Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.*. [On the margin of MS. is written: Thys chapter ys good to be sene well.]

GREGORIE þe sixte, first called Gracianus, after Benet, sat almost foure ȝere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 3o. Þis man was a man of religioun and felnes, dede bataille som|tyme wiþ Henricus emperour. Also he fonde þe state of þe popehede of Rome so i-fallen doun þat outtake a fewe walled townes þat were nere to þe citee, and þe offrynges of trewe men unneþe hadde he to hym and his cardinals any þing to lyflode; al oþer were taken away of robbours, oþer elles oþere hadde possessioun, in so moche þat þe self offrynges were reft fro þe autters under naked swerdes, or elles þay were robbed in open wayes. Wherfore eche province cessed for to take Rome way, for robbours and for brigantes þat was ther armed þeves in Seynt Petres chirche self. Þis Gregorie seynge þese bygan for to do softely wiþ þaym wiþ love and wordes, but when he profite no þing, wiþ þe sentence of cursynge he cutte þaym fro þe body of holy chirche þat dide such þinges or ham þat comuned wiþ hem þat dide so. Forsoþe when þe pope sigh it Page  153, vol.7 profited nouȝt, but stired more perille of deth ageyns hym self, he wroot unto the emperour þat he schulde helpe holy chirche in hir labour. He forsothe excusynge hym by the Wandale bataille, prayed to the pope þat in þe emperoures stede, and wiþ þe emperours costage, he wolde putte to his handes. Wherfore þe pope demynge þat it was for to use cuttynge and scherynge iren, he gat hym armes and horsmen on every side, whiche occupienge first Seint Peter chirche, ouþer they drowe out or slow þe robbours of þe offringes. After þe pope recovered his lordschippes þat were ilost. In þe mene tyme þe Romayns knyȝtes þat were wont for to lyve of ravayne, called þe pope a blood schewere, unworþy to þe office of þe autre, in so moche þat many of þe cardinals enclyned into þilke sentence, ordeyned and demed þat þe pope be not beried in holy chirche. Whiche in his last sekenes perseyvynge þat, he aresoned þe companye of cardynales*. [enclyned . . . cardynales] re|peated in MS. by error of scribe.] in þis manere: "Breþeren, I mervaille moche þat ȝe deme so hastely ȝoure pope þat haþ lyved so þat I have ȝitte out all my patrimonye into ȝoure prophetes, þat I have despised þe loose and þe fame of þe world for ȝoure delyver|ynge; wherfore if oþere wolde have made suche froward þinges aȝenst me ȝe auȝt for to soften þe opiniouns of fonde men wiþ better interpretacioun*. [Something omitted.] þe robbours; þerfore siþen eche Page  155, vol.7 man dede aught to be poundred or demed after þe entencioun of hym þat doþ, after þis, ȝif þyn eyȝen be symple, þat is þyn intencioun riȝt, al þy body schal be briȝt, þat is al þe hepe of þy dedes. I dede somtyme almesse to a pore man, he schewed my benefete to a robbour, wherfore he was spoylled and slayne. Whether þat I am to be blamed for I gaf to a pilgryme whereþoruȝ he wente into deth? God forbede, ffor þe covetise forsoþe stered þe robbour þerto, and nouȝt my liberalnes. So also in þe lawes, for in dyvers rewardes on dede is punsched, and a knyȝt þat cast doun his enemy in bataille is loved, for þe firste sleuþe for covetise, and the secounde for helþe of þe contre. Also somtyme pope Adrian þe firste was praysed for þat he graunted to Charles þe mynistres of prelates,*. [of prelates] bis in MS.] oure prelates aren loved for þat þey doon þe contrarie, takynge away suche power fro princes: þan was it graunted resonably for som cause þere beynge þat now resonably is denyed, for þan Charles soule was nouȝt infecte wiþ covetise, and þe pope see was fer fro þe elites, and þe prince disposed noþing by avarice. But now þe covetise of princes feleþ al þing. On þis manere may my cause be in|clyned Page  157, vol.7 into anoþer partie, it may be made lethy, and it may be reysed up. But ȝe say it is nouȝt þe office of a bisshop þat he schede blood or for to make it to be sched. I graunte, neverþeles it is byholdinge to hym þat if he se an innocent perische, þat he goo þere agayne wiþ tonge and hond, for why Ezechiel accuseþ þe preostes þat þey stood nouȝt agayn þe contrarie party, he*. [Sic.] made nouȝt þeym self a walle for þe house of oure Lord. Þere beeþ two persones in þe chirche of God ordeyned for to kutte away synnes, oon þat scharpeþ his spekynge, þe toþer þat bereþ a swerd. Witnes God and ȝow, I armed my tonge aȝenst enemyes of holy chirche als longe as I myȝte profete by messangers, and by epistles and lettres I certefied hym whom it falleþ for to doo any þing with þe swerd. He wroot agayn þat he was occupied wiþ the bataille of Wandale, prayeng þat wiþ my labour and his costage I wolde destourble þe þeves, þerfore what schulde I doo þanne whanne he sente me his partys, seynge þe sleynge of þe citeseyns, þe harmynge of pilgrymes, myscheve and poverte of þe pope and cardinales? And who so spareth a þeef he geveþ cause þat an innocent be slayn. Bot pera|venture þere is an objectioun, it falleþ nouȝt a preost þat he schede blood; I graunte wele. But if þat he fele hym self þat delivereþ þe innocent, and oppressith þe gilty, and þey beþ blessed þat kepeþ dome and doþ rightwisnesse, and Phi|nees Page  159, vol.7 and Mathathias ben praysed, whiche stiked þaym þat trespassed. Bot moche lesse*. [awe, wrongly inserted in MS.] owe we for to suffre oure holy sacramentes for to be polute and defouled, þan þay þaire derke privetees; and Zacharie the bisshop put out of þe temple þe kyng Osyam þat encensed, and wiþ oute doute he hadde slayn hym, bote if he hadde gyfen stede. For soþe I gaf benefice to þaym þat to whiche me semeþ have giffen torment or deþ. For why? a wicked synful man þe lenger he lyveþ þe more synne and payne he geteþ, þerfore who so schorteþ hym his lyf, he lesneþ hym syn and payne, and so he gyfeþ hym benefeet. But þat in þese þinges noþer I be bygiled ne ȝe be bygiled, put my body when I am dede bifore þe dores of þe chirche ful faste spered, and ȝif þe dores þoruȝ þe sonde of God be nouȝt opened dooþ of my body what so ȝe wil." And when it was done, as he com|maunded, sodenly a whirlewynd comynge caste doun the dores wiþ þe lokkes, and keste in þe dede body unto þe innere wall of þe chirche; whiche myracle i-sene þe cardinals with þe peple beried hym in Seynt Peter his chirche. Also in þis ȝere when Hardeknute þe kyng at a bridale feste at Lambehithe beside Londoun drank stondynge hole and murye, sodenly he fil doun, and so waxynge dombe he deide þe vi. idus of Iunii, and i-buried at Wynchestre wiþ his fadir. Henricus, libro 6o. Whiche was seide þat he was of so moche liberalte þat he made Page  161, vol.7 þe kynges and messes be diȝt redy foure tymes in a day, for hym had lever þat þe metes þat were sette bifore þaym þat were boden were i-left, þan eny þing þat schulde be sette to fore þaym schulde be asked. Willielmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Also sone it was sent into Normandye ffor Edward to be coroned kyng, hostage i-giffen, so ferforþ þat he brynge wiþ hym but fewe Normandyes. Þan helped the partie of Edward Leofric erle of Chestre, Godwyn duke of Westsex, and Lev|ynge, bisshop of Worcester. ℞. Neverþeles Marianus telleþ þat Hardeknute sent first for Edward his broþer, þat he schulde make hym abide wiþ hym in his contree. Willielmus de Regibus et Marianus.