Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

OFFA deide, kyng of Mercia, his son Eserkus*. [Egsercus, α., β., γ., and Cx.] regnede after hym oon ȝere, and after hym a mylde man, Kenulphus, Cuthbert his sone, was kyng; he gat on his wif queene Alfritha Quen|drida, Burgenilda, and Seynt Kenelyn.*. [Kenelm, β. and γ. (semper); Kenelme, Cx.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 1o in fine. Þis Kenulphus was Penda his nevew in þe fifte degree,*. [gree, α.; gre, γ.] and was a greet man; his virtues passed*. [passide, β.] his fame; at Page  283, vol.6 home he was devoute and mylde; in batayle he was stalworþ,*. [stronge, Cx.] and ofte hadde þe victorie. After Offa he took*. [touk, γ.] wreþe*. [wrath, Cx.] aȝenst Kentische men, and werrede strongliche in here lond, and took here kyng Egbert, þat heet Pern*. [Pren, α., β., and γ.] by his surname, and lad hym wiþ hym i-bounde into Mercia. But sone after he was i-mylded by mercy of manhede in þe buldynge in*. [in] of, Cx.] þe cherche of Wyn|checombe þat he bulde. At þe auȝter he ȝaf þe kyng fredom*. [vredom, γ.] þat was prisoner. Þere were present þrittene bisshoppes and ten dukes; for þat dede al þe cherche sownede for joye, and þe street grucched,*. [stret grochede, γ.; grutched, Cx.] cryde, and made noyse, stertynge*. [startyng, β.] aboute. Also þis restored aȝe þe dignite of primat to Athelardus bisshop of Canturbury, and deyde at þe laste after þe ȝere of his kyngdom foure and twenty, and was i-buried at Wynche|combe, and lefte Kenelme after hym to be his eyre.*. [heyr, γ. and Cx.] Þat tyme at Constantynnoble þe sonne wiþdrowȝ*. [withdrewe, Cx.] his light seventene dayes, and was nouȝt i-seie,*. [seen, β.] so þat meny men trowede þat þat was byfalle for þe blyndynge*. [blendyng, β.; blendynge, Cx.] and puttynge out of kyng Constantyn his eiȝen.*. [yen, γ.]Alfridus. Also þat ȝere, þat was þe tenþe ȝere of Brithricus,*. [Brihtricus, β.] were fury*. [vury, γ.; fyry, Cx.] dragoune i-seie*. [fuyry dragons seen, β.] in Page  285, vol.6 Engelond fleynge*. [vleyng, γ.] by the ayer;*. [eyr, β.] after þat signe com tweie pestilens,*. [pestilences, β.] strong honger, and þe werre of þe*. [þe] om. β.] Danes þat as|saillede*. [assoylede, γ.] first Norþhumberlond and þanne Lyndeseie. But at þat tyme þe Danes were overcome, and fliȝ*. [vlye, γ.] to here schippes. After Adrianus þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] Leo was pope twenty ȝere. In a tyme þis wente to Seynt Peter in a Seint Markes*. [Marcus, β. and Cx.] day, wiþ þe letayne, and was i-take in, [and]*. [From β.] his eyȝen*. [yen, α.] i-put*. [yene ypot, γ.] out, and his tonge i-kut*. [kitt, β.] of. But God by myracle restored [hym]*. [From β. and Cx.] his sight and his speche, so þat he spak wiþ oute lettynge.*. [tonge, α., β., and Cx.] Afterward he wente to Charles into Fraunce, and com wiþ hym aȝen to Rome; [þanne]*. [From β.; Thenne, Cx.] wreche was i-take of þe pope his enemyes, and þe pope purged*. [purgide, β.] hym of þat me bare hym on honde; and þo eft he crowned Charles, and confermed hym þat was raþer*. [tofore, Cx.] i-crowned. Nichoforus Patricius ex|cilede*. [exiled, β.] Yrene þe emperesse*. [emperice, β.; emperys, γ.] of Grees,*. [Grece, β.] and assailede and took þe empere with wyles and wiþ strengþe, and regned eiȝte ȝere. Page  287, vol.6 In his tyme þe Est empere faillede al oute. Þe body of Seynt Withburg þe mayde was i-founde*. [founden, β.] hool and sounde in þe town of Derham,*. [Durham, Cx.] þere it was i-buried, after fyve and fifty ȝere: Withburg was þe douȝter of kyng Anna and þe suster of Sex|burga. Þat ȝere Charles was i-crowned emperour of Leo þe pope; seþþe þat tyme þe empere passede*. [passide, β.] from þe Grees*. [Grekes, β. (et infra) and Cx.] to þe Frenschemen and to þe Germans, þat beeþ Almayns. Giral|dus, distinctio prima, capitulo 7o. For þis passynge of þe empere þe Grees, [þeyȝ]*. [From α., β., and γ.] þey faillede in hemself, and stryve more wiþ venym þan*. [þan] þat, MS.] wiþ vertue, more with craft þan wiþ strengþe of bataille, and of Mars þat is i-cleped god of batayle; ȝit þey haveþ*. [ȝut hy habbeþ, γ.] so grete envie to þe Latyns þat þey haveþ*. [hy habbeþ, γ.] wiþ drawe hem out of [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] subieccioun and obedience of þe chirche of Rome. And þerfore whanne þe popes of Rome charged hem ofte to be obedient, and to come aȝe to þe unite of holy chirche, þey usede for to write aȝen in þis manere: "ȝe haveþ wiþ drawe*. [withdrawen, Cx.] ȝow from us, and we wiþdraweþ*. [withdrawe, Cx.] us from ȝow." Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o, et de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Briȝtricus*. [Brihtricus, β., et infra.] kyng of West Saxons deyde, i-poysoned*. [ypuysned, γ.]Page  289, vol.6 by þe venym of his wyf. After hym Egbertus þe sone of Alcmundus þe underkyng, þat was þe sone of Offa, of Ine his blood and kynde,*. [kuynde, γ.] regnede seven and þritty ȝere. Somtyme þis was i-chased of Brithricus, and fliȝ into Fraunce, and come aȝe, and tauȝte what he hadde i-lerned of chevalrie to his sugettis, to al þe peple þat were*. [þat were] þewe and, α.; boond and, β.] free.*. [pupel þewe and vre, γ.; peple bonde and fre, Cx.] He ordeynede knyȝtes delyvere men, strong and swyþer,*. [swipere, β.; swyper, Cx.] and made wepoun*. [wepen, γ.] i-bore*. [to be born, Cx.] in tyme of pees. In a tyme Bernulphus kyng of Mercia scornede his doynge, and he þat was idel*. [idel] om. γ.] and ful*. [fol, γ.] of reste meoveþ hym to batayle þat is i-used in dedes of armes, and heet hym sturnliche*. [sternliche, β.] þat þey*. [he, β. and Cx.] schulde doo hym homage. Þanne þe bataille was i-doo*. [there was bytwene hem a bataille, Cx.] in somertyme at Elyndoun in þe province of Hamptoun; þere was unleche*. [unliche, β.; unlych, γ.; unlike, Cx.] noumbre of*. [of] and, β. and Cx.] array of knyȝtes, for aȝenst an hondred of Egbert his knyȝtes, þat were pale*. [paal, Cx.] men and lene, come a þowsand þat were rody and fat,*. [vat, γ.] and were raþer*. [soner, Cx.] i-stuffed*. [stoffed, γ.] wiþ swoot þan with blood; bote whan þe bataille was i-doo Egbertus onede*. [onnede, β.] the kyngdoms of Mercia, of Kent, and of Page  291, vol.6 Norþhumberlond to his kyngdom, and took Chestre uppon*. [oppon, γ.] þe Britouns, for þe Britouns hilde*. [helde, β.] Chestre anon to þat tyme. Þanne he cleped þe lordes to gidres at Wynchestre, and was i-crowned kyng of al Britayne. Þere he ordeyned and heet*. [bade, β.] þat al þe Saxouns and Iutes schulde be i-cleped Angles from þat day forþward,*. [vorþward, γ.] and þat Bretayne schulde be i-cleped Anglia. Bretayne conteyneþ Engelond and Wales and Scotlond. [℞.]*. [From β.] Þat ȝere þat kyng Briȝtricus*. [Brihtricus, β.] deyde, and*. [and] as, β., γ., and Cx.] Marianus seiþ, Ethelmundus kyng of Mercia went out of his owne lond anon to the forde*. [vorde, γ.] of Chemerforde,*. [Chimereforde, β. and γ.; Chy|merforde, Cx.] and fauȝte aȝenst Weoftan*. [Weofftan, β.; Weofstan, γ.] duke of Wiltoun. In þat bataille þe dukes were i-slawe in eiþer side, and þe Wiltoun men hadde þe victorie; but Seynt Alcmundus þe martir, þe sone of kyng Alrudus*. [Aluredus, β. and Cx.] of Northum|berlond, come to*. [to] in, β. and γ.] Ethelmundus his side, and was i-slawe þere. His body was first i-buried at þe white abbay, and aftirward at Derby in þe norþ chirche þat is i-bulde*. [bylde, β.] in his name. Þere he dooþ*. [There God sheweth for hym, Cx.] meny tokenes and myracles,*. [myrakels, γ.] and þe Norþhumbres Page  293, vol.6 comeþ to hym ofte a*. [α] on, β.] pilgrimage. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Þat ȝere Albinus an*. [an] om. Cx.] Englissheman, þat heet Alcuinus also, a connynge*. [kunnyng, β. and γ.] man of clergy, passede over [þe]*. [From β.] see into Fraunce, and byschoon*. [enlumyned, Cx.] þat lond wiþ liȝt of his lore; and ordeyned here*. [þere, β.] orisouns and office of masse for*. [mas vor, γ.] ferial dayes; and he brouȝte to Parys studie þat þe Grees*. [Grekes, β.] hadde somtyme i-chaunged*. [chaungide, β.] to Rome. After Beda and Aldelyn*. [Aldelm, β. and Cx.] þis was þe wisest man of al Englisshe men þat [I*. [Ich, γ.] have]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-redde*. [yrad, γ.] of. And he was i-take and lefte [specialich]*. [From β.; specially, Cx.] wiþ þe kyng Charles, wheþer it were for clennesse of þe lond oþer for manhed of þe kyng, and tauȝte hym logike and sophistrie, rethorike and astronomye. And þe kyng bytook hym Seynt Martyn his abbay at Turoun*. [Turone, Cx.] to governe by þe abbottes ryȝt. For þe monkes þere were a falle into a*. [α] om. α., β., and γ.] greet outragie;*. [outrage, α., β., and γ.] þerfore among*. [among hem he] a monk, β. and γ.] hem he*. [he] om. α.] sygh tweye aungels come into here dortour*. [dorter, β.] and slee*. [slew, Cx.] alle þe monkes of þat place, outake*. [outtake, β.] hym þat sigh þat siȝt. At þe laste Alcuinus*. [At the laste Alcuinus] bis in MS.] rested at Seynt Poule of Cor|marik, Page  295, vol.6 þere is every day almesse i-deled for his soule foure monken*. [monkes, β. and Cx.; monkene, γ.] mete. Aboute þis tyme Seint Giles*. [Gylys, Cx.] þe abbot, of þe nacioun of Grees,*. [Grekes, β., et infra.] was in his floures. He com into þe over Fraunce by warnynge of God, and lyved first anker his lyf faste*. [vast, γ.] by þe ryver of Rone.*. [Roone, β. and Cx.; Rome, MS.] Also þat tyme Paule þe decone*. [deken, Cx.] of Rome was in his floures, þat descrevede*. [descryvede, γ.; discrived, Cx.] þe Longobardes; he com out of þe abbay of Mont Cassyn*. [Cassyn, β. and γ.] into Fraunce for love of kyng Charles. Among þe Grees Michel, a mylde man, is y-made emperour. In his þridde ȝere þe sone faillede in þe sonne resynge,*. [rysynge, γ.] and sone þerafter þe emperour was i-schore*. [shorne, Cx.] monk. And a greet pestilence of reþeren*. [roþeren, α.; ruþeren, β. and Cx.; roþern, γ.] destroyed wel nygh al Europa, and namliche Britayne. Þe grete Charles was seek*. [syke, α.; seke, β.; syk, γ.] foure ȝere in þe feveres, and deide þe fourþe day of*. [to ffore Feverer, α., γ., and Cx.; tofore Februare, β.] fevere at Aquisgrani,*. [at Acon, Cx.] and was i-buried þere. Marianus, libro 2o. In his laste ȝere þe treen brigge*. [brugge, γ., et infra.; brydge, Cx., et infra.] of fyve hondred paas,*. [pas, γ.] þat he hadde made wiþ cost and travaille in ten ȝere over þe Ryne at Magoncia, was so i-brend in þre houres þat Page  297, vol.6 þere was nouȝt oon*. [oon] o, γ.] spone*. [o spoone, β.; a spoon, Cx.] þerof i-seie flete*. [vlete, γ.] uppon þe water. Meny men wole mene þat þat happe fille*. [vul, γ., et infra.] at þe prayer of Riculphus*. [Ryculfus, Cx.] þe bisshop*. [byschip, α.] for manslauȝter and robberye þat was ofte by nyȝte i-doo uppon þat brigge; but oþer men wil mene þat it fil by som happe*. [so by hap, γ.; aventure, Cx.] and non oþer wise.