Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum sextum.

IUSTINIANUS, Iustinus his nevew on his suster i-gete,*. [goten, Cx.] regnede eiȝte and þritty ȝere. Þis gadrede þe lawes of þe Romayns, þat Page  325, vol.5 were i-wrete wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] in two þowsand bookes, and in þre hondred þowsand vers, in longe writinge and unprofitable; he gadred hem into a volym*. [volume, Cx., tris.] of twelf bookes, and cleped þat volym*. [volume, Cx., tris.] Iustinianus his code. Also he made Pendectas, þat is digest, and departed it in þre volyms. Also he dede meny batails by hymself and by Bisiliarchus*. [by lisiarchus, divisim, β.; By|lisyarchus, γ.; Bilisiarchus, Cx.] þe duke; noþeles at þe excitinge of Theodora Augusta he dede many cruel*. [cruwel, β. and γ.] dedes, and exciled þe pope. After Felix Bonefacius was pope two ȝere [and somwhat of dayes. He ordeynede þat clerkes and lewed*. [lewide, β.] men schulde be departed while þe masse is on*. [on] a, Cx.] syng|ynge. After Bonefacius þe secounde Iohn was pope two ȝere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and foure monþes. After þe secounde Iohn þe first Agapitus was pope elevene ȝere. He ordeynede þat pro|cessioun schulde be made in þe synode;*. [Sonday, Cx.] and went to Con|stantynnoble to Iustinianus, and deyde þere, but he was i-bore*. [born, Cx.] to Rome. Cerdicus þe firste kyng of West Saxon deide whanne Page  327, vol.5 he hadde i-regned seventene ȝere. After Agapitis*. [Agapitus, α. and Cx.] Silverius*. [Silverinus, γ.] was pope oon ȝere and fyve*. [vyf, γ.] monþes. He was exiled, and i-slawe while he was exciled, and þat made þe emperise*. [emperice, β.; emperys, γ., et infra.] Theodora Augusta, for he wolde nouȝt restore aȝen Athe|mius*. [Anthemius, Cx.] patriarch of Constantynnoble, þat was to forhonde*. [vorehonde, γ.] condempned of heresye. Þat ȝere was David*. [Seynt Davy, Cx.] i-bore, þat hatte Dewy also; he was bisshop of Menevia,*. [Mevenia, Cx.] þat now hatte Seint Davy, þat is*. [þat is] om. Cx.] in Wales. After Silverius, Vigilius*. [Virgilius, Cx.] was pope as it were nyne ȝere. He ordeyned þat þe masse schulde be i-seide toward þe est ende of þe chirche; and at þe laste, as his pre|decessour, was pursewed*. [pursywed, γ.; poursiewed, Cx.] of þe empers,*. [emperys, α.; empresse, Cx.] for Anthomius*. [Anthemius, α., γ., and Cx.] þe patriarch was nouȝt restorede; so was he al day*. [al a day, β., γ., and Cx.] to drawe and to haled, i-scorned, and i-buffetted at Constantynnoble; and at þe laste he deide exciled. In his tyme Bellisarius patricius delyvered Rome of the takynge of þe Gothes. Also in his tyme bifel*. [byful, γ.; byfyl, Cx.] þat is i-rad of Theopholus þe archedekon;*. [Theofolus þe archdeken, β.; Theofolus tharchedeken, Cx.] and þe*. [and þe firste . . . heretikes] om. β. and Cx.] firste*. [fifte, α.; vyfte, γ.] synod and counsaille was i-gadered at Constantynnoble aȝenst Theodora and oþere heretikes. They*. [þouȝ, β.] þis*. [þey þes, γ.] Vigilius Page  329, vol.5 entrede in an evel manere to þe poperiche,*. [papacye, Cx.] for*. [for] by cause, Cx.] he procured þe excilynge of his predecessor Silverius, for he wolde be pope hymself, but for he was verray*. [verrey, γ.; veryly, Cx. puts after repentaunt.] repentaunt he was exciled for þe fey, and deide exciled at þe laste. Henricus, libro 2o. Þis was þe tenþe*. [tueþe, γ.] ȝere of Cedrus*. [Cerdicus, α. and Cx.] kyng of West Saxon; and þis ȝere [Arthur]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þe werriour gan for to rise,*. [aryse, α. and γ.; taryse, Cx.] as it were eiȝtene ȝere olde. He fauȝt*. [voȝt, γ.] twelf siþes aȝenst þe Saxons, and hadde þe victorie, firste uppon*. [vurste oppon, γ.] þe ryver Gleny, and eft foure siþes uppon þe ryver Douglas þat is in þe contray of Iewes.*. [Jues, α, β., γ.] ℞. Now þat ryver hatte Dugglys*. [Dougglis, β.; Dongglys, Cx.] in*. [an, α., β., γ.] Englische, and þat ryver renneþ*. [erneþ, β.; urneþ, γ.] under þe citee of Wygan, þat is ten myle from*. [vram, γ.] þe ryver Mersea in Lancastreschire.*. [Lancasshyre, Cx.]Henricus. Þe sixte bataille was uppon þe ryver Bassa. Þe sevenþe bisides Lincolne, [in þe wode þat heet Celidon, þat now hatte Lin|colne].*. [From α.; β. reads in the wode þat hatt Celidon, but in brittysch hit hatte Caercoyt Celidon, &c. The sentence is expanded in γ. as in β.] Þe nynþe bataille was at þe citee Caerleon; þe Page  331, vol.5 twelfþe was in Badon hille.*. [hulle, γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Þis*. [ys, γ.] [is]*. [From β.] Arthur, of whom*. [wham, γ.] þe Britoun*. [Bretouns, α.; Britouns, β.; Brytons, γ.] þat goþ*. [gone, Cx.] out of þe weye telleþ*. [tellen, Cx.] many idel tales; he þat sooþ stories telleþ,*. [preyseþ, γ.] and nouȝt lyes,*. [lyers, α. and γ; he pat praisiþ soþe storyes and nouȝt fals, β.; he that prayseth sothe storyes and not false, Cx.] is worþy to be preysed; he þat meyn|tened þe contray*. [contrary, Cx.] þat was dounward, and confortede men*. [mennus, β.; mennes, Cx.] hertes to fiȝte*. [vyȝte, γ.] stalworthiliche*. [courageously, Cx.] in batayle, and at þe laste he slowȝ wiþ his owne hond nyne hondred of hys enemyes in þe sege of Badon Hille.*. [hulle, γ.; Badenhill, Cx.] [℞]*. [From β. and γ.] Me redeþ*. [Men rede, Cx.] in som cronikes þat Cerdicus fauȝte*. [voȝte, γ.] ofte with Arthur, and if he were*. [ȝyf a wer, γ.] ones overcome he roos up eft strengere to fiȝte;*. [vyȝte, γ. passim.] and at þe laste, after sixe and twenty ȝere of Cerdicus his comyng, Arthur was wery*. [werie, β.] and noyeful,*. [nuyfol, γ.] and ȝaf*. [yave, Cx.] hym Hampschire*. [Hamptschire, β.] and Somersete, and cleped þat contray Westsex, and fey was i-swore to hym.*. [and he made fayth and swore to hym, Cx.] Also it is i-rad in Cronicis Anglorum þat Mordredus, Arthur his nevew, desirede for to regne,*. [vor regne, γ.] but Page  333, vol.5 he dradde onliche Cerdicus, and ȝaf hym oþer townes*. [oþere contrayes tounes, γ.] for to favoure*. [faver, β.] hym; Cerdicus assented þerto, and restored his pro|vince and contrayes wiþ newe Saxons, and was i-crowned at Winchestre in þe manere of mysbyleved men. But at Londoun Mordredus was i-crowned kyng of Bretouns, but*. [bote, α. and γ.] þe yle*. [yl, γ.] of Wight lefte to Withgarus þe nevewe of Cerdicus. But þe storie of Britons telleþ þat Arthur fauȝt afterward wiþ Mor|dredus, and slouȝ hym, and was i-slawe, and i-buried in þe vale of Avalon bysides Glastonbury.*. [Glastingbury, Cx.] Aftirward his body and þe body [of his wif]*. [From β.] Gwenvere*. [of hys wyf Guennevere, γ.; of his wyf Gwenner, Cx.] were i-founde*. [yvounde, γ.] in þe secounde kyng Henries*. [Henre his, α.; Herry hys, γ; Harryes, Cx.] tyme, and i-translated into þe chirche,*. [cherch, γ.] aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord enlevene hondred and foure score; so seiþ Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo 18o, þat was on lyve and handelede Arthur his bones. Furþermore*. [Vurþermore, γ., and similarly always.] of þis Arthur,*. [Arthour, α.] for*. [for] om. Cx.; vor, γ., constantly.] among alle writers of cronikes Gaufridus alon*. [allone, Cx., who adds moche after so.] so preyseþ hym, meny men wondreþ how it myȝte be sooþ þat is i-told of Page  335, vol.5 hym. For ȝif Arthor hadde i-wonne*. [goten, Cx.] þritty kyngdoms, as Gaufridus telleþ, ȝif he hadde i-made þe kyng of Fraunce sugette,*. [suget, β.] ȝif he hadde i-slawe Lucius in Italy, procurator of the empere and of þe comynte, why lefte alle þe writers of stories of Romayns, Frenschemen, and Saxons, and speke noȝt of so greet [dedes and of so greet]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] a victor, seþþe þat þey*. [sethe þat huy, γ.] tolde so moche*. [myche, β.] and*. [and] om. Cx.] of so menye lasse men, and of wel lasse dedes. ȝit herto Gaufridus telleþ*. [telleþ þat . . . Gaufridus] om. Cx.] þat þis*. [his, α. and γ.]] Arthoure over|come Frollo kyng of Fraunce, and no kyng Frollo is i-founde*. [founden, β.; yvounde, γ.] amonge þe Frensohe men. Also Gaufridus seiþ þat Arthur slouȝ Lucius Hiberius, procurator of þe empere and of the comynte, in Leo þe emperours tyme,*. [and of the . . . tyme] om. Cx.] but by alle stories of Rome it is i-knowe*. [knowen, β.] þat non Lucius was procurator of þe empere noþer*. [eyther, Cx.] of þe comynte þat tyme, and also þat noon Arthur regned, noþer*. [noþer] ne, Cx.] was i-bore, in Leo þe emperours tyme, but in Iustinianus his tyme, þat was þe fifte*. [vyfte, γ.] after Leo. Also Gaufridus seiþ þat hym wondreþ þat Gildas and Beda in al Page  337, vol.5 here bookes spekeþ nouȝt*. [speke not, Cx.] of Arthur; but I*. [Ich, γ.] holde more [wondre]*. [From β. and γ.] why Gaufridus preyseþ more*. [more] om. α., β., and Cx.] so moche*. [myche, β.] oon þat al þe olde, famous, and sooþ writers of stories makeþ of*. [of] of it, Cx.] wel nyȝ non*. [neiȝ no, β.; wel ny of no, γ.] mencioun. But on*. [on cas] sothe, Cx.] cas*. [caas, β.] it is þe manere of everiche nacioun to overe preyse som oon of þe same nacioun, as þe Grees*. [Gree, γ.; Grekes, Cx.] preyseþ here*. [here] theyr, Cx. quinquies.] Alisaundre, and þe Romayns here*. [here] theyr, Cx. quinquies.] Octovianus, and Englisshe men here*. [here] theyr, Cx. quinquies.] Richard, and Frensche men here*. [here] theyr, Cx. quinquies.] Charles, and Britouns here*. [here] theyr, Cx. quinquies.] Arthur. Þat*. [þat] it, Cx.] happeþ ofte, as Iosephus seiþ, for fairenesse*. [vor veyrness, γ.] of þe storie, oþer for likynge of reders, oþer for to preyse here owne blood. [these cause them to write so].*. [From Cx.]Trevisa.*. [Trevisa . . . in the storye] om. β.; all the passage Trevisa . . . for Austyn (p. 339) is omitted in Cx.] Here William telleþ a magel*. [maged, γ.] tale wiþ oute evidence;*. [evydens, γ.] and Ranul|phus his resouns, þat he meveþ aȝenst Gaufridus and Arthur, schulde non clerke moove þat can*. [con, γ.] knowe an argument, for it followeþ*. [volweþ, γ.] it*. [it] om. γ.] nouȝt.*. [nouȝ, α.] Seint Iohn in his gospel telleþ meny þinges and doynges þat Mark, Luk, and*. [noþer, α. and γ.] Matheu spekeþ nouȝt of in here gospelles, ergo, Iohn is nouȝt to trowynge in his gospel. He were of false byleve þat trowede þat þat argument were worþ a bene. For Iohn in his gospel telleþ þat oure Lordes moder and here suster*. [soster, γ.] stood by oure Lordes croys, and meny oþer þinges þat non oþer gospeller*. [gospelour, γ.] makeþ of mynde,*. [muynde, γ., et infra.] and ȝit Iohn his gospel is as trewe as eny of hem*. [hem] om. α.] al þat Page  339, vol.5 þey*. [huy, γ.] makeþ. So þey Gaufridus speke of Arthur his dedes, þat oþer writers of stories spekeþ of derkliche,*. [derklych, γ.] oþer makeþ of non*. [no, α.] mynde, þat dispreveþ nouȝt Gaufrede his storie and his sawe, and specialliche of*. [specialych ȝyf, γ.] som writers of stories were Arthur his enemyes. It is wonder þat he seiþ þat no Frollo was kyng of Fraunce, noþer Lucius procurator of þe comynte, noþer Leo emperour in Arthur his tyme, seþþe*. [sethe, γ.] þat ofte an officer,*. [offser, γ.] kyng, oþer emperour haþ many dyvers names, and is diverse|liche i-nempned*. [ynemened, γ.] in meny dyvers londes; and in*. [in] om. γ.] þe þridde book, capitulo nono, he seiþ hymself þat it is no wonder þey William*. [Wyllyham, γ.] Malmesbury*. [Malnesbury, MS.] were desceyved, for he hadde nouȝt i-rad þe Brittische book; and ȝit þey Gaufridus had nevere i-spoke of Arthur, meny noble naciouns spekeþ of Arthur and of his nobil dedes. But it may wel be þat Arthur is ofte over|preysed, and so beeþ meny oþere. Soþ sawes beeþ nevere þe wors þey madde men telle magel*. [magil, α.; magged, γ.] tales, and som mad men wil mene þat Arthur schal come aȝe, and be eft kyng here of Britayne, but þat is a ful*. [ful] fol mad, α. and γ.] magel*. [magyl, α.; maged, γ.] tale, and so beeþ meny oþere þat beeþ i-tolde of hym and of oþere. Þanne it followeþ*. [volweþ, always, γ.] in þe storye:*. [See note 15, page 337.] for Austyn, de Civitate Dei, libro 10o, telleþ þat þe doynges*. [doyngis, β.] of men of Athene*. [Athenes, Cx.] beeþ grettere*. [grettur, γ.] in fame þan in dede, and þat was for þere were writers of clere witte, and hadde*. [hadden, Cx.] ioye and likynge to torne here witte and here tonge to greet, hiȝe,*. [heiȝ, β.; hyhe, Cx.] and huge*. [hyg and heoge, γ.] preysinge. Þanne Gaufre,*. [Gaufridus, γ.; Gaufredus, Cx.] in his Brittisshe book, seiþ þat Arthur, whan he schulde deye, grauntede þe diademe of þe kyngdom to his cosyn Constantyn, þe sone of Cador duke of Cornewayle, þat fauȝt oftetymes wiþ Metredus*. [Medredes, γ.; Mordredus, Cx.] his sones, and slowȝ hem at þe laste. And so after foure*. [voure, γ., et infra.] ȝere of his kyngdom*. [four yere after he had regned, Cx.] he deide, and after hym Aurelius Page  341, vol.5 Conanus hilde þe kyngdom þre*. [þreo, γ.] ȝere, and after [hym]*. [From γ. and Cx.] Vortiporius foure ȝere. After hym Malgo regnede somwhat of ȝeres; he was faire,*. [vayr, γ.] stalworthe,*. [stronge, Cx.] and large and fre of ȝiftes,*. [ȝyftus, γ.] but he was infecte wiþ þe vice*. [vyse, γ.] of sodomye. After hym Careticus regnede somwhat of tyme; he was onlikynge*. [unlykyng, γ.] to God and to þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Bretouns, and lovede stryf and destruccioun of riȝtful levynge*. [lyvynge, β.] of mankynde. Þe Saxons were war*. [waar, Cx.] of his unstedfastnesse, and sente*. [senten, β. and Cx.] to þe kyng Affricanus Gur|mundus, þat he hadde i-made suget,*. [that he made hym subgett, Cx.] and prayed hym for to come out of Irlond; and Gurmundus and þe Saxons i-ioyned*. [yiuined, γ.] and oned to giders chasede*. [chaside, β.] Careticus*. [Creticus, Cx.] from*. [vram, γ.] citee to citee, and byseged*. [besyeged, Cx.] hym at þe laste in Surcetre,*. [Sissitre, Cx.] and drof*. [droof, α. and Cx.] hym afterward and his Bretouns into Wales over Sevarn, and destroyed Loegria, þat is Engelond, wiþ yre*. [yren, β.; yron, Cx.] and wiþ fuyre;*. [yr and wiþ vuer, γ.] and from þat tyme forþwarde þe Britouns loste þe hole*. [hoole, β.] kyng|dom Page  343, vol.5 of Bretayne. Chilpericus, þe sevenþe kyng of Fraunce' regnede after his fader*. [vader, γ.] Lotharius foure and twenty ȝere; þat was þe ȝere after þe comynge of Angles foure score and eyȝtene. Þat ȝere bygan þe kyngdom of Norþhumberlond under oon Ida, þe sonne of Eoppa; he was þe twelfþe*. [twellyfth, Cx.] after Woden, of hym come al þe blood of kynges of Norþhumberlond; and Ida regnede twelve ȝere in Brenicia, and hadde meny sones. Trevisa. Brenicia is þe northside of Northumberlond,*. [Norþhumberlond, β.] and*. [Regnum Norþhum|brorum Bre|niciorum.] streccheþ to þe Scottische see;*. [Scotysche se, γ.] look more þerof in þe firste book, capitulo 51o, þere þou myȝte*. [may, Cx.] fynde*. [vynde, γ.] þe meres and þe merkes of Brenicia. Þanne it folwyth in þe storie: in Ius|tinianus þe emperour his tyme byfil*. [befel, Cx.] þat Gregor*. [Gregorius, Cx.] in libro Dialogorum*. [dialoger (sic), α.] telleþ of þe bisshoppes þat speke at þe beste Page  345, vol.5 whan here*. [her, β.] tonges were i-kutte*. [kitte, β.] of*. [of] om. Cx.] in Affrica for þe*. [þey, α.] fey of holy cherche; but oon of hem was prived of þat miracle, for leccherie þat he fil*. [vul, γ.] in*. [fylle ynne, Cx.] somtyme. About þat tyme, in a citee of Sicilia,*. [Cicilia, β.] was an archedekon þat heet Theophilus, and bare hym so nobleliche*. [nobellych, γ.] under þe bisshop, þat whanne þe bisshop was dede al men cride*. [crieden, β.; cryeden, Cx.] þat he was worthy to be bisshop. And he hilde*. [huld, γ.] hym apaied*. [payed, Cx.] wiþ his archede|kenerie,*. [archedeconery, α.] and hadde levere þat anoþer were bisshop þanne he. But afterward he þat was i-made bisshop put*. [pot, γ.] hym wrongfulliche out of his archedekenerie.*. [archedeconrye, α.] Þanne he fille*. [vul, γ.] into*. [into] in, Cx.] [so]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] greet mescheef þat he hired*. [huyred, β.] an Hebrewe wicche,*. [whitche, Cx.] and forsook*. [vorsok, γ.] Crist and his moder uppon þat con|dicioun þat he schulde come to þe worschippe þat he hadde i-lost. And also he dede þe devel worschippe*. [worschippe and] om. β., γ., and Cx.] and*. [and] om. α.] homage, and wroot hym a chartre wiþ his owne blood, and so he hadde his archedekenrie amorwe. But he byþouȝt hym at þe laste, and was soruful*. [sorowfull, Cx.] for þat dede, and prayed oure Lady of Page  347, vol.5 help and socour, and so by help of oure Lady and*. [and] he, Cx.] hadde his chartre aȝen and*. [and] om. γ.] forȝifnes*. [vorȝenes, γ.] of his synnes. Þanne he know|leched*. [knowlechide, β.] his trespas,*. [trespaas, Cx.] and al þe manere of þat doynge, openliche tofore þe bisshop and al þe peple.*. [pepul, γ. bis; people, Cx., bis.] Þanne al þe peple won|drede, and worschepede and þonkede Crist [and oure Lady];*. [From Cx.] and Theophel*. [Theofile, β. and Cx.] deide after þre dayes in þe same place þere*. [þere] where as, Cx.] oure Lady brouȝte hym his chartre aȝen and forȝifnesse of his synnes.*. [and . . . synnes] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] After Virgilius*. [Vigilius, β., γ., and Cx.] þe firste Pelagius was pope en|levene ȝere; þat ȝere Totila, kyng of Gothes, werreþ*. [werryd, Cx.] in al Italy. Þanne he passede by Campania, and by seint Benet his*. [Benetes, β.] abbay, and byseged Rome strongliche, and took it at þe laste [by nyȝte, and entrede at þe laste]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.; β. however, omits the second at þe laste.] at þe ȝate þat hatte porta Hostiensis. And for þe Romayns scholde somdel voide þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] cruelnesse,*. [cruwelnesse, β.] he made trompoures blowe.*. [trompes to be blowen, Cx.] Also Totilia wolde assay*. [asayȝe, γ.] ȝif seint Benet hadde a spirit*. [spyryt, γ.] of prophecie, and cloþede oon of his knyȝtes as a kyng, and sente hym to seint Benet as þey þe kyng hymself were i-come*. [comen, Cx.] to þe holy man. Page  349, vol.5 Þanne seint Benet seide to hym, "Doo*. [Sone, doo, β. and Cx.] of þat þou berest, for it is nouȝt þyn." Aftirward Totilia hymself fil*. [vul, γ.] doun to grounde to fore*. [to vore, γ.] þe holy man, and [wolde not aryse till]*. [From Cx.; and wolde nouȝt arise er þe holy man, β.; and he wolde noȝt aryse ar þe holy man, γ.] he took hym up wiþ his owne hond, and seide, "Moche*. [Myche, β.] harme þou hast i-doo, now reste, þow schalt entre into Rome and passe þe see, and þou schalt regne nyne*. [nyne] bote nyȝen, γ.] [ȝer]*. [From γ.];" and after þat day he was [the]*. [From Cx.] lasse cruel.*. [cruwel, β.] And at þe laste Narses patricius was i-sende of Augustus, and overcome hym in [a]*. [From α., β., and γ., not Cx.] bataille. Tho was Cassiodorus in his floures, þat was somtyme kyng Theodorus his chaunceler,*. [chaunsceler, γ.] and after þat consul, and þanne senatour and monk at Rome at þe laste. Among his oþer greet travailles, he expowned clerliche þe sawter. Kin|ricus*. [Henricus, Cx.] kyng of West Saxon deyde, and his sone Ceaulinus was kyng after hym þre and þritty ȝere; he droof þe Britouns out of þe citees of Gloucestre, [of Surcetre,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and of Baþe, into þe hilles and mountaynes and wildernesse of Wales. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. But at þe laste he was i-hated of Page  351, vol.5 Angles and of Britouns, and his oost*. [host, γ.] was i-bete adoun, and he hymself i-chased and exciled, and deide exciled. Also in his*. [his] the, Cx.] firste ȝere, Elle, Iffus his sone, þe twelf*. [twelfþe, β.; twellifth, Cx.] after Woden, bygan to regne, and regned [nyȝ]*. [From α.; neygh, Cx.] þritty ȝere in þe province of Deyra; to þe name of hym þe grete Gregorie, whanne he sigh Englisch children to sellynge*. [sillinge, β.; whanne a syȝ Eng|lysch childron to sullynge, γ.] at Rome,*. [In his tyme seynt Gregory sawe Englysshe children to selle at Rome, and acorded . . ., Cx.] acordede, and seide, "Alleluia moste be songe þere*. [þare, γ.] [fro whens these children come."]*. [From Cx.]Trevisa. Loke pleynliche of þe province of Deyra in þe firste book, capitulo 51o.*. [Trevisa . . . 51o] om. β. and Cx.] ℞. But þe grace of byleve come nouȝt to kyng Elle, but to his sone kyng Edwynus. [In þe mene tyme Ida his eldeste sone, Adda, regnede sevene ȝere in Brenicia, and Claspa fyve ȝer].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] In þe mene tyme,*. [In the mene tyme] om. β., γ., and Cx.] Theodowoldus*. [Theodwulfus, β. Theodwolfus, γ. and Cx.] oon ȝeer, and Freothulphus*. [Freodulphus, Cx.] sevene ȝere, ȝit while*. [while] om. Cx.] Elle was on lyve; and his sone Edwynus, a childe of þre ȝere olde, was i-chased of*. [and, α. and Cx.] Ethel|ricus. Ida his sone regnede fyve ȝere in boþe provinces of Deyra and of Brenicia. [Paulus, libro primo, in fine.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Aboute þat tyme, while kyng Audoenus regnede uppon*. [oppon, γ.] þe Page  353, vol.5 Longobardes þat wonede in Pannonia, was a stronge bataille bytwene þe Gespides*. [Geppides, γ., et infra.] and þe Longobardes. In þat bataille Albuynus, Audoenus his sone, slouȝ þe kynges sone of þe Gespides, and so þe Gespides were to schad*. [sched, α.; schend, γ.] and to sparpled;*. [sparbled, α.; sparpled and de|parted, Cx.] þerfore þe Longobardes prayed here kyng Audoe|nus to make a solempne greet feeste to his sone Albuinus.*. [Albuynus, γ.] Þe kyng answered and seide, þat it was nouȝt þe manere among hem þat þe*. [þe] om. γ.] kynges sone schulde sitte at þe feste even wiþ his fader*. [vader, γ., et infra.] þe kyng, but if he hadde toforehonde i-take armure of a kyng of a straunge nacioun. Albuinus herde þis, and took wiþ hym fourty*. [vourty, γ.] ȝongelynges i-chose, and went boldeliche to þe kyng of Gespides, whos sone he hadde i-slawe in bataille, and axede armure of hym; þere he was goodliche*. [godliche, γ.] underfonge,*. [resseyved, Cx.] and i-sette to þe mete by þe kyng in þe kynges sone stede*. [place, Cx.] þat he hadde i-slawe.*. [in . . . slawe] om. α. These words are repeated in the MS.] Þe kyng byhelde*. [byhuld, γ.] þe man and þe place, and siched*. [sychede fol sore, γ.; syghed, Cx.] sore,*. [sore] ful sore, β.] and seide, "Þe place is leef*. [lef, β. and γ.] to me, but þe person þat sitteþ þerynne is grevous for to see." Þanne þe kynges oþer sone þat was ȝit onlyve Page  355, vol.5 gan to tarry*. [terre, β. and Cx.] and to*. [to] om. γ.] angre þe Longobardes wiþ dispitous*. [desputous, γ.] wordes, and seide to hym þat so scornede hem,*. [to . . . hem] om. α. and Cx.] þat þey were liche*. [ylyche, γ.] to mares wiþ white legges up to þe þiȝes, for þat tyme þe Longobardes usede strapeles*. [straples, β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ brode laces doun to þe sparlyver.*. [sparlyvor, γ.; sparlyme, Cx.] Þanne oon of þe Longobardes seide to hym þat so scornede hem, "Go in to þe feelde*. [veld, γ.] þere thy broþer bones be to sched,*. [beþ ysched, β.; buþ ysched, γ.; where thy broder was slayne, Cx.] and þere þou myȝte assaye how strongliche þese mares konneþ*. [strongly thyse mares conne, Cx.] kyke."*. [kunneþ kike, β.] Þo þe Gespides arrayed hem to wepone,*. [wepen, β. and Cx.] and þe Longobardes sette honde on þe hultes*. [hiltes, Cx.] of here owne swerdes; but þe kyng leep over þe bord, and cesede*. [ceesside, β.; sessyd, Cx.] þe strif, and seide, "It is nouȝt an honest victorie to slee a gest*. [sle a gist, β.; gyst, γ.] in þe hostrye;"*. [a ghest in his hostelrye, Cx.] and he ȝaf his sones armure þat was i-slawe to hym þat hadde i-slawe hym, and sente hym wiþ pees to his fadir aȝen. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Ethelbertus*. [Ethelbrutus, β., et infra.] was Ermenricus*. [Ermericus, β. bis.; Ermericus, Cx., bis.] his sone, þe whiche Ermen|ricus*. [Ermericus, β. bis.; Ermericus, Cx., bis.] was Engistus his sones*. [sone, α. and γ.] nevew. Þis Ethelbertus regnede among*. [among] om. α.; over, β. and Cx.] Kentisshe men fyfe and fifty*. [vyve and vyfty, γ.] ȝere, [so seiþ Beda, but anoþer cronike seiþ þre and fifty ȝere].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] In his Page  357, vol.5 ȝowþe*. [In his yongthe, Cx.] he was scorned and bismer*. [scorn and busmer, α. and γ.; scorn and bysmer, Cx.] to kynges þat wonede nyh*. [neiȝ, β., semper; dwellyd nygh, Cx.] hym, for he was overcome in double batayle, and savede unneþe his owne boundes. But whanne he was eldere*. [elþere, α.] he brouȝte alle þe kynges þat were nyh hym under his ȝok, out take þe kynges of Norþhumberlond. Þanne he weddede a Frensche womman þat heet Berta, and by ensample of oon Letardus, a bisshop þat come wiþ Berta, he was moche*. [myche, β., semper.] excited forto leve and forsake his wilde maneres. Atte laste he herde*. [hurde, γ.] Seint Austyn preche þe loore of holy fadres, and forsook*. [vorsok, γ.] his cursed*. [curside, β.] lawes, and made good lawes in þe longage of þe lond, in þe whiche*. [woche, α.] lawes he byheet*. [promysed, Cx.] mede to good men, and peynes to evel men and wikked,*. [wicked, β.] and deide þe ȝere after he hadde i-fonge*. [yvonge, γ.] þe fey*. [receyved the feyth, Cx.] of holy chirche oon and twenty. Martinus. After Pelagius þe þridde Iohn was pope þrittene ȝere. Þet tyme Precianus þe gramarion,*. [gramaryen, Cx.] of Cesarea, was in his floures at Constantinnoble; he made noble bookes nouȝt onliche*. [not only, Cx.] of gramer,*. [gramere, β.] but also he discrevede al þe worlde wyde*. [wyde] om. Cx.] in a book þat he*. [he] om. γ.] cleped Cosmographia; of Page  359, vol.5 hym it is i-seide, as Hugucio, capitulo edo es*. [edes, Cx.] telleþ, þat he bycome apostata, and forsook þe fey for love of his*. [his] om. γ.] dis|ciple Iulianus. Also þat tyme oon Arator, a subdecon*. [sudeken, β.; subdedene, Cx.] of Rome, and a wonder poet, made þe book Actus Apostolorum al in vers*. [versus, β.; versis, Cx.] of sixe feet.*. [veet, γ.] And Seint Brendan, an*. [an] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] abbot of Irlond, was in his floures þat tyme; of hym beeþ many wordes*. [wondres, α., β., and Cx.] i-rad,*. [wordes irad] wondres of Yrlond, γ., evidently by an omission of the scribe, who has left out all the rest of the sentence.] and specialliche of his purgatorie, þat is in þe west side of Irlond. And also þat tyme Seint Steven his bones were i-brouȝte to Rome, and i-leide by Seint Laurence in þe same place; þerof spekeþ*. [speken, Cx.] cronikes of Rome in*. [and, α. and Cx.] legendis of holy seintes, and telleþ*. [telle, Cx.] þat whanne Seint Stevene his bones were þider i-brouȝt, Seynt Laurence his body tor|nede*. [boones tourned, Cx.] hym*. [hymself, γ.] on his side, and hadde i-leye*. [leyn, Cx.] upriȝt*. [yley opryȝt, γ.] alwey to forhonde, but þo he torned hym so for to ȝeve place*. [plas, γ., ut semper.] and stede to his felawe*. [seynt, add. Cx.] Stevene. Iustinianus.*. [Justinus, α.]