Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum secundum.

THE eorles*. [erles, β. and γ.] of Mercia and*. [and] om. Cx.] of Norþhumberlond, Edwyn and Morkar,*. [Markar, Cx., et infra.] wente priveliche out of courte for kyng William Page  267, vol.7 hadde i-cast to putte hem in bondes, and so þey were rebel somwhat of tyme. But for*. [for] om. Cx.] it*. [vor hyt, γ.] stood hem but litel in stede, Edwyn wente toward þe kyng of Scotland, and was i-slawe in þe wey of his men.*. [of hys men in þe weye, γ.] Bote Morkarus and Edwyn*. [Egelwyn, α., β., and Cx.; Egel|win, γ.] bisshop of Durham wente into þe ile of Hely,*. [Ely, β.] þere þe king stopped out þe goynge*. [stopped the outgoyng, β.; þe out goynge, γ.; stopped the oute goyng, Cx.] out in þe est side, and made a brigge of tweie myle in þe west side; þanne þey were*. [þanne hy were aferd þat were, γ.; they were aferd that were, Cx.] i-closed wiþ ynne,*. [þei were aferde that were closed wiþ ynne, γ.] and ȝilde*. [ȝolde, γ.] hem to þe kyng, and þe kyng sente þe bisshop to þe abbey of Abyngdoun*. [Abendon, γ.] to be þere in warde: þere þis bisshop deide for honger, for he wolde not ete for sorwe. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Walkerus of Lotharynge was bisshop after hym.*. [And] add. Cx.] Editha, þat hadde i-be kyng Edwardes wif,*. [Edward hys wyf, γ.] siȝ*. [sawe, Cx., et infra.] hym i-brouȝt to Wynchestre for to be i-sacred, and seide, "Here we haveþ a faire*. [habbeþ veyr, γ.] martir:" by conjectynge*. [coniecturyng, β. and γ. conjec|turynge, Cx.] of þe cruel men of Northumberlond sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] was i-meoved to telle what schulde afterward be falle;*. [by valle, γ.; byfall, Cx.] sche*. [heo, β.; huo, γ.] siȝ hym wiȝtliche*. [whytely of heer, rody of face, Cx.] of hir*. [heet, α.; heer, β.; here, γ.] rody face,*. [rody of face, β. and γ.] and huge of body and of stature. WillelmusPage  269, vol.7de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Þis ȝere deide Walter bisshop of Herford; of hym it*. [hyt, γ.] is i-seide þat he loved hugeliche, I not by what myshap, a schipster*. [shipster, Cx.] of þat citee. But sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] woste*. [wist, β., et infra.] nouȝt*. [nouȝt . . . hadde] bis in MS.] þerof, and on cas þat*. [þeyȝ, α.] sche hadde i-woste sche wolde have*. [þeiȝ hue hadde ywuste hue wolde have, γ.] i-sette litel þerby.*. [in caas thouȝ heo had wist heo wold have sett litel þerby, β.] In þe mene tyme ȝit þe bisshop þouȝt þat no þing is more ungracious þan a lovynge olde man, and wiþ stood as he myȝt for þe reverence*. [for reverence, β.; vor reverens. Bote, γ.] of his owne estaat;*. [state, β. and Cx.] but in a tyme, by fraude of þe devel, sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] cam into þe bisshop his chambre, oon caas*. [bischops chambre in caas, β.] for to schape þe chamberlay*. [chamberleyn, α. an Cx.] his*. [chamburleynes, β.; chamber|lens, γ.] lynnen cloþes. Servauntes þat knewe and woste*. [wyst, Cx.] þe bisshoppes*. [byschop hys, γ.] privete went out for þe nones; at þe laste*. [at laste, γ.] þe bisshop after unfittynge wordes wolde have i-take þe womman wiþ strengþe; þe womman stikede þe bisshop byneþe in*. [in] om. β. and Cx.] his prive membres wiþ the scheres þat sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] hadde in honde, and so þe bisshop deide. After hym Lotharyngus Robert*. [Robert Lotharyngus, α., β., and Cx.; Robert Lotharingus, γ.] was bisshop þere; he Page  271, vol.7 was connynge*. [kunnyng, β.; kunnynge, γ.] of al manere artes and sciens,*. [sciences, β.] specialliche he kowþe*. [couþe, β. and γ.] skile in Inabacus,*. [in Abacus, β., γ., and Cx.] þat is a table to make [by]*. [From α. and Cx.] dyvers figures and schappes. He knewe þe cours of þe mone and of [þe]*. [From α.] oþer sterres and planetes. Þat tyme Marianus Scot and monk was i-closed at Magons*. [Magounce, Cx.] in Almayne. In his longe soli|tarie beynge he serchede cronykes and stories, and was war firste,*. [vurste, γ.] oþer al oon, of Denys Exiguis*. [Exyguus, Cx.] his discord*. [Exiguus discord, β.] aȝenst*. [aȝenus, β.; aȝenes, γ.] þe soþenesse of þe gospel, in acountynge of cicles [and]*. [From γ. and Cx.] of ȝeres,*. [titles and of ȝeres, β.; and . . . ȝeres, bis in MS.] and Marianus acountede al þe ȝeres from*. [vram, γ.] þe bygynnynge of þe world,*. [worl, γ.] and put two and twenty ȝere þat lakked of þe forsaide*. [vorseyde, γ.] cicles and ȝeres, and made a greet book of cronycles;*. [cronyks, β. and γ.] þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] book þis Robert*. [Robart, β.] defloured solemp|neliche, and took out þe beste, so þat it semed*. [semeþ, β.; hyt semeþ, γ.] þat þat deflora|cioun is now more worþy*. [worþe, β.; worþ, γ.] þan al þe grete volume*. [volym, β. and γ.] [and longe].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Also þis Lanfrank, arch|bisshop of Caunterbury, [and]*. [From γ. and Cx.] Thomas, archebisshop of ȝork, went to Rome in fere*. [y fere, β.; y vere vore, γ.] for to have þe palle, bote Lanfrank Page  273, vol.7 tweie palles, oon of worschippe and anoþer of love. For Lan|frank hadde suche*. [sich, β.] grace to pope Alisaundre, þat boþe his felawes þat com wiþ hym to Rome, Thomas of ȝork and Remigius of Dorchestre, þat were riȝtfulliche i-prived of here croses*. [croyses, Cx.] [and]*. [From α. and Cx.] rynges, he restored hem to here office aȝe.*. [aȝen, β.] For þe firste*. [vurste, γ.] was a preostes*. [prust hys, γ.] sone; and while þe secounde was monk*. [a monke, γ.] of Fiscane, he halp*. [a halp, γ.] duke William in many þinges in his wendinge*. [comynge, γ.] to Engelond, so þat þe duke byheet*. [byhyȝte, γ.] hym by covenant a bisshopriche ȝif*. [ef, γ.] he hadde þe victorie; and þat was i-preved uppon hym to fore*. [vore, γ.] þe pope, and þerfore he was*. [þarevore a was, γ.] i-sette adowne. In presens of þe pope Thomas of ȝork meoved a cause of chalenge of þe primat of Dorobernia, þat is Caunterbury, and of þe sugestioun*. [sugection, α.; of subiectioun, β.; of sugection, γ.; subjectioun, Cx.] þat schulde longe to hym of þre bisshopriches of Lincolne, of Wircestre, and of Lichefeld, and seide þat þe sees of Caunterbury and of ȝork were fer*. [ver attweynne, γ.] atwynne,*. [atwenne, Cx.; α repeated in MS.] and þat noþer of hem by Gregories*. [Gregory hys, γ.] constitucioun schulde be suget to oþere, bote þat þe oon of hem schulde be*. [schulde be] om. α.; is, γ.] more worþy þan þe oþer, for he is of elder Page  275, vol.7 tyme. Þanne Lanfrank*. [Lanfranc, β., semper.] declared skilfulliche þat þat constitu|cioun of Gregory makiþ non mencioun of Caunterbury, but of ȝork and of Londoun. Þanne þe pope demede þat*. [þat, bis in MS.] þe cause*. [þat cause, γ.; that that cause, Cx.] schulde be i-determyned*. [termyned, α., β., and Cx.] tofore*. [ytermyned tofore, γ.] þe kyng and þe bisshoppes of*. [of] in, β., γ., and Cx.] Engelond. And they*. [þouȝ, β.; þeyȝ, γ.; though, Cx.] Lanfrank helde*. [huld, γ.] Thomas i-bounde by þe professioun þat Thomas*. [he, γ.] hadde i-made to hym toforehonde,*. [biforhond, β.; tovore, γ.] ȝit hym was levere travaille for*. [vor, γ.] his successoures þanne lete þat chalange abide to hem*. [hym, Cx.] to stryve þerfore*. [þarvore, γ.] afterward. Þis ȝere, þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand þre score and twelve, at Wyndesore, tofore kyng William and þe clergie, þat cause was i-treted. And þere Beda his storie was i-rad,*. [shewde, Cx.] and þerby it was i-schewed þat from þe firste Austyn his tyme to Beda his laste tyme, aboute an hondred ȝere and two*. [and two] om. β. and Cx.] and fourty,*. [honderd ȝere and vourty, γ.] þe archebisshopriche*. [arche byschop, γ.] of Caunterbury hadde primat*. [primacye, β.; primacye over, Cx.] of*. [over, γ.] alle þe ilond*. [londe, Cx.] of Britayne, and of Irlond also, and also þat he hadde i-holde counsailles fast*. [vast, γ.] by ȝork, and cleped þerto þe bisshoppes of ȝork, and Page  277, vol.7 made bisshoppes, and punshede*. [punysched, β.; punysshed, Cx.] some bishopps of ȝork for here trespas, and sette doun menye and put*. [pot, γ.] hem [out]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] of þe dignite. Here to were rehersed priveleges þat were i|graunted uppon þis manere of doynge. Aȝenst*. [Aȝenes, γ.] al þis Thomas aleyde a*. [α] om. α.; þe, β. and γ.] pistel*. [the pystle, Cx.] in þe whiche pope Gregory demede þat þe chirches of ȝork and of Londoun schulde be evene peres, and never*. [never] om. Cx.] noþer*. [neiþer, β.] suget*. [nere no . . scholde be suget, γ.; neyther subget, Cx.] to oþer. Þanne Lanfrank answerde and seide, "I*. [Ich, γ.] am nouȝt bisshop of Londoun, noþer the ques|tioun is*. [not, add. Cx.] i-meoved*. [y-meued, γ.] of þe cherche of Londoun." Þanne Thomas, þat hadde [meny]*. [From α. and Cx.] fautoures and moche folk*. [volk, γ.] i|gadred wiþ hym, answerde and seide þat seint*. [seint] om. β. and Cx.] Gregory hadde i-ordeyned*. [graunted, β. and Cx.] to Austyn alone to have under hym alle þe bis|shoppes of Engelond, and þat þe bisshoppes of Londoun and of ȝork schulde be good freendes,*. [vrendes, γ.] and love wel eyþer oþer, and he þat were first*. [vurste, γ., bis.] ordeyned schulde be first*. [vurste, γ., bis.] i-worschipped. And þei*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] Austin hadde i-chaunged þe archebisshops see from Londoun into Kent, ȝif*. [yef, Cx.] Gregory wolde þat Austyn his suc|cessours*. [þerfore he made noon mencioun þat he, wrongly inserted here in MS.] schulde be above þe bisshoppes of ȝork, he wolde liȝtliche have i-sette in his pistel*. [epystle, Cx.] suche manere wordes, "I graunte to þe Austyn and to þyn successours;" but for he Page  279, vol.7 wolde not þat it schulde strecche to Austyn his successours, þerfore he made non*. [no, γ.] mencioun of his successoures. Lanfrank answerde herto and seide, "ȝif [þat]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] auctorite was i-graunted to Austyn alone, and nouȝt to his successoures, it were a symple ȝifte*. [ȝeft, γ.; yefte, Cx.] þat þe pope ȝaf Austyn, þat was prive wiþ hym, and nameliche while Austyn ordeyned no*. [non, γ.] archebisshop of ȝork while he was onlyve.*. [alyve, β. and Cx.] And also þer was no bisshop of*. [of] at, β., γ., and Cx.] ȝork þat schulde be [ordeyned by]*. [From β. and Cx.] Austin.*. [be suget to Austyn, γ.] Also pri|veleges of popes confermeþ þis dignite to Austin his succes|sours of Dorobernia, þat is*. [Dorobernia þat is] om. β. and Cx.] Caunterbury, and demede þat it is skile and riȝt þat al þe cherches of Engelond schulde fonge her*. [her] om. β.] loore*. [vonge lore, γ.] of lyvynge of þat place, for*. [ana γ.] of þe welle of þat place he hadde þe leme*. [leeme, Cx.] of byleve. But for þou*. [bote þou, γ.] seist þat Gregory myȝte ȝif he wolde have i-confermed wiþ a word to Austyn his successoures þat he hadde i-graunted [to seynt Austyn],*. [From β. and Cx., his succes|soures is wrongly added in α.] þat is sooþ, bote þat dooþ no prejudice to þe see of Caunterbury. For whanne Crist seide to Peter, 'I schal ȝeve þe þe keyes of þe kyngdom of hevene,' he myȝte have also i-seide ȝif he wolde, [I]*. [From Cx.] graunte þe same power Page  281, vol.7 'to þy successoures;' and þeiȝ he seide nouȝt soo, ȝit he bynemeþ Peter his successoures noþing of reverens noþer of auctorite; bote þey*. [hy habbeþ, γ.] haveþ*. [hadde, Cx.] lawefulliche þe dispensacioun of office*. [offys, β.] of holy chirche. What makeþ þat bote þe vertu of God þat springeþ by Crist of Peter [into]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] hys*. [hys, from γ.] successours? Also ȝif þou canst*. [kanst, β. and Cx.] knowe bytwene þe*. [þe] om. Cx., bis.] false and þe*. [þe] om. Cx., bis.] soþe, what haþ strengþe in al haþ strengþe in [þe party, and what haþ*. [haþ] om. γ. and Cx.] strengþe in þe more haþ strengþe in]*. [From α. and β.] þe lasse. Þe cherche of Rome is as it were heed*. [heed] om. α.; al, β. and Cx.] of alle chirches, and oþere chirches*. [were alle of alle cherches, γ.] beeþ*. [both, Cx.] as it were parties þerof, and so*. [as, α., β., and Cx.] forto*. [as vorto, γ.] take heede in oon manere wise, man is þe kynde of his singulers. Bote in everiche singuler man is þe kynde of al mankynde. So forto take hede in som manere wise, þe chirche of*. [and, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe see at*. [of, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Rome is as it were þe kynde, and conteyneþ al in comparisoun to oþere chirches, and ȝit in every chirche regneþ þe ful*. [volle, γ.] hoolnes*. [holynesse, Cx.] of Cristene fey.*. [feiþ, β., et infra; feyth, Cx., et infra.] Þe cherche of Rome is grettest of alle chirches, and what haþ strengþe in þat chirche schal have strengþe in lasse cherches. So þat in every*. [euerych, γ.] chirche þe powere of þe firste schal springe into alle his successours, bote ouȝt be nameliche and special|liche outake; þerfore as Crist seide to alle þe bisshoppes of Rome þat he seide to Peter, so Gregory seide to alle Austyn Page  283, vol.7 his successours what he seide to Austyn. Hereof folweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] þat as Caunterbury [is suget to Rome for he fenȝ þe fey*. [vor a veng, γ.] of Rome, so schal ȝork be sugett to Caunterbury]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat sent þider prechours to preche hem þe fey. Bote for þou seist þat Gregorie wolde þat Austyn schulde have his see at Londoun, it may nouȝt stonde: who wolde trowe þat so noble a disciple as Austyn was wolde wiþstonde and doo aȝenst his maister his wille, þat was so noble a maister, and doo aȝenst holy decrees? But þey*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] it were so þat Austyn as þou seist passed from Londoun, what is þat to me þat am not bisshop of Londoun. Þerfore ȝif þis strif is i-cessed, and pees i-made for a tyme, if þow desirest for*. [for] om. β. and Cx.] to plede, I shal nouȝt be from home,*. [þe dome, α. and Cx.; þe doom, β.; vram þe dome, γ.] bote I shal defende myn offys and myn*. [my, β.] riȝt." By þese resouns Thomas was overcome, and grauntede gladliche þat þe ȝonder brynke of Humber schulde be þe bygynnynge of his deocise.*. [diocesy, β. and γ.; dyocesy, Cx.] Also it*. [hyt, γ.] was i-demed þat þere afterward in þinges þat longeþ to þe*. [þe] om. β., γ., and Cx.] worschippe of God, and to þe fey of holy chirche, þe archebisshop of ȝork schulde be sugett to þe archebisshop of Caunterbury, so þat ȝif þe archebisshop of Caunterbury wolde make a counsaille in eny place of Engelond, þe archebisshop of ȝork schulde be þereat wiþ þe bisshop*. [bischops, β.; bisshops, Cx.] of his province,*. [provinces, α.] and he schal be obedient to his*. [α, γ.] laweful hestes. ȝif þe archebisshop [of Caunturbury is ded the archbischop]*. [From β. and Cx.; Ef the archebyschop of Canturbury ys ded þe archebyschop, γ.]Page  285, vol.7 of ȝork schal come to Dorobernia, þat is*. [Dorobernia þat is] om. β. and Cx.] Caunterbury, wiþ bis|shoppis of þe forseide cherche, and sacre þe primat þat is i|chose. And ȝif þe archebischop of ȝork is deed, his successor schal come to þe archebisshop of Caunterbury, where he wole assigne in Engelond, and be i-sacred of hym, and he schal make hym an ooþ with professioun and obediens. Þanne Lanfrank hopped for joye, and feng al þis i-wrete*. [writen, β.; wreton, Cx.] for þe*. [þe] þat, β. and Cx.] newe doynge schulde nouȝt slide out of mynde,*. [mund, γ.] and his suc|cessoures*. [sholde, add. Cx.] be bygiled of þe knowleche þerof. Bote he bare hym so þat he*. [α, γ.] lefte*. [loste, Cx.] not þat noþer passed in spekynge. For it is i-hated a man to make hymself curious in his owne preys|inge. Þanne Lanfrank sente a pistel to pope Alisaundre þat conteynede al þis doynge, wiþ þe professioun of Thomas arche|bisshop of ȝork. Þis ȝere kyng William wente into Scotlond wiþ a greet navey and an oost of horsmen, and made kyng Malcolyn suget, and kyng Malcolyn bycam his leege*. [lege, β.; lyege, Cx.] man, and swoor hym homage and fewte. And*. [And] om. β. and Cx.] Sigebertus, bisshop of Magons, wente to Seynt James a pilgremage, bote in his com|ynge aȝen*. [aȝe, γ.] he was i-made bisshop*. [monk, β. and Cx.] of Cluny. Þanne schip|men*. [chepmen, γ.] wolde have i-bouȝt his bisshopriche; [he siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] þat, and Page  287, vol.7 wente aȝen to his bysshopriche],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] as his*. [his, from α., β., γ., and Cx.; Incis, MS.] abbot het hym. Þat*. [Þis, β.] ȝere Edgar Adelyng wente to kyng William into Nor|mandie, and was accorded*. [acord, Cx.] with hym.