Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  331, vol.7

Capitulum sextum.

THIS ȝere deide Lanfrank archebisshop of Canturbury, þe fourþe*. [vurde, γ.] day tofore*. [tofore] of, Cx.] Iuyn,*. [tovore Jun, γ.] after þat he hadde i-be arche|bisshop eyȝtene ȝere; and þanne þe see was voide foure ȝere. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Þis Lanfrank, of þe nacioun of Lombardes, was a noble man of lettrure;*. [letture, γ.] he hadde i-ȝeve al his ȝowþe to fre artes and sciens, and spende*. [spente, Cx.] his elde al in holy bookes; he was konnynge þerof, and despisede þe smokynge and schillynge speche of mysbyleved men. And of alle abbayes in Normandie he chees Becco, and was by|capped*. [cappet, γ.; ycapped, Cx.] by þe povert and religioun of þat place. Þere he was a monk under abbot Herlewyn,*. [Herlewing, Cx.] and was a man þat kouþe doo no grete werkes to gete his liflode þerwiþ. Þerefore he hilde open scole of art to releve þe nedy place by fredom*. [vredom, γ.] of his scolers; þe loos of his preysinge and of his worschippe sprang out among wicked men, so þat þey hadde greet envie to þe good man, and*. [to the, add. Cx. wrongly.] preostes*. [prustes, γ.] of þe contray meoved so William duke of Normandie [þat he commaundede to put*. [pot, γ.] out Lanfranc out of Normandye]*. [From α. and β.] for his unesynes. Willelmus, libro 2o. For*. [For Hervast] Bycause herof, Cx.] Hervast,*. [Herfast, β., γ.] duke William his preost,*. [prust, γ.] was holde a man of Page  333, vol.7 greet sciens tofore þe comynge of Lanfrank. He cam in a day to Lanfrank his scole wiþ greet brag and boost; þanne by his firste speche Lanfranc was war þat þe man couþe wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] riȝt nouȝt, and took hym a þing wiþ letter*. [lettres, β.] for to spel,*. [spede, α., β., and Cx.; of letters vor to spyde, γ.] and so he overcom þe wildenesse of þe man by connynge*. [kunnyng, β.] of Italy. Þerfore he was wrooþ, and made duke William putte Lanfrank out of al Normandye. But occasioun to have grace of þe duke was, for*. [was, vor, γ.] Lanfrank wente to þe dukes court, and his hors haltede and made þe duke lawhe.*. [lauȝe, β.; lauȝhe, γ.; laugh, Cx.] Þe duke took heed*. [hyde, γ.] of þe*. [þe] om. β.] curtesie*. [courtosye, Cx.] of Lanfrank his answere, and of þe fairenesse*. [veyrnes, γ.] of his face,*. [fas, γ.] and made hym [of]*. [From β.] priour of Becco, abbot of Cadony,*. [Caen, Cx.] and afterward archebisshop of Caun|terbury. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Þis man was so famous of lore þat pope Alisaundre aroos*. [aros, β.] worschip|fulliche aȝenst hym whan he come to Rome, and seide þat he dede nouȝt to þe archebisshop [þat worschippe],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] but to his clergie. Þerfore þe pope axede þat seþþe*. [syth, Cx.] þat he hadde i-doo what was worschipful, Lanfrank schulde doo what was Page  335, vol.7 riȝtful, þat is þat he schulde falle adoun to þe feet*. [veet, γ.] of seint Peter his vikarie.*. [vikere, α.; viker, β.; saynt Peter vyker, Cx.] Whanne he hadde soo i-doo þe pope by cause of hym restored his felowes bisshoppes þat com wiþ hym to here staat, crosses*. [croyses, Cx.] and rynges, þat were to forehonde*. [bifore, Cx., bis.] i-preved,*. [yprived, β. and γ.] as it is seide to forehonde.*. [bifore, Cx., bis.] Also þis Lanfrank tredede*. [tretid, Cx.] and bylad*. [byladde, β.] kyng William conquerour by an holy craft, nouȝt wiþ grym chidynge, but somtyme [an hernest*. [ernest, β., γ., and Cx.] and some|time]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in good merþe. Kyng William was sterne*. [storn, γ.] and dradde no man, and rulede*. [reulede, γ.] boþe temperalte and spiritualte at his owne wille; he fenge*. [vynge, γ.] no man for*. [þey] he, β. and Cx.] þe pope in his lond, but þey*. [for] fro, Cx.] come and plesede hym; he suffred no counsaile i-made in his lond wiþ oute his owne leve. Also he wolde suffre no þing to be ordeyned in suche a counseil but as he wolde assente. Also no lord of his lond schulde be punsched*. [punyschide, β.] bote at his owne heste. Somtyme Lanfrank took money for to spare þe more þe*. [þe] om. α.] tres|pas of his sugettes,*. [subget, Cx.] þat dede he nouȝt for to*. [to] om. Cx.] liȝte þe charge of synne, bote for to gete þe more grace of þe kyng; þe nede*. [neode, α.] why it moste be i-doo excused somdel*. [somwhat, Cx.] þe kynges dede in gaderynge of money. For wiþ greet money me*. [one may make, Cx.] mote*. [mot, γ.] make pees in þe lond þat is i-wonne wiþ dedes of armes and wiþ strengþe; and þeiȝ it be litel acounted among men [to ravese*. [ravysch, β.] of men]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of þe lond, and ȝeve to enemyes, ȝit tofore God I Page  337, vol.7 holde it riȝt nouȝt. Þan kyng William his dedes, in compari|soun of dedes of kynges þat now beeþ, [beeþ]*. [From α. and γ.; beþ, β.; now ben be, Cx.] worþy to be i-preved*. [preched, β. and Cx.; ypreched, γ.] for ensample of fre*. [vre, γ.] and lordliche herte; þat was i-seide trespas of presumcioun. Lanfranc suffred it aȝenst his wille, and whanne he sigh his tyme he wolde speke plesyng|liche,*. [pleasauntly, Cx.] [and warnede him and wiþseide him in skileful*. [skilfol, γ.] manere. Lanfranc hadde y-fylled*. [y-vulled, γ.] his witt wiþ al vertues, bote*. [and specially, Cx.] passyngliche]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in almes*. [almesse,.] dedes, he passede oþere men in word and in dede, and usede ofte þat word of holy writt, ȝeveþ almesse, and al þing is clene to ȝow." And þey covetise be a special vice*. [vys, γ.] to Lombardes, he put*. [potte, γ.] þat gleymynge*. [gleymyng, β. and γ.] fer from his persone, so þat he spende in*. [spente on, Cx.] pore men mete and drynke and clooþ. Hym schamede nouȝt to girde*. [gurde, γ.] hym self hiȝe,*. [heyȝ, β.] and fede*. [vede, γ.] and serve pore men, and make poure scolers stryve and dispute,*. [despuyte, γ.] and whan þey hadde i-doo*. [doon, β.] eiþer schuld goo glad awey, þe victor for he hadde þe maistrie, and he þat were overcome for comfort*. [comford, γ.] and solas of schame. He avaunsede*. [advanced, Cx.] nameliche þe place*. [plas, γ.] of monkes, and of cherches*. [clerkes, α., β., and γ.; clerkis, Cx.] he brouȝte manliche aȝen possessiouns þat were aliened. Scharpnes of Page  339, vol.7 wit and Donston his*. [Dunstan's, β.] favour conforted hym ofte; for as ofte as he was þouȝtful*. [þoȝtfol, γ.] in*. [in] for, Cx.] suche doynges, and bood*. [abode, β. and Cx.; bod, γ.] wiþ þe sentens, seynt Donstoun wolde come to Lanfrank whan he were on slepe, and warne hym of al þe sleiþe of his adversaries, and teche þe weies how he schulde ascape. Also in a tyme Lanfrank was sike, and hym semede þat Donstoun wrastled*. [warstled, Cx.] wiþ hym [and delyvered hym of his siknes]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and made hym [al]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] hool. And as it is i-take out of seint Donston his lif, Lanfrank was so mylde and so faire of speche in herynge of schrifte, þat whanne þe schrift were i-doo he wolde kesse her*. [theyr, Cx.] hondes þat were*. [where, MS.] i-schryve to hym, and seide, "Þese haveþ*. [have, Cx.; segge þes habbeþ, γ.] i-made me holy þis day." Also in his tyme þe monkes of Caunterbury, as wel nyȝ alle oþere monkes in Engelond, were nouȝt onliche*. [unlyk, Cx.] to seculer men, sauf*. [save, β.] þat þey lefte nouȝt liche*. [liȝtliche, β.; lyȝtlych, γ.; om. Cx.] her chastite, bote þey usede hontynge and haukynge*. [Transposed in α. and Cx.] and playeng at þe dees and greet drynkynge also, so þat þou woldest wene þat þey were consuls raþer þan monkes, for þey hadde so menye servauntes and*. [and] of, β., γ., and Cx.] so greet aray. Lanfranc suffrede her out|rage somwhat of tyme, but he ferede it away wiþ þe staf of covenable*. [covenabel, γ.] sturnes.*. [sternenesse, β.] Þe wyse maister of soules knewe*. [knwe, γ.] and wiste*. [weste, α.; wuyste, γ.] wel þat costome*. [the customme, Cx.] is þe secounde fro*. [from, β.; vram, γ.] kynde, and he knewe also þat sodeyn chaungynge of maneres and þewes Page  341, vol.7 greveþ þouȝtes and wittes; þerfore oþer whiles among*. [emonge, Cx.] he putte*. [pot, γ.] awey somwhat of suche manere doynges*. [doyngis, Cx.] wiþ faire speche and softe, and whette þe rude*. [rued, α.; ruyde, β. and Cx.] soules to goode wiþ þe whestoun of*. [whestoun of] om. γ.] vertues, so þat þey forsook þe braunches of schrewednesse and evel manere of levynge, and desired*. [desirede, β.] the kynde cours of vertues and of good þewes by here owne good wille. Þerfore ȝit þey haveþ*. [hy habbeþ, γ.; have, Cx.] þe holy man in mynde,*. [munde, γ.] and greet devocioun to God, and faire speche to gestes,*. [gistes, β.; ghestes, Cx.] and charite among hem self. Þis Lanfrank leet nevere a*. [α] om. α., β., and Cx.] man goo from hym helynge*. [elenge, α. and Cx.; elyng, β.; elynge, γ.] and*. [and] or, Cx.] sory; ȝif he sigh eny man dis|comforted he wolde besiliche axe and wite þe cause and ȝeve comfort and medecyne;*. [medicyn, β. and Cx.] he wolde freliche profre penyes to ȝong*. [ȝunge, γ.] children; he ordeynede to monkes what hem nedede in eueriche side, so þat hem lakked nouȝt*. [schulde lacke of, α.; they should not lack of, Cx.] of*. [blynche, γ.] what þat hem neded, and out of rule þey schulde nouȝt blenche. Þat tyme sprang envie among bisshoppes þat wolde putte out monkes of here places,*. [her place, β.] and set*. [brynge, α. and β.; bringe, Cx.] in seculer clerkes; auctor*. [autor, β.] þerof schulde be*. [auctor of þat doynge was, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Walkelinus bisshop of Wynchestre, a good man in Page  343, vol.7 oþere dedes, þeyȝ he were badde in þat doynge, and i-brouȝt þerto by counsaile of bakbiters. Also he hadde i-drawe*. [convertid, Cx.] kyng William to þat same entent, but Lanfranc herde*. [hurde, γ.] þerof, and destroyede þe castes of þe myȝti men as who destroyeþ copweb.*. [attercop weftes, β.; copweft, γ.; attercops nestes, Cx.] So þat þey þat come afterward schulde nouȝt be hardy to begynne þat doynge ne non oþer i-liche, he made þat pope Ali|saundre forbeed*. [vorbud, γ.; forbode, Cx.] it by his writynge. He restored þe abbay of Rochestre from þe nombre of [foure]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; voure, γ.] clerkes [to þe noumbre of fifty monkes],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat hadde riȝt inow*. [ynough, Cx.] to lyve by. *. [Hit wit, add. α.; His wit, add. β. and γ.; His witte is ywyst, Cx.]It is i-woost*. [ywust, β.; ywuyst, γ.] þat he translated monk Gundulphus of Cadoni to þe bisshopriche of Rouchestre, as me troweþ*. [I trowe, Cx.] by þe ellec|cioun of God. For þis Gundulphus lernede*. [lurnde, γ.] holy writ of Lanfrank at Cadoni, while his maister took hede*. [hyde, γ.] to oþer þinges, he and his felowe Walter, wiþ þe þridde, hilde in*. [on, α., β., and Cx.] honde þe book of þe gospelles, and seide, "Now assay we by*. [essaye we be, Cx.] tornynge of þe leeves whiche*. [whoche, γ., bis.] of us schal be abbot and whiche schal be bisshop?" Þanne Gundulphus fonde*. [vond, γ.] þis place: "Trewe*. [truwe, γ.] servaunt, wise and redy, þat oure lord ordeyneþ over his Page  345, vol.7 meyne." But Walter fond þis place: "Good*. [Goddes, Cx.] servant and trewe,*. [truw, γ.] [entre]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] into þe ioye of þy lord." Þe þridde felowe fonde I not what hard word þat greved hym sore, and þeyȝ I*. [ich, β.] have i-herde it I forȝete*. [yhurd hyt ych vorȝute, γ.] it gladly. For it is a gentil herte to make no game and scorne of oþer men*. [mennis, β.] woo. Þan þey made ioye for þat hap,*. [of that happe, Cx.] and Lanfrank axede what þey hadde of merþe. And whan he knewe*. [wuyste, γ.] how it stood he tolde hem wiþoute dowte þat Gundulphus schulde be a bisshop, and Walter an abbot, and þe þridde schulde torne to [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] slydynge of þe world.*. [worl, γ.] As it fil afterward þe soþe was i-preoved,*. [y-preved, β.] for Gundulphus was bisshop of Rouchestre, and Walter abbot of Evesham, and þe þridde*. [felawe] om. Cx.] felawe passede in vayn.*. [veyn, β.] Whan Lanfrank accorded nouȝt in þe*. [þe] om. β.] maneres wiþ kyng William þe Rede, he lay at þe laste sike in þe feveres, and was i-schryve*. [yscryve, γ.] and i-houseled,*. [hosled, β.; y-hosled, γ.] and drank a medicinal drynke,*. [drynch, γ.; medecinale drank Cx.] and so he ȝilde up þe goost as he hadde desired; he knowleched þat he hadde i-prayed God þat he moste deie in þe feveres oþer in þe flux,*. [flix, α.] for þese evels distourbeþ nouȝt þe mynde*. [munde, γ.] noþer letteþ þe speche.