Mandeville's travels : the Egerton version
Mandevill, John, Sir, British Library. Manuscript. Egerton 1982.
Warner, George F. (George Frederic), Sir, 1845-1936.

CHAPTER X

[Of the pilgrimages in Jerusalem; and of the Holy Places there abowte.]

FOR to speke of Ierusalem, ȝe schall vnderstand þat it standes faire amang hilles; and þer es nowþer ryuer ne well, bot þer commes water þerto by cundytes fra Ebron. And I do ȝow to wit þat þis citee was first called Iebus vnto þe tyme of Melchisedech, and seyne was it called Salem vnto þe tyme of kyng Dauid. And he sett þise twa names sammen and called it Iebusalem; and þan come Salomon [folio 31] and called it Ierusalem, and so es it ȝit called. And aboute Ierusalem es þe kyngdom of Surry; and þare by es þe land of Palestyne, and Ascalon. Bot Ierusalem es in þe land of Iudee; and it es called Iudee for Iudas Machabeus 4. [Machabeus, erased, E.] was prince of þat land. And it marchez estward on þe kyngdom of Araby, and on þe southe syde on þe land of Egipte, on þe west syde apon þe grete see, and on þe north syde apon þe kyngdom of Surry and þe see of Cypre. In Ierusalem was wont to be a patriark, and ercebischopes and bischopes aboute in þe cuntree. Aboute Ierusalem er þir citeez, Ebron at vii. myle, Iericho at vi. myle, Bersabee at viii. myle, Ascalon atPage  38 xviii. 1. [xvii., C.] myle, Iaff at xxvii., 2. [xvi., C.] Rames 3. [Ramatha, C.] at iii. myle, and Bethleem at ii. myle. And twa myle fra Bethleem, toward þe south, es a kirke of Sayne Markaritot, þat was sum tyme abbot þare, for wham þe mounkes made mykill sorowe at his dying. And ȝit es þare paynting, whare in þe grete dole þat þai made es representid and purtraid, 4. [and ȝit þei ben in moornynge in the wise þat þei maden here lamentacion for him the firste tyme, C.] and it es a piteous thing to behald.

Þis land of Ierusalem has bene in many diuerse naciouns handes, as Iews, Cananez, Assirienes, men of Perse, Medoynes, Massidoynes, Grekes, Romaynes, Cristen men, Sarzenes, Barbarenes, Turkes, and many oþer naciouns. For Criste will noȝt þat it be lang in þe handes of traytours ne synners, be þai Cristen er oþer. And now has mescreauncez halden þat land in þaire handes viixx ȝere 5. [xl. ȝere, C.] and mare; bot thurgh þe grace of Godd þai schall noȝt hald it lang.

And ȝe sall vnderstand þat, when men commez to Ierusalem, þai make þaire first pilgrimage to þe kirk [folio 31b] whare es þe sepulcre of oure Lorde, whilk was sum tyme withouten þe citee on þe north syde; bot it es now closed within þe wall of þe toune. And þer es a full faire kirk all rounde, thekid 6. [covered, C.] wele with leed; and on þe west syde of þe kirke es a faire toure and a strang, fore belles. And in þe myddes of þat kirke es a tabernacle, as as it ware a lytill hous made in maner of half a cumpas, dight riȝt wele and richely with gold and siluer and azour and oþer diuerse colours; and on þe ryght syde þeroff es þe sepulcre of oure Lord. Þis tabernacle es viii. fote lang, and fyue fote wyde, and xi. fote hegh. And it es noȝt lang sen þe sepulcre was all open, þat men myȝt kisse it and touche it. Bot for men þat come þider paynd þam to breke þe stane in pecez or pouder to bere with þam, þarfore þe sowdan has gert make a wall aboute þe graue, þat na man may touche it, bot on þe left syde. 7. [But in the left syde of the walle of the tabernacle is, wel the heighte of a man, a gret ston, to the quantytee of a mannes hed, þat was of the Holy Sepulcre, and þat ston kissen the pilgrymes þat comen þider, C.] Þat tabernacle has na wyndowes, bot þer es þerin many lawmpes light. Bot ymanges oþer þer es ane before þe sepulcre allway brynnand; and ilk a gude Fridday it gase oute by it self, and on þe Pasch day it lightez agayne by it self þat same hour þat oure Lord raise fra deed to lyf. Also within þat kirk on þe riȝt syde es þe mounte of Caluary, whare oure Lord was done on þe crosse. And þe crosse was sette in a mortays in the roche, þat es whyt of colour and a lytill reed melled þerwith. Apon þe roche dropped blode of þe woundes of oure Lorde, when he was pyned on þe crosse. And þat es now called Golgatha; and men gase vp þerto aponPage  39 [folio 32] grecez. And in þat mortays was Adam heued founden aftre Noe flode, in takne þat þe synnes of Adam schuld be boght in þat same place. And abouen on þat roche made Abraham sacrifice til oure Lord. And þare es ane awter; and before þat awter lyes Godfray de Boloon and Bawdewyne his broþer, and oþer þat ware Cristen and kynges of Ierusalem. And þare, whare oure Lord was done on þe crosse, es writen in Grew lettres, sayand þus, "Otheos basileon ysmon presemas ergaste sothias oys", and sum bukez saise þus, "Otheos basileon ymon proseonas ergasa sothias emesotis gis", þat es to say on Latyn þus, "Hic deus, rex noster, ante saecula operatus est salutem in medio terre", þat es to say, "Here Godd, oure kyng, before werldes has wroȝt hele in myddes of þe erthe." And also apon þe roche whare þe crosse was fitthed es writen þus, "Gros guist rasis thou pestes thoy thesmoysi", or þus, "Oyos iustiys basis thou pesteos thoy themosi", þat es to say in Latyn, "Quod vides, est fundamentum totius fidei mundi huius", þis es to say, "Þat þou seez es þe ground of all þe fayth of þis werld." And ȝe schall vnderstand þat oure Lord when he died was xxxiii. ȝere alde and three monethes. Bot þe prophecy of Dauid saise þat he schuld hafe xl. ȝere are he died, þare he saise on þis wyse, "Quadraginta annis proximus fui generacioni huic", 1. [Ps. xciv.10, but with "offensus" for "proximus."] þat es to say, "Fourty ȝere was I neghbour to þis kynde." And hereby schuld it seme þat haly writte ware noȝt trewe; bot sikerly it es trew ynogh, for in alde tyme men made ȝeres of ten [folio 32b] monethes, of whilk þe moneth of Marce was þe first and December þe last. Bot Iulius Cesar, þat was emperour of Rome, gert sette to þise twa monethes, Ianuere and Feuerere, and ordayned þe ȝere to be of xii. monethes, þat es to say of ccclxv. dayes, withouten lepe ȝere, after þe propre course of þe sonne. And þerfore, after accountyng of ten monethes to þe ȝere, he dyed in þe fourty ȝere, and after oure ȝeres of twelfe monethes he had xxxiii. ȝere and three monethes are he dyed. Fast by þe mount of Caluary, at þe riȝt syde, es ane awter, whare þe piler lyes to þe whilk oure Lord was bounden, when he was scourged. And foure fote þeine er foure stanes, 2. [pileres of ston, C.] whilk all way droppez water; and sum men saise þat þase stanes grette for oure Lordes deed. And nere to þis forsaid awter, in a place vnder þe erthe xlii. grecez depe, fand saynt Helene þe crosse of oure Lord Ihesu Criste, vnder a roche whare þe Iews had hidd it. And þare were founden also oþer twa crossez, þat þe twa thefez ware done apon, whilk hang on ayther syde Criste. And saynt Helen wist noȝt witerly whilk was þe crosse þat Criste was done apon; and þan scho tuke ilk ane efter oþer and layd þam apon a deed man, and, als sone as þe verray crosse þat Criste was done apon was laid apon þe deed body, þe cors rase fra deed to lyfe. And þare by in þe wall es þe place whare þe foure nayles þat Criste was nayled with thurgh fote and hand ware hidd; for he had twa nayles in his hend and twa in his fete. And of ane of þase nayles gert þe emperour Constantyne make him ane yrne till his brydill, 3. [made a brydill to his hors, C.] þe whilk he vsed ay when he went to bataile; for thurgh vertu þeroff he ouercome his [folio 33] enmys and conquerd many diuerse rewmes, þat es to say Asy þe less, Turkie, Ermony þe less and þe mare,Page  40 Surry, Ierusalem, Araby, Perse, Mesopotamy, þe rewme of Halope, and of Egipte, bathe þe ouermare and þe neþer mare, and many oþer landes vnto wele lawe in Ethiope and vnto Inde þe less, þat þan was Cristen for þe mare party. And þare ware in þat tyme many gode haly men and haly hermytes in þase cuntreez, of wham þe buke of Vitas patrum spekez. And now fore þe maste party þase landes er in payenes and Sarzenes handes. Bot , when Godd will, riȝt as þise landes er lost thurgh synne of Cristen men, so schall þai be wonnen agayne by Cristen men, thurgh helpe of Godd. In þe middes of þe qwere of þe forsaid kirk es a sercle, in þe whilk Ioseph of Aramathy layd þe body of oure Lord, when he had tane him off þe crosse; and men saise þat þat cumpas es in þe middes of þe werld. And in þat place wascht Ioseph þe woundes of oure Lord. Also in þe kirk of þe sepulcre, on þe north syde, es a place whare oure Lord was done in prisoun, for he was emprisouned in many placez. And þare es ȝit a porcioun of þe chayne wharwith he was bunden. And þare he appered first to Mary Mawdelayne, when he rase fra deed to lyfe, and scho wend þat he had bene a gardenere. In þe kirke of þe Sepulcre ware wont to be chanouns of þe ordre of saynt Austyne, and þai had a priour; bot þe patriarc was þaire souerayne. And withouten þe dore of þe kirke, at þe riȝt syde, as men gase vpp xviii. greez, sayd oure Lord till his moder, when he hang on þe crosse, apon þis wyse, "Mulier, ecce, filius tuus", 1. [John xix. 26.] þat es to say, [folio 33b] "Womman, loo, þare þi son," and he ment of sayne Iohn þat stode þare by syde. And till him he said, "Loo, þare þi moder." Vppe at þis grece went Criste with þe crosse on his bakk to þe place whare he was crucified. And vnder þis grece es a chapell, whare prestez synges, bot noȝt aftre oure lawe, bot aftre þaire awen lawe. And all way þai make þaire sacrement of þe awter of breed, sayand þe Pater noster and þe wordes of þe sacrement and lytill mare; for þai knawe noȝt þe addiciouns of papez, whilk oure prestez vsez for to say at messez. Neuer þe les þai syng þaire messez with grete deuocioun. And þare nere es þe place whare oure Lord rested him, when he was wery of bering of þe crosse. And ȝe schall vnderstand þat ynentes þe kirk of þe Sepulcre es þe citee maste wayke, for þe grete playne þat es betwene þe citee and þe kirke on þe este syde. And withouten þe walles toward þe est es þe vale of Iosaphat, þe whilk commes euen to þe walles. Abouen þat vale withouten þat citee es þe kirke of saynt Steuen, whare he was staned to deed. And þare by syde es þe ȝate whilke men callez Porta aurea, þe whilk may noȝt be opned. In at þat yhate come oure Lord Ihesu rydand on Palme Sunday apon ane asse; and þat ȝate opned agayne him, when he come to þe temple. And ȝit er þe steppes of þe asse sene in thre placez of þe grece of stane. Before þe kirke of þe Sepulcre cc. passez es a grete hospitale of saynt Iohn, of whilk þe hospitalleres hase þaire first fundacion. And to ga toward þe est fra þePage  41 [folio 34] hospitale es a riȝt fair kirke, þat men callez Nostre Dame le graunt. And a lytill þeine es anoþer kirke, þat es called Nostre Dame de Latynes. And þare stude Mary Mawdelayne and Mary Cleophe, makand sorow for oure Lord, when he was done to deed, and drawand off þaire hare. In 1. [This sentence in C is higher up, as in the French texts, and follows H more exactly.] þe forsaid hospitale of sayne Iohn es a grete hous ordaynd for seke folk, and þer er in þat hous vixxiiii. pilers of stane þat beres vp þe hous.