Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum tricesimum secundum.

THE secounde Lowys, as som men telleþ,*. [telle, Cx.] regnede fiftene*. [vyftene, γ.] ȝere, but Marcius*. [Marcus, Cx.] telleþ þat he*. [he] a, γ.] regnede two and twenty ȝere, and was i-crowned of Sergius þe pope; and he hadde tweie*. [twy, γ.] sones, Lowys kyng of Norikes, þat beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] Normans, and Charles þe ȝonger þat heet*. [hett, β.; ȝunger þat hyȝt, γ.] Grossus also. Þis Charles Page  331, vol.6 also*. [also] om. β.] was i-tormented of a fend*. [vend, γ.] þre dayes in presence of his fader, and knowleched*. [knewlechede, γ.] þat he was so i-tormented for he hadde conspired aȝenst his fader. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. In þis Lowys his tyme Iohn*. [Ioon, β.] Scot com into Fraunce, and translated Denys*. [Denes, γ.] his bookes out of Grew*. [Grue, β. and Cx.; Gru, γ.] into Latyn at þe prayere of kyng Charles, and made þe book*. [bok, γ., bis.] Perifisioun,*. [Perifision, β. and γ.; Perefi|sion, Cx.] þat is þe book of þe departynge of Kynde. But þerafter kyng Aluredus sente for hym for he schulde*. [vor a scholde, γ.] come into Engelond, and so he dede,*. [dide, β.; a dude, γ.] and tauȝte children at Malmesbury, þe whiche*. [woche, γ.] children stiked*. [stykked, Cx.] hym to dethe wiþ here poyntelles.*. [poyntels, Cx.] Þat ȝere seynt Edmond bygan to regne over þe Est Angles, but he was i-slawe in þe fourtenþe*. [fourteþe, α.; vourteþe,.] ȝere. Ethelwulfus kyng of West Saxons deide þe þrittenþe day of Ianyver, and was i-buried at Wynchestre. After hym his eldest sone Ethel|waldus regnede but oon*. [o, γ.] ȝere, and þat was*. [is, α., β., and Cx.; ys, γ.] no wonder, for whanne his fadir was deed he wedded his owne stepdame, aȝenst þe lawe and usage of holy chirche, and he was i-buried at Schirborne.*. [Schirburn, β.; Schyreburn, γ.; Shirburn, Cx.]Marcianus. After pope Leo, Iohn*. [Ioon, β., bis; Iohan, Cx., bis.] Englisshe Page  333, vol.6 was pope two ȝere and fyve*. [vyf, γ.] monþes: me seiþ þat Iohn Englisshe*. [Englisch, β. bis.] [sche]*. [From α. (not in β).] was a womman, and was in childehode*. [yongthe, Cx.] i-lad wiþ here leman in manis cloþinge to Athene,*. [Atthene, Cx.] and lernede*. [luernede, γ.] þre*. [þar, γ.; there, Cx.] dyvers science,*. [scyens, γ.] so þat þerafter sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] come to Rome, and hadde þere greet men to scolers, and radde*. [rad, β.; redde, Cx.] þre ȝere. Þanne he*. [he] a, γ.; heo, β.; she, Cx.] was i-chose pope*. [pope] om. Cx.] by favoure of all men, and here*. [hir, β.] lemman brouȝte here wiþ childe; bote for sche*. [heo, γ. tris.] knewe nouȝt here tyme whanne sche*. [hue, γ., bis.] schulde have childe, as sche wente from Seint Peter*. [Peter's, Cx.] to þe chirche of Seint Iohn*. [Ioon, β.] þe Lateran, sche gan to travaille of childe, and hadde childe bytwene Colloseum*. [Collosen, Cx. bis.] and Seint Clement. Trevisa. Colloseum was þe place of þe ymages of provinces and of londes; loke more þerof*. [loke more þerof] as it is said, Cx.] in þe firste book, capitulo 24o. Þanne it folweþ in þe story, as*. [as] And, β.] me seiþ,*. [as me seiþ] om. Cx.] þat sche was afterward i-buried þere. And for þe pope turneþ*. [torned, Cx.] þere out of þat wey, me*. [men, β.] troweþ þat*. [me troweþ þat] om. α.] it is for hate of þat wonder myshap. Þis pope is nouȝt i-rekened in þe Page  335, vol.6 book*. [bok, γ.] of poopes for he*. [α, γ.] was of wommen kynde,*. [kunde, γ.] þat schulde nouȝt be pope.*. [for she was a woman, and ought not to be pope, Cx., who adds: she was born at Magounce in Al|mayn upon the Ryn.] Aboute þat tyme þe kyng of Bulgares and his men tornede to [Cristes fey and bileve, and was so perfit, þat he bitoke þe kyngdom to his eldest sone, and toke hym silf þe abyt of monk; but whanne his sone turned to mametrie, he turned to]*. [From β. and Cx. Crist hys fey and byleve, and was so perfyt þat a bytouk his kyngdom to hys eldeste sone, and touk hym sylf þe abyt of monk, bote whanne hys sone tornde to mametrye, he tornde to, &c., γ.] chilvalrye aȝe, and pursewed*. [puysewyde, γ.] his son aȝen,*. [aȝe his sone, α.; aȝen, om. γ.] and took hym, and put out boþe his eyȝen,*. [yen, γ.] [and leide hym in prisoun and closede hym þere, and made his ȝonger sone kyng, and took þe holy abyte aȝen].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] After Ethelwaldus*. [Ethelbaldus, α. and γ.] his broþer Ethelbertus was kyng of West Saxons fyve ȝere. In his tyme a greet oost of Danes destroyede*. [destried, β.] Wynchestre, and were i-slawe of þe kynges dukes*. [er, β.] or þey myȝte come*. [retorne, Cx.] to here schippes. After Iohn,*. [Ioon, β.; Iohan, Cx., passim.] þe þridde*. [vurde, γ.] Benet was pope foure ȝere. Seynt Swythyn bisshop of Wynchestre deide, and Dun|bertus was bisshop after hym: of hem tweyne beeþ wondres Page  337, vol.6 i-rad.*. [yredde, Cx.] After Benet, þe firste Nicol*. [Nichol, β.] was pope eiȝte ȝere, he was i-likned to the grete Gregorie, for in his tyme Cirillus*. [Cyrillus, Cx.] þe apostel of Sclaves brouȝt seint Clement his body out of Cersona to Rome, and leide it in Seint Clement his cherche, and deide þere after, and dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] many myracles [þar].*. [From γ.] Þat ȝere Lowys kyng of Fraunce wolde leve*. [leeve, β.] his riȝtful*. [ryȝtfol, γ.] wif for his lemman Waldrada, þat he hadde to moche*. [myche, β.] i-loved in his ȝouþe in his fader hous. Þanne pope Nichol*. [Nychol, Cx., et supra.] at þe instaunce*. [instans, γ.] of þe queene breþeren, þat pleyned to hym of þat dede, sente his tresorer Arsenius into Fraunce, and he made a counsaille of bisshoppes,*. [byscopes, γ.] and compelled the kyng to take his wif aȝe, and made hym swere uppon a*. [þe, α. and Cx.] book*. [swerye oppon þe bok, γ.] þat he schulde nevere þat oþer womman take. Bote whanne þe legat of Rome was agoo þe kyng putte*. [potte, γ.] awey þe queene, and took aȝen*. [touk aȝe, γ.] Wal|drada; þerfore in pleyn*. [playne, Cx.] consistorie þe pope cursede*. [corsede, γ.] Wal|drada and alle þat comuned*. [comuned] covinede, γ.; com|ende, Cx.] wiþ here. ℞. Butte Marre*. [Mare, β.; Bote Mare, γ.; Marianus, Cx.]Page  339, vol.6 telleþ us*. [us] om. β. and Cx.] þis of Lotharius, and nouȝt of Lowes. Etheldredus, þe þridde broþer of burþe,*. [birþe, β.] was kyng of West Saxons after his tweye breþeren eiȝte ȝere. In his firste ȝere a greet navey of Danes londede*. [londide, β.] in Est Engelond,*. [Anglond, γ.] and lay þere. Þerafter at ȝork þey were compelled to defende hem self;*. [ham sylf, γ.] for whanne þe Norþhombres hadde i-doo awey here kyng Osbrucus, as þe devel hem radde,*. [rad, β.] and i-made a tyraunt kyng þat heet*. [hyȝte, γ.] Ella, at þe laste for drede of enemyes þey were somdel i-ceesed,*. [ysesed, γ.; ceeced, Cx.] and wente wiþ here*. [theyr, Cx.] eiþer kyng to fiȝte wiþ*. [ayenst, Cx.] þe Danes, and com|pelled*. [compellide, β.] hem to flee*. [vle to, γ.] [to]*. [From β. and Cx.] þe citee of ȝork, þat was not ful*. [well, add. Cx.] i-walled;*. [ful wel walled, β.; was þo noȝt fol wel ywalled, γ.] þanne þe Norþhombres disarayede hem self, and wente*. [werrede, α. and γ.; werride, β.] unwiseliche, and were i-bete a doun, som in oon*. [oon] o, β.] place*. [plas, γ.] and som in anoþer, and here kynges were y-slawe, so þat þey þat myȝte askape made pees*. [pes, γ.] wiþ þe Danes, and so faillede*. [faylide, β.] þe kynges of Norþhombres. Þat ȝere þe Danes lefte Norþhomberlond, and com into the*. [the] om. Cx.] kyngdom of Mercia, and Page  341, vol.6 dwellede al a ȝere at Snotyngham, þat now hatte Notyngham;*. [Nothyngham, Cx.] þat*. [þanne, α. and β.; there, Cx.] Burdredus kyng of Mercye*. [Mercia, α.] and þe kyng of West Saxons come aȝenst hem. Bote þe Danes were wiþ ynne þe strengþe*. [stryngþe, γ.] of þe toure, and wolde ȝeve no batayle,*. [batayl, γ.] and Eng|lisshe men myȝte nouȝt spede to breke þe wal; þanne pees was i-made, and þe kynges tornede*. [turneden, β.] hoom*. [tornde hom, γ.] aȝe, and þe Danes went aȝen to ȝork, and dwellede þere all a ȝere. After Nichol, þe secounde Adrianus*. [secunde Adrian,] was pope two ȝere: to hym þe secounde kyng Lowys*. [Lowys kyng, α. and β.] of Fraunce, þat was somtyme acorsed of þe pope Nichol, wrot lettres, and prayed hym þat he wolde fonge*. [a wolde vonge, γ.] hym wiþ grace. Þe pope wroot to hym aȝen in þis manere: "ȝif þou knowest thy self [gulteles,*. [giltless, β.] com to Rome; and "ȝif þou knowest þyself]*. [From α., β., and γ.] gilty,*. [gulty, γ.] make þe redy to doo worþy penaunce." Þanne þe kyng com, and þe pope axede of hym ȝif he hadde i-holde his oth and pope Nichol his hestes. Þe kyng and his fautoures seide "ȝis al at þe fulle."*. [ȝus al atte folle, γ.] "Þanne," quoþ the pope, "ȝe moste commune*. [come, β. and Cx.] wiþ us þat ȝe be i-oned*. [yooned, β.; y-oned, γ.; unyed Cx.] to Crist his Page  343, vol.6 lymes, from þe whiche*. [vram þe woche, γ.] ȝe were kutte*. [kitt, β.] and departed." And whanne the masse was i-doo he houselede*. [hoslede, γ.; housled, Cx.] hem, and seide: "ȝif ȝe beeþ gultles þis connynge*. [comynyng, β.; comyng, Cx.] moot*. [mot, β.; comunynge mote, γ.] be to ȝow remis|sioun and forȝevenesse, and elles [dampnacioun]."*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þanne it happede þat noon of hem alle lyvede oon*. [over, α., β., γ., and Cx.] ȝere. But þe kyng was anon i-take wiþ a siknesse,*. [sekenes, Cx.] and deide in þe citee Placencia. Þerafter fel*. [vul, γ.] a greet pestilence*. [pestylens, γ.] on þe peple. Also þat ȝere þe Danes destroyed*. [distriede, β.] þe citee Alcluit, and wente out of Norþhomberlond to Est Anglond, and lay al a ȝere at Tet|forde.*. [Tedford, β.] Þat ȝere Hingar*. [Hinguar, β. and γ.; Hungar, Cx.] and Hubba, tweie Danes, slouȝ seint Edmond þe kyng at Egbesdoun.*. [Eglysdoun, α. and β.; Egglis|doun, γ.; Eglyston, Cx.]Trevisa.*. [Trevisa . . . capitulo 51o.] om. β. and Cx.] Est Ang|lond conteyneþ Norþfolk and Souþfolk; loke more þerof in þe firste book, capitulo 51o.*. [Trevisa . . . capitulo 51o.] om. β. and Cx.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Seynt Edmond his heed*. [hed, β., bis.] lay i-hidde*. [hed lay yhud, γ.] among busshes,*. [bosches, γ.] and spak to hem þat souȝt hym in þe contray*. [countrey, Cx.] longage, and seide, "Heere, heere, heere."*. [here, β., tris; her, γ., tris.] Þere a wolfe was i-founde þat Page  345, vol.6 byclipped the kynges heed, and folowede*. [folewide, β.] myldeliche the men þat were i-come.*. [that cam theder, Cx.]Willelmus de Regibus, et de Pontifi|cibus, libro 2o. After þe sleynge of þe kynges*. [kyng his, α.] broþer Ed|woldus hatede þe likynge of þe world,*. [worl, γ., et infra.] for hard fortune took hym and his broþer, and levede*. [lyvede, Cx.] an ermytes lyf onliche by brede and water, at the abbay of Cerne*. [Cern, Cx.] in Dorsete, by þe cleer welle þat seynt Austyn, by his prayers, made springe somtyme for to baptise*. [cristen, Cx.] þe people*. [folle þe peple, β.; vor to volle þe pupel, γ.] þat tornede to Cristene byleve. Hit falliþ ful*. [valleþ vol, γ.] ofte þat a gentil herte, i-warned by harde [happes]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and meschief*. [meschef, β.] of þis world, torneþ þe more besiliche to God, þat can nouȝt begile noþer be bygiled. Þe abbay þat was þere i-bulded*. [buld, α.; bylde, β. and Cx.] was afterward riche inow,*. [ynowȝ, β.; ynough, Cx.] ȝif þey*. [ȝef hy, γ.] þat schulde governe it dele*. [delede, α.; deled, β. and Cx.] it to Goddes servauntes, and nouȝt to glotouns. Bote in oure tyme covetise and pride*. [prude, γ.] haþ so i-chaunged*. [chaungide, β.] al þing in Engelond, þat þinges þat were i-ȝeve [vrelyche]*. [From γ.] to abbayes in olde tyme beeþ now more i-wasted*. [wastet, γ.] in glotenye and outrage of honures*. [ouners, α. and γ.; owneres, β.; owners, Cx.] þanne in Page  347, vol.6 sustenaunce*. [sustenans, γ.] and help of nedy men and of gestes.*. [gystes, α. and γ.; ghestes, Cx.] But cer|teynliche*. [certaynly, Cx.] þe ȝevers schal not*. [nouȝt, β.] lese here mede,*. [myde, γ.] for here wille and here entent is i-weye*. [weyed, β. and Cx.] in Goddes balaunce.*. [balauns, γ.]