Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum septimum.

AFFTER Iustinianus þe secounde Iustinus regnede enleven ȝere. Þat man despisede pore men, and spoylede þe senatoures, Page  361, vol.5 and ȝaf*. [yave, Cx.] hym al*. [al] om. Cx.] to covetise,*. [coveitise, β.] so þat he made cofres of iren*. [coffres of yre, γ.] for to do*. [do] kepe, γ.] yn his tresorie;*. [yron for to put in his tresour, Cx.] and fil*. [vul, γ.] at þe laste into Pelagius his heresye, and loste*. [looste, β.] resoun and good mynde; but he ordeyned oon Tiberius, a mylde man, to governe þe empere. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 3o. In þis prince his firste*. [pryns his vurste, γ.] ȝere, oon Columba, a preost*. [prust, γ.] and abbot, com out of Irlond forto preche to þe norþ Pictes, þat were departed from the [souþ by hyȝe hylles*. [hulles, γ.] and downes; for þe]*. [From α., β., and γ.] souþ Pictes were converted to forehonde by Ninianus, þe bisshop of þe nacioun of Britouns, and he was [y-]*. [From α.] sent þider þerfore.*. [þare vore, γ.] But he was firste i|tauȝt riȝt wel at Rome; his see was at Candida Casa, þat is þe White*. [Whyȝt, α.] hous; þere [he]*. [From γ. and Cx.] lyeþ and resteþ, and þoo*. [thenne, Cx.] þat see parteyned to men of Brenicia. Marcianus, libro 2o. Bridus,*. [Bridius, α., β., and Cx.] a myȝty kyng, regnede among hem þoo. Beda, ubi supra. Þanne Columba com to þe norþ Pictes, and feng*. [vyng, γ.] of hem þe Page  363, vol.5 ilond þey,*. [þey] Hii, γ., and Cx.] þat was as it were of fyve menis,*. [mēīs, α.; meynees, β.; vyf meyny, γ.; meynes, Cx.] to bulde*. [buylde, γ.] þere an abbay, þat was hede of alle þe abbayes þat he bulde;*. [bylded, Cx.] so þat ilond useþ alwey to have hym þat is abbot and preost*. [prust, γ., et infra.] [to rule and to governe hem, so þat al þe province and þe bisshops also beþ*. [ben, Cx.] suget to þat abbot and preost],*. [From α., β., and γ.] in a manere ordre þat is noȝt i-used elles where,*. [war, γ.] and þat by ensaumple of hire firste doctour Columba, þat was no bisshop, but preost and monk. After his comynge two and þritty ȝere he deyde and was i-buried þere, and lefte after hym noble dis|ciples; but þey*. [huy, γ.] were in doute of þe Ester*. [Eester, Cx.] terme, and folwede*. [folewide, β.] þe cicles*. [volwede þe circulus, γ.] an hondred ȝere and fifty anon*. [anon to] unto, Cx.] to þe ȝere of grace seven hondred ȝere and fiftene. Þo com to hem on Egbertus, a preost of Englisch nacioun, þat hadde be longe exciled in Irlond. Hit was no wonder ffor þe decres*. [decretes, Cx.] of sinodes of þe holdynge of þe Estertyde com nouȝt ȝit to hem, for þey were i-sette ferre*. [ver, γ.; fer, Cx.] as it were out and overe þe roundenesse of þe world.*. [wordle, γ.]Paulus, libro 2o. Narses Page  365, vol.5 patricius was i-sent of Iustinus into Italy, and slouȝ Totila,*. [Thotilia, α; slowȝ Thotila, γ.] kyng of Gothes, and restored þe state of þe empere; but þe Romayns hadde grete envie*. [envyȝe, γ.] to hym, so þat þey sente to Iustinus, and seide þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] it was bettre to þe Romayns for to serve þe Grees*. [Grekes, Cx.] þanne þe Gothes þere*. [here, Cx.] Narses patricius was emperour; þerfore þere emperour was i-nempned,*. [meved, α. and Cx.; meoved, β.; moved, γ.] and dede*. [put, Cx.] his prefecte Longinus in Narses patricius his stede. And þe emperis*. [emperys, γ., et infra; empresse, Cx., et infra.] Sophia Augusta sente to Narses a dispitous scorn, þat he schulde wende*. [retorne, Cx.] in to Constantynnoble, and þat he schulde wiþ his wenches and wiþ women*. [wymmen witt fynde, β.; wy|mens wytte, Cx.] fynde cost and woollen*. [and wyþ wemmen wyt vynde cost and wollene, γ.] þredes. Me seiþ þat he answerde herto, and seide þat he wolde warpe suche a webbe to þe emperise, þat sche*. [heo, β.] schulde nevere have it of*. [of] to, Cx.] [to]*. [From β.] here lyves ende. Þanne he went into Naples*. [Napels, γ.] in Campania, and sente þe Longobardes word þat þey· schulde leve*. [leve] om. γ.] þe pore feeldes*. [veldes, γ.; poure feldes, Cx.] of Pannonia, and Page  367, vol.5 wende*. [come, Cx.] into þe noble*. [noble] om. Cx.] riche lond*. [londes, Cx.] of Italy; and so þei*. [he, α.] dede.*. [dyde, Cx.] Þe Longobardes come into Italy þe morwe aftir Ester*. [Eester, Cx.] day, þe ȝere of oure Lord fyve hondred þre score and eiȝte; þo was þe kyngdom of Italy unȝoked and delyvered of þe ȝokke*. [ȝok, β.; yock, Cx.] of Constantynnoble, and þe Romayns were aftirward delyvered*. [delyvered] om. α., β., and Cx.] i-ruled*. [yreuled, γ.] by patricius.*. [patricies, α.; patrycies, Cx.] ℞. Þere*. [Ar, γ.] Albuinus, kyng of Longobardes, assailede Italy. Fury ostes*. [Fuyry ostes, α. and β.; Vury hostes, γ.; Fyry hoostes, Cx.] were i-seie*. [seen, Cx.] in hevene, þat cast out manis blood as it were liȝt|nynge, þerof*. [therefore, Cx.] Gregorie spekeþ in an omelye. Also in Lugurgia*. [Ligurgia, Cx.] were wondre tokenes i-seye in [hous, in]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.; houses in, β.] dores, and in cloþes, and ȝif eny man wolde wasche hem awey þey were þe more i-sene, and after a ȝere in men chanels*. [menne chanels, γ.; mennes cha|nels, Cx.] at þe neþer end sprang out as it were archers,*. [achcherus, α. and γ.; akcornes, β.; akehornes, Cx.] and after þat com a brening ffevere,*. [brennynge fever, Cx.] and slouȝ men in þe space of þre days; þerfore men fliȝe,*. [vleye, γ.; fledde, Cx.] and lefte nouȝt at home but houndes; Page  369, vol.5 noon tileer*. [tilyer, α.; tylier, β.; tylyer, γ. and Cx., which adds of the londe were.] lefte in þe feeldes, noþer*. [ne, Cx.] in vinȝerdes; þe place*. [places, β.; plase, γ.] of pasture were i-torned to buriels and sepultures.*. [sepulcres, Cx.] Day and nyȝt me herde in þe ayer now trompes, now grocchynge*. [grucchyng, β.; grochynge, γ.; grutchyng, Cx.] as it were of an oost þat passede, but noþer stappes noþer*. [ne, α. and β.; nether, Cx.] fores*. [vores, γ.; forowes, Cx.] were þere*. [þere] none, Cx.] i-sene. Paulus, libro quinto. Þe Longobardes haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] þat name of hir longe berdes. Þey used to schere*. [shave, Cx.] of þe*. [þe] theyr, Cx.] heere of hir heed from þe molde to þe nolle, but to fore þey hadde lokkes i-schod*. [sched, α.; ysched, β.; to vore huy hadde lokkes ysched, γ.; sched, om. Cx.] hongynge doun to þe mouth. Þey usede*. [uside, β.] large cloþes and longe, and specialliche lynnen cloþes, as Englisshe Saxons were i-woned*. [wonte, Cx.] to use, i-hiȝt*. [i-hiȝt] om. Cx.] with brood laces i-weve*. [woven, Cx.] wiþ dyvers coloures; þey usede hiȝe schone*. [hye shoon, Cx.] unto*. [to, α.; up to, β., γ., and Cx.] þe kne, i-slitte to fore, and i-laced wiþ þwonges,*. [þonges, γ.] hire*. [her, β.] hosen tilled to the hamme,*. [tyllede to the homme, γ.] i-teyed wiþ layners al aboute. Þe firste ȝere of hir comynge, here kyng Albuinus bysegede þe citee Papie þre ȝere, and took it at þe laste, and occupied all Italy outake*. [outake] reservyd, Cx.] Rome. Page  371, vol.5Paulus, libro 2o. Whanne þe kyng Albuinus rood in at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] est ȝate of þe citee of Papie, þe hors þat he sat on fil doun under hym in þe myddel of þe ȝate, and myȝte nouȝt be arered,*. [reysed, Cx.] þey he were priked*. [ypreked, γ.] wiþ spores and with speres,*. [and with speres] om. Cx.] forto*. [vorto, γ.; unto the tyme that, Cx.] the kyng hadde relesed*. [relesched, β.] and wiþcleped*. [revoked and relesed, Cx.] a wel hard avow þat he hadde i-made. He hadde i-made his avow þat alle þe peple*. [pupel, γ.] þat wolde nouȝt ȝelde hem schulde be slawe with swerdes. Þanne Albuinus regnede in Italy þre ȝere and sixe monþes, and deyde at þe laste by tresoun of his wif in þis manere. Þis Albuinus had i-woned*. [had i-woned] dwellyd, Cx.] in Pannonia som|tyme, and overcome þe kyng of*. [kyng of] om. Cx.] Gispides,*. [Geppydes, γ.; Gespydes, Cx.] and i-made hym a cuppe of his*. [his] the kynges, Cx.] skulle*. [scolle, γ.] forto drinke of; þat manere cuppe is cleped scala among hem, and patera in*. [in] a, γ.] Latyn.*. [pathera a Latyn, Cx.] Also he wedded oon*. [oon] om. Cx.] Rosemunda, þe kynges douȝter þat he hadde i-slawe; and at þe citee Nerona*. [Verona, γ. and Cx.] in Italy, at a greet feste, he made his wif Rosamunda drynke of þat cuppe, weþer sche*. [heo, β., et infra; heo, γ.] wolde or no, and prayde hire to drinke wiþ hire fader;*. [vader, γ.] and sche hadde greet indignacioun þerof, and awayted here tyme Page  373, vol.5 whan þe kyng was out, and leyde her*. [hure, γ.] priveliche*. [herself pryvely, Cx.] in þe bed of a damysel*. [damoysel, Cx.] [þat a duke of þe kinges lovede specialliche; þe duke com to þat bed, and wende*. [supposed, Cx.] þat sche hadde be þe damysel],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and lay by here. Þanne sche spake to þe duke and seide, "Wost þou not*. [not] ner, γ.] what þou hast i-doo? sikerliche,*. [sekerly, Cx.] now þou hast i-doo suche a dede, oþer*. [oþer] nowe that, Cx.] þou schalt slee*. [sleo, γ.] myn housbonde Albuynus þe kyng, oþer þu schalt be slawe wiþ his swerd;" and so it was i-doo.*. [and soo he slowe the king, Cx.] For Rosamunda in an undermele*. [under, α., β., γ., and Cx.] tyde bonde so faste þe kynges swerd þat was on slepe,*. [that tho slepte, Cx.] þat it myȝte not be undrawe*. [y-drawe, α. and γ.; drawen out, Cx.] out of þe scaberke,*. [scabarge, α., β., and γ.; sca|berde, Cx.] for*. [for] by cause, Cx.] þe kyng schulde nouȝt mowe helpe and defende*. [and defende] om. Cx.] hym|self, whan þe oþer were i-come*. [that other cam to, Cx.] forto slee hym. Þanne whan þe kyng was i-slawe, þe sleere fliȝ,*. [vly, γ.; fledde, Cx.] and wente to*. [to] with, Cx.] þe quene into Ravenna, and after þey hadde i-dwelled þere awhile, Rosamunda siȝ a wel*. [wel] right, Cx.] faire*. [veyr, γ.] ȝonge man, þat was prefecte*. [prefeit, β.] of þe citee, and loved hym out of wytte, and by cause þerof sche ȝaf hire housbonde venyme to drynke, and anon þe duke Page  375, vol.5 feled*. [velede, γ.; felte, Cx.] þe strengþe of þat venym, and drouȝ owt his swerd, and made his wif drinke þat oþer deel; and so þey deide boþe. But som men telliþ þat whanne Rosamunda was i-slawe, oon Perideus,*. [Parideus, Cx.] þat woste of þe firste*. [wuste of the vurste, γ.] tresoun, come out of Ravenna in to Constantynnoble, and slouȝ oon Leon in presens of the emperour, in comyn spectacle*. [spectakel, γ.] þere me stood to beholde playes and som*. [som] om. Cx.] newe þinges; but for he schulde not caste aȝenst þe citee, þe emperour made putte*. [potte, γ.; to putte, Cx.] out boþe his eiȝen; but sone after he took tweye knyves priveliche in his sleves, and feyned þat he hadde*. [he hadde] om. Cx.] a prive speche*. [secrete counceyll, Cx.] forto telle*. [vor telle, γ.] to þe emperour, and þe emperour sente hym tweie patricies þat were prive wiþ hym, and þe*. [þe] om. γ.] forseide*. [vorsede, γ.] Perideus*. [Perydeus, Cx.] slouȝ hem boþe at oon strook. In þat secounde ȝere of Iustinus, Ethel|brutus,*. [Ethelbertus, Cx.] kyng of Kent, ȝaf*. [yave, Cx.] a bataille to Ceaulinus, kyng of West Saxon, and his broþer Cutha; but þey chased hym and slouȝ tweyne of his dukes at Wilbandoun,*. [Wilbandun, γ.; Wylbaldoun, Cx.] and þat was þe firste bataille þat was bytwene þe Saxons. Þat ȝere Cuthwulf,*. [Cutwulf, Cx.] kyng Ceaulinus his broþer, fauȝt stalworthliche*. [strongly, Cx.] aȝenst*. [aȝens, γ.] þe Britouns Page  377, vol.5 at Bedeforde,*. [Bedefort, γ.] and bynam hem*. [toke fro them, Cx.] foure citees, Lyganburgh, Eglesburgh, Besyngtoun, and Evesham,*. [Eynesham, α.; Eyvesham, γ.] and deide þe same ȝere. Þat tyme deide Seint German, bisshop of Parys, a nobel man and ful of myracles:*. [vol of myrakcles, γ.] whanne he werþe*. [bygan to waxe seke, Cx.] seek he siȝ in þe wal aȝenst*. [aȝenes, β.] his bed i-wrete; "Foure dayes to fore May,"*. [voure dawes tovore May, γ.] and þerby he knewe þat he schulde deie uppon suche a day, and so he dede,*. [dide, β; dyde, Cx.] and was i-buried in þe medes*. [medowes, Cx.] beside Parys. Chilperitus, þe sevenþe kyng of Fraunce, deide also þat tyme. After hym his sone Lotharius regnede foure and fifty*. [voure and vyfty, γ.] ȝere. Þe poet Fortunatus of Italy, a clere man of witte, and scharpe of konnynge, softe and swete of speche, he wroot Seint Martyn his lyf in foure bookes, in metre and vers*. [versus, β.; versis, Cx.] of sixe feet,*. [veet, γ.] and was aftirward bisshop of Turon. In þis Iustinus his sevenþe ȝere was fulfilled*. [volvuld, γ.] þe greet cicle*. [cikel, α.; cirkel, γ.] of þe Ester terme,*. [Eester tyme, Cx.] þat conteyneþ fyve hondred ȝere and two and þritty from Cristes passioun, so seiþ Marianus, 560; but from þe bygynnynge of þe world*. [worl, γ.] fyve þowsand ȝere and fyve and sixty, as som men will*. [wole, β.] mene.*. [men suppose, Cx.]Tiberius.