Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum vicesimum sextum. Carolus.

WHANNE Pipinus was dede the Frenche men delede*. [departed, Cx.] þe kyngdom bytwene his tweie sones, Charles and Charleman;*. [Charloman, β. (et infra), γ. (semper).]Page  249, vol.6 but Charleman deide after two ȝere, and þanne Charles hadde al þe kyngdom, and governed it nobeliche*. [nobly, Cx.] after þat tyme sixe and fourty ȝere. Þanne Charleman his wif [and his children]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] fliȝ*. [vlyȝe, γ.] to Deserius,*. [Desiderius, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kyng of Longobardes, and prayed hym of help and socour wiþ oute eny nede, for no man compellede hem*. [hym, γ.] þerto. But Charles firste overcome duke Hanald,*. [Hunald, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and wan Gyen and made it suget. At þe prayer of pope Adrian he bysegede*. [bisegide, β.] Desiderius, kyng of Italy, in þe citee of Papie, for he was rebel aȝenst þe cherche of Rome, as his broþer Astulphus hadde i-be. Charles took*. [touk, γ.] hym in þe citee of Papie, and exciled hym, and made his owne sone Pipinus kyng of Italy in his stede. In þat batayle deide Amicus and Amelius, Crist his knyȝtes, and his herty frendes;*. [vrendes, γ.] of hem beeþ i-rad*. [ben red, Cx.] wonderful dedes. At þe laste he*. [he] Charles, β. and γ.; Charles chastysed, Cx.] chastede þe Saxons and þe Sclaves, and took meny of hem and sente hem into dyvers places of Fraunce; so þat þe Saxons forsook*. [vorsok, γ.] here mametrie, and were i-made oon peple*. [on pupel, γ.] Saxons and Frenche men. Þer|fore*. [Þerafter, β.]Page  251, vol.6 Charles wente to Spayne, and wan þe dales, laundes,*. [londes, Cx.] and contrayes aboute þe hilles montes Pireney.*. [Pireni, Cx.] But he was assailled*. [assoylled, Cx.] in þe way wiþ busshementes*. [buschmentes, β.; boschementes, γ.] of Gaskyns,*. [Gaskoynes, β.; Gascoyns, Cx.] so þat þey*. [huy, γ.] slouȝ þe utter deel*. [otterdel, γ.] of his oost; þere Olyver, cheef sewere of þe kynges bord, and Rouland, eorl of þe paleys,*. [palys, β.] were i-slawe, and meny [oþere]*. [From α., β., and γ.] of þe peeres of Fraunce. De libro Turpini. In a day whan trewes*. [truwes, β.; trwes, γ.] was i-graunted [in]*. [From α., β., and γ.; were graunted on, Cx.] eiþer side, Aigolan|dus, a strong prince of Spayne, com to Charles to be i-cristned,*. [to be folled, β.; yvolled, γ.] and sigh al þat were at þe bord realliche i-cloþed and likyng|liche*. [delyciously, Cx.] i-fedde,*. [yved, γ.] and sigh afer þrittene pore men sitte on þe grounde and have*. [habbe, γ.] foule*. [voul, γ.; broken, Cx.] mete and symple wiþ oute eny bord, and he axede what þey*. [huy, γ.] were. Me answerde hym and seide: "Þese þrittene beeþ Goddes messangers,*. [messagers, Cx., et infra.] and prayeþ for us, and bringeþ to us*. [us] om. β.] mynde*. [munde, γ.] of*. [of] om. γ.] þe nombre of Cristes disciples." "As I see," quod*. [quaþ, γ.] Aigolandus, "ȝoure lawe is nouȝt riȝtful þat suffreþ Goddes messangers be þus evel bylad;*. [evyl servyd, Cx.] he Page  253, vol.6 serveþ evel his lord þat so fongeþ*. [vongeþ, γ.; resseyved, Cx.] his servauntes;" and so he was lewedliche offended, and despised cristenynge,*. [fullouȝt, β.; vollouȝt, γ.; Crys|tendom, Cx.] and wente hoom aȝen; but Charles worschipped afterward*. [afturward, γ.] pore men þe more. Trevisa. Aigolandus was a lewed goost,*. [gost, Cx.] and lewedliche i-meved*. [ymeoved, β.] as þe devel hym tauȝte, and blende*. [blend, β.; blynded, Cx.] hym þat he kouþe nouȝt i-knowe þat men schulde be i-served as here astaat*. [staat, β.; state, Cx.] axeþ. Giraldus,*. [distinctio, add. β.]prima, capitulo 17o. Here after Charles wan Gallia Narbonensis, and made suget þe Capu|anes and þe Beneventanes, þe Danes and þe Sweves, þat were i-confeþered*. [confedered, β.] to hem; and he dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] al þat [at]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] on iornay. Kynges of Bretouns, of Angles, of Scottes, of Peers,*. [Pers, β. and γ.; Perce, Cx.] [and]*. [From α., β., and γ.] of Grees, worschipped*. [worschipiden, β.; worshipeden, Cx.] hym wiþ ȝiftes; and, as Turpyn þe arche|bisshop telleþ, Charles was faire, and a*. [α] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] wel farynge*. [welvaryng, γ.] man*. [man] om. β. and Cx.] of body but*. [but] and, γ.] sturne*. [sterne, β.] of face. His body was eyte*. [eyȝte, α. and γ.; eiȝte, β.] foot*. [vot, γ., bis.] of*. [on, α., β., γ., and Cx.] lengþe, his face*. [fase, γ.] a span and an half, and his berd was [of]*. [From α. and β.] a foot longe. He cleef*. [clef, β. and γ.] a two wiþ his swerd a knyȝt i-armed Page  255, vol.6 at oon strook. He wolde esiliche*. [eslyche, γ.] wiþ his hondes folde*. [volde, γ.] and bende*. [beende, β.] foure hors schoon*. [horse shone, Cx.] at ones. He wolde heve*. [hebbe, γ.] a stond|ynge knyȝt i-armed from the grounde wiþ his oon hond. He wolde ete an hare*. [haare, β.] al hool, oþer tweye hennes, oþer a goos, at oon mele; and he wolde drynke a litel wyne i-watred.*. [a lyte wyn ywatert, γ.] He was so scars of drynke þat seelde he wolde drynke þreis passyng*. [passyng in] at, Cx.] in*. [in] over, β.] his soper. Þis*. [Charles, add. Cx.] was gracious and mylde to pore men and to cherches. Over þe Ryne, at Magons, he made a brigge*. [brugge, γ.] of fyve*. [vyf, γ.] hondred paas.*. [paces, β.; pas, γ.] As Frensche men dooþ, he tauȝte his sones as sone as þey myȝte for ȝouþe to ride and honte,*. [honty, α., β., and γ.] and to doo*. [doo] om. β.] dedes of armes, and lerne science*. [sciences, β., et infra.] of scole. He ordeyned his douȝtres to worche wolwerk wiþ spyndel*. [spendyl, γ.] and with distaf, and ordeyned hem to use suche werkes for þey*. [þey] a, γ.] schulde nouȝt wexe slouȝ*. [slowe, β.] by idelnesse. He hylde hym nouȝt apayde wiþ his contray speche. He couþe bettre understonde þe longage of Grew*. [Gruwe, β.] þan speke it. In loore of gramer, Peter of Pise was Page  257, vol.6 his maister; and in oþer science of clergy, Alcuinus Albinus, an Englische man, was his maister. Charles fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to write lettres; þerfore he bare a peyre of tables*. [a payr tables, Cx.] for to write ynne, but it profited riȝt nouȝt,*. [litel, β.] for þat travaille was bygonne to late. He wolde be at chirche erliche and late, and at houres þat was*. [were, β.] i-seide by nyȝte. He ordeyned*. [ordeygned, Cx.] and assigned gret almes*. [almus, γ.] to pore*. [pour, γ.] men þat were in fer*. [ver, γ.] londes, in Egipt, and in Affrica. He hadde a lyster*. [redar, Cx.] at mete, and hadde greet likynge*. [delyte, Cx.] in Austyn his bookes; and nameliche*. [specially, Cx.] in his bookes de Civitate Dei. In somer-tyme after mete, in þe undermele*. [underntide, α.; undertyde, β., γ., and Cx.] tyde, he wolde take somwhat of apples, and drynke ones þerto, and doo of his cloþes and goo to bedde as it were by nyȝte, and slepe tweie*. [twy, γ.] houres. By nyȝte he wolde ofte*. [ofte . . . wolde] om. Cx.] slepe in þis manere; now*. [nouȝt, α. and β.] onliche awake, and eft slepe; but he wolde*. [ofte . . . wolde] om. Cx.] foure*. [voure, γ.] siþes oþer fyve*. [vyve, γ.] siþes awake and aryse, and ligge*. [lye, β.; lygge adoun, γ.] doun and slepe. Þreis he com to Rome, and liȝt doun of his hors a myle of þis half Rome,*. [þe citee, α. and β.] and ȝede on*. [a, α., β., γ., and Cx.] fote*. [ȝude a vote, γ.] into al þe citee, Page  259, vol.6 and cussed*. [kissed, β.; kussede, γ.] al þe pylers of chirches. He delyvered þe Holy Lond, and com aȝen to Constantynnoble; and forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] al þe precious and greet ȝiftes þat Constantyn þe emperour profred hym, outake*. [reserved, Cx.] relikes*. [outake reliques, β.] of holy seyntes. He fenge*. [vyng, γ.] a*. [grete, add. Cx.] party of oure Lordes crosse, and a party of þe crowne of þornes, þat þere in his sight gan to blowe*. [blosme, Cx.] and bare floures. And [on]*. [From α. and γ.; oon, β.] of Cristes nayles, oure lady smok, and Seynt Symeon his arme, and brouȝte þese*. [þues, γ.] relikes with hym to Seynt Mary Chirche at Acquisgrani*. [Aquisgrani, β.] þat he hadde i-founded, and lyth i-buried þere. He founded as meny abbayes as beþ*. [buþ, γ.] lettres in þe A B C. In everich of þilke*. [þelke, γ.] abbayes, by þe ordre of þe fundacioun þerof, he sette and pighte a lettre of gold of þe wight of an hondred pound of Turoneys.*. [Turoneyes, β.; Turoneies, γ.]Trevisa.*. [Trevisa's comment does not appear in β.] God woot*. [wot, γ.] what wight þat schulde be; but, by a statute of the universite of Oxenford, whan eny man is i-congyed*. [ycongeyed, γ.] þere to commence in eny faculte, he schal swere þat he schal not spende at*. [in, α.] his comencement passynge þre þowsand of grootes turonens.*. [turoneies, α. and γ.] Þe groot turoney is somwhat lasse worþy*. [las worþ, γ.] þan an Englische groote, ffor at Brisak uppon [þe]*. [From α. and γ.] Ryne*. [Ryver, γ.] I have i-fonge in chaunge enlevene grotes turoneys for a duket,*. [ducate, γ.] þat is worþy half an Englisshe noble. Page  261, vol.6 But þere is double manere of money of turoneis,*. [turoneies, γ.] more and lasse; þe more hatte grossus turonensis in*. [α, α.] Latyn, and þe lasse hatte parvis*. [Sic.] turonensis. But it may wel be þat þe pound of Turoneys is i-take by tale of money of Turon, oþer by certeyn weyȝtes þat was þere i-used. Þanne it foloweþ*. [volweth, γ.] in þe storie: of þis man Charles it is wonder þat he wolde un|neþe marye eny of his douȝtres while he was on lyve,*. [alyve, β.] outake*. [outtake, β.] his eldest douȝter, þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] he mariede to þe kyng of Grees*. [Grece, β.] þat heet Constantyn. Charles seide þat he myȝte nouȝt be wiþ oute companye of his douȝters; þerfore þey*. [þouȝ, β.] he were gracious in oþer dedes, in þat poynt aȝenst fortune he was to blame: and þeyȝ þere were grete speche þerof among þe peple,*. [pupel, γ.] he made it as þey he knewe it nouȝt, and as non supeccioun were of þat foly dede. Þerfore som men weneþ*. [wyneþ, γ.] þat þat was þe synne of Charles þat he wolde nevere of*. [of] om. β.] schryve hym wiþ his mouþe; but unneþe at þe laste by writynge of*. [of] to, β. and Cx.] Seint Gyles. Also þis Charles or he*. [or he] ar a, ℞.] deyde deled his catel in þre parties: oon partie he assignede to pore men, anoþer to chirches, and ȝitte þe þridde partie he delede in foure parties, oon þerof he kepte for to holde his mynde*. [munde, γ.] day, þat oþer to everich dayes use; þe þridde to his sonnes and nevewes, and þe fourþe to his ser|vauntes Page  263, vol.6 þat were of his meyny.*. [houshold, Cx.] He*. [He] Þes prins, γ.] sat ones at mete, and his maister Alcuinus sat to fore*. [tovore, γ.] hym; þanne he axede of his master: "How grete difference*. [diffrence, β.] and space was bytwene a sot and a Scot."*. [The words Scot and sot change places in β. and γ.] "But þe brede of a metebord," quod his maister. [℞.] For to speke and*. [speke and] om. β.] bring stories to acord þat semeþ out of acorde, spekynge of þe empere and of þe kyngdom of Charles. Take hede þat þis Charles while he was ȝong was anoynt*. [anoynted, β.] kyng of the secounde pope Stevene, þe ȝere of oure Lord seven hondred and foure and fifty,*. [voure and vyfty, γ.] while his fader*. [vader (semper), γ.] Pipinus was onlyve,*. [alyve, β.] and regned wiþ his fader and under hym fiftene ȝere anon to his fadir deth. Þanne, after his fadres*. [fader, α.] deþ, þat deide þe ȝere oure Lord seven hondred þre score and eiȝte, he regned wiþ his broþer Charleman*. [Charloman, β.] two ȝere. After his broþer, þat deide þe ȝere of oure Lord seven hondred [and lxx.],*. [From Cx.; þre score and ten, α., β., and γ.; four score and four is written here in a mistake in MS.] Charles helde*. [heelde, β.; huld, γ.] þe kyngdom al hool fourtene ȝere, to*. [to] and deide, MS.] þe ȝere of oure Lord seven hondred foure score and foure. Þat ȝere he wente first to Rome to be i-crowned emperour of Adrian þe pope; and þerafter he was Page  265, vol.6 emperour fourtene*. [xvi., β.] ȝere, to þe ȝere of oure Lord eyȝte hon|dred,*. [and fourtene, wrongly added here in MS.] whanne þe fourþe pope Leo confermed Charles eft em|perour: þerafter he was emperour fourtene ȝere, and deide þe ȝere of his age þre score and twelve; þat was þe ȝere of oure Lord eiȝte hondred and fourtene. Þanne after þat somme men telleþ in þe stories, þat he*. [he] om. γ.] regnede in al sixe and fourty ȝere; þat schal be understonde from his fadir deþ to his owne deth. But who so wil se more of Charles his lyf, mote loke þe bookes of his maister Alcuinus, oþer Turpyn þe archebisshop his bookes. Þat day þat Charles deide at Viean in Fraunce, Tur|pyn was in his bedes, and sigh a companye of blak knyȝtes wende toward Aquisgrani*. [Aquisgrani] Akon, Cx.] for to take Charles soule; and he coniurede þe laste of hem þat he schulde com aȝen whanne þey hadde i-doo, and telle hym truliche*. [treulyche, γ.] what þey dede*. [dide, β.; huy dude, γ.] and how hem spedde. Þanne þe fend*. [vend, γ., bis.] wente and com aȝe, and Turpyn axede*. [axide, β.] of hym, and seide: "What have*. [habbe, γ.] ȝe i-doo?" "We haveþ,"*. [habbeþ, γ., et infra.] quod þe fende, "i-weie*. [weyed, β. and Cx.] Charles his soule; but þilke*. [þelke, γ.] Iame*. [James, Cx.] of Spayne, þat was byheded, leyde so meny Page  267, vol.6 stones and trees*. [tren, β.; þrew, γ.; teres, Cx.] in þe weie*. [weight, Cx.] and balaunce, þat þat*. [þat] om. β.] Charles his goode dedes hadde þe maistrie, and weie*. [weyede, β.; weyȝe, γ.; weyed, Cx.] more þan his evel dedes; and so we haveþ riȝt not i-brouȝt aȝen wiþ us. Charles," quod þe fend, "used to bulde*. [buylde, β.] meny chirches in worschippe of Seynt Iame." After þat Constantyn, þat hadde assaied*. [assayled, β.; assoyled, Cx.] þe poperiche, and i-take it wiþ his*. [his] om. γ.] strengþe, was i-putte out, pope Stevene was pope foure ȝere. Anon he gadrede a synod, and wiþcleped*. [revoked, Cx.] al þat was i-doo by his predecessour, outake bapteme*. [outtake fullouȝt, β.; vollouȝt, γ.] and crisme [and]*. [From β.] what is*. [and what that was, Cx.] ordeyned to savacioun of hem þat dyeþ.