Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum tertium.

HATEBRAND,*. [Hiltebrand, β.; Hiltebrande, Cx.] þat was þe sevenþe pope Gregory, þat*. [þat] om. β., γ., and Cx.] was sometyme priour of Cluni and þanne archedekon of Rome, and þanne he*. [α, γ.] was i-made pope elevene ȝere; he made a synod, and forbeed*. [vorbud, γ.] clerkes þat were i-sacred*. [wyfes added here in α. and Cx. The word is also written in MS., but has been marked out.] and ordeyned*. [forbode, Cx.] þat þei schulde have no wifes, noþer wonye*. [dwelle, Cx.] wiþ wommen, bote wiþ suche as þe sinod Nicena and holy lawes suffreþ: bote for preostes despisede*. [dispisiden, β.; dispreysed, Cx.] his punschynges*. [punsyngs, γ.] þe pope heet þat me schulde nouȝt hire*. [here, β.] a preostes*. [prist hys, γ.] masse þat hilde*. [hu ld, γ.] opounliche and comoun|liche a concubyne,*. [a concubyne] om. γ.] aȝenst þe popes*. [aȝenes pope hys, γ.] ordenaunce. In a tyme þis was a cardenal and þe popes messanger*. [pope hys messager, γ.] into Fraunce, and made hard processe aȝenst prelates þat were i-made by symonye; [þanne oon bisshop þat was scharpliche diffamed of symony],*. [From α., β., and Cx.]Page  289, vol.7 chaungede*. [stanchede, γ.; chaunge, Cx.] wiþ mede*. [myde, γ.] þe witnes þat hym hadde accused; þe legat was war*. [waare, Cx.] þerof, and seide tofore al þe counsail: "Now manis doome is away þat failleþ*. [failleþ, from α.; failiþ, β.; fayleþ, γ.; faylyth, Cx., bis.; falleth, MS.] ofte, lete us brynge Goddes*. [vorth God hys, γ.] owne dome þat failleþ nevere more. Seþþe*. [Siþþe, β.] þat þe grace of a bisshopriche [is þe gifte of þe Holy Goost, he þat byeþ a bisshopriche]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] dooþ aȝenst þe Holy Goost:*. [he þat bisshopriche doþ aȝenst þe Holy Goost, wrongly inserted here in MS.] þanne ȝif*. [ȝif] om. Cx.] þou bisshop hast nouȝt i-doo aȝenst þe Holy Goost, say openliche here in counsaille,*. [say . . . counsaille] bis in MS.] "Gloria Patri et Filio et 'Spiritui Sancto;'" þat is, "Ioye to þe Fadir,*. [and to the, add. β.; and, add. γ.] Sone, and*. [to the, add. β.] Holy Goost." He bygan, and assayede ofte, but he myȝte nevere seie*. [sygge, γ.; say, Cx.] þe Holy Goost; but he seide it pleynly whan he was i-put out of þe bisshopriche. Also while þis pope songe þe*. [þe] his, Cx.] firste masse in a mydwynter nyȝt at Seynt Marie ad*. [ad] at, Cx.] presepe Domini, oon Crescensius, þe sone of þe prefecte of þe citee, took hym and putte hym in prisoun; bote anon þe Romayns breke*. [brake, β.] þe toure and delyvered þe pope. Also in a counsaile of þre hondred bisshoppes þis pope corsede þe þridde Henry [þe]17 emperour, and assoilede alle men of here ooth þat Page  291, vol.7 owede*. [owht, Cx.] hym homage and feute; for he kest*. [caste, β., γ., and Cx.] meny þinges aȝenst þe state of holy chirche. And afterward þeiȝ þe empe|rour stood longe tyme baare foot*. [barfot, β.] uppon snow and yse, un|neþe he was assoiled. But after*. [þerafter, α. and β.; afterwarde, Cx.] þe emperour*. [þe emperour] om. Cx.] byseged Rome, and mede*. [medede, α.; meded, β. and Cx.; mydede, γ.] þe citeseyns, and prisoned þe pope, and took oon Wybertus bisshop of Raven, and made hym pope, and cleped hym Clement; but Robert duke of Apulia herde herof, and delyvered þe pope and þe cardinalles.*. [and þe cardinalles] om. Cx.] Roger þe*. [þe] om. γ.] eorle of Herford, by whos counsaille kyng William had i-made serche*. [sarche, γ.] alle þe abbayes of Engelond for to have greet tresour, þis eorle maried his suster to Raaf eorle*. [Raph erl, γ.] of Est Engelond,*. [Anglond, γ.] þat conteyneþ Norþfolk and Souþfolk,*. [and Souþfolk] om. Cx.] aȝenst þe kynges heste,*. [kynges heste] kyng, β.; kynge, Cx.] and made þere conspiracie aȝenst þe kynges heste,*. [heste] om. γ.] and made eorle Waltef assente þerto be gile;*. [by gile, β.; by gyle, Cx.] bote he wente anon to Lanfrank and feng*. [vyng, γ.] his penaunce, and wente awey*. [awey] om. γ.] þan into Normandie to þe kyng, and warnede hym of þe tresoun, and putte hym wilfulliche in þe kynges grace. Þe kyng cam aȝen into Enge|lond, and outlawed some, and chasede eorle Raaf,*. [erl Raph, γ.] and prisoned Page  293, vol.7 eorle Waltaf,*. [erl Waltef, γ.; Waltef, Cx.] and made afterward [smyte of his heed wicked|liche bisides Wynchestre. In a*. [α] om. γ.] tyme þat came afterward]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] by ordenaunce of God, his body was i-buried in þe abbay of Crowland. Of hym witnessith Lanfrank þat he was verray repentant of his synnes, and seide þat wel were hym ȝif he myȝte come to Waltef his reste after his ende day. In Lan|frank his tyme was [a]*. [From β.] counsaille i-made at Londoun in Seint Poules*. [Paulys, γ.] chirche; þat doynge hadde*. [The word be is transferred in α. and Cx.] longe tyme be*. [be] om. γ.] i-left*. [i-] om. α. and β.] of in Engelond. First, þer was i-ordeyned how bisshops schulde sitte in counsailles and in synodes; þe secounde, þat bisshoppes sees*. [see, Cx.] schulde passe out of smal townes to gretter townes; and so the see of Selsey*. [Selsey, from β., γ., and Cx.; Sefey, MS.] passede to Chichestre, of Cornewaile*. [Kirtoun, β.; Kyrton, Cx.] to Excetre, of Welles to Bathe, of Shireborne to Salesbury, of Dorchestre to Lincolne, of Lichefeeld to Chestre in bisshop Peter his tyme, bote his successour Robert passede from Chestre to Coventre. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Þis ȝere deide Hermannus*. [Hyrmanus, Cx.] þe firste bisshop of Salesbury, of þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] it is i-wrete*. [wreton, Cx.] to forehonde.*. [to vorhond, γ.] After hym þe kinges chaunceller Osmundus was bisshop foure and twenty Page  295, vol.7 ȝere; he bulde*. [buylded, Cx.] þere a newe cherche, and brouȝte þider*. [þuder, γ.] noble clerkes and konnynge of clergie and of songe. So þat þis bisshop hymself schonede not to write and lumine*. [lymne, β. and Cx.; lumine, from γ. lumynede, MS.] and bynde bookes. Also he made þe ordynal of þe service of holy chirche, and cleped it þe Consuetudinarius.*. [consuetudinarye, α., β., and Cx.; consuetudinary, γ.] Now wel nyh al*. [ne iȝ, .] Enge|lond, Wales, and Irlond useþ þat ordynal. Also he endited seint Aldelm*. [Aldelm, from γ.; Adelms, Cx.; Albon, MS.] his lif.*. [Aldelm's lif, β.] Þis ȝere Robert Curthose,*. [Courthehose, β., γ., and Cx.] kyng*. [kync, γ.] William his eldest sone, for he myȝte nouȝt have Normandie [that his fader had assigned him somtyme, therfore by helpe of the kynge of Fraunce he toke prayes in Normandie, and]*. [From Cx.; þat his fader had assigned him somtyme, þerfore by helpe of þe kyng of Fraunce he toke prayes in Normandy and dide, β.; þat hys vader hadde assygned hym som tyme, þarvore by help of þe kyng of fraunce he touk prayes in Normandy, and dude hys vader moche wo, γ.] dede his fader moche woo, so þat his fader was i-wonded and unhorsed, and gan for to crie. Robert herde*. [hurde, γ.] his fader voys, and lyȝte downe of is hors, and horsede his fader aȝen. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Þe Norþhumbres slouȝ Walkerus bisshop of Durham. William þat was somtyme abbot of Kariles,*. [Karyles, β.; seynt Kariles, γ.; Cariles, Cx.] was bisshop after hym. Þis William brouȝte firste monkes at Dyrham.*. [Durham, α. and γ.] He was myȝti in þe Page  297, vol.7 world,*. [worl, γ.] and hadde his mouth at his wille, and hadde greet trust*. [triste, β.] þerynne, and favored afterward parties somdel aȝenst kyng William þe Rede. Þerfore he fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] out of Engelond, and com aȝen to his owne bisshopriche after two ȝere, and made hym ful besy*. [busy, γ.] to have þe kynges love aȝen. So þat he folwede*. [folewide, β.; volwede, γ.] þe kynges wille and his ȝee*. [ȝhe, β.] and nay*. [in his ye and nay, Cx.] in al manere wise, and specialliche in þat strif þat was bytwene þe kyng and Ancelm,*. [Anselm & þe kyng, γ.] [and hopede þerby to gete þe kynges grace oþer [to]*. [From Cx.] be archbisshop after Ancelm*. [Anselm, γ.]].*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Bot he faillede of eyþer, for þere fil*. [vul, γ.] strif bytwene hym and þe kyng, and he was at Glowcestre to defende his cause.*. [and vul syk in hys bed & dyede þar, γ.] Þis was þe firste þat dede*. [dude, γ.] þe priour of Durham a benefet þat he schulde be deen*. [been (sic), α.] and archedekon in al þat bishopriche. Wareyn*. [Waryng, β. and Cx.] eorle*. [Waryn erl, γ.] of Schroesbury*. [Scrosbury, β.] made tweie abbeyes, oon in þe suburbes of Schroesbury and anoþer at Wenlok, in worschippe of seynt Milburgh.*. [Myldburgh, α.; Mildburgh, β. and γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 3o. While a myȝti man sat at þe*. [þe] a, Cx.] feste muys*. [muyse, β., tris; myes, Cx., et infra.] bysette hym sodenliche al aboute, and þeiȝ*. [though, Cx.] he were i-brouȝt into þe hiȝe see it halpe hym nouȝt, ffor þe muys sewede*. [siwede, β.; syewed, Cx.] hym in þe see uppon ryndes of pom|garnet,*. [pomegarnat, β. and Cx.]Page  299, vol.7 and were adreynt of the schipmen. No þing þat God haþ wrouȝt is al wiþ oute witte, noþer*. [noyfol, γ.] þing wiþ oute remedie: þan þe man was i-brouȝt on*. [α, γ.] londe aȝen,*. [ayene to londe, Cx.] and muys al to haled*. [halide, β.; haaled, Cx.] hym. Me seiþ þat þe same hap bifel*. [bifil, β.; byvul, γ.] a prince of Po|lenia*. [Polonia, Cx.] þat hadde a leoparde*. [a leopard hadde, α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-bete. Also suche an hap is i-tolde of a prince þat myȝte by no manere craft kepe and save hym self fro luys*. [for lyyse, β.; lyese, Cx.] in no manere wise. Henricus, libro 6o. Þis ȝere was a corsed stryf bytwene þe monkes of Glastyngbury and þe unthryvynge abbot Thurstan, þat kyng William hadde i-brouȝt þider*. [þuder, γ.] out of þe abbay of Cadoni,*. [Cadony, β.] and made hym abbot of Glastingbury, þat cowþe non*. [no, β.] manere witte of redynes. Among his oþer lewednes and folie he despised Gregori his song and offys, and bigan to compelle þe monkes for to use þe song of oon William [monk]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] of Fiscanen.*. [Fiscamen, Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. He wasted and spend*. [spended, Cx.] þe cherche good and catel*. [catails, Cx.] in leccherie, and chalengede cruelliche þe ordre and service of þe monkes, and wiþ drouȝ [therwith]*. [From Cx.; þerwiþ, β.; þare|wyþ, γ.] here mete and drynke; þerof come chidynge and strif of wordes and discord of wittes and of þowȝtes, ffor*. [vor γ.] Lucanus seiþ, "Fast|ynge*. [Vastyng, γ.]Page  301, vol.7 folk*. [volk, γ.] conneþ*. [kunneþ, β.] nouȝt*. [can noo, Cx.] drede." Þanne after chid|ynge and stryf me took*. [touk, γ.] wepone.*. [wepne, β.] And*. [And, from β., γ., and Cx.; MS. has of.] þe abbot wiþ his men of armes, fel*. [vul, γ.; fille, Cx.] i-armed on þe monkes, and slowȝ tweyne at þe hiȝe awter and woundede eyȝtene, and schot*. [schet, γ.] arewes*. [and dartes, add. γ.] to ymages and schrynes of þe cherche. Þe monkes, as þey were i-dreve*. [dryve, β.; y-dryve, γ.; drive, Cx.] to by nede, defended hem self as wel as þey myȝte yn everiche side wiþ foormes and stooles and candlestikkes, and woundede som of þe knyȝtes. Þis cause was i-meoved to|fore þe kyng, and þe abbot was i-chaunged and i-torned to*. [From γ. and Cx.; MS. has fro.] his owne abbay in Normandie. Bote þe monkes were to schifte*. [scatered, β.; to scatred, Cx.] aboute by þe kynges heste by dyvers bisshopriches and ab|bayes; but after kyng William his deeþ þis Thurstan bouȝte þe abbay of Glastyngbury of kyng William þe Rede for fyve*. [vor vyf, γ.] hondred pounde; and so he wente aboute somwhat of ȝeres by þe possessiouns of þe abbay, and deide fer from*. [deyde fer fram, β.] hym. Þis ȝere kyng William hadde of everiche hide*. [huyde, Cx.] of lond in Enge|lond*. [in Engelond] om. Cx.] sex schillynges of silver. Also pope Hiltebrand lay in his deeþ [bed],*. [From β.; dede bedde, Cx.] and cleped to hym þe cardenales*. [cardynal, α. and β.] þat he lovede moost, and knowleched þat he hadde i-made wreþe and strif Page  303, vol.7 bytwene þe emperour and [the]*. [From Cx.] oþer Cristen men, þerfore he *. [From Cx.][un-]dede*. [undide, β.; undude, γ.] þe bondes [of þe peynes]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þat were i-sette of peynes,*. [of peynes] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and deide.