BRUCE, EARL OF AILESBURY.
THE family of Bruce is of the same lineage as the kings of Scotland, being de∣scended from Robert le Brus (or Bruis) a noble knight of Normandy, who was a person of such note and valour, and so much confided in by William Duke of Normandy, that after his victory obtained on October 14th, 1066, over Harold King of England, he sent him to subdue the northern parts of that realm: which having successfully performed, he was rewarded with no less than forty-three lord∣ships in the East and West-Ridings of Yorkshire, and fifty-one in the North-Riding of that county; where the manor and castle of Skelton was the capital of his barony. He likewise obtained by conquest, and other ways, Hert and Hertness in the bishoprick of Durham. This Robert died about the year 1100, according to some writers, but according to others, about the year 1094; and left issue, a son and successor,
ROBERT DE BRUIS, SECOND LORD OF SKELTON, a man of great worth and honour, who contracted a great friendship with David I. King of Scotland, while that monarch remained in England; where he was styled Earl and Prince of Cumberland, during the reign of Alexander I. his brother and predecessor, and was also Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon, and Northampton, in right of his con∣sort, Mathilda, or Maud, daughter of the renowned Earl Waltheof. This Robert de Bruis accompanied King David into Scotland, and was accounted one of his no∣bles and subjects, as is evident from the register of he bishoprick of Glasgow, where it is recited, that David, by writ between the years 1120 and 1124, gave centum soli∣dorum Page 154in Hardingestra (in Northamptonshire) for repairing the church of Glasgow, with the consent of Mathilda his wife, et procerum et militum meorum, Roberti de Brus, &c. It is equally evident, from sundry documents, that the same Robert was pos∣sessed on the lordship of Annandale, which contained all the lands, from the bounds of Dunnegal and Strathnith, to the lands of Ranulph de Meschines, then Earl of Chester and Lord of Cumberland; and it is affirmed by some historians, that by the mediation of King David, he obtained them in marriage with Agnes Annand, heir∣ess of that vast estate, of which he got confirmation from that monarch, and thereby had large possessions in both kingdoms. As he was a man of great parts, and equally qualified for the cabinet and the field, he was in high favour with Henry I. King of England, as well as with the said David, King of Scotland. Being at the court of England, A. D. 1137, King Stephen joined him in commission with Ber∣nard de Baliol, to endeavour to dissuade or divert King David from his intended in∣vasion of England, and Robert used all his interest with the Scottish monarch; but to no purpose, for that prince, neglecting the advice, pursued his former resolutions, and entered England with a considerable army. Upon that, Robert withdrew his allegiance from David, and was on the English side at the famous battle of the Stan∣dard, which proved fatal to the Scots, and was fought in 1138, near Northalverton, or Northallerton, in Yorkshire. In this action Robert de Brus took prisoner his own son Robert, who had been left in Scotland, and was then about 14 years of age. When the father presented him to King Stephen, his majesty desired that he might be delivered to his nurse to be taken care of: an Sir William Dugdale says, he was more fit to be eating wheat-bread with his mother, than by force of arms to be defend∣ing his patrimony of Annandale, &c. However, peace being concluded next year between the two kingdoms, in consequence of which Northumberland was given to Henry, Prince of Scotland, Robert continued in favour and friendship with King David ever after.
This Robert was very eminent for his piety and devotion, having, in 1129, 29 Henry I. (as appears by Sir William Dugdale's Monasticon) founded a monastery for canons regular of St. Augustine, at Gysburn, or Gisburne (commonly called Gisborough) in Cleveland, Agnes his wife, and Adam his son and heir, joining with him therein, amply endowing it with 20 carucates of land, each carucate then con∣taining 60 acres. This monastery was the common burial-place of the nobility and Page 155persons of rank in those parts; and its church, by the ruins, seems to have been equal to the best cathedrals in England. He also bestowed upon the same monastery the patronage of all the churches within his lordship of Annandale, viz. the churches of Annand, Lochmaben, Kirkpatrick, Cumbertrees, Renpatrick, Drivesdale, Hod∣ham, Castlemilk, Grentenhou, with all the appurtenances of each and singular of those churches. He also gave the church of Middlesburgh, with two carucates, and two bovates of land in Nehuham, to the monks of Whitby in Yorkshire, on condi∣tion that they should place certain of their convent there; with which they complied, and made it a cell to their abbey; he likewise gave to the abbey of St. Mary's, at York, his lordships of Appilton, and Hornby, with all the lands lying betwixt the same and the great road leading from York to Durham, being part of his lordship of Mid∣dleton. He also gave them two carucates of land, and a mill in Sunderland-Wick, as also the town of Karkarevill, which by the monks of that house were assigned to their cell at Wederhal in Cumberland. According to Sir William Dugdale, he departed this life, 5 Id. Maii, (i.e. May 11th) 1141, and was buried in the said abbey of Gisburne; but according to Sir James Dalrymple, in the year 1143. However, he had two wives, 1st, Agnes, and English lady, daughter of Fulco Paynell, with whom he had the manor of Carleton; and, 2d, Agnes Annand, who brought him the lordship of Annandale, as before-mentioned. By the first he was father of a son, Adam, his successor in most of the English estates; and by his 2d lady he had two sons, William, of whom afterwards, as continuator of the male line of this illus∣trious family, and Robert, taken prisoner, as before recited, but of whose posterity there is no certain evidence. He is likewise said to have had a daughter, Agatha, wife of Ralph (son of Ribald, Lord of Middleham in Yorkshire) who had with her in frank-marriage the lordship of Ailewick in Hertness, in the palatinate of Durham.
His eldest son ADAM, THIRD LORD OF SKELTON, behaved with great valour in the aforesaid battle near Northalverton, against the King of Scotland. Ac∣cording to the piety of those times, he founded the priory of Hoton in Yorkshire; and he and Ivetta, his wife, dedicated the church of Thorp to the cathedral of York. He was also a benefactor to other religious houses; and departing this life on March 20th, 1162, 8 Henry II. had sepulture with his father at Gisburne. He was suc∣ceeded by his son, another
ADAM, FOURTH LORD OF SKELTON, who dying in July, 1185, left issue, Page 156a son, Peter, his successor, and a daughter, Isabel, wedded to Henry de Percy (an∣cestor to the Earls of Northumberland) with whom he had, in marriage, by gift of the said Peter her brother, the manor of Leckenfield (near Beverley in Yorkshire) for which, he and his heirs were to repair to Skelton-castle, every Christmas-day, and lead the lady of the castle from her chamber to the chapel to say mass, and thence to her chamber again; and, after dining with her, to depart. The said Adam was succeeded by his aforesaid son,
PETER DE BRUS, FIFTH LORD OF SKELTON, who in 10 Richard I. paid 500 marks for his father's lands, and departing this life, on January 27th, 1211, 12 John, was interred at Gisburne, leaving another
PETER, SIXTH LORD OF SKELTON, who in 17 John, was in arms against the king, with other barons, who were offended at his having resigned his crown to Pope Innocent III. and consenting to hold it as a vassal to the see of Rome; and was so powerful, that he brought the whole country to submit to him. He paid, in 38 Henry III. for sixteen knights'-fees, and had other large possessions. Having made a voyage to the Holy Land, he died in his return on September 13th, 1267, 51 Henry III. at Marseilles, whence his corpse was brought to England, and buried at Gisburne. By Helewise, his wife, eldest sister and one of the coheirs of William de Lancaster, Baron of Kendal, he left four daughters, of whom afterwards, and an only son and successor,
PETER, SEVENTH LORD OF SKELTON, who departed this life about the year 1300, without issue by Helena de Mildain, his wife, and left his great estate to be divided among his four sisters, his coheirs. Of these, Agnes, the eldest, was the wife of Walter de Fauconberg, who had for her share the castle and barony of Skelton, with several manors; Lucia, the second, was married to Marmaduke, Baron Thweng, who had other large possessions, whose lineal heirs are, the present Earl of Scarborough, and Sir Charles Hotham, Baronet. Margaret, the third, wedded Robert de Ross, Lord of the castle of Warke, who in her right had the barony of Kendal; whose son William was Lord Ross of Kendal: and Laderina, the youngest, was married to Sir John de Bellew, and had for her share the lordship of Carleton, and divers other manors.
This branch therefore becoming extinct in the male line, as before recited, we now return to William, eldest son of Robert de Bruis, second Lord of Skelton, and first Page 157Lord of Annandale, by his second wife, Agnes Annand, before-mentioned, who, in right of his mother, succeeded to the lordship of Annandale in Scotland, about the year 1141, or 1143, and to the lands of Hert, Hertness, in the bishoprick of Durham by the gift of his father, to be held of him and his successors, Lords of Skelton. He obtained from Henry II. King of England, the privilege of a weekly market, on Wednesdays, at his manor of Hartlepool: and gave to the canons of Gisburne certain lands, lying southward of the chapel of St. Hilda, at the said manor towards the sea. He confirmed the donations of the churches in Annandale, which his father had made to the monks of Gisburne. To shew that he looked upon his chief settlement to be in Scotland, he quitted his father's armorial bearings (Argent, a lion rampant, Gules) and assumed the coat of Annandale, viz. Or, a Saltire and Chief, Gules. In a char∣ter of some lands in Annandale to Adamo de Carleolo (one of his vassals) he is styled Willielmus de Bruce, Dominus vallis Annandiae, &c. The charter is without date, but, by the names of the witnesses, must have been granted between the years 1170 and 1180. This William de Bruce died before the year 1183, and was succeeded by his son,
ROBERT, THIRD LORD OF ANNANDALE, a nobleman of great valour and magnanimity, and at the same time both pious and religious. He ratified and confirmed to the monastery of Gisburne all the grants of his predecessors, in these words: Sciatis me confirmasse Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae de Gisburn donationes illas quas fecit Robertus de Brus, avus meus, et quas idem confirmavit Willielmus de Brus pater meus, de ecclesia de Annand, de ecclesia de Lochmaben, &c. &c. William, (surnamed the Lion) King of Scotland, whose reign of about 49 years ended A. D. 1214, confirmed the above ratification, testibus Johanne de Huntingdon officiali Glasguensi, Henrico filio comitis David, Adam de Carleolo, Adam filio Herberti, besides divers others. About the year 1190, he entered into an agreement with Joceline, bishop of Glasgow, with con∣sent of the abbot and convent of Gisburne, whereby the before-mentioned churches in Annandale, which Robert, second Lord of Skelton and first Lord of Annandale had granted to the said convent, were made over to the see of Glasgow; his son con∣senting thereto, according to these words in the indenture: teste et concedente Roberto de Bruise filio Roberto de Bruise, &c. He married Isabel, natural daughter of the said King William, by a daughter of Robert de Avenel, Lord of Liddisdale: and by the said lady (who secondly wedded Robert de Ross, Lord of Warke and Page 158Hamlake in England, one of whose descendants in her right, notwithstanding her illegitimacy, put in his claim at the after-mentioned competition for the Scottish crown, and from whom the Rosses of Hamlake and Warke are descended) he left, at his death, A. D. 1191, an only son and heir,
ROBERT DE BRUISE, surnamed the Noble, FOURTH LORD OF AN∣NANDALE, who married Isabel, second daughter of Prince David, Earl of Hun∣tingdon and Chester, who was son of Henry, Prince of Scotland, eldest son of Da∣vid, King of Scotland, and younger brother to Malcolm IV. and William (the Lion) successively monarchs of that realm, the latter being father of King Alexan∣der II. whose son, Alexander III. dying without issue male, on March 17th, A. D. 1285, the undoubted right of succession to the Scottish sovereignty devolved upon his grand-daughter, Margaret, commonly called the Maid of Norway, she be∣ing daughter to Eric II. monarch of that realm, by his consort Margaret, daughter to the last mentioned Alexander. By this royal match the Lords of Annandale came to be amongst the greatest subjects in Europe: for by the said Isabel (who was one of three sisters, and coheiresses of John, surnamed Scot, Earl of Huntingdon, and last Count Palatine of Chester, of which palatinate he John became possessed in right of his mother Maud, the aforesaid Prince David's wife, daughter of Hugh Kiviliock, and eldest sister of Ranulph Blundeville, Earls Palatines of Chester) Robert, exclu∣sive of his paternal estate in both kingdoms, came to be possessed of the manor of Writtle and Hatfield, in Essex, together with half the hundred of Hatfield, which King Henry III. in the 25th year of his reign gave in exchange for those lands which descended to his lady by the death of her brother, John Earl Palatine of Chester: and she likewise brought him the castle of Kildrummie, and the lordship of Garioch, in Aberdeenshire, and the manors of Connington in Huntingdonshire, and Exton in Rutlandshire, which three she inherited from her father. This great peer died in an advanced age, A. D. 1245, and had sepulture with his ancestors, under a stately monument at Gisburne, leaving by the said Isabel, a son and successor.
ROBERT DE BRUS, FIFTH LORD OF ANNANDALE, who was one of the Justices of the Common Pleas in 1250, 34 Henry III. and in 36 Henry III. doing his homage, had livery of the lands of his mother's inheritance. In 38 Henry III. as one of the co-heirs to John Scot, Earl of Huntingdon, on assessment of the aid for making the king's eldest son knight, he paid twenty pound for ten knights' fees, which he had Page 159of the honour of Peverell, of London, in the counties of Essex and Hertford. In 39 Henry III. he was constituted Sheriff of Cumberland, and Governor of the castle of Carlisle. In 48 Henry III. when many of the Barons put themselves in arms on pretence of asserting the laws of the land, and the people's liberties, he was one of those who stood firm to the king, and marched with him from Oxford to Northampton, where the rebellious Barons then were, with a great power; and on the assault of that town took several prisoners. But soon after, on May 14th, 1264, when the Barons (through the help of the Londoners) gave battle to the King at Lewes in Sussex, where they prevailed, he was (together with the King himself, and divers other great lords) taken prisoner; having, at that time (together with John Cumming) the command of those Scottish auxiliaries which were then there in King Henry's service. But the King obtaining his right by the victory at Evesham, on August 5th, 1265, the 49th of his reign; he was in 51 Henry III. again made Governor of the castle of Carlisle.
In 1290, 18 Edward I. after the death of Margaret, Queen of Scotland, daughter of Eric II. King of Norway, and grand-daughter and undoubted heir to Alexander III. before mentioned, he was one of the competitors for the Scottish crown with John Baliol, the other claimants suits being set aside, when the right of succession was declared to be betwixt these two candidates. It was alledged, among other arguments, for Robert Bruce, that it was customary in Scotland, for the brother of the last king to be preferred to his son, and adduced an example of Donald V.'s succeeding to the throne, A. D. 854, in preference to King Constantine II. the son of his elder brother King Kenneth II. commonly called Mac Alpin: that King Alexander II. who died in 1249, esteemed Robert as his heir, in failure of the descendants of his own body, even to the knowledge of Dornagild (or Derveguld) his (Robert's) mother's eldest sister, and John Baliol's mother, who was then alive, and assented to it, at least did not contradict it, having no male issue of her own: that it was a con∣stant maxim in Scotland, for the son of the second daughter to be preferred to the heir female of the eldest daughter: and that King Alexander III. acknowledged this Robert to be next heir to the crown, failing heirs of his own body; all which was offered to be proved by living witnesses. It was urged for John Baliol, that he stood one degree nearer in consanguinity to David Earl of Huntingdon, his grandmother, Margaret, being eldest daughter of that Prince; and that consequently the crown be∣longed Page 160to him. On that principle (though the learned Mr. Thomas Ruddiman has clearly proved the right of representation, according to the then rules of succession, to have been in Bruce) the forty chosen peers, twenty of Scotland, and as many of England, did, at the tenth congress, in the castle of Berwick, on November 17th, 1292, declare John Baliol King of Scotland, by the direction of Edward I. King of England, who acted as umpire. After that decision, Robert Bruce, and John Hastings, Lord Bergavenny, who had been one of the competitors, in right of his grandmother, Ada, fourth and youngest daughter of the aforesaid David, Earl of Huntingdon, claimed each a third part of the kingdom, but were rejected. This Robert was so dissatisfied with the determination, that the could never be prevailed upon, either to give up his title, or to acknowledge King Edward superior, or John Baliol King of Scotland; and retired in great disgust to England, where, however, he did not long remain, but returned to his castle of Lochmaben. He died there in 1295, and was buried with his ancestors in the abbey of Gisburne.
He married Isabel, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester; and by her had three sons,
- 1. Robert his heir;
- 2. Sir Bernard Bruce, who got the lands of Con∣nington in Huntingdonshire, and Exton in Rutlandshire, which, about the end of the reign of Edward III. went in marriage with Anne, the sole heiress of this branch of the illustrious house of Bruce, to Sir Hugh Wessenham, from whose family it came in like manner by an heiress, Mary, to William Cotton, Esq. from whom, after several generations, descended that eminent antiquary, Sir Robert Cotton, Baronet, whose male line terminated in the late Sir John Bruce Cotton, of Connington in Hun∣tingdonshire, and Stretton in Bedfordshire, who inherited all the virtues of his ances∣tors, and left four daughters, his co-heirs, viz. Jane, wedded to Thomas Hart, of War∣field, in Berkshire, Esq. Elizabeth, to — Bowdler, Esq. Mary, to Basil, now Earl of Denbigh; and Francis, who is unmarried: and,
- 3. John de Bruis, or Bruce, of whom afterwards, as ancestor to the late Earl of Ailesbury.
ROBERT BRUCE, the eldest son, AND SIXTH LORD OF ANNANDALE, attended Prince Edward (afterwards King Edward I.) into Palestine, where by his courage and conduct he acquired great honour. Upon his return from that expedition, he retired into England, where he had a considerable estate. In 1295, 23 Edward I. Page 161he was made Governor of the castle of Carlisle, and in that and the two succeeding years had summons to parliament among the English Barons. In the last of those years, being called Robert de Bruce, senior (in regard to his eldest son, Robert, of whom afterwards) King Edward acknowledging his constant fidelity, ordered him to be put in possession of his lands in Scotland. He would never acknowledge the title of John Baliol; but being cajoled into the interest of King Edward, with the hopes of at∣taining the Scottish crown by that monarch's assistance, he contributed, together with his son aforesaid, to the English obtaining the victory at Dunbar, A. D. 1296; after which, putting Edward in mind of his promise, he received such an answer as convinced him how little he had to expect from that quarter. Nevertheless, being constrained to accompany King Edward in his future operations, he and his said son were with him at the battle of Falkirk, on July 22d, 1298, when the Scots were also defeated. After that action, he is said to have had an interview with the re∣nowned Sir William Wallace, one of the Scottish commanders, and to have been so much affected with the discourse of that great man, that he resolved to assert his own right, and rescue his country; but he never had a proper opportunity.
He married Margaret, Countess of Carrick, daughter and sole heir of Neil, Earl of Carrick, and widow of Adam de Kilconath, who in her right was Earl of Carrick, and having accompanied this Robert to the Holy Land, died there, without issue in 1272: and by her (in whose right he also became Earl of Carrick) had five sons,
- 1. Robert, his heir, afterwards King of Scotland by the name of Robert I.
- 2. Sir Ed∣ward de Bruce, who signalizing himself in behalf of his elder brother, was by him created Earl of Carrick, and being invited by a considerable number of the Irish to be their king, was crowned at Dundalk, but was defeated and slain there, A. D. 1318, after a reign of about three years, checkered with various success; leaving three natural sons, viz. Robert, Earl of Carrick, who was killed, without issue, at the battle of Dupplin in 1332; Alexander, who then became Earl of Carrick, but sell at Hallidon-hill, A. D. 1333, leaving an only daughter, Helen, Countess of Carrick; who wedded Sir William Cunningham of Kilmaurs, but had no progeny; and Thomas, who, upon her death, was Earl of Carrick, and distinguished himself in the cause of his country, but left no children:
- 3. Neil de Bruce;
- 4. Thomas de Bruce; and,
- 5. Alexander de Bruce, who were all three put to death by command of King Edward I.
Page 162Robert, by the same lady, had likewise seven daughters,
- 1. Lady Isabel, wedded 1st to Tho. Randolph of Strathdon, L. H. Chamb. of Scotland, whose son, Thomas, was, before 1313, Earl of Murray, Lord of Annandale, and of the Isle of Man, and rendered himself one of the greatest heroes of his age, both before and after he was guardian of Scotland, during the minority of King David II. 2dly, to the Earl of Athole; and 3dly, to Alexander Bruce.
- 2. Lady Mary, who had two husbands, 1st. Sir Neil Campbell, ancestor to the Duke of Argyle, and, 2dly, Sir Alexander Fra∣ser, Lord High Chamberlain of Scotland, from whom the Lords Salton, Lovat, &c.
- 3. Lady Christian, who was first married to Gratney Marr, the 11th Earl of Marr, who had with her the castle of Kildrummie and lordship of Garioch, as appears by a charter from her brother King Robert I. 2dly, to Sir Christopher Seton, ancestor to the Earls of Winton; and 3dly, to Sir Andrew Moray, Lord Bothwell, Chancel∣lor and Governor of Scotland.
- 4. Lady Matilda, wedded to Hugh Earl of Ross.
- 5. Lady Elizabeth, to Sir William Dishington, of Ardoss.
- 6. Lady Margaret, to Sir William Carlyle, of Torthorald: and,
- 7. Lady —, to David de Bre∣chin, third Lord Brechin, grandson of Henry de Brechin, natural son of David, Earl of Huntingdon before-mentioned.
ROBERT, EARL OF CARRICK, AND SEVENTH LORD OF ANNAN∣DALE, who though obliged to temporize, and adhere to King Edward, as he had a considerable estate in England, yet he never lost view of his right to the Scottish monarchy. When he judged the time favourable for his purpose, he communicated his intention to some of his professed friends: and as John Cumming, Lord of Bade∣noch, was (though sister's son to John Baliol) among the number, and one of the most powerful men in Scotland, Robert, in order to secure him effectually to his in∣terest, agreed to make over to him all his paternal inheritance in that kingdom, pro∣vided he would assist him to ascend the throne. Cumming readily embraced the offer, as, in case of a revolution in favour of Bruce, he would have been in a situation little inferior to royal: but at last, doubting the success of the enterprize, or actuated by the hopes of an ample reward, or perhaps of obtaining the crown for himself (John Baliol having been dethroned by King Edward about nine years before, and then living in exile) he disclosed the whole transaction to the King of England. Robert Bruce was then at London, and had such early notice of his being betrayed, that Page 163he made his escape to Scotland, though not without some hazard and difficulty. At his arrival there, his partizans were so enraged at Cumming's treachery, that some of them, on February 10th, 1306, put him to death in the church of Dumfries, whither, conscious of his guilt, he had fled for refuge: but neither the church, nor the altar, were allowed to be a sanctuary for such perfidy and treason. Robert having then collected a small body of men, proceeded to his palace of Scoon, where he was crowned on Palm-Sunday, March 27th, 1306. He had enjoyed his royalty but a short space, when he was attacked and defeated by an army sent against him by King Edward I. after which he experienced various turns of fortune, some of which seemed very unpropitious to his affairs. He was obliged to live in an obscure condition for a considerable time, during which his enemies tried every method their invention could suggest, either to captivate or destroy him: but being endowed with a large share of magnanimity and sagacity, and his partizans being likewise possessed of the same qualities, as well as an inviolable fidelity, all the schemes against him proved abortive. In a few years he became absolute master of Scotland, of which he not only secured quiet and respectable possession by the signal victory obtained at Ban∣nockburn, on June 24th, 1314, over a numerous army commanded by King Edward II. but was also enabled to carry the war with success into the territories of his adver∣sary. The Scottish historians, considering this monarch as the deliverer of his coun∣try from foreign subjection, and the restorer of its independency, characterize him as a prince qualified equally for the cabinet and field, and, exclusive of the many heroes produced by his family, sufficient not only to render it, but even a whole kingdom, illustrious. His Majesty was twice married, 1st, to Isabel, daughter of Donald, tenth Earl of Marr, and sister to the aforesaid Gratney, Earl of Marr; and 2dly, to Eliza∣beth, daughter to Henry de Burgh, Earl of Ulster in Ireland. By the first he had a daughter, Marjory, wedded to Walter, Lord High Steward of Scotland, who by her was father of a son, Robert Stewart, afterwards monarch of that kingdom, by the name of Robert II. and also of a daughter, Egidia, or Giles, married to Sir James Lind∣say of Crawford. King Robert, by his second consort, daughter to the Earl of Ul∣ster, had an only son, David, his successor, and likewise three daughters,
- 1. Marga∣ret, espoused to William fifth Earl of Sutherland, from whom the present Earl.
- 2. Mathilda, wedded to Thomas de Issac, whose daughter, Jane, was married to John de Ergadia, Lord of Lorn, from whom, by a co-heiress, descended the Lords Page 164Lorn and Innermeath, the Earls of Athole, Buchan, and Traquair, of the surname of Stewart, and the present Sir John Stewart of Garntully, Baronet, and,
- 3. Eliza∣beth, wedded to Sir Walter Oliphant, ancestor to the present Lord Oliphant.
King Robert departed this life on June 9th, 1329, and his only son, beforemen∣tioned, mounted the Scottish throne, by the name of DAVID II. who was then in the ninth year of his age, and lately espoused to Johanna, sister to King Edward III. of England. The tranquillity of his reign was soon disturbed by Edward, John Baliol's son, who landing in Scotland, A. D. 1332, accompanied by divers English noblemen, claiming lands in that kingdom, and being reinforced by the adherents of his family, routed the Bruceans, and got himself crowned king. This disaster, together with the discomfiture of the Scottish army next year, at Hallidon-hill, obliged the regents to send David and his queen to France. However, his partizans acted with such perseverance, that they expelled Edward Baliol, and David returned to Scotland on May 3d, 1342. After his re-establishment, he made several expedi∣tions into England, to make a diversion in favour of the French; but on October 17th, 1346, his army was routed, and himself wounded and taken prisoner, at Nevil's Cross, near Durham. Several treaties were set on foot for his liberty; but none took effect till 1357, when he was ransomed for 100,000 marks sterling. King David was twice married, 1st to the beforementioned Johanna, daughter of Edward II. King of England, and 2dly, to Jane, daughter, (some say widow) of Sir John Logie, of Logie: but having no issue by either at his death, on February 27th, 1370, the crown devolved to his nephew, Robert Stewart, before taken notice of, whose right, upon the decease of the said Edward Baliol, without heirs of his body, became un∣questionable, in the strictest sense of hereditary succession, and from him his present Majesty is descended.
Having thus deduced the principal male branch of this family, Lord Bruce's col∣lateral relations, we return to JOHN DE BRUIS, or BRUCE, third son of RO∣BERT, FIFTH LORD OF ANNANDALE, competitor for the crown of Scotland, his Lordship's immediate ancestor. Sir Robert, grandson of this John, is styled be∣loved and faithful cousin by King David II. (son of King Robert I. in a charter, dated December 9th , 1359, which he got from that monarch, of the castle and manor of Clackmannan, Gyrmanston, Garclew, Wester-Kennault, Pitsoluden, with divers other lands, all within the shire of Clackmannan. He likewise obtained a charter Page 165dated October 20th, 1365 (37 David II.) of the lands of Gyrmanston, Kennet, and other possessions in the aforesaid county, contained in the preceding charter, to him and the lawful heirs male of his body. Sir Robert, moreover, on January 17th, 1369, (40 David II.) got a charter of the lands of Rait, in Perthshire, with the same limi∣tation as in the foregoing charter; being called, in both, the King's beloved cousin, a designation to which he was justly entitled, being the nearest relation, of the name of Bruce, to the royal family. This gentleman (from whom every person of the surname of Bruce is descended) bore the arms of the Lords of Annandale, his ancestors, viz. Or, a chief and saltire, Gules, with a star or mullet on the chief, to denote his descent, from a third son of that illustrious house: but his posterity, upon the extinction of the elder male branches, laid aside the star, and carried the arms simply, as undoubted chiefs of the whole name. Sir Robert married Dame Isabel Stewart, daughter of Sir Robert Stewart, ancestor of the Stewarts of Rosythe; and by her had five sons,
- 1. Sir Robert, his heir;
- 2. Edward, progenitor to the Bruces of Airth, from whom the Bruces of Earlshall, Kinloch, Bunzion, &c.
- 3. Alexander, ancestor of the Bruces of Garbot, &c.
- 4. —, of whom the Bruces of Munas, &c. are descended; and,
- 5. James, who was bred an ecclesiastic, and became a great ornament to his profession, by his piety and learning. He was Bishop of Dunkeld in 1441, Chancellor of Scotland in 1444, Archbishop of Glasgow in 1447, and died in that year.
SIR ROBERT BRUCE, the eldest son, succeeded his father before 1393: for on August 12th, that year (4 Robert III.) he got, upon his own resignation, a charter, dated at Linlithgow, of the lands of Rait aforesaid, to himself in life-rent, and in fee to the heirs male of his body; in failure of which, to his nearest heirs whatsoever. On October 24th, 1394 (5 Robert III.) he got a charter of the lands of Clackman∣nan, &c. to himself in life-rent, and to the heirs male of his body in fee; which sail∣ing, to return to the king; and in both the said charters he is styled his majesty's beloved cousin. Sir Robert died in 1405, and having married a daughter of Sir John Scrymgeour of Dudhop, in the county of Angus, who enjoyed the hereditary offices of Standard-bearer of Scotland, and Constable of Dundee, had by her two sons,
- 1. Sir David, his heir;
- 2. Thomas, to whom he gave the lands of Wester-Kenneth.
Page 166SIR DAVID BRUCE, of Clackmannan, the eldest son, was, in the last men∣tioned charter granted to his father, styled the king's beloved cousin, &c. and on Oc∣tober 6, 1406 (1 James I.) made a renunciation of the tithes of the mills of Clack∣mannan to the canons regular of Cambuskenneth. By Jane his wife, daughter of Sir John Stewart, of Innermeath and Lorn, he was father of two sons, viz. John his successor, and Patrick Bruce, who in 1449, got a charter, under the great seal of Scotland, of the lands of Hill.
JOHN, eldest son and heir of Sir David Bruce, of Clackmannan, before men∣tioned, had a dispute with Lucas de Striviline (ancestor to the Stirlings of Keir, &c.) about certain lands, which was terminated by a decree of inquest, dated April 17th, 1425, the 20th year of the reign of King James I. He wedded Elizabeth, daughter to David Stewart of Rosythe, and by her had two sons,
- 1. Sir David, his heir; and,
- 2. Robert, ancestor of the Bruces of Cultmalindie in Perthshire.
SIR DAVID, to whom he had made a resignation of his estates of Clackmannan and Rait, on March 26th of that year (before the end of which he departed this life) reserving his own life-rent, and a reasonable tierce to his said wife. This Sir Da∣vid was in great favour with King James IV. who conferred upon him the honour of Knighthood. He was twice married, 1st to Janet, daughter to Sir William Stir∣ling of Keir; and, 2dly, to Marian, daughter of Sir Robert Herries of Terreagles. By the first he had a son, Robert, who got the lands of Rait, and dying before his father, lest, by Elizabeth Lindsay, his wife, a son, David Bruce, who, on February 1st, 1506, (18th James IV.) signed a renunciation of his right to the estate of Clack∣mannan in favour of Sir David, son of Sir David his grandfather by the second marriage. His male line is extinct some time ago. Sir David, by his second wife, had a son, the aforesaid Sir David; and a daughter, Christian, wedded to Sir James Schaw of Sauchie. He made a resignation of the lands of Clackmannan, A. D. 1497, with certain reservations in favour of the said
SIR DAVID, his son by the second marriage; who thereupon, and the renun∣ciation of his nephew before mentioned, got, on February 3d, 1506, a charter under the great seal, of the lands and barony of Clackmannan. This Sir David was a gentleman of fine parts, and possessed a very great estate, as appears by the charters he obtained between the years 1530 and 1540, in the reign of King James V. By Page 167Jane his wife, daughter of Sir Patrick Blackadder of Tulliallan, he had three sons;
- 1. John, from whom the present owner of Clackmannan;
- 2. Sir Edward Bruce, of whom more fully, as ancestor to the late Earl of Ailesbury, and of the Earl of Elgin and Kincardine; and,
- 3. Robert Bruce of Lynmilne.
SIR EDWARD BRUCE, second son of Sir David Bruce, of Clackmannan, abovementioned got a charter of the lands of Bargady, Shiresmylne, &c. A. D. 1541; but having purchased the estate of Blairhall, he there fixed hix residence, and had his designation therefrom. He married Alison, daughter of William Reid, of Aiken∣head, in the county of Clackmannan, Esq. and sister to Robert Reid, Bishop of Ork∣ney; and by her had three sons,
- 1. Robert, who succeeded to the lands of Blairhall, and whose male line is extinct;
- 2. Sir Edward Bruce of Kinloss, of whom we shall fully treat, as progenitor to the late Earls of Elgin and Ailesbury; and,
- 3. Sir George Burce, of Carnock, ancestor to Charles, now Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, who, failing male issue of the present Laird of Clackmannan, will be the undoubted chief of all the Bruces existing.
SIR EDWARD BRUCE, OF KINLOSS, second son of Sir Edward Bruce of Blairhall, aforesaid, being a person of great learning and eminentabilities, was sent, in 1601, by King James VI. with the Earl of Marr to congratulate Queen Elizabeth, on her success in repressing the attempt of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, and then settled such a correspondence with Sir Robert Cecil, principal secretary of state, that he was eminently instrumental in the peaceable accession of King James to the crown of England. In recompense of those faithful services, he had, soon after his return to Scotland, a grant of the dissolved abbey of Kinloss, in the shire of Elgin; and by letters patent, dated at Holy-rood-house, February 22d, 1603 (36 James VI.) was created Lord Bruce, of Kinloss, with remainder to his heirs male for ever. That year, he accompanied his majesty into England, and on July 8th, 1604, was made Master of the Rolls during life. His Lordship was of the privy council to his majesty in both kingdoms, and dying in the 62d year of his age, on January 14th, 1610, was buried on the north side of the altar in the chapel of the Rolls in Chancery-lane, where a fair monument is erected to his memory, with his effigy at length, habited as Master of the Rolls, and this epitaph: Page 168
He took to wife, Magdalen, daughter of Alexander Clerk, of Balbirnie in Fife, Esq. and by her had two sons and two daughters; Edward; Thomas; Janet, mar∣ried to Thomas Dalziel, of Binns, in the county of Linlithgow, Esq.; and Christian, wedded to William Cavendish, 2d Earl of Devonshire, ancestor to his Grace the present Duke of Devonshire.
EDWARD, SECOND LORD BRUCE, OF KINLOSS, his eldest son was made Knight of the Bath at the creation of Henry Prince of Wales, A. D. 1610, and af∣terwards one of the Gentlemen of the Bed-chamber to King James I. But in 1613, had the misfortune to fall into a fatal quarrel with Sir Edward Sackville (afterwards Earl of Dorset) of which will be given a full account, under the title of the Duke of Dorset: and being slain by him in a duel, Thomas his brother became his heir.
Which THOMAS, THIRD LORD BRUCE, OF KINLOSS, was in great favour with King Charles I. and having attended him at his coronation in Scotland, on June 18th, 1633, was by letters patent dated three days afterwards, at Holy-rood-house, created Earl of Elgin in that kingdom, with like remainder as the barony of Kinloss. He was also, on August 1st, 1641, the 17th year of the same reign, ad∣vanced to the degree of a Baron of England, by the title of Lord Bruce, of Worlton, in the county of York.
He married two wives; first, Anne, daughter to Sir Robert Chichester, of Raleigh, in com. Devon. Knight, by Anne his wife, one of the daughters and co-heirs of John Page 169Lord Harrington; and secondly Diana, one of the daughters and co-heirs of William Lord Burleigh, son and heir to Thomas Earl of Exeter, and widow of Henry Vere, Earl of Oxford. By the last lady he had no issue; but by the first he left Robert his son and heir; and died on December 21st, 1663.
ROBERT, FIRST EARL OF AILESBURY, AND SECOND EARL OF ELGIN, was, with Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Cleveland, on July 26th, 1660, con∣stituted jointly or separately Lords Lieutenants of the county of Bedford; and having given proofs of his loyalty to King Charles I. in his troubles, and been instru∣mental in the happy restoration of his royal son, was on March 18th, 1663-4, 16 Charles II. created Baron Bruce, of Skelton, in the county of York, Viscount Bruce, of Ampthill, in the county of Bedford, and Earl of Ailesbury, in the county of Bucks. Moreover, on March 29th, 1667, he was constituted sole Lord Lieutenant of the county of Bedford on the death of the Earl of Cleveland, aforesaid, and the King, the same year, having promised both houses of parliament, that he would con∣stitute commissioners for taking the accounts of such monies as had been raised and assigned to his Majesty during the late war with the Dutch, his Lordship was one of the six Peers, who, with twelve of the House of Commons, were commissioned for that inquiry. On October 18th, 1678, he was sworn of the privy-council to his Majesty; and in the same reign was one of the Gentlemen of the royal Bedchamber; and in commission for executing the office of Earl-marshal of England, as deputy to Henry Duke of Norfolk.
On the accession of King James II. to the throne, he was one of the lords who, at the coronation, April 23d, 1685, bore part of the regalia, viz. St. Edward's staff; and on the death of the Earl of Arlington, on July 28th that year, he had two days after the white staff delivered to him by the King, as Lord Chamberlain of his House-hold: but on October 20th following, departed this life at his seat at Ampthill, and was there buried. Wood, in his Fasti Oxoniensis, vol. I. p. 887, gives him this cha∣racter: "He was a learned person, and otherwise well qualified; was well versed in English history and antiquities, a lover of all such as were professors of those studies, and a curious collector of manuscripts, especially of those which related to England, and English antiquities. Besides also, he was a lover of the regular clergy, as those of Bedfordshire and Bucks know well enough."
He married Diana, daughter to Henry Grey first Earl of Stamford, by whom he Page 170had issue eight sons, Edward, Robert, Charles, Henry, and Bernard, who died young; Thomas, Robert, and James, who survived him; and nine daughters, of whom Lady Diana was married to Sir Seymour Shirley, of Stanton-Harold, in the county of Leicester, Baronet, and afterwards to John first Duke of Rutland; Lady Anne, to Sir William Rich, of Sunning, in the county of Berks, Baronet; Lady Christian, first to John Rolle, Esq. eldest son of Sir John Rolle, of Stevenstone, in the county of Devon, Knight of the Bath, and afterwards to Sir Robert Gayer of Stoke-Poges, in the county of Bucks, Knight of the Bath, and died on April 5, 1720; Lady Mary, to Sir William Walters of Sarsden, in the county of Oxon, Baronet; Lady Arabella died unmarried; Lady Anne-Charlotte married Nicholas Baganall, of Newry in the kingdom of Ireland, and Place-Neudd, in the Isle of Anglesey, Esq.; Lady Henrietta wedded Thomas Ogle, Esq. only son of Sir Thomas Ogle, Go∣vernor of Chelsea College; and Ladies Christiana and Elizabeth died young. This Earl was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,
THOMAS, SECOND EARL OF AILESBURY, AND THIRD EARL OF ELGIN. He married on August 31, 1676, Elizabeth, third and only surviving daughter of Henry Lord Beauchamp, son of William Marquis of Hertford, after∣wards second Duke of Somerset, and at the death of her brother, William, third Duke of Somerset, on September 26th, 1671, sole heir to Tottenham-park, and Sa∣vernake-forest, in Wiltshire, besides divers estates in that and other counties, now in the possession of the present Lord Bruce. The Earl of Ailesbury's issue by her, were four sons and two daughters. His eldest son, Robert Lord Bruce, born August 6th, 1697, died young; as did Thomas, third son, and Henry, the youngest. His se∣cond son, Charles Lord Bruce, was called up to the House of Peers, in the lifetime of his father, as will be hereafter shewn. Lady Elizabeth, eldest daughter, was married to George, third Earl of Cardigan; and Lady Mary, the youngest (of whom her mother died in childbed, on January 12th, 1696-7) deceased on April 2d, 1698.
Which Elizabeth Countess of Ailesbury had a warrant from King Charles II. June 28th, 1672, granting her the title of Lady, and the place and precedency of a daughter of the Duke of Somerset, notwithstanding her father, Henry Lord Beau∣champ died in the lifetime of her grandfather, William Duke of Somerset. She was the first descendant in blood from Mary, royal consort of Lewis XII. King of France, younger daughter to King Henry VII. being grand-child to William Duke of So∣merset, Page 171who was grandson to Catherine Countess of Hertford, daughter, and at length sole heir to Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk, by Lady Frances his wife, eldest daugh∣ter and co-heir to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and Mary, the French queen, his wife, youngest daughter of Henry VII. as aforesaid; from whose eldest, Marga∣ret, married to James IV. King of Scotland, the present Royal Family is descended.
His Lordship was amongst those Peers who offered their service to King James on the Prince of Orange's embarking his troops for England: but on that king's withdrawing from Whitehall, on December 10th, 1688, in order to embark for France, the Lords spiritual and temporal, in and about Westminster, met at Guild-hall the next day, and sending for the Lord Mayor, drew up a declaration, which was signed by the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Earls of Pembroke, Dorset, and twenty-five other Peers; among which the Earl of Ailesbury was the seventeenth that subscribed to it, and agreed to the sending to the Prince of Orange. The declaration sets forth, "That his Majesty having withdrawn himself, in order to his departure out of the kingdom, by the pernicious counsels of persons ill affected to our nation and religion; we cannot, without being wanting to our duty, be silent under these calamities, wherein the Popish councils, which so long prevailed, have miserably involved these realms. We do therefore unanimously resolve to apply ourselves to his Highness the Prince of Orange, who, with so great kindness to these kingdoms, so vast expence, and so much hazard to his own person, hath under∣taken, by endeavouring to procure a free parliament, to rescue us, with as little effu∣sion as possible of Christian blood, from the imminent dangers of popery and slavery.
And we do hereby declare, the we will, with our utmost endeavours, assist his Highness in obtaining such a parliament with all speed, wherein our laws, our liberties and properties, may be secured, the church of England in particular, with a due liberty to protestant dissenters; and in general, the protestant religion and interest over the whole world, may be supported and encouraged, to the glory of God, the happiness of the established religion and interest in these kingdoms, &c."
They further declared, that they would, as much as in them lay, preserve the peace of London and Westminster; and would disarm all Papists, and secure all Jesuits and Romish priests, who were in and about the same: and if there were any thing more to be performed by them, for promoting his Highness's generous inten∣tions for the public good, they should be ready to do it, as occasion should require.
Page 172The Earl of Ailesbury acquiesced in those measures, as they were apparently the only means of reconciling the King and people, and were entirely consonant to the Prince of Orange's declaration, wherein he made not the least insinuation of a view to the crown. When the King was stopt at Feversham, on December 14th, from going over to France, on the new thereof, the Peers and privy-council met, and, after some debates, they appointed this Earl of Ailesbury, William Paston, Earl of Yar∣mouth, Lewis Duras, Earl of Feversham, and Charles Middleton, Earl of Middle∣ton, to wait on his Majesty, to invite his return to his palace at Whitehall; to which he shewed some reluctance, yet at last condescended to their request. Afterwards, when the Prince's orders were communicated by three Peers, about one in the morn∣ing of December 18th, to the King, then in bed, for his Majesty to quit his place of Whitehall, the Earl of Ailesbury, with Edward-Henry Lee, Earl of Litchfield, James, Earl of Arran (afterwards Duke of Hamilton), and George Douglas, Earl of Dunbarton, went with the King in his barge, who had 100 of the Prince's Dutch forces to guard him to Rochester. The same day, the Prince came to St. James's, and the King determining on going to France, about three in the morning of Decem∣ber 23d, privately withdrew himself, without communicating his design to any of his lords, not even the Earl of Dunbarton, who lay in his chamber, and did not awake till he was gone. The Earl of Ailesbury returned to London; but never took the oaths to King William and Queen Mary. In 1690, whilst King William was in Ireland, the French, after defeating the English fleet under the Earl of Torrington, threatened a descent in England; and Queen Mary, using all precautions to obviate the danger thereof, published a proclamation on July 5th, for apprehending Edward-Henry, Earl of Litchfield, Thomas, Earl of Ailesbury, William, Lord Montgomery (son to William, Marquis of Powis), and divers others, suspected to adhere to their Majesties' enemies in the expected invasion. However, his Lordship was not impri∣soned on that occasion; for on January 5th following, 1690-1, King William gave the royal assent to an act, to enable Thomas Earl of Ailesbury, and Elizabeth Countess of Ailesbury, his wife, to make provision for payment of debts, and to make leases of their estates: and in 1692, when the Queen, on May 9th, (another invasion being threatened) published a proclamation for apprehending Robert Leak, Earl of Scars∣dale, the before-mentioned Earl of Litchfield, and others, the Earl of Ailesbury was not among them, In 1695, the Earl of Ailesbury was said to have been at a meeting, Page 173in May, at the Old King's-head tavern in Leadenhall-street, London, with the Lord Montgomery, Sir John Friend, Sir John Fenwick, Mr. Robert Charnock, and others, when they consulted how to restore King James; and all agreed to send a special messenger to desire him to procure of the French King 10,000 men. Bishop Burnet, in his History of his own Time, recites, that after Queen Mary's decease, the Jacobites began to think the government had lost the half of its strength, and fan∣cied an invasion in the King's absence would be an easy attempt; and thereupon sent over to France, Charnock, a fellow of Magdalen college, who in King James's time had turned papist, to let them know they would bring a body of 2,000 horse, to meet such an army as should be sent over. But Charnock came back with a cold account, That nothing could be done at that time. Upon which it was thought necessary to send over a man of quality, who should press the matter with more authority: so the Earl of Ailesbury was prevailed on to go. He was admitted to a secret conversation with the French king, and this gave rise to a design which was very near being executed the following winter. And in 1695-6, when Sir John Friend, on March 23d, and Sir William Perkins, on the 24th, were tried, and suffered for Sir George Barclay's plot, on April 3d following, it appeared, that in May 1695, Charnock had been sent over with a message to King James, as beforementioned: and that the Earl of Ailes∣bury, the Lord Montgomery, and Sir John Fenwick, were also concerned; upon which evidence the Earl of Ailesbury was committed prisoner to the Tower in Fe∣bruary, 1695-6. The bishop further observes, that Peter Cook, son of Sir Miles, being brought to his trial, on May 13th, 1696, was on account of the intended inva∣sion, being not charged with the assassination; and that his trial was considered as introductory to the Earl of Ailesbury's, for the evidence was the same on both. George Porter, and Cardell Goodman, were the two witnesses against him, on his meeting with the Earl of Ailesbury, and others, in Leadenhall-street. All that was brought against their evidence, was (says the bishop) the master of the tavern, and two of his servants, swearing that they remembered well the company which was at the tavern, for they were often coming into the room where they sat both at dinner time, and after it; and they saw not Goodman there, nay, they were positive he was not there. On the other hand, Porter deposed, that Goodman was not with them at dinner, but came after, and sent him a note; upon which he, with the consent of the company, went out and brought him in. The jury considered that the servants of Page 174the house were not in constant attendance, nor could they be believed in a negative, against positive evidence to the contrary; and it might be well supposed, that for the interest of their house they might be induced to make stretches; and thereupon Cook was found guilty, and condemned. He obtained many short reprieves, upon assurances he would tell all he knew; but as he did not deal sincerely, his punishment ended in banishment. Sir John Fenwick was next brought to his trial; but Good∣man having been persuaded to go out of England, there were not then two witnesses against him; so by course of law he must have been acquitted: and also on that ac∣count the Earl of Ailesbury never came to his trial. But Sir John Fenwick had confessed (in hopes of pardon) before the lords justices, being on oath, that the Earl of Ailesbury, having been admitted to a private audience of the French king, pro∣posed his sending over an army of 30,000 men, and had undertaken that a great body of gentlemen and horses should be brought to join them: yet at the same time (as observed by bishop Burnet) took care to name none of his own side, except those against whom evidence was already brought (as in the case of the Earl of Ailesbury) or who were safe, and beyond sea: and King William not being satisfied therewith, Sir John was attainted by parliament, and suffered death on January 28th, 1696-7. The Countess of Ailesbury, his wife, was so afflicted at his Lordship's confinement in the Tower, that she died in childbed on January 12th, 1696-7; but the Earl her husband was admitted to bail on February 12th following. His Lordship after∣wards having obtained King William's leave to reside at Brussels, he there married, secondly, Charlotte Countess of Sannu, of the ancient and noble house of Argenteau, in the dutchy of Brabant; and by her, who died at Brussels on July 23d, 1710, N. S. in the 31st year of her age, had an only daughter, Charlotte-Maria, who was married, in 1722, to the Prince of Horne, one of the princes of the empire, and died at Brus∣sels on November 18th, 1736, leaving several children. His Lordship died at Brus∣sels in November, 1741, in the 86th year of his age; and was succeeded in his honours by Charles Lord Bruce, his only surviving son.
CHARLES, THIRD EARL OF AILESBURY, AND FOURTH EARL OF ELGIN, in the lifetime of his father, was summoned by writ to the House of Peers, by the title Lord Bruce, of Whorlton, on December 31st, 1711, the tenth year of Queen Anne: and his late Majesty, by letters patent, bearing date April 17th, 1746, 19th George II. was pleased to create him Lord Bruce, of Tottenham in Wiltshire, Page 175to him and his heirs male, with limitation of that honour to his nephew, the Honour∣able Thomas Bruce-Brudenel, youngest son of George, late Earl of Cardigan, and the Lady Elizabeth Bruce, his wife, sister to the said Charles Earl of Ailesbury.
His Lordship married the Lady Anne Saville, eldest daughter and one of the co∣heirs to William Marquis of Hallifax (by Elizabeth his wife, daughter and heir to Sir Samuel Grimston, Baronet) by which lady, who died on July 18th, 1717, he had issue two sons and two daughters;
- 1. George, who was born in 1707, and died young;
- 2. Robert, who on February 8th, 1728-9, was married to Frances, daughter to Sir William Blacket, of Newcastle upon Tyne, Baronet, and died be∣fore his father, without issue.
His Lordship took to wife, secondly, the Lady Juliana Boyle, second daughter of Charles Boyle, Earl of Burlington, and sister to Richard the last earl: but that lady died in March, 1738, without issue. He, thirdly, married, on June 13th, 1739, Mary, only daughter of General John Campbell of Mammore, late Duke of Ar∣gyle: and by her ladyship (who, on December 19th, 1747, took to her 2d husband the Honourable Henry Seymour Conway, brother to Francis Earl of Herford) left at his decease, on February 10th, 1746-7, an only child, Lady Mary, wedded on April 1, 1757, to Charles, the present Duke of Richmond.
By his Lordship's decease without male issue, in him ended the male line of Ed∣ward Lord Bruce of Kinloss, second son of Sir Edward Bruce of Blairhall, whereby the titles of Earl of Ailesbury, Viscount Bruce of Ampthill, Baron Bruce of Whorlton, and Baron Bruce of Skelton, became extinct: but the dignity of Lord Bruce of Tot∣tenham, in Wiltshire, devoled to the Honourable Thomas Bruce-Brudenel, fourth son of George, third Earl of Cardigan according to the entail in the patent of April 17th, 1746, 19 George II. aforesaid; and the honours of the Earl of Elgin, and Lord Bruce of Kinloss, descended to Charles Bruce, ninth Earl of Kincardine in Scotland.
THOMAS, FOURTH EARL OF AILESBURY, who succeeded as SECOND LORD BRUCE OF TOTTENHAM, assumed the surname and arms of Bruce, by virtue of the King's licence in 1767, and was advanced to the dignity of Earl of Page 176Ailesbury by patent, June 10th, 1776. He married 17th, 1761, Susan∣na, daughter of Henry Hoar, of Stourhead (or Stourton-castle,) in Wiltshire, and widow of Charles Viscount Dungarvan, eldest son and heir apparent of John Boyle, Earl of Cork and Orrery, &c. in Ireland, and Lord Boyle of Marston, in England: and by her ladyship (who died February 4th, 1783) has issue now living, only one son, Charles Lord Bruce, and two daughters, Lady Caroline-Anne, born in 1763, and Lady Frances-Elizabeth, born in 1765. He married, secondly, to Lady Anne-Elizabeth Rawdon, daughter to the late and sister to the present Earl of Moira. His Lordship is Lord Chamberlain of her Majesty's Household, and Knight of the most ancient order of the Thistle.
TITLES.] The Right Honourable Thomas-Bruce Brudenel-Bruce, Earl of Ailes∣bury, and Baron Bruce of Tottenham.
CREATIONS.] Baron Bruce of Tottenham in Wilts, April 17th, 1746; Earl of Ailesbury in the county of Buckingham, June 10th, 1776.
ARMS.] Quarterly, first and fourth, Or, a Saltire and Chief, Gules; on a Canton Argent, a Lion rampant, Azure, for Bruce: second and third, Argent, a Cheveron, Gules, between three Morions or Steel Caps, Azure, for Brudenel.
CREST.] On a Wreath, a Lion, Azure.
SUPPORTERS.] Two Savages wreathed about the Temples and Loins, proper.
MOTTO.] FUIMUS.—We have been.
CHIFF-SEAT.] At Tottenham-park, adjoining to Savernake-forest, Wiltshire.
Sir Tho•. Arundel a VOLUNTEER in the Imperial ARMY taking the Standard of the TURKS.
DEO DATE [blazon or coat of arms]