Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

AFFTER Stevene*. [Stephyn, γ.] þe firste Adrian was pope foure and twenty ȝere. First þis gadrede þe secounde counsaile*. [counceyl, Cx.] at Constantyn|noble of þre hondred fadres and fifty; he made anoþer counsaille in þe citee of Rome with þre hondred fadres and fifty; kyng Charles was present þere. Þo hym was i-graunted riȝt in þe electioun of þe pope, and of þe ordeynynge of þe popes see.*. [se, γ.]Page  269, vol.6 Þe Norþhombres put out here kyng Aluredus, and took Ethel|bertus,*. [Ethelertus, γ.] þat heet Ethelredus*. [Etheldredus, β. and γ.] also, þe sone of Mollus, and made hym here kyng. He regned over hem fyve ȝere. Þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] Leo, þe sone of þe fifte Constantyn regnede in Grees*. [Grece, β., et infra.] foure ȝere; he brende for first*. [þirste, β.; vor vurste, γ.; brente in thurste, Cx.] in greet covetise; he took of a cherche a crowne þat was realliche i-hiȝte with charbunkel*. [ryally sette with carbuncle, Cx.] stones, and sette it on his heed, and was i-take wiþ a sodeyn fevere and deide. Þat ȝere Offa kyng of Mercia spoylede Lambert arche|bisshop of Caunterbury of his dignite of primate, and brouȝte þat dignite at*. [at] to, Cx.] Lichefeld, and hilde*. [huld, γ.] it þere while he was onlyve*. [alyve, β.] by assent of pope Adrian. Þe sixte Constantyn, þe sone of þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] Leo, regned in Grees wiþ his moder Iren*. [Yrene, α.; Yren, β.; Irene, γ.; Iren, Cx., semper.] ten ȝere. In his laste ȝere fil discord and stryf bytwene þe sone and moder, and þe moder took þe sone and putte*. [potte, γ.] hym in prison, and so sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] regnede allone fyve ȝere. At þe laste the sone hadde help and counsaile of þe Armonyes,*. [Armenyes, β., γ., and Cx.] and cam out of prison, and Page  271, vol.6 pursewed cruelliche his moder and here fautoures.*. [helpers, Cx.] Þanne aftirward þe sone for his [greet]*. [From α., β. (not γ.), and Cx.] cruelnes*. [cruwelnesse, β.] was i-take by heste and strengþe of þe moder, and his yȝen*. [yen, γ.] were i-putte out in so evel manere þat he deide sone aftirward; and [so]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Yrene*. [Yren, β., et infra.] regnede eft*. [eft] after, γ.] allone*. [allone] om. Cx.] fyve ȝere. But Nichoforus Patricius, þat had i-had greet worschippe of Yrene, roos aȝenst hir, and took þe crowne aȝenst þe peples*. [pupel, γ.] wille. And took of here þe tresoure of þe empere wiþ an oth i-made to be harmeles, and excilede*. [exiled, β., bis.] here, and so exciled sche deyde. Þe firste ȝere of þis Constantyn, in a dede man his grave at Constantynnoble was i|founde*. [founden, β.] a plate of gold, in þe whiche plate it was i-write*. [wreton, Cx.] in þis manere: "Crist schal be bore of a*. [α] om. α., β., and γ.] mayde Marye. In hym I*. [Ych, γ.] beleve. Under Constantyn and Yrene soone*. [Sone, Cx.] after*. [eft, α. and Cx.; efte, β.] me þu schalt i-see." Marianus, libro 2o. Þat ȝere Kenul|phus kyng of West Saxone, and Offa kyng of Mercia, fauȝt strongliche*. [vouȝte stronlyche, γ.] for þe citee of Bensyngtoun,*. [Besyngton, β. and Cx.; Ven|syngton, γ.] but Offa hadde þe victorie and þe citee. Þat ȝere þe Norþhumbres put out here kyng Ethelbertus, þat heet Etheldredus also, and made Page  273, vol.6 Alwold*. [Alfwold, α. β., and γ.; Aswolf, Cx.] kyng, þat regnede enlevene ȝere. Þat ȝere þe se|counde synod was i-made at Nicene of þre hondred bisshoppes and fifty in Adrian his tyme. In þat synod aȝenst þe opinioun of þe Grees*. [Grekes, β. and Cx.] it is i-seide þat þe Holy Goost comeþ of þe Fader and of þe Sone. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Kenul|phus kyng of West Saxons caste for to putte Kynehard out of his kyngdom, þe broþer of his predecessour*. [predecessours, α.; predecessors, β.] Sigebertus, and cam by nyȝte to a wommans hous at Mertoun þat was his lemman. Þere Clito cam wiþ foure score felawes, and bysette þe kyng al aboute. But whan þe kynge was awaked he defended manliche hym self, but he was i-slawe at þe laste. And*. [And . . . laste] om. Cx.] þe kynges knyȝtes resede and forsook*. [vorsouke, γ.] Clito his faire*. [veyr, γ.] byhestes;*. [feyr byhestes, β.] but for þey were [fewe, þei were]*. [From β.; bote vor huy were vewe huy were, γ.] dede alle at þe laste.*. [And . . . laste] om. Cx.] Erliche amorwe it was kouþe*. [knowen, Cx.] þar þe kyng was deed; and Osricus þe kynges ledere come wiþ his felowes to þe place, and slowȝ Clito and his felowes everich one, and took þe kyng his body, and buried it at Wynchestre. After Kenulphus Brithricus,*. [Brihtricus, β.; Brihtric, γ.] of Cerdicus his blood, was kyng of West Saxons Page  275, vol.6 fiftene ȝere. Anon by help of kyng Offa, whos douȝter he hadde i-wedded, he put out Egbertus þe sone of Alcmundus þe underkyng, þat was þe sone of Offa, þat cam of þe blood [of]*. [From Cx.] Kyngilphus*. [Kyngilsus, β.; Kyngislus, γ.; Gengulsus, Cx.] and of Ine. Anon as he was so i-putte out*. [out] doune, Cx.] he wente into Fraunce, and usede þe scole of chivalrie; and whanne Brithricus*. [Briȝtricus, β.; Brihtricus, γ.] was dede he come aȝe, and regned, and tauȝte þe scole of chivalrye as he hadde i-lerned in Fraunce. Lull arche|bisshop of Caunterbury deyde, and Ruchilfus*. [Rychulfus, α., β., and Cx.; Richulfus, γ.] was archebisshop after [hym]*. [From β.] eyȝte and twenty ȝere. He bygan to bulde Seynt Albons*. [Albon, α.] his grete chirche, from the foundement*. [fundement, β.] of a wonder werk of brend*. [brand, β.] tyle, and brouȝt [hit]*. [From α., β., and γ.] nobleliche to a good*. [a good] an, α. and β.] ende. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo.*. [quarto, α. and β.] Þis ȝere kyng Offa mariede his douȝter Ethelburga to Briȝtricus*. [Brihtricus, β.; Brythricus, γ.] kyng of West Saxons; of here*. [hure, γ.] it is i-seide þat sche fondede*. [laboured, Cx.] besi|liche by myȝt oþer by venym for to slee alle þe meynyals*. [houshold men, Cx.] of here housbonde. Þanne in a tyme sche*. [heo, β.] ȝaf venym for to slee ȝongelynges*. [for . . . ȝongelynges] to a ȝongelynge, α., β., and Cx.] þat was homeliche wiþ þe kyng, and slouȝ boþe Page  277, vol.6 þe kyng and þe ȝongelyng. Þanne sche*. [heo, β.] wente to þe kyng of Fraunce, and hadde wiþ here greet tresoure and riches. Þanne in a tyme þe kynges*. [þe kyng and his, α., β., γ., and Cx.] sone stood in a solere,*. [soler, β.] and þe kyng ȝaf here*. [hure, γ] choys wheþer sche*. [heo, β., et infra.] wolde have to housbonde of þe fader or*. [oþer, α. and β.] of þe sone; and sche chees*. [hue ches, γ.] þe sone. "Haddest [þu]*. [From β.] i-chose*. [Haddest thou chose, Cx.] me," quoþ þe kyng, "þou scholdest have*. [habbe, γ.] [had]*. [From β.] my sone. But for þu hast forsake me, þu schalt not have me noþer*. [ner, Cx.] my sone; þu moste leve þe pride of þe world*. [worle, γ.] and goo into an abbay." Þere a lewed man lay by here, and sche was i-putte out, and deide in povert. After þat time þereof it com to be used among [the]*. [From Cx.] Angles þat þe knyȝtes*. [kynges, α., β., and Cx.] wif schulde not be i-cleped queene noþer sitte by þe kyng in þe kynges sete. Henricus, libro 4o. Þat ȝere was i-seie a wonder signe of þe cros on Englisshe men cloþes, and blood fil*. [blod vul, γ.] doun from hevene to þe erþe.*. [eorþe, γ.] We ȝeveþ none unwise doom*. [We . . . doom] It is not knowen, Cx.] wethir*. [wheþer, β.] þis byfel in token of þe mocioun of Ierusalem þat fel*. [fil, β.; vul, γ.] þre hondred ȝere afterward in William þe Reede his Page  279, vol.6 tyme, oþer elles to amende Englische men for þey schulde drede þe wreche þat was i-come*. [i-come] to come, β.] uppon hem by þe Danes; bote*. [bote . . . privete] but as God wil soo mote it be, Cx.] we leteþ God i-worþe wiþ his owne privete.*. [bote . . . privete] but as God wil soo mote it be, Cx.] Þat ȝere þe Danes come first into Engelond; þe kynges steward*. [stiward, β.; styward, Cx.] of West Saxons wente aȝenst hem unwisliche*. [unwiseliche, β.; unwyslych, γ.] wiþ fewe*. [veaw, γ.] men, and was of hem i-slawe. Seynt Oswold*. [Alswold, β.; Alfwold, γ.] kyng of Norþhumberlond is i-slawe of his owne men; his nevew Osredus, þe sone of Aluredus and broþer of Alcmundus, regnede after hym, and was sone after i-putte out and i-slawe. After hym Etheldredus, þat was somtyme i-put out of his kyngdom, regned eft, and was sone after*. [afterward slayn, β.] i-slawe. Þerfore Colwulfus bisshop of Lyndifare*. [Lyndisfare, β.; Lyndesfar, Cx.] forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] boþe, and lefte þe see and þe kyngdom. Here after Oswaldus*. [Osbaldus, α. and β.] regnede aftir fewe*. [veaw, γ.] dayes. After hym Ardulphus*. [Adulphus, Cx.] regnede oon ȝere. Þere after þre score*. [lxxvi. yere kynges regneden there, Cx. The word ȝere has got misplaced in MS., and should come after sixtene.] ȝere and sixtene kynges regnede þere, þe laste of hem were Osbrith*. [Osbriht, β. and γ.] and Elle. Þe Danes slouȝ hem at þe citee of ȝork, and al þe floure of here men þe ȝere of oure Lorde eyȝte hondred þre score and seventene. After þat Page  281, vol.6 tyme þe Danes regnede in Norþhumberlond two and fifty ȝere anon to Ethelstan his tyme. Pipinus þe sone of Charles con|spired aȝenst his fader, but his counsaile was i-wried,*. [i-wreyed, α.; wryȝed, β.; ywryed, γ.] and he was i-schore monk and i-closed in an abbay, and his felowes were som byheded and some anhonged*. [anhanged, β.] by þe þrote. Seynt Ethelbertus, kyng of Est Angles, was i-prived boþe of his kyngdom and of his [lyf]*. [From Cx.; lif, β.] by heste of kyng Offa, and by excitynge and counsail of his owne wif Kyneswyda.*. [Kyneswyda, β.; Kineswilda, γ.]