Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum sextum. Athelstanus.*. [Ethelstanus, α., and so below.]

ATHELSTAN,*. [Ethelstan, β. and γ.; Edelstan, Cx., et infra.] kyng Edward his eldeste sone, was i-made kyng of*. [at, α., β., and γ.] Kyngestoun besides Londoun in Southeray;*. [Souþerey, β.; Southereye, γ.; Southrey, Cx.] he Page  425, vol.6 regnede sextene ȝere. In his firste yere þe nobel child Don|ston was i-bore in þe contray of Glastenbury; al his lif from his burþe*. [from his burþe] om. Cx.] to his ende day schoon*. [schone, γ.] by vertues and by myracles. Alfridus. Kyng Athelston*. [Ethelstan, γ., et infra.] maried his suster*. [soster, γ.] to Sithricus [kynge of the Danes of Northumberlonde. Sythrycus dyed sone after, and the kynge put oute Sythrycus]*. [From Cx.] his sone, and ioynede*. [innede, γ.] þat kyngdom to his owne. Þanne by bataille he made suget*. [subgett, Cx.] Hoelus kyng of Britouns, and Constantyn kyng of*. [the, add. Cx.] Scottes, and fenge hem*. [vyng ham, γ.] whanne þey were i-ȝolde. Kyng Athelston*. [Ethelstan, β., et infra.] made þis Constantyn [kyng of Scotland; þanne Con|stantyn]*. [From α. and Cx.] seie,*. [seide, α. and γ.; seyde, β.; sayde, Cx.] "It is more worschippe to make a kyng þan it is to be a kyng." Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Also kyng Athelston maried his oþer suster to Otho þe emperour, and feng of hym hors*. [horses, β.] and precious*. [horses and other precious, Cx.] stones, and a maner vessel*. [vessal, γ.] i-made of a stoon þat hatte onichinus,*. [onychinus, β.] þat was cleer and briȝt, and lettede nouȝt the passynge of liȝt noþer of siȝt, and it was i-made sotilliche*. [sotylych, γ.; subtylly, Cx.] by gravynge craft þat it semed ver|railiche*. [verreylyche, γ.] þat corn growynge þerynne wawed*. [wawide, β.] hider and Page  427, vol.6 þider,*. [wawede huder and þuder, γ.] as longe corn dooþ in feeldes, and þat vynes burgonede,*. [burgede, α.; burgened, β.; borgede, γ.; bourgened, Cx.] and ymages of men moevede. Also he feng*. [vyng, γ.] of hym þe grete Constantyn his swerde. In þat [swerd]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe ownere his name was i-rad in lettres of gold in þe hilt þerof; uppon*. [uppon] in, Cx.] grete plates of gold was i-steked*. [y-stiked, β.; stykked, Cx.] on [of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe foure irene*. [yren, β.; voure yrene, γ.; yron, Cx.] nayles þat Crist was i-nayled with to þe rode. He fenge*. [A vyng, γ., et infra.] of hym þe grete Charls his spere; evere whanne Charles schook*. [schoke, β. and γ.] þat spere he hadde þe maistrie; me telleþ þat þat spere opened Cristes side;*. [Crist his owne syde, α., β., and γ.; Crystes owne syde, Cx.] and sente out*. [sente out] seynt, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Morys his baner. [That baner]*. [From Cx.; þat baner, β.] Charles usede aȝenst þe Saresyns. Also he feng a party of þe holy crosse, and som of þe crowne of þorne.*. [þornene crowne, α. and γ.; þorn|nen coroun, β.; somme of the thorned crowne, Cx.] Kyng Athel|ston*. [Ethelstan, β.] brouȝte*. [ordeynede, α., β., and Cx. ordeynde, γ.] som of þese*. [þues, γ.] relikes to þe abbay of Malmes|bury. Marcianus. Þe sexte Leo was pope foure yere and sevene monþes. Odo is i-made bisshop of Wiltoun. Willel|mus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Frithstan*. [Frystan, Cx.] bisshop of Wyn|chestre deide, and Birstan was bisshop after hym. Of þis Page  429, vol.6 Birstan it is i-rad þat he song every*. [every] as hit were eche, α.; as as it were exerech, β.; as hyt were everyche, γ.; as it were every, Cx.] day for alle Cristen soules; þanne in a nyȝt he ȝede*. [ȝude, γ.] aboute a chirche hawe,*. [hawe] yerde, Cx.; hey, β.; cherche hey, γ.] and seide salmes*. [psalmes, β.] for alle Cristene soules; þanne in a nyȝt*. [þanne in n nyȝt] And, β.] whanne [he hadde]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; a hadde, γ.] all i-seide, þanne he seide "Requies|cant in pace," [and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] he herde*. [hurde, γ.] a voys of a grete oost answere out of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] graves, and seide Amen. Odo bisshop of Wyn|chestre is i-made archebisshop of Dorobernia, þat is Caun|terbury. Þo Stevene was pope sevene ȝere. Odo bisshop of Wynchestre is dede;*. [ded, β.] after hym Elpheges*. [Elphegus, β., γ., and Cx.] þe ballede was bisshop of Wynchestre, þat man was a prophete, and nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] of seynt Donstan his kynne. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. In an Aschewednesday,*. [Axwendesday, β. and γ.; On Asshe Wonesdaye, Cx.] as þe manere is, he dede*. [dide, β.] hem þat schulde doo open penaunce out of cherche, and chardede*. [chargide, β.; chargede, γ. and Cx.] oþer men þat þey schulde in þilke*. [þelke, γ.] dayes faste*. [vaste, γ.] and be chaste, and spare þe likynge of here wifes.*. [wyves, α., β., and Cx.] Among hem alle oon spak, and seide: "Sire,*. [Sere, γ.] I may not at þis tyme leve*. [leeve, β.] boþe my feste and Page  431, vol.6 my wif. Bote þe wif þat I*. [Ich, β.] have put*. [ich have ypot, γ.] awey for þe tyme I*. [y, β.] schal sone take*. [take hir, β.; here, add. γ.; her, add. Cx.] aȝen." "Wrecche," quoþ þe bisshop, "þou makest me sory, þou wost not*. [knowest not, Cx.] what is i-ordeyned for þe*. [þee, β.] aȝenst tomorwe:" þanne a morwe he was i-founde*. [founden, Cx.] deed*. [founden ded, β.; a was yvounde ded, γ.] in his bed. Also in a tyme þis Elfleges*. [Ethelphegus, β. and Cx.; El|phegus, γ.] made þre monkes preostes, Dunston, Ethelwolde, and Ethelstan. And whanne þe service was i-doo,*. [doon, β.] he spak to hem, and seide, "Þis day [to fore God]*. [From α. and γ.; before God, Cx.] I*. [Ich, β., et infra.] have i-sette my honde uppon þre men; tweyne of hem schul be bisshoppes, bote þe þridde schal make a wrecched ende." Þanne Athelstan*. [Ethelstan, β. and Cx.] was þe more home|liche*. [homlych, γ.] by cause of kynrede,*. [kynrade, Cx.] and spak and seide, "Schal I be a bisshop?" "Þou schalt have no part in þis ordre," quod Elphegus; "noþer þou schalt not*. [not] om. β. and Cx.] long bere þis cloþ|inge." For Sconstantyn*. [Constantyn, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kyng of Scottes hadde i-broke covenant, kyng Ethelstan arayed hym toward Scotland, and in þe way he wente a*. [α] on, Cx.] pilgrymage to seint Iohn of*. [of] om. α. and γ.] Be|verley, Page  433, vol.6 and leyde his knyf to wedde uppon seint Iohn his auȝter,*. [oppon seynt Jon auter, γ.] and heet*. [seyde, β.; hyt, γ.] þat ȝif he come aȝen wiþ þe victorie, he wolde raunsoun his knyf wiþ a worþy prys. After þe victorie, whanne he come aȝen, he prayed God [þat he wolde],*. [From β.; þat a wolde, γ.] þoruȝ þe prayer of seint Iohn of Beverlay, schewe som open tokene by þe whiche tokone*. [by which token, Cx.] þey þat beeþ and schal be mowe*. [maye, Cx.] knowe þat the Scottes by riȝt schulde be suget to Englische men. Þanne þe kynges*. [kyng wiþ his, α., β., γ., and Cx.] swerd smoot on a greet stoon faste by þe castel of Dunbarre. In þat stoon ȝit to þis day is i-sene of þat strook a chene*. [chyne, α. and β.; chynne, Cx.] of an elne longe. Þanne þe kyng com aȝen, and raunsoned his knyf wiþ worþy doynge. Þe enlevenþe Iohn was pope oon ȝere; [after hym þe sevenþe Leo was pope þre ȝer]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and sixe monþes. Lowys þe sone of Charles þe symple, and of*. [and of, from α., β., γ., and Cx.; of þat, MS.] kyng Edward his douȝter, regnede after his fader in West Fraunce nyntene ȝere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. He was in a tyme i-pursewed of oon Isenbardus, and axede help of þe lordes of his lond, and þey ȝaf hym non answere; þanne Huwe*. [Huge, β., et infra; Hughe, Cx.] a symple knyȝt, eorle Roberd*. [erle Robertes, β.] his sone of Mont Desire, Page  435, vol.6 took wilfulliche*. [wylfolliche, γ.] þe bataille for his lord, and slouȝ hym wiþ ynne þe lystes þat woldes nedes fiȝte.*. [vyȝte, γ.] Þanne*. [þerfore, α., β., γ., and Cx.] sone þerafter,*. [sone ater, Cx.] whanne þis kyng was feble,*. [febel, γ.] he made þis Huwe*. [Hugh, Cx., et infra.] his heyre,*. [eyr, β.] and so cesede þe ofspringe of Charls, oþer for his wif was ba|reyne,*. [barayn, γ.] oþer for he lyved but a schort tyme: þanne þis Huwe wedded kyng Edwardes oþer douȝter. Þe firste Otho þe sone of þe firste Herry,*. [Henry, β. and γ.; Harry, Cx.] was þe firste emperour of Duches men,*. [Duches men] Almayn, γ.; Duchemen, Cx.] and regnede sevene and þritty ȝere. In a Ester tyme he made a grete feste to his princes and lordes, and or*. [or] er, β.; ar, γ.] þei were al i-sette*. [yserved, β.; er they were all servyd, Cx.] a prince his sone took a messe of þe borde, as a childe [schulde],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and þe kynges sewer smoot þe childe wiþ a staf; þe childes maister siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] þat, and slow þe sewere anon. Þanne þe emperour wolde have i-dampned hym wiþ oute audience,*. [audiens, γ.] he þrewe*. [þru, γ.] doun þe emperour to þe erþe, and strangled hym almost;*. [almest, γ.] þe emperour was unneþe delyvered out of þis childes maister hondes. But þanne he heet*. [bade, β.; hyte, γ.] save þe childe his maister [lyf],*. [From α., γ., and Cx.; lif, β.] and cride and seide þat he hymself was to blame, for he hadde nouȝt i-spared hym for soo greet a feste. Page  437, vol.6 Þat ȝere Anlaf, a paynym, kyng of Irlond*. [Irlond, from β.; Engelond, MS.] and of meny ilondes, Sithiricus*. [Sihtricus, β.; Sithricus, γ.] his sone, by visitynge*. [incitynge, α. and γ.; excityng, β.; exytynge, Cx.] of his wifes fader, þat was Constantyn kyng of Scotland, Anlaf entrede*. [entride, β.] into þe mouth of þe ryver of Humber wiþ a strong navey. Kyng Athelstan*. [Ethelstan, β.; Edelstan, Cx.] and his broþer Edmond mette hym at Brun|fort.*. [Brymford, Cx.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Whanne þe hostes were i-gadred Anlaf by þouȝte hym of a queynt gyle, and took an harpe on honde, and come into Ethelstan his tente*. [tenth, Cx.] in an harpour [his]*. [From α.] lich.*. [harpur hys lych, γ.; in harper's arraye, Cx.] Þere in þe mete tyme he aspyed al þat he wolde, and hadde money for his harpynge. He hadde þe money aȝenst herte, and buried it priveliche under [hym in þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] eorþe; þat was aspied of oon þat hadde i-be somtyme a soudeour*. [saudeor, γ.; soudyour, Cx.] wiþ Anlaf, and he warned Ethelstan whan Anlaf was a goo; þe kyng blamede hym for he warned hym nouȝt raþer;*. [noo rather, Cx.] he answerde and seide: "O kyng, þe same fey þat I*. [ich, γ.] owe now to þe I*. [ych, γ.] ȝaf to Anlaf somtyme; þerfore ȝif I*. [ich, β. bis.] breke*. [had broken, Cx.] þat fey now to hym þou woldest*. [wost, γ.] wene þat I*. [ich, β. bis.] wolde Page  439, vol.6 doo þe same to þe anoþer tyme. But now take hede*. [hyde, γ.] of my counsaille, and*. [and] om. Cx.] remeve*. [remeove, β.] þy tente out of þis place,*. [þat plas, γ.] þat whanne he comeþ unwiseliche he*. [he] a, γ.] mowe faille of his purpose þat þou myȝte*. [may, Cx.] overcome hym wiþ grete sobernesse." Þis was i-doo, and Anlaf come hastiliche by nyȝte, and in þe wey he slouȝ a bisshop þat remevede*. [remeoved, β.] his tente and his meyne, and passed forþ and fil*. [vul, γ., bis.] on þe kynges tente, but þe kyng was awaked wiþ so grete noyse, and his swerd fil out of his sca|berge,*. [scabarge, γ., bis.; forth of his skaberd, Cx.] and he cride to God and seint Aldelyn.*. [Aldelm. β.] And at þe prayere of Odo þe archebisshop þat was þoo wiþ þe kyng, þe kyng fonde his swerd i-falle*. [fallen, β.; avalle, γ.] into his scaberge*. [scaberd, Cx.] aȝen; þat swerd is ȝit i-kept in the kynges tresorye, þat swerde is ȝit*. [ȝit] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] kervynge in þe oon side, and fongeþ*. [fangeþ, β.; vangeþ, γ.] in no place noþer gold ne silver. But*. [But] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] by þat ȝifte of God þe kyng was þo i-holpe,*. [was thenne holpen, Cx.] and chasede his enemyes al þat dawenynge*. [dawyng, β.] and al day amorwe:*. [dawynge and al day on the morow, Cx.] Þere kyng Constantyn was i-slawe, and fyve oþer smale kynges Page  441, vol.6 and twelve dukes, and wel nyȝ*. [neiȝ, β.] al þe gaderynge of straunge naciouns. Here after he chasede*. [chasted, β.; chastede, γ.] þe Norþ Britouns at Herford, so þat þey schulde paye hym every ȝere twenty pound of gold, and þre hondred pound of silver, and fyve and twenty hondred reþeren:*. [ruþeren, β.; roþern, γ.; heede of neetede, Cx.] þanne he took to his subieccioun Cornugallia, and amendede Excetre. In preysinge of hym oon made þis ditee: "Kynges blood brouȝte forþ a man*. [a man] om. Cx.] ful*. [fol, γ.] noble a knyȝt briȝt precious stone þo byschone*. [bischoon, β.] oure derke so briȝt*. [þo byschon ure derke so bryȝte, γ.] greet Ethelstanus hiȝte of lond paþ*. [paþ, from α. and Cx.; paþe, β.; path, γ.; pray, MS.] to þe ryȝt noble worþynesse þe soþe forsake ne myȝte." After Leo þe þridde Martyn was pope þre ȝere and sixe monþes; also þat ȝere Ethelstan deide at Gloucestre, and hadde no children,*. [chyldern, γ.; chylde, Cx.] and he was i-buried at Madulf.