Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum tricesimum.

AFFTER Kenelin,*. [Kenelm, γ. and Cx.] his eeme*. [em, α.; eem, β.; eme, γ.] in his fader side Colwulfus regnede in Mercia, bote after two ȝere Beornulphus þe tiraunt put*. [pot, γ.] hym out, and regnede in his stede two ȝere. He was in a tyme overcome at Elyngdoun,*. [Elyndoun, β.; Elyndon, γ. and Cx.] of Egbertus kyng of West Saxons, as it is i-seide to forehonde.*. [vorhond, γ.] He meoved*. [mevyd, Cx.] [to]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] a jornay*. [jorney, β.; journey, Cx.] aȝenst þe Est Angles þat hadde i-holpe Egbertus, and was i-slawe of hem;*. [ham, γ.] his sucessour and his nygh*. [neiȝ, β.; neigh, Cx.] kynnes|man*. [nyȝ kynhysman, γ., et infra.] Ludecan wolde awreke*. [aveng, Cx.] his deth, and fauȝte*. [voȝt, γ.] aȝenst þe Est Angles, and was i-slawe of hem also, and þre dukes of his. After hym his nyh*. [neiȝ, β.; neyh, Cx.] kynnesman Wilganus*. [Viglanus, α.; Wiglanus, β. and γ.; Wyglanus, Cx.] regnede þrittene ȝere, bote Egbertus destourbede hym long tyme. After Page  311, vol.6 Paschal, þe fourþe*. [vurde, γ., et infra.] Eugenius was pope foure*. [voure, γ.] ȝere. [He sente seint Sebastyan his bones to Hyldewynus, abbot of Seynt Denys. After Eugenius, Valentinus was pope foure ȝere.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] In his tyme þe childe Swythyn was i-bore at Wynchestre, þat dede myracles þer after Hemstan his deþ. After Valentinus, þe fourþe Gregory*. [Gregroy, Cx.] was pope þrittene*. [thyrten, Cx.] ȝere. Giraldus, distinctio prima, capitulo 17o. In þis*. [þes, γ.] popes tyme Thodulphus*. [Theodulphus, β., γ., and Cx.] was in his floures, þat was first abbot of Floria,*. [Floriace, α. and β.; Floryace, Cx.] and þanne bisshop of Aurelians:*. [Orleans, Cx.] he was exciled and was in þe citee of Angeo*. [Angeoi, γ.] by assent of kyng Lowys, whanne his enemyes hadde falseliche acused hym; þanne it happede in a Palme Sonday þat þe kyng passed þerforþ, and he made and song vers*. [þe vers, β.; the verse, Cx.] þat bygonne*. [bigan, β.; bygynneth, Cx.] in þis manere: "Gloria, laus tibi sit," and so forþ. By þe ditee and not*. [noote, β.; note, Cx.] of þe vers þe kyng was i-meoved, and delivered hym, and brouȝt hym to his raþer grace. Þat tyme Rabanus was in his floures, monk and abbot of Mildens*. [Meldeus, β.; Meldens, γ. and Cx.] in Germania, a greet*. [gret, γ. (tris).] poet and a greet clerk of dyvynyte: he*. [he . . . divinite] om. Cx.] made a book,*. [bok, γ.]Page  313, vol.6 "De naturis rerum," and anoþer, "De laude crucis," i-hiȝte in metre wiþ dyvers manere of faire spekynge; his disciple was Strabus, a greet expositour in divinite.*. [See note 16, page 311.] Þat ȝere þe Danes spoylede þe ilond of Shiphey*. [Schipeigh, α.; Scipeye, β.; Scypeigh, γ.; Shepeye, Cx.] beside Kent, þerfore kyng Egbertus fauȝte*. [voȝt, γ.] aȝenst hym at Carru,*. [Carrun, α. and β.; Carrū,.; Carrum, Cx.] and was i-chased. At Tullens*. [Tuleus, β.; Tulens, γ.; To|louse, Cx.] a wenche*. [weynche, γ.; damoysel, Cx.] of twelve ȝere olde fenge*. [vyng, γ.] Goddes*. [our Lordes, Cx.] body an*. [on, β.] Ester day, and faste*. [vaste, γ.] afterward sixe monþes con|tinualliche to brede and watir,*. [to water, β.] and abstenence*. [absteyned, β.] þerafter þre ȝere*. [ȝere] om. β.] from all manere mete and drynke, and tornede aȝen at þe laste to comyn lyvynge. Also þat tyme som mysdoers of þe Romayns sente to þe Sowdan*. [Souden, γ.] of Babilonia*. [Babiloyn, β.; Babylon, Cx.] þat he schulde come and be lorde of Italy; þanne he come with greet multitude and strengþe, and spoiled Rome, and made a stable of Seynt Petres chirche, and destroyede*. [distried, β.; destruyede, γ.] Tuscia and Sicilia.*. [Secilia, Cx.] At the laste, at þe prayer and requirynge of pope Gregory, Gy of Marchia wiþ his Longobardes, and Lowys wiþ his Galles, chasede him*. [hem, β.; ham, γ.] out of þat*. [þat] þo, Cx.] londes and contrayes. And þey*. [hy, γ.]Page  315, vol.6 seillede toward Affrica, and were a-dreynt*. [drowned, Cx.] wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] everychone. Þat ȝere deyde Helmstan bisshop of Wynchestre, and seynt Swythyne was bisshop after hym. Þe Danes, wiþ greet navey, londede in a place þat [hatte]*. [From α. and β.; called, Cx.] Crual*. [Cural, α., β., γ., and Cx.] among þe West Britouns, and made confetheracie*. [confederacy, β., γ.; confedera|cyon, Cx.] wiþ þe Britouns, and wente in fere,*. [in fere] yfere, β.; yvere, γ.; to|gyder, Cx.] and assaillede kyng Egbertus his londes. [Bote hy were overcome at Hengistdoun.]*. [From γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Egbertus kyng of West Saxons deide, and his sone Athulphus, þat heet*. [het, β.] Ethelwulfus, regned after hym two and twenty ȝere. Þis was somtyme i-take to norschynge*. [norischyng, β.] and*. [to, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Helmstan bisshop of Wynchestre, and made hym subdecon.*. [sudekene, β.; sudecon, γ.; sub|deken, Cx.] Bote at the laste, by graunte of Leo þe pope he was i-made kyng, and hadde a wyf Osburga, þat was his owne botelere*. [butelers, β.; bottiller, γ.] his douȝter, and gat on here þre noble sones, þat regnede after þe fader everiche in his tyme. He took wiþ hym the ȝong|este of his sones, Alrudes,*. [Aluredus, β. and Cx.] and wente to Rome, and dwelled þere oon*. [o, γ.] ȝere, and repairelede*. [reparayled, β.; reparaylde, γ.] þere nobelliche þe scole Page  317, vol.6 of Saxons þat was, as me seiþ, first i-ordeyned by kyng Offa; bote it was i-brend þe laste ȝere tofore honde. Also he sigh*. [syȝ, β.] þre*. [þere, α., β., and Cx.; þar, γ.] outlawes and men þat deden*. [dede, α.; dide, β. and Cx.; dude, γ.] open penaunce*. [penauns, γ. (tris).] do here penaunce in iren*. [yre, γ.] i-bounde. Þanne he purchasede of þe pope þat Englisshe men schulde nevere after þat tyme, out of here owne contray, do penaunce in bondes. Me seiþ þat þerfore it was þat he graunted of everich hous of his kyngdom*. [of his royame, Cx.] everich ȝere a peny to Seynt Peter, and after þat tyme he sente everiche ȝere þre hondred mark*. [marc, Cx.] to Rome: an hondred to Seynt Peter his liȝt, an hondred to Seynt Poules*. [Paulus, Cx.] liȝt, and an hondred to þe pope. Also he delyvered and quitte*. [quyte, γ.] alle þe cherches of his kyngdom*. [royamme, Cx.] of alle manere kynges tribute, and of fredom*. [of fredom] offrede, α.; offred, β. and Cx.; and offerde, γ.] to God þe tenþe*. [teþe, γ.] deel of his catel. In his comynge aȝen from Rome, in þe twentiþe ȝere of his kyngdom, he spousede Iuditha þe douȝter of Charles þe ballede, and brouȝte*. [broȝt, γ.] here*. [hir, β., bis.] wiþ hym in to Engelond; and for he sette*. [vor a set, γ.] here in trone beside*. [biside, β.] hym aȝenst þe manere of þe kyngdom of West Saxons, his eldest sone roos*. [ros,] aȝenst hym, and meny oþer lordes, so þat a greet Page  319, vol.6 deel of þe kyngdom was i-take to his eldest sone; but ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] unneþe þe strif was i-cesed.*. [ceesed, β.; ceced, Cx.] For among hem it was i-used þat þe queene schulde nouȝt have suche*. [sich, β.] worschippe, and þat for wrethe*. [wreþþe, γ.] of Ethelburga, kyng Offa his douȝter, þat hadde i-poysoned here housbonde Brightricus. ℞. Also þis*. [þis] om. Cx.; þes, γ.] for his sone Aluredus, þat he loved moche,*. [þat . . . moche] om. Cx.] hadde an evel incurable, he sent hym*. [whom he sent, Cx.] into Irlond to be i-heded*. [heeled, β.] of seynt Modwenna, þo*. [þat, β. and γ.] wonede þoo þere. And þerfore whanne þe cherche of Modwenna was destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] in Irlond sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] com into Engelond, and þe kyng ȝaf here*. [hir, β.] lond for to bulde tweie abbayes of maydons. Oon [in]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Arderne at Polisworth,*. [Poliswortham, α.; Polliswur|tham, β. and γ. In the MS. there seems to have been written Polis|wortham, but the two final letters have been scratched out. Cx. has Pollyswortham.] þat ȝit dureþ; þere Ositha and Athea þe maydons dwellede*. [dwellide, β., bis.] wiþ seint Edithe, kyng Athulphus suster.*. [soster, γ.] But Modwenna dwellede*. [dwellide, β., bis.] somwhat of tyme in þe oþer abbay at Streneshale; þennes sche*. [heo, β., tris; hue, γ., tris.] wente þreis to Rome, and sche*. [heo, β., tris; hue, γ., tris.] deide at þe laste Page  321, vol.6 in þe ilond Andreisye,*. [Andreseye, β. and Cx.; An|dresey, γ.] besides Burtoun, after þat sche was closed sevene ȝere. Þat ȝere þe Danes slowȝ meny men in Lyndeseie*. [Lyndesaye, Cx.] in Est Engelond and in Kent. Þat ȝere deide Wyglaf kyng of Mercia, þe ȝere of his kyngdom þrittene, and was i-buried at Rependoun.*. [Repyndon, Cx.] He hadde i-gete*. [goten, Cx., bis.] Wygmundus, and Wygmundus hadde i-gete Wistan þe martir; but after Wiglaf Bertuphus*. [Bertulfus, β.; Bertulphus, γ.] was kyng over Mercia twelve ȝere: his sone Bertsericus*. [Bertsercus, γ.] slouȝ seint Wistan cruelliche.*. [cruelych, γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o.