Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum primum.

WHAN*. [Thanne, α. and β.] William cam to London and was i-corowned kyng at Westmynstre*. [Westmonaster, γ.] of Aldredus archebisshop of ȝork, and voydede Page  251, vol.7 Stygandus archebisshop of Caunterbury, and was i-crowned in a mydwynter day, þat fil þat ȝere on*. [on] in, β.] a Monday. Willelmus de Pontificibus. But þe nexte Lente*. [Leynte, α. and β.] þerafter he wente into Normandie, and lefte his broþer, bisshop of Bayon, to kepe Engelond. And hadde wiþ hym [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] gentile men, and name|liche þe eorles Edwyn and Markarus*. [Morkarus, α.] and Edgar Edlyng,*. [Adelyng, α. and β.; Adelynge, γ.] and most nameliche Stigandus þe archebisshop, þei*. [þei] though, Cx.] [he]*. [From α. and β.] wiþstood in þat al þat he myȝte, he ladde hem wiþ hym as it were for to doo hem worschippe, bote his meyny*. [menynge, α. and γ.; menyng, β.; mening, Cx.] specialliche for non tresoun schulde be i-doo, in his absence*. [absens, γ.] in Engelond, by auctorite of Stigandus. Among all oþere it is harde for to telle how grete worschippe he dede*. [dide, β.] to Stigandus, for he wold arise aȝenst hym and come aȝenst hym wiþ processioun, and þat wiþ greet boost and array, bote al þat was i-closed and i-hid*. [yhud, γ.] in þat doynge come out afterward clere i-now whanne þe popes legat com into Engelond, and made a counsaille by assent of þe kyng, and Stigandus was i-sette downe*. [deposed and set a doun, Cx.] and praied besiliche*. [bysyliche, γ.] þe kyng of his grace. Þe kyng excused hymself wiþ faire wordes, as he kowþe*. [kouþe, α.; couþe, β.] wel inow, and seide þat he myȝte nouȝt doo aȝenst þe popes wille and*. [wille and] om. α. and γ.] heste. And so he heelde*. [hilde, α.; huld, γ.] Sti|gandus in bondes at Wynchestre terme of his lif. Alfridus. Here after aȝenst wynter kyng William cam into Engelond, Page  253, vol.7 and put*. [pot, γ.] a tribut uppon Englisshe men grettere þan þey myȝte bere, and byseged*. [bisegide, β.] Excetre, þat was rebel aȝenst hym, and brak þe citee. Githa þe countas,*. [contas, α.] þat was somtyme Godwyn his wif, forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] þe citee, and seilled into Flaundres. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 3o. In þis seege þe towne wal fil*. [vul, γ.] downe as it were for the nones, and so þe enemyes come yn; for oon of þe enemyes*. [cyteseyns, Cx.] stood on þe wal, and dede*. [dude, γ.] doun þe*. [þe] hys, γ.] breeche, and defouled þe ayer wiþ þe foule*. [voul, γ.] noyse of his neþer ende. Also [þat ȝer]*. [From α.] þe lordes of Northumberlond dradde þe cruelnesse*. [cruwelnes, γ.] of William, and took wiþ hem Edgar Adelyng, and his moder Agath, and his tweie sustres Margarete*. [Margreet, α.; Margret, β., et infra.] and Cristian, and seilled*. [seylide, β.] to Malcolyn*. [Malcolin, γ.] kyng of Scotland. ℞. Bote som men wil mene þat þis Edgar sigh þat þe þinges of Englische men [were]*. [From α. and γ.] destourbed in everiche side, and took a schippe, and caste forto seille wiþ his moder and his tweie sustres*. [sosters, γ.] into his own contray þere he was i-bore; bote þere come greet tempest and droof*. [drof, γ.] hym into Scotlond. By occasion þerof it was þat Malcomus*. [Malcolyn, Cx.] kyng of Scotlond wedded Edgar his suster Margarete,*. [soster Margrete, γ.] and gat*. [gat] om. α.] on here sixe sones and tweie douȝtres. Page  255, vol.7 Þre of his sones were kynges after þe fadir, Edgar, Alisaundre, and David. Moold,*. [Mold, α., β., and Cx., et infra.] Malcolynes douȝter was i-maried to þe firste Henry kyng of Engelond; of hym*. [ham, γ.] com Moold þe emperesse.*. [emperyce, Cx.] Þe oþer douȝter Marie was i-maried to Eustas erle of Bonoun;*. [Bonon, γ.] of here com Moold þat was i-maried to kyng Stevene. Also þat ȝere kyng William made a strong castel at Snotingham, [þat now hatte Notyngham,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and anoþer at*. [hatte, α.] Lincolne, and tweyne at ȝork. Also þat ȝere Moold*. [Mold, γ., et supra.] þe queene com out of Normandie into Engelond, and was i-crowned of Aldredus. Harald and Canutus, þe sones of Swanus kyng of Denmark,*. [Denmarch, β.] come alonde in þe mowþe of Humber wiþ two hundred schippes. Edgar Adelyng ȝaf hemself*. [hymself, Cx.] to hym. Aldredus þe archebisshop was sory*. [so soory, Cx.] for her comynge, þat he deide for sorwe þe enlevenþe day of Septembre. Þe eiȝteþe day þerafter þe Normans þat kepte castelles dredde lest þe hous*. [houses, Cx.] of þe suburbes*. [soubarbes, α.; subarbes, γ.] schulde helpe þe Danes to fille þe diches, and þerfore þei sette hem a fuyre. Bote þe leye*. [lyȝe, γ.; lyght, Cx.] aroos to hiȝe,*. [lyȝe aros to heyȝ, β.] and brende þe citee of ȝork, wiþ Page  257, vol.7 þe mynistre*. [monaster, γ.; mynster, Cx.] of Seint Peter. But or þe fuyre were i-doo*. [doon, β.] cam þe strengþe of Danes, and slowȝ by assent of þe citeȝeyns moo þan þre þowsand*. [The word citee is here wrongly inserted in MS.] [of]*. [From α.; citeseyns, mo þan þre þowsand of, γ.] Normans. Þanne kyng William was wrooþ, and destroyed*. [distruyede, β.] so þat province þat for greet honger men ete hors flesche, [houndes flesche]*. [From α. and β.; hondes fleysch, γ.; houndes flessh, Cx.] cattes flesche, and manis flesche. Also þe lond þat lieth*. [liþ, β.] bytwene ȝork and Durham was nyne ȝere wiþ oute teliers*. [tylyer, γ.] and wonyers,*. [tilies and wonyer, α.; tylier and wonyer, β.; tylyer and wonyer, Cx.] out take onliche seint Iohn of Beverlay his lond, for þere fil a wreche uppon oon of þe kynges knyȝtes, for his hors nekke was to brooke and his face i-torned bakward.*. [bacward, β.] Also þat tyme was i-brend Seint Beda his abbay þat was in Girvum uppon þe brynke of þe ryver Wire. Þat ȝere Malcolyn destroyed so Northumberlond þat he slowȝ alle þe olde men and feble, and made þe strong bond*. [boond, β., et infra.] for evermore,*. [reverence, Cx.] so þat unneþe was eny hous in Scotlond wiþ oute an Englisshe bonde man or womman. Kyng William, by counseille of oþer men, made serche*. [sarche, γ.] all þe abbayes of Engelond, and took al þe tresorie*. [money, β., γ., and Cx.] into his owne tresorie. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Sone þer|after Page  259, vol.7 in þe utas*. [eotas, β.; eoytaues, γ.] of Esterne*. [Ester, α., β., and Cx.] was a counsaile i-made at Wynchestre by assent of þe secounde pope Alisaundre: þere were tweie*. [twy, γ.] cardynales present. In þat counseil Stigandus þe archebisshop was degrated for þre skiles: ffirst,*. [vurste, γ.] for he hadde i-holde wrongfulliche þe bisshopriche of Wynchestre and þe archebisshopriche of Canturbury [at ones; þe secunde vor he huld and ocupyede þe archebyschopryche of Cantur|bury]*. [From γ.] while Roberd þe archebisshop was on*. [on] a, γ.] lyve, and used þe palle þat was þere i-left wiþ oute leve of þe court of Rome; þe þridde,*. [þe þridde] om. Cx.] for he hadde i-fonge þe palle of pope Benet þat was acorsed of þe chirche of Rome. And þeiȝ Stigandus souȝte besiliche frendschipe*. [frenschip, β.; vrendschip, γ.] of þe kyng, þe kyng excused hym self smeliche,*. [smetheliche, α.; smeþelich, β.; smeþelyche, γ.; swetely, Cx.] as he wel kowþe, by þe popes maundement, and caste Stigandus into bondes at Wynchestre to his lyves ende, and ȝaf hym eche day a litel what of en|chetes to lyve by. Stygandus was kyndeliche*. [kundelych, γ.] so hard þat he wolde fonge riȝt nouȝt of his owne, and swoor by all halwen*. [halewen, β.] þat he hadde nevere a peny. Bote þat ooth was i-preved un|trewe by a [litel]*. [From α. and Cx.; lytel, γ.] keye þat heng aboute his nekke whanne he Page  261, vol.7 was deed, ffor by þat keye was i-founde greet riches in meny places under erþe.*. [eorþe, α.] Also in þat counsaille [were y-sett doun meny bisshops and abbotes, namelyche by procurynge*. [procryng, γ.] of kyng William, for he wolde brynge yn Normans in here stede. Som men trowede*. [trowide, β.] þat he dede*. [dude, γ.] so for he wolde be þe more sicker*. [siker, β.; syker, γ.; seker, Cx.] of þe kyngdom. Also in þat counsail]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] seint Wolston bisshop of Worcestre axede*. [axesede, α.] besiliche som possessiouns of his bisshopriche þat were wiþ holde by Aldredus archebisshop of ȝork, and it*. [hit, α.] fel*. [and a falle, β.; valle, γ.] into þe kynges hond after Aldredus his deeþ. Bote for þe chirche of ȝork was dombe*. [dome, γ.] þat tyme, for þe see*. [se, β.] was voyde, hit was i-demed þat þat cause schulde be stille and nouȝt i-touched at þat tyme. Here after at Wyndesore, in a Whitsonday, kyng William ȝaf þe archebisshopriche of ȝork to Thomas chanoun of Bayocens. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Þis*. [Þis . . . cherche] om. Cx.] Thomas was a faire man of face and of speche, and made a faire cherche at ȝork, and made þe chanouns riche, and made songes of holy chirche.*. [Þis . . . cherche] om. Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus. Here after þe kyng hadde Lanfrank, abbot of Cadomens,*. [Codomenence, Cx.] out Page  263, vol.7 of Normandie. Þis Lanfranc was of þe nacioun of Italy, and was most konnynge of holy writt and of seculer*. [of syngler, Cx.] lettrure,*. [letture, γ.] and moost redy in governynge of þinges.*. [þingis, β.] In oure*. [ur, γ.] Lady day þe Assumpcioun þe kyng made hym archebisshop of Caunterbury. ℞. Of his þewes and of his noble dedes it is i-wrete innere more aboute his deeþ tyme. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Thomas þat was i-chose archebisshop of ȝork cam to Lanfrank [for to be i-sacred as þe usage wolde. Lanfranc]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.; and is here wrongly inserted in MS.] axede of hym an ooth and his professioun i-wrete of his obedience. Thomas answerde and seide þat he wolde nevere doo þat, bot ȝif he herde*. [hurde, γ.] þerfore auctoritees i-write, oþer skilful resouns in*. [and, α., β., γ., and Cx.] biddynge,*. [byndinge, α. and β.; byndyng, Cx.] by the whiche it were i-knowe þat he schulde so doo wiþ oute [eny]*. [From γ.] preiudice of his chirche: he seide soo more for lewednesse of witt þan for rebelnesse and pride*. [prute, γ.] of herte, as he þat was a newe*. [nuwe, γ.] man and bigiled by flaterynge wordes, and knewe nouȝt þe customs and þe usages of Enge|lond. And Lanfranc declared*. [dysclarede, γ.] and preved resonableliche þat his axinge was resonable and riȝtful. Bote Thomas wolde ȝit nouȝt*. [nouȝt ȝit, α. and β.] assent, but wiþ seide it and wente his wey unsacred. Page  265, vol.7 Þe kyng herde þerof and was wrooþ, and trowede*. [trowide, β.] þat Lanfrank wolde have*. [habbe, γ.] greet þinges wrongfulliche, and he truste more in his comynge aȝen*. [comynge aȝen] connynge, α.; kunnyng, β. and γ.] þan*. [his connynge than in, Cx.] in good fay*. [feyþ, β.; feyth, Cx.] and resoun. Bot he an|swerde herto in presence of þe kyng, and esede þe kynges herte. Þerfore, by commaundement of þe kyng, Thomas was compelled for to come aȝen, and wroot his professioun of obedience, and rad*. [radde, β. and γ.] hit. In þat professioun he byhet*. [byhyȝte, γ.] wiþ oute eny con|dicioun þat he schulde be obedient in al þat longeþ to þe wor|schippe of God, and to*. [to] om. Cx.] cristen fey.*. [feiþ, β.; feyth, Cx.] And so he was i-sacred, and went forþ his wey. Nouȝt longe þerafter Lanfrank axede and feng*. [fyng, α.; vynge, γ.] professioun of alle þe bisshoppes of Engelond þat were i-sacred of oþer men to forehonde.