Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quadragesimum primum.*. [Cap. 40, Cx.]

AFTER þe fifte Celestinus, þe eyȝteþe Bonefas was pope ellevene ȝere. Þis pope his fifte ȝere*. [This popes fyrst yere, Cx.] was a ȝere of grace,*. [gras, γ.] þat Page  285, vol.8 ȝere he graunted large and greet pardoun to pilgrymes þat wolde come to Rome and visite þe apostles Petre and Poule. He made þe sixte book of Decretales; þerynne he determyned many grete doutes, he encorpered many [grete]*. [From Cx.] constituciouns [ex|travagant, as þe constitucioun]*. [From α., β., and γ.] of Honorius and of Adran|cencius,*. [Adrian, α., β., and Cx.; Adryan, γ.] of Innocencius, of Clement and of oþer popes, and did away þat was unriȝtful.*. [al that was wrongful, Cx.] A constitucioun þat is not i-putte in þe course of lawes is i-cleped a constitucioun extravagant. ℞. Þis begiled his predecessour Celestinus, and made hym resigne up þe poperiche, and torne eft to an acre lyf.*. [to anker's life, β.; anker hys lyf, γ.; to ankers lyf, Cx.] Men seiþ þat þerfore Celestinus prophecied of hym in þis manere: "Þou come up*. [out, α.] as a fox, þou schalt reigne as a lyon, and deye as a*. [an, α.] hound." For he made pope Celestinus make a constitu|cioun þat he and everiche pope myȝte freliche*. [vrelyche, γ.] resigne up*. [op, γ.] the poperiche, and whan he was pope he worschipped*. [revoked, Cx.] þe same constitucion; þan he regned*. [ruled, β. and Cx.; reulede, γ.] sterneliche,*. [stronglyche, γ.] and sette doun some cardinals and gentil men de Columpna, and wiþ|stood þe kyng of Fraunce in many poyntes, and nouȝt onliche þat, but he fondede wiþ [all]*. [From Cx.] his myȝt to sette doun þe kyng of Fraunce. Þerfore the steward*. [stuward, Cx.] of Fraunce, William de Lan|garet, a wise man and a*. [a] om. β.] fer*. [ver, γ.] castynge, and þe forseide breþeren Page  287, vol.8 de Calumpna conspired to gidres, and took pope Bonefas and sette hym uppon a wylde hors wiþouten brydel, and turned his visage*. [face, β.; fas, γ.] toward þe tayle, and made hym so prike aboute to þe laste breeþ, and slow hym so wiþ prekynge and wiþ hunger. Iohn Bayllol þat was made kyng of Scotlond rose aȝenst þe kyng of Engelond and aȝenst his owne ooth,*. [, β.] and þat by coun|seille of some men of Scotlond, and nameliche of þe abbot of Mewerose;*. [Meuros, β. γ., and Cx.] but Iohn was i-take and disherited. Þan þe ȝere after William Waleys of the nacioun of Scottes arrayed werre aȝenst kyng Edward; but he was i-chased the secounde ȝere after, kyng Edward slowȝ sixty þowsand Scottes at Fouli|chirche*. [Fouchirch, Cx.] in a Mary Magdeleyn*. [Mawdeleyn, α.; Maudeleyn, β.] day. But þe Scottes wex*. [wuxe, γ.] strenger and strenger þritty ȝere to gidres anon to kyng Ed|wardes tyme þe þridde after þe conquest, and bete*. [but, γ.] doun Englische men oost*. [ofte, β. and γ.] and Englische men*. [men] om. α., β., and γ.] [oft and Englysshe]*. [From Cx.] places þat were nygh to her marches. Som men seide þat þat myshap fel*. [vul, γ.] for mescheves*. [neschenesse, β.; softnesse, Cx.] of Englisch men, and some seide þat it was Goddes owne wreche, and*. [and] as, β. and Cx.] þe prophecie seide þat Englische men schulde be destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] by Danes, by Frensche*. [Freyns, γ.] men, and by Scottes, as it is i-touched in þe ende of þe firste book. Þe kyng made seyse into his hond al þe temporalte of clerkes, and putte hem out of his protec|cioun, Page  289, vol.8 for þey wolde rewarde hym of her catel þe ȝere to fore|honde aȝenst þe Scottes. For by assent of the clergie, Robert þe archebisshop hadde purchased an inhibicioun of þe pope þat no clerk schulde rewarde þe kyng of holy chirche goodes; but many clerkes purchased for drede þe kynges proteccioun. Wiþ|oute counseille of lordes kyng Edward wiþ litel strengþe of Englische men and Walsche men seilled into Flaundres, as it were aȝenst þe kyng of Fraunce. It was þo*. [þo] om. α.; a, β. and Cx.] comoun*. [comyn, γ.] sawe þat kyng Edward loved [so]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Blaunche, þe kynges douȝter of Fraunce, þat he wolde gladliche ȝeelde up Gaskoyne*. [Gasquyn, γ.] to þe kyng of Fraunce for his dowter Blaunche; but for Edward was oolde and Blaunche was a ȝong wenche,*. [ȝung weynche, γ.] kyng Edward wedded Margarete, the kynges suster of Fraunce,*. [kyng of Fraunces suster, α.] and gat on here two*. [twy, γ.] sones, Thomas and Edmond. Kyng Edward dampned sodeynliche fals money þat was slyliche*. [slyghtly, Cx.] i-brouȝt up: men cleped*. [clepin, Cx.] þe money pollardes, crocardes and rosaries,*. [Rosoryes, Cx.] and Page  291, vol.8 were putte forþ litel and litel and priveliche in stede of ster|lynges.*. [shyllynges, Cx.] First þey*. [he, γ.] made oon of hem worþ an half peny, and þan he fordede hem all out.*. [forbad hem aboute, Cx.] Also [this yere]*. [From Cx.; þis ȝere, β.] Edmond erle of Cornewayle [deyed wiþoute children; þis Edmund was þe sone of Richard erle of Cornwayle]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and kyng of Almayne, and so þat erldom fel [aȝen]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] to the crowne aȝen|ward.*. [aȝenward] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þis ȝere was a ȝere of grace,*. [gras, γ.] in þe whiche ȝede*. [wente, α.; went, β. and γ.] many pilgrimes to Rome.*. [towne, α.] Kyng Edward ȝaf his sone Ed|ward þe principate of Wales and þe erldom of Chestre. At Londoun William Waleys, ledere of Scottes, was an honged*. [anhonge, γ.] and to-drawe, his heed was i-smyte*. [y-smyȝten, α.] of and i-sette uppon þe brigge*. [brugge, γ.] of Londoun, al men to beholde þat þat wey*. [þere, α., β., and Cx.; þar, γ.] wolde passe; his body was i-quartred and i-sent into dyvers places of Engelonde. Þis yere kyng Edward sente to pope Boneface lettres to declare þe ryȝt and þe lordschippe þat þe*. [þe] om. α.] kynges of*. [þe kynges of] om. β., γ., and Cx.] Engelond haþ over þe rewme*. [royamme, Cx., et infra.] and þe*. [þe] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] kynges of Scotlond. For Robert le Bruce*. [Bruse, α.; Bruyȝ, β.; Bruz, γ.; Bruys, Cx.] hadde i-pleyned to þe pope Page  293, vol.8 þat kyng Edward regned*. [greved, α., β., and Cx.] wrongfulliche þe reaume*. [regm, γ.] of Scotlond; þerfore þe pope wroot to þe kyng of Engelond þat he schulde leven of suche*. [leve of sich, β.] grevynge, but he myȝte schewe cleerliche his riȝt.*. [lyȝt, α.] After þe eyȝteþe*. [eyght, Cx.] Bonefas, þe elevenþe Benet, of þe ordre of Prechoures, was pope nouȝt fulliche oon ȝere; of hym oon seid in þis manere:

"A re nomen habe, benedic, benefac, benedicte;
Aut rem perverte, maledic, malefac, maledicte."

Þat is: habe*. [have, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þy name of þy ded, say wel, do wel, i|blessed; oþer turne þe dede, say evel, doo evel, acursed. He seiþ þis*. [þus, α. and Cx.; A seyþ þus, γ.] ffor Benett is Benedictus in*. [on, α.; a, β. and γ.] Latyn, i-blessed in*. [on, α.; an, β. and γ.] Englissche. After Benett,*. [Benet, β.] þe fifte*. [vyfte, γ.] Clement was pope, as it were twelve ȝere: he travayled aboute buldynge of castelles and gadrynge of tresoure; he dampned þe ordre of [Frere]*. [From α. (not Cx.).] Templers, and ordeyned þe sevenþė book*. [bok, γ.] of Decretales þat hatte*. [hyghte, Cx.] Clementynes. And sone þerafter, in a counsaylle þat he Page  295, vol.8 made at Vien, he wiþcleped*. [revoked, Cx.] þe same book; but his succes|sour, þe two and twenty pope John, renewed ofte*. [eft, α.; efte, β., γ., and Cx.] þat book,*. [bok, γ.] and publisched it, and put it to þe cros*. [course, α.; cors, β. and γ.; cours, Cx.] of lawe canoun. Þis Clement was þe firste þat chaunged þe popes see from Rome to Avyon:*. [Avinion, β., γ., and Cx.] men wondreþ*. [wondren, Cx.] of þat dede, wheþer it were i-doo by Goddes ordenaunce or by manis foole*. [foul, β. and γ.; foule, Cx.] hardynesse. Also þat ȝere kyng Edward*. [Henry, α.] made hard inquisicioun aȝenst evel doers, and aȝenst hem þat trespased*. [trespaside, β.] aȝenst þe crowne, þat manere inquisicioun hiȝte trailbastoun.*. [traylbaston, Cx.] Robert le Bruȝ*. [Brus, α.; de Bruys, Cx.] toke wrongfulliche*. [wrongfolliche, γ.] þe kyngdom of Scotlond; and aboute Esterne*. [Eester, Cx.] he slowȝ John le Comyn at Dunfrees,*. [Dunfre, β. and Cx.; Dounfreȝ, γ.] in þe cherche of Frere Menoures, for he wolde not assente to hym in þat tresoun.*. [trayson, Cx.] But þe kyng of Engelond come and chased þis Robert, and heng þe sleers of þis John. Þat ȝere kyng Edward lay besides Karlile,*. [Carlele, α.; Caerleel, β., ct infra; deyd at Carleel, Cx. (sic).] and made Perys Gavestoun,*. [Peres of Gavestoun, β.; Piers of Gaveston, Cx.] þat was prive wiþ his sone, forswere þe erþe*. [londe, Cx.] of Engelond. *. [Here β. marks Cap. 41.; Cx. here marks Capitulum 41.]EdwardusPage  297, vol.8Secundus. Kyng Edward deyde at seynt Thomas day þe translacioun, besides Karlyle at Burgh uppon þe sonde, þe ȝere of his kyngdom fyve and þritty. Robert archebisshop of Canturbury was exiled, and sighe*. [he sawe, Cx.] his deþ in his slepe at Rome. After hym*. [the fyrst Edward, Cx.] his sone was kyng, þe secounde Edward after þe conquest. Anoon he hadde home aȝen his love*. [leef, β. and Cx.] Piers of Gavestoun,*. [Gavaston, γ.] and ȝaf hym þe ducherie of Cornewayle, and made hym wardeyne of Engelonde while he was aboute his owne mariage beȝonde*. [byȝunde, γ.] þe see. At Boloyne*. [Bolayne, α.; Bolayn, β. and γ.] he wedded Isabel þe douȝter onliche*. [oneliche douȝter, α.; onlich douȝter, β.; onlyche douȝter, γ.] of Phelip kyng of Fraunce, and come þens*. [þus, α.] aȝen, and was i-crowned kyng [at Westmynster]*. [From α. and Cx.] þe Sonday in Quinquagesima, þat is þat day a fourtenyȝt after [þat]*. [From α. and Cx.] Alleluya is i-closed: he was i-crowned of þe bisshop of Wynchestre by auctorite of þe pope Clement, for Robert Page  299, vol.8 archebisshop of Caunterbury was tho at Rome exiled out of Enge|lond. Þis Edward was faire*. [veyr, γ.] of body and grete of strengþe, and unstedfast*. [unstidefast, β.] of maneres and of þewes, ȝif men schul*. [schal, α. and Cx.] trowe*. [knowe, α. (not Cx.).] þe comoun tale. For he forsook þe companye of lordes, and drowh*. [drewe, Cx.] hym to harlottes,*. [harlotes and brybours to syng|ers, γ.] to syngers and to gestoures, to carters, to delveres and to*. [to] om. α. and β.] dykers, to rowers, schipmen and bootmen,*. [to rouwers, botmen, & schyp|men, γ.; botemen and shipmen, Cx.; inverted in β.] and to oþer craftesmen,*. [men] om. Cx.] and ȝaf hym to grete drynkynge; he wolde liȝtliche telle out prive counseille, and smyte men þat were aboute hym for wel litel*. [lyght, Cx.] trespas, and dede*. [dide, β.] more by oþer menis counsel þan by his owne. He was to large of ȝiftes and solempne*. [solempnel, Cx.] in makynge of feestes, redy to speke and variaunt of dedes, unhappy aȝenst his enemyes and cruel*. [cruwel, γ.] to his meyne, and loved strongliche oon of his queresters,*. [qwysteres, α.; whistrers, β. and Cx.] and dede*. [dyd, α.] him grete reverence, and wor|schipped*. [worship, Cx.] and made hym greete and riche. Of þis doynge fel vilenye to þe lovyer, yvel speche and bacbitynge to þe love,*. [leef, β. and Cx.] sclaunder to þe peple,*. [pupel, γ.] harme and dame*. [damage, α. and γ.; dammage, Cx.] to þe reume.*. [regm, γ.; Royamme, Cx.] He Page  301, vol.8 avaunced to staates of holy chirche hem þat were unable*. [unhabel, γ.] and unworþy, þat was afterward a stake in his thye,*. [eiȝe, β.; ye, γ.; eye, Cx.] and a spere in his side. In his tyme was so greet derþe*. [durþe, γ.] of whete, and contynuel moreyne of bestes, þat noon suche*. [sich, β.] was i-sene tofore þat tyme: þo were dymes*. [dismes, γ.] alwey i-gadred and contribuciouns i-payde, spiritualte and temporalte*. [spirituale and temporale, Cx.] was alway i-pyled; and by suffraunce of þe pope, and by colour to wiþstonde þe Scottes, moche good fel to þe kynges enchetes,*. [encheytes, β. and Cx.] but by þe kynges outrage al was wasted and i-spended in ydel. But in oon poynt þis kyng happed wel, þat Wales was nevere rebel aȝenst hym. In oþer sides hym myshapped alwey. In his bygynnyng he loved Piers of Gavastoun,*. [Gaveston, Cx.] þat had toforehonde forswore*. [vorswore, γ.] his com|panye at his fadres heste,*. [heeste, β.] but he sente after hym aȝen from byȝonde*. [vram byȝunde, β.] þe see; bycause of hym he was recheles of Isabel þe queene and rouȝt nouȝt of þe lordes of þe lond, þerfore þe lordes had indignacioun, and put out þis Piers over þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] see into Irlond; þere þe kynges tresoure was rabbischelyche*. [rabbischlich, β.; rabbyshly, Cx.] i-wasted and i-spended, ȝit for [more]*. [From α. and Cx.] hope of more pees Piers was i-brouȝt aȝen, but þe kynges tresoure was i-wasted and i-spended as it was toforehonde; and þe lordes arisen*. [aroos, Cx.] and put Piers fro þe kyng, and took her hors*. [horses, β.; his horses and his, Cx.] and here tre|soure Page  303, vol.8 in Norþhumberlond, and chased Piers, and byseged hym in þe castel of Scharburgh,*. [Scardburgh, β. and Cx., et infra.] and took hym, and smoot of his heed at Gaveressiche beside Warwik. But whan Piers was dede, ȝit þe king usede his olde maneres, and drowȝ*. [drewe, Cx.] to oþer men; þerfore Robert archebisshop of Caunterbury made a solempne*. [solemynel, Cx.] counseil of þe province, þere were ordeyned meny nobel statutes in help of þe reume.*. [regm, γ.] Þe kyng was i|swore to holde þese ordenaunces, and Robert þe archebisshop ȝaf his blessynge to alle þat wolde holde hem, and his curs to alle*. [to alle] om. Cx.] þat wolde hem*. [ham, γ.] breke; but þo as alwey þe kyng drouȝ to his fautoures, and dede nouȝt as he hadde i-byhote;*. [promysed, Cx.] þerfore was grete speche among þe comyns, and grucchynge*. [grochynge, γ.] among þe grete, aȝenst þe kyng and hem þat were nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] the kyng. And specialliche Robert þe archebisshop, and Thomas erle of Lancastre, by confort of þis Robert, fondede wiþ hem þat wolde holde wiþ*. [hem þat wolde holde wiþ] om. Cx.] hym many ȝere to wiþstonde þe kynges nysete,*. [nyste, γ.] forto he ȝelde*. [ȝuld, γ.] up þe breeþ in þat stryf at þe laste ende. By lordes aȝenst þe kynges wille Piers of Gavastoun was exiled into Irlond; and þe ȝere after, aboute þe Natyvyte of oure*. [ur, γ.]Page  305, vol.8 Lady, he was i-sent after aȝen, and þe kyng come aȝenst hym to*. [to] at, β., γ., and Cx.] Chestre. But aboute mydwynter Piers was exciled into Flaundres, and aboute Candilmasse i-sent after aȝen aȝenst her wille, þe kyng was wiþ hym a while, and lefte hym in þe castel of Skarburgh.*. [Scardeburgh, γ.; Scardburgh, Cx.] Þere lordes byseged hym and took hym and brouȝte hym to Dadyngtoun,*. [Dadynton, β. and Cx.] and slouȝ hym besides Warwyk: Piers was byheeded at Gaveressiche,*. [Gaversfiche, α.] þe ȝere*. [þe ȝere] upon the daye, Cx.] of seynt Gervasius and Prothasius. And þe same ȝere at*. [in, α.; on, β.] seynt Brises*. [Bryces, β.] day þis kynges eldest sone, þe þridde Edward after þe conquest, was i-bore at Wyndesore;*. [Wyndeshore, β.] þe archebisshop Robert of Wynchilsee*. [Winchestre, Cx.] is deed, and maister Thomas [of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Cobham is i-chose, a wel nobel clerk. By instaunce of þe kyng he was put of and translated to Worcestre,*. [Wirceter, γ.; Wyrcetre, Cx.] and Walter Raynalde,*. [Reignald, β.; Reynald, γ.] þe kynges tresorer, was made archebisshop, and sone þerafter þey*. [þey] the kyng, Cx.] went into Scotlond wiþ greet boost and grete aray, and at Strevelyn he and his were*. [was, β.] schameliche overcome in a seynt John his day; gentil men were i-slawe and i-take and tresoure*. [tresourye, α.] i-lost; som þrew awey here wepoun*. [wepne, β.; wepen, Cx.] and took socour onliche Page  307, vol.8 of*. [by, Cx.] fliȝt. Here after [twelve ȝere]*. [From α. and Cx.] contynualliche while þis kyng regnede þe norþ contrayes of Engelond were destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] by þe Scottes. Edward le [Bruȝe, Robert le]*. [From α. and Cx.] Bruce*. [Bruze, α., Bruyȝes, β.; Bruys, Cx.] his broþer, wente into Irlond forto wynne þat lond; but þe fourþe*. [vurde, γ.] ȝere þerafter he was i-slawe on seynt Calixtes day. Also þis ȝere, aboute Myhelmesse,*. [Mighelmasse, β.; Mychelmasse, Cx.] a knyȝt of Lancastreschire meoved werre aȝenst his owne lord, Thomas eorle of Lancastre, bote aboute Martynmasse he was i-take and byheded.*. [heded, Cx.]