink to the Bottom. Her Right Cheek will often glow, and be more rud|dy than the Let; and indeed the whole colour of the Face more lively than at other times, she feels less Sadness than if she Con|ceived a Female. And when first the Child stirs, it is more brisk and strong in its Mo|tion Page  114 than the other having commonly its first Motion on the right side on the 60th Day, if her Courses flow the 40th Day af|ter Conception, if her Belly be more acute towards the Navel, and as she goes, she puts her Right Leg foremost, and rising observe to ease her self on the Right Side more than on the Left.

Now in case a Female be conceived, the to|kens are averse to those, for the most part the first Motion rarely happening before the 19th day after Conception, and then it is made on the left Side. Females are carried with more Pains than Males, thro' Defect of Heat in the Womb, to attract the Sub|stance; also the Thighs and Genital Mem|bers of the Woman swell more than ordi|nary, her Colour departs, and her Long|ings are extream, and her Courses flow the Thirtieth Day after Conception.

If Twins are conceived, which many times happens thro' the Impregnating o two Eggs at the same time, the sign there|of will not appear till the third or fourth Month after Conception, and then the first Appearance will be by the Motion of the Infants both ways. that is on either side of the Womb at once, for they receive their Souls at one and the same time; also if her two Flanks swell higher than the middle of the Belly; if there does appeaPage  115 a Line, or as it were a Division from the Navel to the Groin, making a kind of a Channel, or if a Woman with more than ordinary Pain support her Burthen: And thus much may suffice for these, from whence I shall proceed to give the Reader Insight into false Conceptions that fre|quently deceive Women, especially such as re over-desirous of Children.

CHAP. XVII. Of false Conceptions, and how to know them.

HAving already treated of true Con|ceptions, the next thing note-worthy , what relates to false Conceptions, and n this case Women are sometimes deluded, hinking themselves with Chiid, when their Bellies only swell with the Retention of their Natural Purgations▪ that fall not ac|cording to their usual times: Or else by a Lump of indigested Flesh, for the most rt like the Gizzard of a Fowl, greater or esser, according to the time of its conti|nuance there, which is frequently four Months, and is called a Moon-Calf.

At other times they are deceived by Moles, which are two-fold, viz. The true and a false, the former of which is fleshy Body, filled with many Veels, streaked Page  116 with white, green, or black Lines, deficient of Membranes, but encompasse with divers, yet without Growth, Motio Bones, Bowels, or any Internals, receivi its nourishment thro' certain Vessels; nowithstanding it les, as we may say, th life of a Plant, without any Figue or Ord ingendred in the Concavity of the Matrix It has no Burthen or Navel-string fastned it, as a Child always has, forasmuch as Mole it self adheres to the Womb, by whic means it receives Nourishment from it Vessels

The latter of these,, viz, The false Mol may be divided into four distinctions as folowing. First, the windy Mole, being contraction or conflux of wind. Secndl the watery Mole, being a Gathering Water. Thirdly, the Humorous Mole, conflux of divers Humours; and Fourthl the membranous Mole, being many Membranes, in the Form of a Bag, filled wi Blood, and of these in their Order.

Galen holdeth, that the Mole is bred whe the Man's Seed is weak, barren, imperfect or too little in quantity; and for the mo part choaked through the abundance of th menstruous Blood, which is gross, thic and unfit for the Framing of a Child; that instead thereof is bred a lump of Fles that by little and little increaseth, bein wrapped in its own Membrane, whicPage  117 Nature effecteth, as desirous to bring forth any thing rather than be idle.

The windy Mole is occasioned through defect of Heat in the Womb and parts adja|cent, as the Liver and Spleen, which ingen|der a polite or windy Vapour which fills the membranous Part, and puffs up the Concavity of the Matrix.

The watry Mole is ingendred of divers apt confluences of thin Matter or watry Fluxes, which passing thro' the Vessels, evacuates into the Womb, having its Original from the Spleen, Liver, or parts adjoyning; or rather, it proceeds from the weakness of the Matrix, which cannot assimilate the Blood that s brought to nourish it; part whereof s turned into Water, and not being avoid|ed, stayeth in the Womb.

The Humorous Mole is ingendred by moist attracted Humours, as the Whites, or certain watry Purgation, which distil from the menstruous Veins, and gathering into a glutinous Substance, stay in the con|cavity of the Womb.

The Membranous Mole is no other than a contraction of Blood within a Skin or Membrane, to which is fastened many white and transparent Vessels, filled with Blood, the which coming forth, and being thrown into Water, the Blood goeth out▪ and the Membrane rumples toge|ther, Page  118 shrinking on a Heap like coagulate Seed.

Now mow most or all of these Conceptions have many Signs or Symptoms coheren with the true, as the Depravity of Appetite, Puking, Swelling, Suppression of thMenses, Swelling of the Brest and Belly, so that many are at a plunge to distinguish them; for, indeed, it is not easily to be done though in these following Matters there i distinction, viz. In case of a false Conception the Breasts swell and fall again, not containing any Milk, the Face is frequently puffed up, the Arms, the Groin, and th Thighs grow meagre and lanker, the Belly waxes hard, as if Dropsical being almost of an equal Roundness, with many Prickings at the bottom, scarcely admitting of Intermission, which breaks the Rest o the Woman so afflicted; divers other sign there are to know it by, especially the tru or fleshy Mole, as thus, a Male-Infant begins to move at the beginning of the third Month for the most part, and the Femal at the end of the third, or beginning o the fourth: Now when any motion hap|pens, the Woman ought to consider whether she has any Milk in her Breasts; if sh have, it is a sign of a true Conception, bu the contrary, of a false one; it is also th Sign of a true Conception, if the ChilPage  119 move freely and lively in all parts of the Womb, for although there is a Motion in a false Conceeption, yet it is dull, and not quick nor active in Motion, the Motion not being in it self, but in the expulsive Faculty of the Mother. And further, if the Woman observe, she may perceive it fall always to the side she lies on, and she lying on her Back, if her Belly be stroaked down, the Burthen will descend, and not have, for want of in|bred Force, Power to recover its Station. But what confirms it more is, that nine Months expired, no Travel ensues, but her Belly still increases▪ whilst all the rest of the Body grows lean and out of order.

The Signs of the Windy Mole are divers, as the sudden stretching of the Belly like a Bladder, yet soft and spungy, especially near the Groins, and swelling thereof, when if it be struck it sounds like a Drum, and that the swelling is sometimes more and sometimes less; so that according to its In|crease and Decrease the Woman feels more heavy or more light.

The Watry Mole is known by its Di|stention of the Belly, and especially, when she lies upon her Back, the sides thereof are more swelled than the middle, or the bottom which grows flatter by reason the watry humour falls to the sides, moving up and down, as if it were a fluctuation oPage  120 Water, and much to the same purpose a the Symptoms of the Humorous Mole, only with the Distinction, that the Flanks and Thighs are more stretched by the Watery Mole than by the other, because the Water being thinner than the Humour, or not con|fined in Cells, flows thither, and that which in case of a watery Mole comes through Nature's Conduit is clear, when in case of a humorous Mole, the Water is red, and of a Blood Colour.

Further, observe, in case of a false Con|ception the Courses come not down, and the Navel of the Mother advanceth it self little or nothing; which in the true Concep|tion is otherwise.

Other false Conceptions there are occasio|ned by divers Tumours, which the Igno|rant take for Moles, when they are only Rotundities and Swelling the Belly, which are not discovered till the Womb be open|ed; and then though the Womb be not all out of order, there does appear at one or both corners thereof, little ags full of Water, in others, there are to be seen a Heap of Kernels, or superfluous Flesh like a Cluster of Grapes in the Womb, causing it to swell. Yet, in such Cases, the Courses are obser|ved to proceed in due order, which denotes the Womb to be in good Order.

Another Excrescency of Flesh there is, Page  121 which some call a Pendant Mole, being a peice of fleshy Substance, hanging within the interior Neck of the Womb, being in breadth about a finger at the Place where it is fastned, increasing bigger and bigger towards the bottom, like a small Bell pos|sessing the whole Orifices, nay, sometimes appearing outward to a great bigness.

CHAP. XVIII. Instructions for Women how to govern them|selves during their being with Child.

THese Instructions being exceeding neces|sary, I thought fit to lay them down for a Rule to such as are desirous of Self-preservation. And indeed, for want of due Observance, divers Diseases afflict Child-bearing Women, nay, the Child is frequent|ly lost, or, if it come to a perfect Birth, proves sickly and disordered through the Mother's Misobservance.

In the first place then, the Woman with Child ought to chuse a temperate Air, not affected with Fogs arising from Marshes, Ditches, Ponds, Lakes or Rivers, and not to go abroad in too hot; nor too cold Wea|ther, nor when the South-wind blows strong; for that Wind, above all others, disrbs and disorders Women with Child, oftentimes Page  122 causing Abortion: And next to it the North-wind is hurtful, causing Catarrhs, Coughs and Rheums, which; opening the Body, causes the Woman to bring forth before her time. In short, if any evil Vapour be drawn in during Purgancy, it causes divers Diseases.

In case of Diet, she ought to be very cau|tious in chusing such Meats as create whol|som nourishment, all Meats that are mode|rately dry, being taken so to do; and let her observe not to fast immoderately; for that renders the Child sickly and weak, and of|ten for want of nourishment, constrains it to be born before its time; nor on the o|ther hand must she be too gluttonous, for that again stuffs it, and causes it to swell beyond its natural Bounds.

All Meats, either too hot or too cold, and moist, are to be avoided, as Salads, Spiced meats, and the extraordinary Use of other Meats, which makes the Children come forth oftentimes without Nails, which is a Sign of short Life. The most wholsom Meats in this case are Pidgeons, Turtles, Larks, Partridges, Pheasants, Veal Mutton, or any such Meat that is of good Juice, and contributing to kindly Nourishment; as al|so such Fruits as are sweet and of easy Di|gestion, as Cherries, Pears, Damsons, &c. but let her avoid such things as subject her Body to Windiness.

Page  123Her Longings if extravagant she must re|strain, at least as much as in her lies, not eating any thing that is filthy or contrary to Nourishment, nor let her sleep imme|diately after Meals, and not at all in the Day-time if she can avoid it; the Night being preferable in such cases when she may sleep her fill, so it exceed not nine hours.

Her Exercise ought to be moderate, for violent motion, either in Walking or other|wise, molests and disturbs the Womb, Riding in a Coach, especially upon the Stones or in uneven Way (the last three Months are dangerous) as also extraordinary Sounds or Noises, and above all, the Ringing of Bells, and Discharging of Guns.

Laughing, Crying, or immoderate An|ger, or any other Passion is extreamly hurt|ful; nor in the first four Months after Con|ception ought she to lie with her Husband, forasmuch as the Act of Copulation moves and shakes the Womb, and consequently the Fruit therein, and causes the Courses to de|scend. She must likewise in the 6th and 8th Month abstain, but in the 7th and 9th it is not forbidden, but rather to be encouraged, by reason, as Physicians affirm, it opens the Passage, and thereby facilitates the Birth; and the better to help it, the Woman ought to take such things as may keep her ody soluble, as Syrrups and other loosening Page  124 matters as may help Nature in its Opera|tion; especially let her observe when she grows any thing big, to lay aside her Busk, and go loose, that the Child may have free Scope, for two Reasons: First, That it may not be hurt; and Secondly, That it being unrestrained, may come to its full Growth.

CHAP XIX. Further Considerations how Women ought to go|vern themselves during Pregnancy.

TIS further to be observed, that after Delivery the Breasts frequently grow extream large, and swell over-much: to prevent which, (and to avoid the Danger of too much Blood, which causes curdled or crudy Milk, so that from the Effects thereof divers Diseases arise in the Breast) so soon as the Woman perceives her self with Child, let her wear about the Neck a small Necklace of Gold or Steel, or a small Ingot of the latter, to hang between her two Breasts, fomenting her Breasts a quarter of an hour every morning with Water distilled from Sage-Pere-winkle, Ground-Ivy, being blood-warm.

In her fourth Month, when the Motion is great, and her Belly swells big, she may wath it with a Swath-band, annointed Page  125 with Pomatum or the like; to make which, I shall give direction, and in so doing she will keep it smooth, and free from wrin|kles, as also from hanging down like a Tripe after Delivery.

The Receipt.

Take of the Gall of a Kid, and of a Sow, of each 3 ounces, and Capons grease and Goose grease, of each one Ounce and an half, and ha|ving melted them, put thereto a quarter of a Pint of Water, after which strain them through a Linnen Cloth into fair Water, casting it to and fro therein, till it be white; at what time add to it the Marrow of a Red Deer one Ounce▪ and lay it in Red-Rose-Water 12 hours, after the expiration of which, you may use it in a|nointing the Swath as aforesaid, as also the Belly.

If the Ingredients aforesaid cannot be gotten, then the following Leniments are effectual, though the former is better, viz.

Take of Mutton-Suet adjoining to the Kid|nes, and Dogs-grease, each two ounces, Whale-Oil an ounce, and of Sweet-Almond-Oil the like Quantity; wash them well after they are melted together in the Water of Germander, or new White-wine, and anint the Belly there|with, or the Swahband ordained to support it.

Page  126But for such as are not desirous to anoint their Bellies, may use the following Bath or Decoction.

Take of all the sots of Mallow, and of Mo|ther-wort, each two handfuls, Lilly-Roots, the white ones, to the weight of three Ounces, Me|lilot and Camomile, of both two handfuls▪ Lime-seeds, Quince-seed and Fenugreeck-seed three Ounce, proportionable of each, boil them in Spring-Water, and bathe therewith.

If the Woman, during her Pregnancy, feel but little Motion in her Womb, let her make a ult as followeth, and bind it up|on her Navel▪ and it will greatly streng|then Infant, viz.

Take the Powder of Roses, Red Coral, and Gilliflowers, of each three Ounces, Mastick a Drm, and of Angelica-seeds, two Drams, two grains of Ambergrise, and one of Musk, all which being well beaten, put them into a Linnen Bag, expanded and quilted, that they may be in every part of it, placing it upon the Navel.

Page  127

CHAP XX. Rules to be observed upon a Womans lying down, and her Delivery, &c.

HAving thus far proceeded in what, as I conceived, is highly necessary to be known by the Professors of this Art, I shall gradually proceed to what remains: And, First, to inform the Reader what is necessa|ry to be observed upon the Woman's lying, down in order to her Delivery.

The Hour according to Computation of Time, and the Disposition of the Body ap|proaching, let the Woman send for a skil|ful Midwife, not delaying so to do, but ra|ther too soon than too ate; at what time let her prepare a little Bed or Couch, of a moderate Heighth, and so situate, that it be far from the Dor, near the Fire, and con|venient for the Midwife and her Assistants to pass round and be iding on every side, as Occasion requires, having Change of Linnen, and a small Cricket or little Log of Timber to rest her Feet against, she ha|ving more Force when they are bowed than otherwise.

Having thus provided, when the Wo|man feels her Pains come, if the Weather be not extream cold, let her walk leisurely Page  128 about the Room, resting her self by turns upon the Bed, expecting so the coming down of her Water, which is a Humour that is contracted in one of the outward Membranes and flows thence when it is broke by the struggling of the Child, or some other Accident, there being no direct time affixed for its Efflux, though for the most part it flows not above two hours before the Birth. Motion likewise will cause the Womb to open and dilate it self, when ly|ing along in Bed will prove troublesome, yet if she be much spent and weakened, she may take some gentle Cordial to refresh her self, if her Pains will Permit.

If her Travel be tedious, to revive her Spirits, she may take any Broth of Chickens or Mutton, and after it a poach'd Egg, but must not take any thing to excess. As for the Posture Women are delivered in, they are divers; some lying in their Bed, others siting in a Chair▪ supported and held by others, or resting upon the side of the Bed or Chair; some again upon their Knees, being supported under their Arms; but the safest and most cemmodious Way is in the Bed, whenas the Midwife ought to observe these following Rules:

Let her see that the Woman be laid upon her Back, her Head a little elevated▪ by the help of a Pillow, having the like Page  129 help to support her Reins and Buttocks, and that her Rump lie high; for if she lie low, she cannat be well delivered; then let her keep her Knees and Thighs as far asun|der as she can, her Legs bowed together, her Buttocks, the Soles of her Feet and Heels being fix'd upon a little Log of Tim|ber, placed for that purpose, that she may have the greater Force to strain: Now in case her Back be exceeding weak, a Swath|band may be cast under it, the Band being four double, and about 12 Inches broad, and this must be held by two Persons, who with steady hands and equal motion must raise her up at the time the Pains happen; but if they be not exact in their Motion, 'tis better evaded, and at the same time let two Women hold her Shoulders that she may the better strain out the Birth with more Advantage; and the better to facili|tate it, let a Woman stroak or press the up|per Part of her Belly gently, and by degrees. Nor must the Woman her self be faint-hearted, but couragious, and of a good Heart; forcing her self by straining and stopping her Breath.

In case of Delivery, the Midwife must wait with Patience till the Child's Head or other Members burst the Membrane; for through Ignorance, or haste to be gone to other Women, as some have done, the Page  130 Midwife tear the Membranes with her Nails, she endangers both the Woman and the Child; for it lying dry, and wanting that Slipperiness that should facilitate it, its Egress comes forth with greater Pain.

When the Head appears, the Midwife must gently hold it between her two hands, and draw the Child at such times as the Womans Pangs are upon her, and at no other, slipping by degrees her four fingers under its Armpits, not using a rogh hand in drawing it forth, lest by such means the Child, through its tenderness, receive any Deformity of Body.

As soon as the Child is taken forth, which is commonly with its Face downwards, let it be laid upon its Back, that it may more freely receive External Respiration; then cut the Navel-string with a sharp Instrument about three Inches from the Body, tying that which adheres to the Belly, with a silk|en string, as near as you can, then cover the Head and Stomach of the Child well, suf|fering nothing to come upon the Face.

The Child being thus drawn forth, and in Health, lay it aside, and let the Midwife regard the Patient, in drawing, or causing to come forth the Secundine: And this may be done by wagging and stirring them up and down, and afterwards with a gentl Hand drawing them forth, or if the Work Page  131 be difficult, let the Woman hold Salt in her Hands, shut them close, and breath hard into them, whereby she shall know whether the said Membranes be broken or not: The like may be known by causing a Strain or Vomiting, by putting one Finger down her Throat, by straining or moving her inferiour Parts, being all observed to be done out of Hand. If this fail she may take a draught of raw Elder-water, or the Yolk of a raw Egg, or smell to a piece of Assa foetida, if she be troubled with the Wind-Cholick, a Remedy for which, I shall hereafter prescribe. If she have taken cold, it is a great Obstruction to the coming down of the Secundines; and in such cases the Midwife ought to chafe the Woman's Belly with a gentle Hand, which breaks not only the Wind, but obliges the Secun|dines to come down. And these proving ineffectual, the Midwife must dilate with her Hand the exterior Orince of the omb, and gently draw it forth. Having discour|sed of common Births, or such as for the most part are easie, I shall proced to give Directions in case of Extremity.

Page  132

CHAP. XXI. In case of Extremity, what ought to be ob|served, especially to Women who in their Travel are accompanied with an Efflux of Blood, Convulsion, or Fits of the Wind.

IN case of Extremity, greater Regard must be had than at other times; and first of all, the Situation of the Womb, and her Posture of Lying must be cross the Bed, being held by such as have Strength to pre|vent her slipping down, or moving her self in the Operation of the Man-midwife or Chirurgeon; her Thighs must be sundered as wide as may be, and so held, whilst her Legs invert and bend backward towards her Hips, her Head leaning upon a Bolster, and the Reins of her Back supported with the like, her Rump and Buttocks likewise elevated, observing to cover her Stomach, Belly and Thighs with warm Linnen, to keep them from cold Wind.

The Woman being in the Posture afore|said, let the Operator put up his Hand, if he finds the Neck of the Womb dilated, and remove the contracted Blood that ob|structs the Passage of the Birth, and having by degrees, with much gentleness made Way, let him tenderly move the Infant, Page  133 his Head being first anointed with sweet Butter, or a harmless Pomatum, and if the Waters are not come down, then without any difficulty may they be let forth, when if the Infant attempts to break forth with the Head foremost or cross, he may gently turn it to find the Feet, which having done, let him draw forth one, and fasten it to a Ribband, then put it up again and by de|grees find the other, when bringing them as close and as even as may be, and be|tween whiles giving the Woman leave to breathe, urging her to strain in helping Na|ture to perfect the Birth, he may draw it forth: and the better to do it, that his hold may be surer, he must fasten or wrap a Linnen-Cloth about the Child's Thighs, observing to bring it into the World with its Face downward.

In case of a Flux of Blood, if the Neck of the Womb be open, it must then be mature|ly considered, whether the Infant or the Secundines come first, which often the lat|ter happening to do, stop the Mouth of the Womb, and hinder the Birth, to the endan|gering both the Woman and Child; in such a case, I say, the Secundine must be be removed by swift turn, and indeed they have by their so coming down deceived many, who feeling their Softness, supposed the Womb was not dilated, and by their Page  134 being so deceived, the Woman and Child, or at least the latter has been lost, the Secun|dines removed, the Child must be sought for and drawn forth as has been directed; and if in such a case the Woman or Child die, the Midwife or Chirurgeon is blame|less, because they did their true Endeavour.

If it appear, upon Enquiry, that the Secun|dine comes first, let the Woman be deliver|ed with all convenient Expedition, be|cause great flux of Blood will follow, for then the Veins are opened, and upon this Account, two things are to be considered. First, the bigness or smallness of the Secundines advancing; if the former, and the Head of the Child appear first, it must be guided and directed towards the Neck of the Womb, as in Case of Natural Births, but if there, thro' the Weakness of the Child or Mother, appear any Difficulty in the Delivery, the best Way is to search for the Feet, and thereby draw it forth; but if the latter, the Secundines may be put back with a gentle Hand, and the Child first taken forth,

Another matter is more worthy, viz If the Secundine be far advanced, so that it cannot be put back, and the Child follow it close, then are the Seundines to be taken forth with much Care, as swift as may be, and laid aside, without cutting the En|tail that is fastned to them, for by that you Page  135 may be guided to the Infant, the which, whether alive or dead, must be drawn orth by the Feet with all Expedition, tho' t is not to be acted unless in case of great Necessity, for in other cases the Secundine ught to come last.

As for a dead Child, in drawing it forth, et these directions be carefully observed by he Chirurgeon, viz. if the Child be found tead with its Head foremost, the danger is he greater, and more difficult will be the Delivery; for it is an apparent Sign the Woman's Strength begins to fail her, and hat the Child being dead, and wanting its -bred Force, can be no Ways assisted to ts Delivery; wherefore the most certain nd safe way is for the Chirgeon to put up his lets hand, sliding it as hollow in the Palms he can, into the Neck of the Womb, in|o the lower part thereof, towards the Feet, nd that between the Head of the Infant and the Neck of the Matrix, when ha|ving a Hook in the right Hand, chuch it close, and slip it up above the Left Hand, between the Head of the Child, and the lat of his hand, fixing it in the bone of the Temple towards the Eye, or else in the hol|low of the Eye, or for want of conve|niently coming at these in the occipital Bone, observing still to keep the left hand in its place, with it gently moving and Page  136 stirring the Head; and so with the Righ Hand and Hook, draw the Child forwar admonishing the Woman to put forth he utmost Strength, still drawing when th Woman's Pangs are upon her. The Hea being drawn forth, he must with all spee slip his Hand under the Arm-holes of th Child, and take it quite forth, giving the things to the Woman, viz. A Toast of White Bread, in a quarter of a Pint of Ipcras Wine.

Now the former Application and Endeavour failing, and the following Medcines will not enable the Woman to ca forth the Birth, you may proceed to Instruments, after another manner, First, whe the Woman is in her bed, let her receiv the ensuing Portion hot, abstaining fro all manner of Meats, and rest till she fe the Operation, which is this,

Take Blue Figs, to the number of seven, them in pieces, adding to them Fenugreek Motherwort, and Seeds of Rice, of each fi Drams, Water of Penny-Royal and Mothewort, six Ounces of each▪ boile them till half be consumed, and having strained the again, add Trochisces of Myrrh a Dram, an of Saffron three Grains, sweetning the Liqu with Loaf-Sugar, and spicing it with Cinnamon.Page  137 Having rested upon this, let her labour gain as much as may be, and if she be not et successful, make a Suffumation of Castor, Oppoponax, Sulpher, and Assa Foetida, of uch half a Dram, beating them into Powder, wetting them with the Juice of Rue ntil they become stiff, then Burn them up| Coals, so that the Smoake or the Fume only come to the Matrix, and no fur|er.

If these effect not your desire, then his Emplaster is very fitly to be applied, , Take of Galbanum an Ounce and a half, olocynthis without Grains Two Drams. Juice of Motherwort and Rue, of each Half an Ounce, and Two Ounces of Virgin|s-wax, bruise and melt them together, reading them as a Sar Cloath, to reach from Navel to Os Pubis, spreading likewise the Flanks at the same time, making nvenient Pessary of Wool, closing it in Bag of Silk, and dipping it in a Concoc|n of round Brthwort, Savin, Colocyn|his with Grains, Staves Black Hele|e, of each a Dram, and of Rue a little rig or two.

These things failing, and the Woman danger, let the Chyrurgeon use his nstrument to dilate and widen the womb, which purpose the Woman must be set a Chair, so that she may turn her Crup|per Page  138 as much from its Back as is convenie drawing up her Legs as close as she ca out spreading her thighs as wide as may or if through her weakness it appear mo convenient, that she be laid upon the Be with her Head downwards, her Butto raised, and her Legs drawn up as much can be, at what time the Chyrurgeon wi his Spiculum Matrices or his Apertory, dilate or widen the womb, and draw o the Child and Secundines together, if be possible, after which the Womb be well washed and annointed, and the wman laid in her Bed, comforted there Spices, pleasent Meats, and Cordials: course must be taken in the delivery of dead Children, likewise with Moles cundines, or otherwise false Births, will not of themselves come forth in season, or if the Instruments aforesaid, not sufficiently widen the Womb, th other Instruments, as the Drakes Bill, a long Pincers ought to be used.

If it so happen that any Inflamati Swelling, or concreet Blood be contrac in the Matrix, under the Film of those Tmours, either before or after the Bir where the matter appears thinner, Midwife with a Pen-knife or incision strument may Launch it, and Press out corruption, healing it with a Pessary dped in Oyl of Red Roses.

Page  139If at any time through could or some violence, the Child happen to be swelled in any part, or have contracted a watery Tumour; yet if it remain alive, such means ought to be used as are least injurious to the Child or mother, but if it be dead that Tumour must be let out by incision o facilitate the Birth.

As it often happens that Children come with their Feet foremost, and the Hands dilating themselves from the Hips, in such case the Midwife must be well provided of necessary Oyntments to stroke and anoint he Infant with, thereby to help its coming forth, lest it return again into the Womb, before it can be drawn forth, holding at the same time both the Arms of the Infant, close to the Hips, that so the Child may ssue forth after its own manner, but if then prove too big, then the Womb must be well anointed. The Woman may likewise ke sneezing Powder, to cause her the more to strain, and at the same time those hat attend, may gently stroke down her Belly, to make the Birth defend, and eep the Child when advanced, from re|ring back.

Sometimes it falls out, that the Child oming with its Feet foremost, has its Arms xtended above its Head, the which so appening the Midwife must not receive Page  140 in that posture, but put it back into th Womb, unless the Passage be extraordinar wide, and then she must anoint both th Child and the Womb, nor is it safe to dra it forth before it is put into due for which must be done after this manner, Woman lying upon her Back, with Head depressed, and her Buttocks elevate the Midwife with a gentle hand, must compress the Belly of the Woman; towar the Midrif, by that means to put back Infant, observing to turn the Face of Child towards the Back, of the Mother, rasing up its Thighs and buttocks towar her Navel, thereby to bring it to a mo regular and natural Production.

If a Child happen to come forth wi one Foot, the Arm being extended alo the side and the other Foot turned bacward, then must the Woman be instan braught to Bed, and laid in the post aforesaid, at what time the Midwife carefully put back the Foot so appeari and the Woman rock her self from one to the other, till she find the Child is tued, but she must not alter her posture, turn upon her Face, after which she expect her pains, and must have assistance, Cordials especially not bei wanting to revive and support her Spir

Page  141At other times it so comes to pass, that he Child lies cross in the womb, and falls pon its side; if it so happen, the Woman ust not be urged in her labour, neither an any expect the Birth in that manner: Therefore the Midwife, when she so per|ves it, must use great diligence to reduce to its right form, or such a form in the Womb, as 'its possible to deliver it; sp|ally by moving the Buttocks, and giding Head to the Passage, but if she be su|essful herein, let her again try by roking erself to and fro, and wait with patience ll it change its manner of lying.

Sometimes it falls out that the Child ha|ens the Birth, with its Legs and istorted or expanded, in which, as in the ormer, the Woman must rock her self, but ot with any violence till she find the egs and Arms fall to their proper stations, may be done by a gentle Compression the Womb: but if neither of them pre|ail, the Midwife with her Hand must close Legs of the Infant, and if possible she reach them, do the like to the Arms, nd so draw it forth, though if it could be duced of it self to the composure or po|ure of a natural Birth, it is better.

If the Infant comes forward with both nees foremost, the Hands hanging down on the Thigh, then must the Miwie Page  142 put both Knees upwards, till the Feet ap|pear, taking hold of which with her Lef Hand, let her keep her Right Hand on the side of the Child, and in that posture endea|vour to bring it forth, but if she cannot▪ then must the Woman rock her self till the Child is in a more convenient posture fo Delivery.

When it happens that the Child presses forward, with an Arm extended upon the Thighs, and the other elevated over his Head, the Feet likewise streached out a length in the Womb, the Midwife in such a posture, must not attempt to receive the Child, but must lay the Woman upon the Bed, in the manner often before recited making a soft and gentle Compression upon he belly, to oblige the Infant to retire and if on its own accord it retire not, ther must the Midwife thrust it back by th Shoulders, and bring the Arm that wa stretched above the Head to its right place for certain it is most dangerous in thes Extremities; in this therefore the Midwife ougt to take more care herein the ordinary, And first, She must observe well to anoint her Hands, then the Womb o the Woman, either with some sweet Butter, or some convenient Pmatom, thrustin up her Hands, as near as she can to th Arm of the Infant, and reduce it to the sidPage  143 but if she cannot recall it, then must the Woman be laid on her Bed, there to repose for a while, and then again be conducted to a Seat prepared for the most conveni|ency in that affair, by which time perhaps he Child may be reduced to a better po|sture, the which when the Midwife finds, he must draw the Arms cloase to the Hips, and so recive it.

If an Infant come with its Buttocks fore|most, being in a manner duble, then the Midwife anointing her Hands, must thrust t up▪ and by degrees heaving up the But|tocks, and after them the Back, strive to turn the Head to the passage, but be not over hasty in so doing, lest the Infant re|tiring should shape it worse, therefore if it cannot be turned with the hand, the Woman must to Bed, and rock her self, ta|king such comfortable things as may sup|port her Spirits, till she perceive the Child urn.

If a Child come forward with its Shoul|ders, the Neck being bowed as it often happens, as also the Hands and Feet stretched upwards: in such a case the Mid|wife must with much diligence move the Shoulders, that she may direct the Head to the passage, and the better to perfect it, he Woman must rock her self, &c. These nd such like methods are to be observed Page  144 in all single Births: And the same may be observed in case of Twins or Treble Births, for as the single Birth has but one Na|tural way and many unnatural Forms even so it happens with the Birth of many Children; wherefore the Midwife must ob|serve (if Twins be in the Womb and press foreward according to the natural Form) that she receive that first which is nearest the passage▪ not letting the other go, lest by retiring, it should chang the Form; nor must she, when one is born, delay to bring forth the other; and this Birth in the na|tural form is the more easie because the Chil|dren are most commonly less then the sin|gle Births, and consequently require a lesser passage; but if this Birth happen in an un|natural form, it is the more difficult and dangerous. In the Birth of Twins, let the Midwife be exceeding careful that the Se|cundines be naturally brought forth, lest in such a case, the Womb being delivered of its burthen, falls, and by its so doing the Se|cundines continue there longer than is re|quisite, to the indangering of the Woman.

If it so happen, that the Woman is preg|nant with Twins, and one come naturally, and the other unnaturally, as the one with the Head, the other with the Feet foremost, then must the Midwife consider to deli|ver the Natural-Birth first, and then iPage  145 she cannot turn the other, draw it out in the posture it presses forward, but if that with the Feet downwards, be much before the other, then may she deliver that first, turning the Head on the other side.

In this case the Midwife must be diligent to search that instead of Twins, it be not a Monstrous Birth; as a Body with two Heads, or two bodies Joined together, which she may observe, if both the Hands come foremost, by putting up her Hands betwen them as high as she can and if she find they are Twins, she must gently put one of them aside, to make way for the o|ther, taking at first that which is most ad|vanced, having regard to the other, that he change not its situation.

Now to prevent the first Child's being in danger of its Life, the Midwife, as soon as 'tis come forth, must tye the Navel-string, as has been before directed, and also bind it again, with a long and large Fillet to that part of the Navel, that is fastned to the Se|cundines, the more readily to find them.

The second Infant born, let her dili|gently inquire whether there be not two Se|cundines, for by the shortness of the Liga|ments it often happens that it retires back, to the damage of the Woman: wherefore least in such a case the Womb should close it is most expedient to hasten them forth with all convenient speed.

Page  146if two Infants are joyned togather by the Body, as sometimes monstrously falls out, then although the Heads come fore|most, yet it is convenient, if possible to turn, them, and draw them forth by the Feet, observing when they come to the Hips, to draw them forth as swift as may be: and in this case great care ought to be observed in anointing and widening the Passage.

And thus much for extremity or Unnatural Births. And the next thing I shall proceed to, is how to order the Woman after Natu|ral or Unnatural Births, or Delivery.

CHAP, XXII. What ought to be observed after Delivery.

PResently after Delivery, in case of a Na|tural Birth, especially if the Woman has had hard labour, it is convenient to wrap her in the Skin of a Sheep taken off before it is cold, putting the flesh side to her Reens and Belly, or for want of this the Skin of a Hare, or Coney, being flayed off as soon as killed, may be applied to her Belly: and in so doing the dilation made in the Birth will be closed up, and the melancoly Blood, expelled from those parts; And these may be contributed Page  147 in Summer the space of an hour, and in Win|ter too, after which let the Woman be swathed with a fine linnen Cloth, about a quarter of a Yard in bredth chafing her Belly before with Oyle of St. Jons-wort, after that raise up the Matreix with a linnen Cloth many times fol|ded, then with a lettle Pillow or Quilt over her Flanks, then use the Swath somewhat above the Hnches winding it prety stif, ap|plying at the same time a warm Cloth to her Nipples, nor presently applying Remedies to drive back the Milk, by reason the body at such a time is disordered, and as it were out of frame, for there is neither Vein nor Artrey which does not strongly beat, where such re|medies to drive back the Milk being all of a dissolving Nature, it is improper to apply them to the Breast during such confusion and disorder, lest by so doing evel Humours be stay|ed or contracted into the Brest, wherefore Twelve hours ought to be the least space allowed for the Circulation and settlement of the Blood and what was cast upon the Lungs by the vehement Agitation during the Labour, to retire to its proper Receptacles.

A while after Delivery you may make a restrictive of the Yolk of two Eggs, and a quartter of a point of White Wine, an Ounce of Oyl of Saint John's|wort, as much of the Oyl of Roses, Page  148 Plantain and Rose-water, of each One Ounce, bray them together, fold a Linnen cloath, and dip it therein, warm it before a gentle Fire, and apply it to the Breast, and the pains of those parts will be greatly eased.

Present sleep is not convenient, but about four hours after Delivery, she may take Broath, Candle or what other liquid matter is nourishing, and afterwards if she be dis|posed to sleep, it may be safely permitted, And this is as much in case of a Natural Birth, as ought immediately to be done.

In case of Extremity or an unnatural Birth, these Rules ought to be observed: In the fiist place let the Woman keep a tempe|rate Diet, by no means overcharging her self, aftr such an Excessive Evacuation and to say true, her Diet, must be equal to that of wounded Persons, not being ruled or giving Credit to unskilful Nurses, who admonish them to feed lustily, the better to repair the loss of blood, for that blood is not for the most part pure, but such as has been detained in the Vessels or Membranes, better avoided for the Health of the Woman than kept, unless there happens an extraordinary Flux of Blood, for if her nou|rishment be over-great, it will endanger her falling into a fever, nay more, it will increase the Milk to superfluity, which crudling sometimes, turns to Aposthumes; Page  149 wherefore it is requisite, for the first five days especially, that she take moderately Panado, Broath, Poach'd Eggs, Gelly of Chickens, or Calves Feet, French Barly-Broath, each day somewhat increasing her allowance; if she intend to be a Nurse to her Child, she may take a little more then ordi|nary to increase the Milk by degrees which must be of no continuance, but drawn off, either by the Child, or otherwise. In this case likewise, let her have Coriander or Fennel-Seeds, boiled in her barly-broath; but by any means, for the time specified let her abstain from Meat. If no Fever trouble her, she may drink now and then a small quantity of White-wine or Claret as also Syrup of Maiden-hair, or other Syrup that is Astringent, taking it in a little water well boiled: And after the suspi|cion of a Fever, or fear of contraction of Hu|mours in the Breast, she may be nourished more plentifully with the Broath of Pullets, Capons, Pidgeons, Mutton, Veal, &c. which must not be till after eight days, from the day of delive| is over, at what time the Womb, unless some accident hinder, has purged it self; it will be then likewise expedient to give her cold Meat sparingly, that so she may be enabled to gather strength, she during the time resting quiet and free from disturbance not sleeping in the day time if she can avoid it. If there Page  150 happen any obstruction in the Evacuation of the Excrement, a Glyster may be adminstred to help the defect, made after the manner following.

Receipt.

Take of both the Mallows and Pelletory of the Wall, a handfull of each, Cammomile and Mellylot Flowers, of each a handfull, Anny-seeds and Fennel-seeds, of each two ounces, boil them in the decoction of a Sheeps head, and take of this three quarts disolving in them of common Honey and course Suger, two Ounces strained well, and administer it Glysterwise, but if it not operate to your mind, then may you take an Ounce of Catholicox.

Page  151

CHAP. XXII. What ought to be done to the Child when new|ly born, with divers other matters relating thereto,

THE Navel of the Child having been before recited, the Midwife must cleanse the Infant, not only in the Face, but likwise the whole Body, anointing the Groin, Hips, Buttocks, with Oyl of sweet Almonds, or Oyl of Ross, to make the Skin supple and clse the Pores, thereby to exclude the penetration of the Air, and strengthen the Members, nor would it be a|miss if she should take the decoction of Ro|ses or Rose-cakes, and red Sage decocted in White-wine, and bathe the Child there|with, the decoction being blood-warm.

The Infant being thus well anointed, or supplied, and well dried, wrap it up warm, and give it a spoonful of Suger and Molla|go, or a scruple of Mithridate or Venice-Treacle, dissolved in half a spoonfull of Ca|nary, and after it a lettle Cardus-water, observing to bathe or anoint it each morn|ing as aforesaid. If the Child have extream throws immediately after it comes into the World, it must be rubbed with Juice of Pellitry or the Decoction unto which fresh Page  152 Butter is melted, or for want of that Spinage-Juice, with Hogs Grease applied to the Navel, with new layed Eggs, mix|ed or cemented with Nut Oyl, laying them likewise to the Navel; or you may admi|nister a Clyster made with milk, the Yolk of an Egg, and a small quantity of Sugar, which will undoubtedly ease the Pain.

Now some Children are born of evil con|stituted Parents, or are defective thro' the evil nourishment the Woman has unadvi|sedly taken during her Pregnancy, which occasions the Child to be much afflicted with flegmatick Humours, to expell which you may lay the Child on one side, and then turn it to the other, for if you lay it upon the Back, it will be subject to Suffoca|tion or strangling, by the ascent of the hu|mor, the Belly must above all things, be kept soluble, causing the Infant to void the Blood kept in the Intrails, from the time of its being in the Womb, by giving it a small quantity of Suppository of black Soap mix|ed with fresh Butter, to take away the Acrimony of it, after which immediately let the Infant take a Spoonfull of Syrup of Violets which will oblige Flegm to pass down; but if heat be defective add to the Syrup half the quantity of Oyl of sweet Almonds, bathing the Belly and Stomach of it as it is undressed.

Page  153If it happens that the Child's Cods be full of wind, the Child must be gently moved to and fro, and the Cods anointed with Oyl of Mirrh, giving it the liquid Anni|seeds boiled in small Drink, if they be swelled or extended with Water, rub and chafe the Skin with fresh Butter, and the Water will swet out. But what is more to be regarded than any other thing, is the chusing a good Nurse, for upon that choice depends the thriving or not thriving of the Child, and in such Cases these things ought to be regarded, viz. Observe that she be not dull sighted, squint-eyed, have down cast looks; that she be not con|sumptive, or subject to Fits, that her Breath is pure, that no noisom Vapour be con|veyed to the Lungs of the Child, that she be not infected with Bloaches, Boyls Blains, or that she or her Husband never were afflicted with the French Di|sease, that she is not given to excessive Drinking, or Gluttony, nor in the least subject to Epilepsie or falling Evil. For the Nurse being in a manner the second Mother to the Child, it drawing from her good or evil humours, especial care must therefore be taken that the Nurse be good conditioned, moderate in meat and drink, wakeful and vigilant, not fretful nor sub|ject to passion, that her Milk be clean and Page  154 sweet, flowing sufficiently, her Breasts well fixed and large, not over-fleshy nor she over-fat; and above all, that she be not too desirous of carnal Copulation, by which means the Milk will be rendred unwhol|som. Having thus far proceeded in these af|fairs, I shall thro' God's Blessing lay down divers necessary matters for the Preserva|tion of Childing Women and Infants, thereby to prevent the hazard and Loss which too often happens in such Cases.

CHAP, XXIV. To know the Exact time of Delivery by Signs that precede it, and how to cause the Wo|man to retain the Birth.

IN the Business of Generation, nothing is more to be regarded by the Woman, than the time of her Conception and Quick|ning, that thereby she may be enabled to be exact in the time of her delivery, every natu|ral Delivery being at the End of 9 months, especialy if at the time or near it the Wo|man is wont to have her Natural Purga|tions or that the time fall out with the Full or New Moon: Nay, tho' a day or two before or after▪ for these things so falling out, not only hasten, but facilitate Delivery, and Page  155 the knowledge of this must extend to the Woman for many Reasons. First, that she may prepare and dispose of her self for so great a task. Second, for that at such a time divers Maladies are incident to her, nor can their Cause be penetrated into, un|less those things be well known, &c. Now one thing necessary the better to enable the Woman to understand it, is the time of Natural Courses, for in case she have for|got, or by not rightly understandeng their natural Efflux, or is puzzled therein by reason of some unnatural Retention or ex|traordinary Evacuation, she may rectify her Judgment by these Directions, viz. From the Age of 14 to 21, Women have their courses according to the most natural cour|ses of the new Moon; from 21 to 30 in the first Quarter; from 30 to 37 or 38 in the Full Moon: and from that time to the time they cease in the last Quarter.

Beside what is before-mentioned she will be made sensible of the approaching time by pain in her Groin, Thighs, the small of her Back, the lower part of her Navel, together with swelling and hardness in the said pla|ces, shivering and quaking throut the Body, as if possessed with an Ague, and sud|denly after with flushing Heat, Feebleness and Lassitude, smll Sweats on the Face, and Flushings of the Blood there, and her Bo|dy Page  156 will be in a manner restless, she shall per|ceive the Child move downward with more force than ordinary, and a bloody water will distill from the inferiour parts, in case of these Fore-runners, she may be assured her time is at hand, when as she must not delay sending for her Midwife whose Office tis to order her to the best advan|tage, directions for which I have already given, for wonderful it is that Nature has so well ordred her works that the Ma|trix opens not unless upon some extra|ordinary Casualty, before the time▪ perfixd and not till then do these Signs appear. But appearing they ought to be much re|garded, if the Woman desires her own safety and the preservation of the Child.

In case the Woman be subject to Mis|carriage, or to come before her time, let her take Mint, Roses Marjorum, of each a small handful bruise them together, put them in a bag flat, and hang it about the Womans Neck, so that it might reach to the pit of her Stomach, and it will draw the Womb upwards, or keep it in its place that it shall not fall down, or give the Child occasion to seek for an untimely passage.

Page  157

CHAP. XXV. Of the washing of Women after Delivery, with Directions how to make them.

FOR the first Wash, take a good hand|full of young Chervil, boil it in two pints of water, which having done, add to it a spoonful of Honey of Roses, and let the Midwife use it at her discretion, and it will draw down the Purgations, heal and cleanse the afflicted Part. There are some that use Milk instead of water, affirming that it greatly mitigates the Pain: but by those whom Experience hath taught better, it is rejected: this having been used Eight days, the second Wash may be made,

Take Provence Roses moist if you can, but if not, the dry Cakes, put them into a litele Lin|nen Bag, and boyl them sufficiently in half a pint of Water, and half a pint of whitewine, and use it as the former for other eight days, viz. The liquid part well strained.

The third and last wash must be made of the decoction of Province Roses; in a pint of white|wine, and a quarter of a pint of Mirrh water, and use it only four days,

Page  158

CHAP. XXVI. An Astringent for Women when occasion re|quires, as also directions for a Sear-Cloth and how to cleanse her before she rise.

TO make an Astringent, Take Pomegranets Roach Allum and Galls of each Two Oun|ces, Knot Grass a handful, of Province Roses Four Ounces, the Rinds of Cassia Pomegranets each three Ounces, of Scarlet Berries, and Sper|maceti of each One ounce. The water of Roses myrrh and Burnet, each one ounce and half, White wine and Water of the Smiths Forge, of each a quarter of a point; then take Two little Bags about a quarter of a yard long, and half a quarter broad, boyle them in Water with the Drugs of Simples in them, and in a new glaz'd Pipkin, and use them, successive|ly as occasion requires.

To make an exceeding convenient Sear-Cloth to ease the pain, and reduce the Bo|dy into a good temperament.

Take Virgins Wax 8 ounces Sperma|tici and Venice Turpentine, well washed in Rose and Plantain Water, of an ounce and a half, adding to then. hilst they are melting an ounce of White Lead of Venice pulverized, and having by the operation of the Fire well mixed them Page  159 together, spread them Plaster-wise upon a Cloth, fit to cover the Belly as far as is convenient; some of this you may lay upon the Nipples; having first anointed them with the Oyl of Acrons or Spermaciti and it will allay the Inflamation, and much strengthen them.

Take a considerable quantity of bitter Almonds peel them, and bruse them well, and make them into a Past with the Yolk of an Egg, and Powder of Grise, put the Paste into a bag of Shamy, dip it in black Wine, tempring it well, and use it upon the place where the Sear-cloths have been laid on? after that, wash the said places with black Wine, wherein Oringe flowers have been steeped, and It will cleanse these parts to admiration.

Page  160

CHAP. XXVII. How to expel the Cholick from Women in Child-Birth, and the violent Gripings that attend the first Dilivery.

THese pains frequently afflict the Wo|man, no less then the pangs of her La|bour, and are by the Ignorant taken many times, the one for the other, sometimes a|gain they joyn forces, and happen at the same instant, which is occasioned by the crude Matter in the Stomach, contracted through indignation; and while such a pain lasts, the Woman advanceth nothing to|wards her Travel; to expel the Fits o the Cholick; Therefore.

Take two Ounces of sweet Almonds Oy and an Ounce of Cinnamon Water with three or four drops of Spirit of Ginger and let the Woman drink it off, and if this work not your desire make a Clyster of Camom Balm leaves Olive Oyl and new milk, boile the former in the latter; and having strain'd it very well administer it, as tis usual in such cases, nor are Fomentations, proper for dis|pelling wind, amiss.

If the pain prove the Griping in th Guts, continuing long after Delivery, or if i happen upon the Courses deending by reason of the smallness of the Veins, which Page  161onvey the Blood into the Matrix, which ften befalls Women lying in of the first hild; wherefore it its altogether conve|ient to use such a Remedy, at such a time, s may eradicate the Cause for the Future, nd above all, I recommend this most ap|roved one, used with success by many Noble-women,

Receipt. Take the root of great Comfry a dram, utmegs and Peach-kernel, of each two scruples, llow Amber, and Ambergrise, of the former a am and the latter a scruple, bruise them to|ether▪ and give them the Woman as soon as she laid down, in two or three Spoonfuls of White-wine, but if it so happen that she be Fe|erish, then let it be in as much warm Broth.

CHAP. XXVIII. approved Receipts for hindring the monthly Flux in Women with Child; also to cause Wo|men that are fearful, and subject to Abortion, to contain the Birth. Together with preparatory Ointments, to be used before the time of Deli|very, and Directions for stopping or preventing Vomiting, much incident to Women with Child.

O hinder the Superfluity or Efflux dan|gerous to Women far gone with Child. ke the Oil of Roses, Virgin-Wax, Juice of ale Knot-grass, of each 3 Ounces, Bole-Ar|niack, Crocus Martis, of each six drams, Page  162 melt 'em and bruise 'em till they become pliable and capable of being spread Plaisterwise; and when the Flux descends, lay it to her Loins whilst she lies in bed. Or to the same Effect You may take Crocus Martis a Dram, Knot-grass Juice 4 Ounces, Rose-water and Vinegar of each an ounce, adding to them the white of an Eg, and apply them cold upon a linnen cloth to her Loins. If the Woman be fearful of con|taining the Birth and be subject to Abortion▪ Take the roots of Tormentile and Snamwood, of each an Ounce and half, Jobertus's Astringen Powder, Mirtle-berries, Pomegranat-Flowers of each 6 drams, Dragons-blood and Spong-be|deguar, of each half a ounce, Frankincense and Mastick, of each 3 Drams, Nutmeg and Cloves, of each half a Dram, common Pitch six Ounces, Cinnamon a Dram, Venice Tur|pentine washed in the Juice of Shepherds Purse, 2 Ounces, melt and well incorpo|rate them till they become pliable to be spread plaisterwise, and apply the Plaiste upon Leather to the Reins.

To make an Ointment of exceeding Vse befor Delivery. Take the Oil of White-Lilly▪ roots, and Camomile, each 5 Ounces, new Hogs-seam strained, and fresh Butter, o each an Ounce and a half, Mucilage of th Seed of Fenugreck extracted in Mugwort water 2 Ounces, the Powder of roun Birth-wort Roots and Saffron, of each twPage  163 drams, Wax an Ounce and half, melt them over a gentle Fire; and having strained it forth, anoint and supple the Woman's Thighs, Hips and Matrix therewith.

In case of Vomiting or Nauseating, which too frequently befalls young Childing Wo|men. Take a Sear-cloth, sprinkle it with Galbanum, Powder of Cloves and Mastick, then covering it with Linnen or Silk, in orm of a Stomacher, applying it to the Stomach, renewing it as the Scent decays.

CHAP. XXIX. A Pomatum for the Midwife to anoint her hands with when she is about her Office, as also the Womb of the Woman to be delivered; Ex|cellent Applications to straighten and streng|then the Womans Delivery.

AMong the many excellent Pomatums or Ointment for Midwives Hands, and annointing the Womb for to render the irth easie, I recommend this as chief, viz. Take of Hempseed-Oil an Ounce, of Ca|stor-Oil an Ounce, Galmoschate half a Scruple, of Laudanum a Scruple, with a gentle Fire make them into an Ointment, to be used as before mentioned.

To contract the Womb after Delivery. Take the Leaves of Strawort and Mirtle of each 3 Ounces, Green Medlars, Pruans and wild Page  164 Pears, of each 8 or 9 Ounces, the Stomach of 3 Cocks fresh killed and newly taken out; all which distil, and dipping Cotton into the Water issuing from them, make it into the Form of a Pessary, and put it into the Womb, there let it continue a considerable space.

To strengthen the Womb. Take of Pomage and Violet-Flowers, each a handful, Dit|tany of Crete an Ounce, Wood-Sorrel a handful, Honey of Roses, half an Ounce, Maiden-hair an Ounce, boill them in White-wine and inject the liquid Part into the Womb, the Woman taking soon after it this Potion, viz. of Fennel, Succory, and Bugloss-Roots, take 2 Ounces of each, boil them in 24 Ounces of White-wine, to the Consumption of two Parts, adding afterwards Fennel-water, and Suc|cory-water, of each 3 Ounces, boiling them again, till the 5th part be consumed, and of this let her Drink an Ounce at a time, con|tinuing so to do Morning and Evening for ten Days.

CHAP, XXX. To keep the Milk from Curdling in the Breast, or to dry it up; a most approved Receipt; as also to increase the Milk.

IF the Milk be subject to curdle in the Breast, past doubt, it will contract Pains Page  165 or disorder there as well as in the Child that draws it forth; wherefore to prevent its so doing, Take the Roots of Althaea half a Pound, boil them in Whitewine Vi|negar, strain them through a fine Seive, adding to the liquid Part Bean-flower one Ounce, Powder of Rue and dried Mint, of each a Dram, Oil of Mastick 2 Ounces, boil them again till they come to a Thick|ness or Pliableness, and so anoint the Breast.

To dry up the Milk, Take Honey new|ly taken from the Bees, dissolve this water, and after wash the Breasts therewith, or take the Juice of Spire-mint, and Shep|herds-purse, of each half an Ounce, mix them and sweeten them with a little of the aforesaid Honey, and drink them in the Morning with the Broth of a Hen or Chic|ken: Or she may take the Oil of Violets 2 Ounces, the Juice of Mint and Parsley a like Quantity, an Ounce of Whitewine Vinegar, Rosewater to Ounces; boil them over a gentle fire, to the Consumption of the Juice, adding a little Wax to make them into an Ointment, and annoint the Breast therewith; or for want of these, take Elder-tops, Sage and Mint, of all of them a Handful, boil them soft in Spring-water, and lay them to her Breast.

If the Woman be scarce of Milk, and for the benefit of the Child would increase it, Page  166 Let her take the Decoction of Fennel, and bathe her Breast therewith, mixing the Juice of Oak-Appple and the same time take inwardly this following Powder, viz. Of Anniseeds, Fennel-seeds and Cummin|seeds, of each 2 drrms, of beaten Ginger half an Ounce, of both sorts of Pepper 2 Drams, Coral a Dram, of Chrystal and Cinnamon, each a Dram, the Seeds Docks a Dram, Siser Montanus an Ounce and half, Cardamons and long Pepper, of each a dram and half, of Seseleus half an Ounce, the Seeds of Sasasum an Ounce, of White-Poppy one Ounce, mingle and dry them till they are capable of being beat into Powder, one dram of which the Woman must take at a time, Morning and Evening, in Broth made of Red Coleworts, anoint|ing her Breasts the mean time with an Oint|ment made of Venice Turpentine, Vinegar of Roses and Bees-wax, of each an equal Proportion.

CHAP. XXXI. For a Pain in the Breast immediately upon Delivery, or Fissure.

TAke new Bees-wax 2 Ounces, Nut-Oil half an Ounce, of Rape-seed Oil the like quantity as the latter, when melting the Wax, add the Oil, and temper them well together to the thickness of a stiff Page  167 Ointment or Salve, and spread them upon a Cloth fit to cover the Breast, and apply it with extraordinary Success.

In case a Fissure happen in the Breast, Take of the Powder of Gum Arabick an Ounce, Rose-water and Aqua Vitae, of each an Ounce, prepare them by beating them to|gether till they are of an pt thickness, then seeth them over the Fire, and when cool apply them plaisterwise to the Fissure; or for want of these take Unguentum Rosa|rum▪ and annoint the Place grieved apply|ing upon it a Pultis of Ground-Ivy.

CHAP. XXXII. The Cause of the Bellies swelling after Deli|very, and how to prevent it; and cure it if it happens.

CErtain it is, and Experience teacheth then that many Women have their Bel|lies swelled after Delivery, as much almost as before; and this happens through too much Neglect, and Carelesness in not having regard to foment them, as also apply a thing convenient to the Privities, by which means Windiness and Vapours enter and contract in the hollow Concavities, Veins and Arteries, the latter of which they en|ter by insensible Ways. Now to prevent it, Take Origanum, Night-shade and Mastick, of Page  168 each a scruple, Sagapenum a dram, mix them together, and make them into 7 Pills, take them all at once, and after them take the quantity of a quarter of a pint of the Water of white Lil|lies, viz. of the Flowers.

In case it be come already, let her take half a pound of Spanish Figs, the Meces of Barly, and Beans finely sifted 4 Ounces of each, 2 ounces of well-burnt Brick pulve|rized, syrup of Nuts an Ounce, boil them in as much Water of the Smiths Forge as will suffice to bring them to a Thickness, then spread them on a Linnen-Cloth and apply them to the Belly twice, and it will return to its wontd smallness.

CHAP. XXXIII. Of the Inflammations of the Breast and its Cure.

THE inflamation in the Breast is no other than the hard Swelling accom|panied with a shooting pain, also a Heating and Redness, and is mostly caused by the Abundance of Blood drawn or flowing to the Breast, and sometimes, but rarely, it is occasioned by the suppression of the Menses, the Hemorrhoids, or some Bruise received by a Blow, or the like, and is known by a certain Redness, and burning Heat, causing the whole to be Feverish and out of Order. To cure it then, first let the Diet Page  169 be comforting, moistening, and of good Nourishment, as the Broth of Pullets, Ca|pons, Cocks, Chickens, Veal, &c. where|in Endive, Borage, Purslain or Letuce has been boiled; and if she can get it, let the Woman drink Juice of Pomegranats; but for want of that, Barly-water wherein An|niseeds have been boiled; but let her re|frain drinking of Wine and strong Liquors, as likewise hot Spices; and if she find any Obstruction in her excremental Evacua|tion, let her take a softning or mollifying Clyster, and sleep at seasonable times as much as she can. Another way to remedy it, is by diverting the Humours, which may be done by rubbing the Body in all adjacent places, letting Blood in the Foot, scarification of the Legs, or Vesicatories ap|plied in those Places, especially if the Men|ses are stopped or ready to come down, if not, it is requisite to bleed in the Arm.

But if what has been mentioned prevail not to remove the Humours make a Cata|plasm of the Leaves of Melilot and Night|shade▪ each a handful: and when boiled in Spring-water, add to them Bean meal 2 Ounces, Oil of sweet Almonds and Oat|meal of each an Ounce, and apply them to the Breast observng so to do before the Breast be extraordinarily inflamed.

Page  170

CHAP. XXXIV. A Tumour in the Breast, its Cause and Cure.

OF Tumours there are several sorts, but first of the Flagitious Tumour, the Cause of which proceeds from a thick and unnatural Vapour, arising from the Men|strual Blood, which is retained corrupted in the Matrix, and that again occasioned by the suppression of the Courses, or when Nature is defective in discharging them in|to their proper Place in due time; as also from Corruption of Humours, whereby are ingendred evil Vapours, and their pas|sing by several Ways, causes the Breast to swell or distend as if it were a true swel|ling, and is known by a shooting pain, and disorder of Heart, by Reason of the Wind that oppresseth it, the left Breast being for the most part more swelled than the right, communicating Pains to the Arms and Shoulders, as likewise the Ribs on the same side, the Breast being white and shining, sounding like a Drum if touched gently, and swelled in all Parts alike: to cure this, as also the windy Tu|mour, you must order to observe a mode|ration in Diet, and thereby Crudities may be avoided, and all such things as contract windy Humours in the Veins, suffering her Page  [unnumbered] to drink Water wherein Cinnamon and Anniseeds have been boiled, as also the Rind of Citron, and then let her observe to take such things as are proper to provoke the Courses, in doing which she will find the Humours abate, then let her take Ce|lundine, Camomile, Groundsil, and Ground-Juice, stamp them and boil them in White wine, and in so doing, you will ease the Pain and restore the Breast. As for Dis|eases and Accidents incident to young Children, there are few Women of any Experience, but are skilful in curing and ordering them, wherefore for brevities sake I shall pass them over and proceed to Anatommize the Genital Parts of a Man, that one thing remaining necessary in this Trreatise; as also to instance what Men and Women ought to marry, that their Issue may be fair, healthful, and prosperous.

CHAP. XXXV. The Anatomy of the Organs of Generation in Man.

THE Yard, which is called in Latin Penis a Pendendo because it hangeth out of the Organal Part, is made of Skin, Ten|dons, Veins, Arteries, Sinews and great Liga|ments; and is long, round, and on the up|per side flattish, seated under the Ossa Pubis, Page  [unnumbered] and design'd by Nature, partly for making of Water, and partly for conveying the Seed into the Matrix. To which end, there o|pen into it small Pores, through which the Seed passes to it from the Vesiculae Seminales, and also the Neck of the Vesica Vrinari which pours out the Urine in making of Water. Besides the common parts, as the Cirticle, the Skin, and the Membrana Carnosa, it has in these proper or internal Parts, as the two Nervous Bodies, the Septum, the Vrethra, the Glans, four Muscles, and the Vessels. The Nervous Body (so called) are surroun|ded with a thick white nervous Membrane, but their inner substance is spungy, consi|sting chiefly of Veins, Arteries and nervous Fibres interwoven together like a Net: and when the Nerves are repleat with Animal Spirits, and the Arteries with hot and spi|ritous Blood, then the Penis is distended and becomes Erect; but when the Influx of the Spirits ceases, then the Blood and remaining Spirits absorded by the Veins, and so the Penis becomes limber and flaggy. Be|low these nervous Bodies lie the Vrethra, and whenever the nervous Bodies swell, it swells also. The Muscles of the Penis are Four, two shorter, arising from the Coxendix, and serving it Erection, are therefore called Erectres; and two larger, proceeding from the Spincter of the Arms and serve to Page  173 dilate the Vrethra from Miction and Eje|ction of the Seed, and are therefore called Dilatantes or Wideners. At the End of the Penis is the Glans, covered with a very thin Membrane by means of which, and its Nervous Substance, it becomes most exqui|sitely enible, and is the Principal Seat of Pleasure in Copulation. The outmost Co|vering of the Glans is called Praeputium; a praeputanda, from being cut off, it being that which the Jews cut off in Circumci|sion: And it is ed in the lower part of it to the Glans by the Fraenum or Bridle. The Penis is also stocked with Veins, Arteries and Nerves, and that part that is next a|bove it towards the Belly is called the Pubes, and its lateral Parts is called Inguina, the Groins.

The Testicles or Stones, (so called because they testifie one to be a Man) elaborate the Blood brought to them by the Spermatick Arteries, into Seed. They have Coats of two sorts, and invest both the Testes, Cuti|cula, and true Skin, and is called Scrotum, hanging out of the Abdomen like a Purse. The inner, Common Coats in the Membra|na Carnosa; the proper Coats are also two, the outer called Eltroides or Virginales, the nner Albiginea, into the outer are inserted the Cremister Muscles; to the upper part of the Testes are fixed the Epididymedes or Page  174Prostata, from whence arise the Vasa Defe|rentia and Ejectoria; which when they come near the Neck of the Bladder deposite the Seed into the Vesiculae Seminales. These Vesiculae Seminales are two, each like a bunch of Grapes, and emit the Seed into the Vre|thra in the Act of Copulation.

Near them are the Prostata, about the big|ness of a Walnut, and joined to the Neck of the Bladder, Authors cannot agree about the Use of them, but most are of Opinion that they afford an Oily, slippery and Fat Humour to besmear the Vrethra whereby to defend it from the Acrimony of the Seed, and is made like the Arteria Spermatica and also two. The Veins which carry back the remaining Blood are two and have the name of Venae Spermaticae.

CHAP, XXVI. What Women ought to Marry, with what Men, that they might have Children

IN respect of Married Women that prove Childless Hypocrates adviseth this Expe|riment to be tried to know whether the Defect be on the Woman's part, or on he Husbands, which is to make her Suffumi|gations with Incense or Storax, with a Garment loose wrapped about her, which may hang down on the Ground, in such Page  175 sort that no Vapour nor Fume may issue out, and if within a while after she feel the Savour of the Incense in her Mouth she may then conclude that the Barrenness comes not through her own Defect, but through her Husband's forasmuch as the Fumes found the Passage open, whereby it pierced up the Nostrils. But although this proof perform that Effect which Hy|pocrates speaketh of; namely the piercing up to the Inner part of the Mouth; yet is this no infallible Argument of the Hus|bands Barrenness, nor of the Fruitfulness of the Wife, since Want of Children may arise through an unapt disposition in them both in respect of the Correspondency of Qualities, for it hath oftentimes appeared that a Man that could not have Children by one Wife, hath had them by another; the like also hath befallen Women.

Hypocrates gives us his Opinion concer|ning the correspondency that ought in that respect to be betwixt Man and Wife, in these Words; If the Hot and Dry, answer not the Cold and Moist, in Measure and Quantity, that is if there meet in the Womb two Seeds, the one Hot, the other Cold; the one Dry, the other Moist, ex|tended in equal Degree, there can be no Generation. For so marvellous a Work as the Formation of Man (says he) could Page  176 not be performed without proportionable Commixture of Seed. To exemplifie this Assertion of his, the Ancient Physicians go on, and say, That a Woman, who is wilely, ill-conditioned, shrill-voicd, lean, swarthy-coloured and deformed; (which are the signs of Cold and Moist in the first Degree) may conceive by a Man who is ignorant, good-natur'd, sweet-voic'd▪ cor|pulent, having little hair, a well-colur'd Face, and a handsome Body, (which are the Signs of Hot and Dry in the first Degree) in regard she retaineth a mean in all those signs above-mentioned, is most like to be fruitful, because she comes nearest in pro|portion to Men of each several Tempera|ture. But from the first of these Unions or Conjoining of Man and Woman, are most likely to issue the wisest Children (say they) because the dryness of the Mother correcteth and amendeth the Defect of the Father. But this being chiefly grounded upon that old Opinion, of the Commix|ture of the Seed of the Man and Woman together, and of the Child's being formed from thence we think fit to reject it, and to affirm, That Youth, Strength, and Vi|gour, a sound body, and a Mind free from Cares, with a mutual Love and Amity betwixt the Man and Woman seldom fail of their desired Effects.

Page  177

CHAP. XXXVII. A Word of Advice to both Sexes in the Act of Copulation.

THE Act of Copulation being ordai|ned by Nature as the Ground of all Generation, and without which no Birth can be produced; somewhat must be said of it; but we shall cloath it in the modest Dress, that the chastest Ears may hear, without being put to the Trouble of a Blush.

It is convenient on this Occasion to che|rish the Body with generous Restoratives, to charm the Imagination with Musick, to drown all Cares in good Wine; that so the Mind being elevated to a Pitch of Joy and Rapture, the sensual Appetite may be more freely encouraged to gratifie it self in the Delights of Nature: For Melancholy and Grief and whatsoever is troublesome to the Senses and Fancy, are Enemies to the Pastime of the Nuptial-Bed. Yet is it ne|cessary to avoid Excesses in Eating and Drinking; for if the Body be over-charg'd with Wine or Meat, the Spirits will be|come dull and unactive, and unable to prform their Office. This you may take for a good Rule, That a little of what is Page  178 good and well-digested, breeds good blood, good blood creates good Spirits, and when a Man is invigorated with a plentiful Stock of such, he is able to do Miracles. Also when the Husband and Wife meet with an equal Ardour in their conjugal Embraces, it is very rare if it be not at|tended with Conception. But when that Act is over, all is not done; for, that it may have the better Suceess, the Husband must not presently seperate himself from his Wife's Embraces, lest the Air should suddenly strike in, and so prevent the Issue of their Labours. And when the Man departs the Woman ought to compose her self to all the Rest and Quietness imagina|ble, and to avoid heavy Thoughts of what may cause any Disturbance; and especially she ought to avoid Coughing and Snee|zing, both which are great hinderances to Conception, after the Act of Copulation.

Parry saith, That in the Year, he saw in Paris, a Boy, nine years old, born near Guise, he had but two Fingers on his right Hand, his Arm was well pro|portioned from the top of his Shoul|ders to bis Wrist, but from thence to the Fingers Ends, it was very deformed, he wanted his Legs and Thighs, &c. As in the Page following.

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The Effigies of a Monstrous Child, by reason of the Defect of the Matter of Seed.

In Stecquer a Village of Saxony, they say, a Monster was born with Four Feet, Eyes, Mouth and Nose like a Calf, with a Page  180 round and red Excrescence of Flesh on the Forehad, and also a Piece of Flesh, like a Hood, hung from his Neck upon his Back, and it was deform'd with its Thighs torn and cut, as here shewen.

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An. Dom, 1393. There was generated of a Woman and a Dog, an Issue which, from the Navel upward, perfectly resembled the shape of the Mother, but Page  181 thence downward the Sire, i. c. the Dog. This Monster was sent to the Pope that then reigned, as Voluterane writeth, Caedane also mentions it, wherefore I have given you the Figure thereof.

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Page  182Jovianus Pontanus tells us, in 1529 Jan. 9. there was a Man Child born in Gormany having 4 Arms and as many Legs. As in this Figure.

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In the Year of our Lod 1512 (in which year upon Easter day, near Ravenna, was fought that mortal Battle in which the Popes Fores were ovverthrown) a Monster was born in RavennaPage  183 having a horn upon the Crown of his head, and besides two VVings, and one Foot alone, most like the Feet of Birds of Birds of Prey, and in the Knee thereof one Eye, the Privities of Male and Female, the rest of the Body like a Man as you may see by the Figure.

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FINIS.