Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum tricesimum sextum.*. [35, Cx.]

FREDERIK þe emperour wedded Isabel, kyng Henries suster. Þat ȝere þe Iewes were i-brouȝt tofore þe kyng at Westmynstre,*. [Westmestre, Cx.] for þey hadde i-hyd*. [y-hud, γ.] a child al a ȝere in Norþwhiche,*. [Norwich β.] and after þat þei hadde circumcided*. [circumcided, from α., β., and Cx.; i-crucified, MS.] hym þey caste forto naile hym on*. [on] to, β. and Cx.] þe cros. Kyng Henry wedded þe eorles douȝter of þe*. [þe] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] Province. Page  211, vol.8 Iohn Scot, erle of Chestre [and of Hontyngdon, deide wiþ oute children*. [chyldern, γ.] at Derenhale þe sevenþe day of Iune, and was y-buryed at Chestre];*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] but for his londes hadde prerogatyf of realte, his erldom fil to þe kyng his hond, and his sustres þat were his heyres*. [eyres, β.] hadde oþer londes þerfore in compensacioun, for so faire lordschip schulde not be deled bytwene distaves of*. [and, α.] wommen. Þis Iohn hadde foure sustres;*. [voure sosters, γ.] oon of hem heet*. [heet] om. β.] Mergrete,*. [Margarete, α.; Margaret, γ. and Cx.] and*. [and] om. α. and β.] was i-wedded [to Aleyn*. [Alayn, γ.] of]*. [From α. β., and Cx.; into, MS.] Galewey,*. [Galwey, γ.] and baar þe maide Devergoile; þis maide was i-wedded to Iohn Baillol, and baar Iohn Baillol kyng of Scotlond; þe oþer suster Isabel was i-maried to Robert de Brus;*. [Bruys, α., β., and Cx.; Bruiȝ, γ.] þe þridde suster Mold deide wiþ oute children; þe fourþe suster Alda was maried to Henry de Hastynges. Also þis ȝere Ottobonus*. [Octobonus, β., γ., and Cx., et infra.] þe legat cam into Engelond, and ordeyned meny goode ordynaunces for the profit of holy chirche. While he passed þoruȝ Oxenforde was [greet]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] fiȝtinge bytwene [the]*. [From Cx.] scolers and som of his meyne, so þat oon of his men was i-slawe, and he hymself Ottobon*. [Octobon, β.] was byseged in þe belfray at Osenay*. [Oseney, γ., et infra.] tofore*. [forto, α. and β.; till, Cx.] evesong tyme, and myȝt unneþe be delyvered by meny of þe kynges mynistres*. [meyne, α.] þat come þider from Abingdoun.*. [Abendoun, α.] Þan Page  213, vol.8 he was i-brouȝt at Walyngford, and cursede þe mysdoers, and suspended þe mysdoers and*. [þe mysdoers and] om. β. and Cx.] þe study of Oxenforde, forto þe abbot and þe chanouns of Osenay and maistres regentes of Oxenforde com barefoot and barelegged and ungerd*. [ungurd, γ.] þorugh*. [ungirde þurȝ, β.] Londoun to þe legat his in,*. [his in] om. Cx.; yn, α.] and had forȝifnes unneþe. Þat ȝere a false clerk feyned hym selfe mad, and aspied þe privete of þe kynges court, and cam by a wyndow into þe kynges chambre at Wodestoke forto slee þe kyng; but by þe cry of an holy womman he was i-take and to-drawe at Coventre. Ed|ward, kyng Henry his eldest sone, is i-bore at Westmynstre; hym fulled*. [cristned, Cx.] Ottobon*. [folled Octobon, β.; vollede Oc|tobon, γ.] þe legat, and confermed Edmond arche|bisshop. Þis ȝere þe kynges of Tarters whan þey had over|come þe est londes, þey*. [hy, γ.] departede hem in tweie*. [twy, γ.] companyes, þe oon party þerof destroyed so Hungery and Pannonia þat men of þat lond*. [the countray, Cx.] ete þe flesche of her owne children, and meny scrapede of þe pouder*. [pouþere, α.] of an hil*. [hulle, γ.] and ete it as it were mele. After þe nynþe Gregory, þe ferþe Celestinus was pope Page  215, vol.8 oon monþe, and [the see]*. [From Cx.; þe se, β. and γ.; þis, MS.] was voyde oon ȝere; and after hym þe fourþe Innocent was pope enlevene ȝere and sixe monþes. Oure Savyour*. [saveoure, α.] his crowne of þornes is i-brouȝt into Fraunce. Ottobon*. [Octobon, β.] went out of Engelond, and was i-take in þe see of þe emperoures men. At Chestre kyng Henry entrede into Wales, and David þe prince cam to hym at Ruthelan.*. [Ruthland, Cx.] Þat ȝere deide seynt Edmond of*. [at, α. and β.] Pountenay*. [Pontney, β.] and Bonefas was archebisshop after hym. Þis Edmond was i-bore at Abyngdoun*. [Abendon, Cx.] bysides Oxenforde, and had holy fadir and moder; his fader*. [vader, γ., bis.] heet Edward, Riche by his surname; by assent of his wif he hadde*. [ladde, α., β., and γ.; lad, Cx.] relygious lyf at Evesham. His moder heet Mabily,*. [Mablie, β.; Mabili, γ.] sche*. [heo, β.] usede þe heire*. [here, γ.] and an hauber|geoun,*. [haberion, β.; the heer and an haberion, Cx.] and fauȝt in her flesche and*. [and] om. β. and Cx.] aȝenst her*. [the, α., β., and Cx.] flesche. Edmond was i-bore clene of al wem of childhode, a*. [on, Cx.] seynt Edmondes day þe kyng and martir, and lay al þat day fro þe Page  217, vol.8 morwe tide to eve as þey he were a*. [y, α.] swowe,*. [swowne, Cx.] so þat þey þat were þere wolde have i-buried hym ne hadde*. [nadde, β.] his moder wiþ seide hem. He was i-cleped Edmond, þat is, gracious and clene, for he was i-bore in*. [on, Cx.] a seynt Edmondis day, and also for while his moder ȝede*. [ȝede] was, β. and Cx.] with childe wiþ hym sche wente a pilgrimage and bad here bedes at seynt Edmond his tombe,*. [tumbe, γ.] and þere sche was firste war þat þe child was on*. [on] a, γ.] lyve. From his [firste]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; vurste, γ.] childhod þis used his wittes to þe studie of goodnes by occupacioun of gostliche lyvynge, for good usage and custom schulde afterward have þe maistrie and voyde alle wikked dedes; þey he were schynynge wiþ alle þe floures of vertues, ȝit he chees þe clennes þat makeþ a man be next to*. [to] om. β. and γ.] God. In token þerof he made his avow to Oure Lady; by his moder counsaille he used þe heyre,*. [heer, β. and Cx.] and faste*. [fasted, Cx.] every Friday to*. [with, Cx.] brede and [to]*. [From α., β., and γ.] water, and used every Sonday and holy day*. [dayes, α.] to seie al the Sawter or*. [ar, γ.] he wolde dyne. In his child|hood he lernede*. [lurnde, γ.] his gramere and was so*. [so] om. α.] disesed wiþ þe heed ache þat he hadde non hope to spede afterward in lore. His moder spak to hym and seide, "Sone, I trowe þat þe lewed|nesse*. [lewed, α.; lewd, Cx.] and unsemeliche tonsure*. [tonsour, Cx.] þat þou usest is cause of þy woo:" [þanne afterward he usede tonsure as*. [as] of, Cx.] a clerk, and was hool of al þat woo].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] In a tyme he walked by hym Page  219, vol.8 self in a mede bysides Oxenforde, and a faire child appered to hym and seide, "Heyl,*. [hayl, α., β., and Cx.] my leef,*. [luf, γ.] I*. [I] om. α.] wondre þat þou knowest me nouȝt, and nameliche while I am alwey by þy [side]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in scole and in oþer places;*. [plas, γ.] þerfore what þou sixt*. [seest, β. and Cx.; suxt, γ.] in my forheede i-wrete, prynte it everiche nyȝt in þyn owne forheed."*. [vorhed, γ.] Þe writynge was "Iesus Nazarenus rex Iudeorum," þat is, "Iesus of Nazareth kyng of Iewes:" þerafter he lerned to have oure*. [ur, γ.] Lordes passioun alwey in [his]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] mynde. Ones for besynesse of a lessoun þat he moste rede he forȝat it, þan whan þe day gan to spring þe olde enemy bonde*. [boond, β.] faste his*. [bond vast boþe hys, γ.] hondes for he schulde nouȝt blesse hym self, and he prayde in his herte, and þe enemy fil doun from hym bytwene þe bed and þe wal, and he coniured hym by þe schedynge of Goddis blood þat he schulde telle wherwiþ he myȝte be moste i-chastede: "Wiþ þat þou hast now i|nempned," quod þe fend.*. [vend, γ.] Anoþer tyme he hadde forȝete to say*. [sygge, γ.] his*. [þis, α. and Cx.] orisoun, "[O]*. [From β. and γ.] beata et intemerata," and seynt Page  221, vol.8 Iohn þe Evangelist appered to hym in his slepe, and manassede*. [manaced, Cx.] hym to smyte wiþ a pamere.*. [pawmere, β.; paumere, γ.; pawmer, Cx.] And for holy writ seiþ þat he [þat]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] reccheþ nouȝt of þe smale falleþ awey litel [and litel],*. [From α., β., and Cx.; and lytel, γ.] he wolde everiche day schryve hym and clense hym of venial synnes. By entisynge of þe olde enemy, his oost his douȝter nouȝt onliche with signes and bekkes, but also wiþ wordes auntrede*. [aventred, Cx., bis.] her to tempte seynt Edmond forto do amys, and wolde nouȝt cese or heo*. [heo, from β.; cesse ar hue, γ.; he, MS.] came to þe holy man his chambre, and was i-stripte and i-scourged, and so sche putte*. [hue pot, γ.] of her ycchynge.*. [icchyng, β.; utchyng, Cx.] But*. [And, α., β., and Cx.] whanne þe enemy myȝte nouȝt spede by þe wenche, he auntrede*. [aventred, Cx., bis.] by þe wyf to assaile Edmond, but Ed|mond wolde nouȝt fonge her ȝiftes wiþ oute leve of þe hous|bonde, and putte her of so aschamed, and þey he were nouȝt infra sacros he was a maister of aart,*. [art, α., β., and γ.] and usede to here*. [hure, γ., et infra.] a masse and seie*. [sygge, γ.] his houres everiche day or*. [er, β. and Cx.] he wolde rede, and was profitable to his*. [his, from α., β., and Cx.; hys, γ.; hire, MS.] scolers, for he tauȝte hem to*. [to] om. Cx.] here masse also. Whan he feng money of his scolers he leyde it in a wyndowe, and seide, "Pouder to pouder and askes to askes;"*. [asshes to asshes, Cx.] but þe money was ofte i-take awey wiþ his felawes in game oþer elles priveliche wiþ þeofes.*. [þeeves, β.; theeves, Cx.] Whanne he redde*. [rad, β.] arsmetrik*. [arithmetic, α., β., and γ.; arithmetryk, Cx.] his moder þat was deed appered to hym Page  223, vol.8 in his sleep, and axede of hym and seide, "What figures beeþ*. [be, Cx.]þees*. [þues, γ.] þat þou studiest ynne?" and he answerde, "Suche and suche;"*. [siche and siche, β.] and þan sche*. [heo, β., bis.] peynted þre cercles*. [cerkeles, γ.] in her riȝt hond, as þey sche*. [hue, γ.] wolde mene þe Fadir and Sone and Holy Goost, and seide, "Sone, studie þou in þese figures*. [vertues, α.] after þis tyme." Seelde he sat in chirche, but he badde*. [bade, β.] his bedis stondynge oþer knelynge; ffor he was a nobil prechour, a scharp arguer, and a mylde lyster. For he was avised and took heede*. [hyde, γ.] of fallas,*. [fallace, β.; falace, Cx.] and was war*. [waare, Cx.] and wys in asoyllynge of questiouns, and dede greet profit in redynge. For greet ab|stinens his heer fil awey of*. [from, Cx.] his berd [and heed],*. [From Cx.; and hed, β. and γ.] so þat his lippes semed i-clove; he used alwey grete mete, and lefte flesche [on]*. [From Cx.] Monday and Wednesday,*. [Wonesdaye, Cx.] [and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] also in Septua|gesme,*. [Septuagesima, β. and Cx.] þat is in*. [in] om. β.] al þe Lente*. [Leynte, β. and γ.] from tyme þat Alleluia is i|cloped,*. [y-closed, α., β., and γ.; closed, Cx.] he wolde taste no flesche*. [vleysch, γ., et infra.] þe day to fore þe day þat he wolde synge his masse; and so ofte it happed þat he eet no flesche in a monþe [al hool]:*. [From β.] he eet but seelde*. [selde, Cx.] twyes a day; he þouȝte not of lettuaries and of medicynes. For greet knelynge his kneen*. [knees, Cx.] were harde as þe sooles of his feet. Everiche day he seide þre payre*. [þre peyre, α. and Cx.] of matyns and of houres of þe day, of oure Lady, of þe Holy Gost, wiþ Placebo and Dirige. A nyȝt after Page  225, vol.8 his firste sleep he wolde aryse*. [advise, Cx.] and seie*. [sygge, γ.] certeyn psalmes*. [salmes, β. and γ.] and prayers.*. [prayeres and psalmes, α. and Cx.] [ȝif eny envious word come in place, he wolde chaunge*. [chaunge . . . wrecche. He woulde] om. Cx.] þe theme,*. [teeme, β.] and passe to þe betir matire; he wolde have no benefice wiþ cure but oon. He made large spences for he wolde nouȝt be helde covetous and [a]*. [From β.] wrecche. He woulde*. [chaunge . . . wrecche. He woulde] om. Cx.] nouȝt be in pledynge of causes. He wolde have men of seculer court wiþ hym to þe mete, for he wolde wynne hem to þe blisse of hevene. He wolde nouȝt visite his hous*. [houses, β. and Cx.] of office noþer here*. [hure, γ.] acountes of his ministres; he spende alwey more þan he hadde. He chalangede*. [chalaunde, γ.] of his servauntes clennes of body by covenaunt-y-wryte, so þat ȝif eny of hem fyl*. [vul, γ.] into leccherye, he schulde fonge his huyre*. [hyer, Cx.] and take his leve and be agoo.*. [be agoo] goo his wey, Cx.] Teþynges and offrynges and redempciouns of synnes he spende onliche in mylde uses. He hadde tofore hym y-peynt*. [peynted, β.] þe ymage of oure Lady, and al aboute hym þe passioun of oure Lord. And so þe lessoun come of þe book, and tofore þe ymage he bad his bedes, and of eiþer come greet devocioun. Þe tyme of etynge and slepynge and rydynge, whanne he myȝte nouȝt studie, he tolde hit al y-lost. As ofte as he openede his bibel he wolde worschippe hit wiþ Page  227, vol.8 a cros.*. [cosse, β.; kos, γ.] Whanne þe legacye of þe cros was commytted to hym he took no procuracies*. [procuratoryes, Cx.] þat hym were y-graunted, but aȝenst þe usages of oþere suche legates he travaylde on his [owne]*. [From β. and Cx.] cost. He prechede at Oxenforde, at Gloucetre, and at Wircetre, and reyn þat fyl on þe peple*. [vul on þe pupel, γ.] he made hit torne aȝen wiþ his prayeres. Hit happede as he sleep*. [slepte, β.; sluep, γ.] in his studie þat a candel fyl doun on his bible*. [bibel, β.] and brende, but whanne he wook and syȝte*. [and syȝte] he sawe, Cx.] no brennynge was y-sene. Also wiþ his penne he made þris croys on a kybe þathe hadde, and hit vansched*. [van sede, γ.; vanysshed, Cx.] awey. His heyres*. [heeres, β.; heres, γ. and Cx.] þat he werede were y-þrowe into þe fuyre whan þey*. [α, γ.] were olde, but þey myȝte nouȝt brenne. And in þe heyres*. [heres, β.] þat he werede unneþe myȝte ony worme*. [eny worme, β.; eny worm, γ.] be y-founde.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Sometyme messangers were i-sent from Caunterbury to Salisbury [for Edmond tresorer of þat place schulde come and be archebisshop of Caunterbury. Þe deen of Salisbury]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] he*. [he] om. α.] spak wiþ*. [to, α.] hem and seide, "ȝe beeþwelcome [and yvel come: ȝe beþ welcome],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] for ȝe dooþworschippe to oure*. [ur, γ.] cherche; but ȝe beeþ evel come, for ȝe take*. [takiþ, β.] oure tresoure [wiþ þe tresorer]."*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Hym schamed Page  229, vol.8 nouȝt to drawe of his owne hosen and schoon.*. [schone, β.; hosene and schon, γ.; shone, Cx.] Everiche man þat he mette in þe way þat wolde be schryve to hym, he wolde liȝt doun of his hors and hire hire*. [hire hire] here, α. and Cx.; heere, β.; hure, γ.] his schrifte, and spare for no lette of comynge to his in,*. [ynne, Cx.] neyþer*. [noþer, α.] for wynde ne for rayn ne for oþer wedir. He ferde as þe olyve*. [olif, β.] tree þat holdeþ to itself þe bitternesse in þe rynde, and heldeþ*. [hyldeþ, γ.] out þe*. [to, α. and Cx.] oþer [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] swetnes of þe oyle, so he was hard to hym|self and esiliche*. [easy, Cx.] and goodliche to oþer men. He beet*. [but, γ.] his brest ofte wiþ his hond, and his knees*. [kneen, α. and β.; knen, γ.] aȝenst þe grounde, so þat clerkes þat leye in selers*. [celers, γ.] under hym myȝte unneþe sleepe. For worschippe of oure Lady he worschipped alle wommen,*. [wymmen, Cx.] but þerby was he nevere i-wemmed. But in a tyme oon blamed hym þat was hoomly wiþ hym for a faire wyf þat he wolde ofte speke with, and he answerde and seide, "Seie*. [Seygh, α.; Syȝ, β, and γ.; Sawe, Cx.] þou nouȝt how faire sche*. [heo, β., bis.] was; I knowleche sche*. [hue, γ.]haþ ofte i-sete by me, but by her was I nevere more tempted þan I*. [Ich, β] was by þe wal. And ȝit [more]*. [From β. and γ.] þey al þat þat*. [þat] om. α. and γ.] I have trespased in þat manere synne were i-wrete in Page  231, vol.8 myn*. [me, α.] [forhede],*. [From Cx.; forhed, β.; vorhed, γ.] I ne schulde*. [ne schulde] schulde nouȝt, α. and β.] be aschamed." He hated fongers*. [fangers, β.] of ȝiftes, and seide on*. [on] a, β.; in, Cx.] Frensche,*. [Vreyns, γ.] "Entre prendre et pendre is but oon lettre alone." At þe laste by excitynge of þe devel kyng Henry and þe chapitre*. [chapytre hous, Cx.] of Caunterbury was rebel aȝenst hym. In þat horlynge*. [hurlynge, α. and Cx.; hurlyng, β.; horllyng, γ.] he made it as þey he knewe it not, and kessed hym*. [kuste ham, γ.] þat pursewed hym, and dede to hym [al]*. [From Cx.] oþer hoomliche dedes; and whan his frendes seide he was to mylde, and ȝaf example to oþere men for to arise in þe same wise, he answerde and seide: "Þe*. [þat, α.] swellynge of þe see as mylk we schal souke,*. [soke, γ.] and ete wilde hony in þe wildernesse of þis world wiþ Iohn Baptiste þe forgoer of oure Lord, þe powere of takynge wreche most*. [mot, β.; moote, Cx.] be wiþholde onliche in Goddis hond. I nyl*. [nel, α.] not*. [Y nel noȝt, γ.] of oþere men defautis gete*. [geten, α.] me longe*. [loenge, Cx.] and unprofitable cost and travaille." Þan he hadde prelates to gidres,*. [togedders, γ.] and axede how he myȝte releve holy chirche, þat was i-made sugette and þralle. It was i-counseilled þat þe Page  233, vol.8 kyng and oþere men þat were rebelles schulde be warned, and ȝif þey*. [ef huy, γ.] wolde nouȝt amende, þan þe wreche of censures of holy chirche schulde nouȝt slepe. Þe holy man assentiþ and gooþ to þe kyng; þe kyng axeþ avisement, and he abideþ, but al for nouȝt; þerfore þe kyng was spared allone, and alle oþere þat were rebel were denounsed acursed; but herby wolde nouȝt þe evel doers be amended, þat*. [þan, α., β., and Cx.; þanne, γ.] hym was levere suffre þe malice for a tyme þat*. [þan, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kyþe*. [kuyþe, γ.; kyth, Cx.] his myȝt in plee and in stryf; ffor he took hede þat þeyȝ he hadde i-doo al þat he myȝte it myȝte happe þat þe popes legat þat was þoo in Engelond wolde undo al his sentence and dedes, and so conforte*. [comforte, Cx.] þe kyng to worse dedes; but ȝif þe archebisshop were present and corrected nouȝt her trespas and erroures, it myȝte seme þat he wolde alowe his dedes by a manere of*. [of] om. β. and Cx.] feyned suffraunce. Þerfore hym was levere be absent for a tyme, for to schewe þerby þe sorwe of his herte, and [that]*. [From Cx.; þat, β.] he*. [þat, α.] was sore a greved wiþ her malice.*. [malys, γ.] Þanne his laste sikenesse gan for*. [for] om. β. and Cx.] to wexe grevous and strong, and [he]*. [From β. and Cx.] wente out of Pountenye*. [Pontney, β.; Pontiney, γ.] to Soysy, and byhiȝt*. [bihet, β.] hem þat he wolde come aȝen at*. [at] on, β. and Cx.; a, γ.] seynt Page  235, vol.8 Edmondes day. Whan þe sacrament of*. [auter, Cx.] þe auȝter*. [Ich, β., quinquies; Ych, γ., quater.] was i|brouȝt to hym he seyde, "Þou art my Lord, þe I*. [Ich, β., quinquies; Ych, γ., quater.] have i-loved, in þe I*. [Ich, β., quinquies; Ych, γ., quater.] have i-trowed, þe I*. [ich, γ.] have y-prechid, þe I*. [Ich, β., quinquies; Ych, γ., quater.] have i-souȝt, and non oþer. Men telliþ þat it gooþ [into þe wombe, bot y*. [Ich, β., quinquies; Ych, γ., quater.] telle þat hit goþ]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] into þe soule and þouȝt." Þan he wesche*. [weesche, β.; wuesch, γ.] þe woundes of þe ymage of the crucifixe, and kussed hem ful swete, and seide, "Ye schal*. [ȝe schulde, α.; ȝe schal, β.] kecche*. [cleche, β.; ȝe schal kyche, γ.; drawe, Cx.] up water in ioye of oure*. [ur, γ.] Savyour his welles."