Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.*. [There is no division of chapters here in γ.]

LEO þe emperour lete be*. [lete be] lefte, Cx.] þe enemyes of þe empere, and werrede aȝenst figures and ymages of holy seyntes. Pope Page  211, vol.6 Gregory and Germanius*. [Germanus, β. and Cx.] of Constantynnoble wiþstood hym nameliche,*. [manliche, α. and γ.; manlich, β.; manly, Cx.] as þe olde usage and custome*. [costom, γ.] wolde þat is allowed and apreeved by holy cherche, and seide þat it is worþy and medeful to do hem þe affecioun of worschippe. For we wor|schippeþ in hem but God, [and]*. [From α.; and . . . ymages] And oft by the syght of such ymages men worshipe God and holy saintes, Cx.] in worschippe of God and of holy seyntes, þat man haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] in mynde efte by suche*. [sich, β.] ymages,*. [From α.; and . . . ymages] And oft by the syght of such ymages men worshipe God and holy saintes, Cx.] God allone schal be princepalliche worschipped, [and after hym creatures schal be i-worschipped]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] in worschippe of hym. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 24o. Þat ȝere deide Withredus*. [Wihtredus, β.; Wyhtredus, Cx.] kyng of Caunterbury, and Thobias bisshop of Rouchestre, þat couþe Latyn and Grew*. [Gruw, γ.] as wel as his owne longage. Paulus, libro 7o. Þat ȝere Sarasyns com to Constantynnoble and by|seged*. [bisegide, β.] it þre ȝere, and took*. [touk, γ.] þennes moche*. [myche, β.] good and*. [and] om. β. and Cx.] catel. Withbrandes*. [Wihtbrandus, β. and γ. Wyghtbrandus, Cx.] kyng of Longobardes herde þerof, and raunsoned*. [raunsede, γ.] þe relikes of seint Austyn [þe doctor],*. [From β.] þe whiche relikes*. [relyques, Cx.] were somtyme translated to Sardinia for reses*. [fere, Cx.] of straunge enemyes, and he made hem i-bore to þe citee of Geene,*. [Gene, β. and γ.] and þennes to Papie, þat heet Tinum*. [Titinum, α., β., γ., and Cx.] somtyme. Willelmus de Regibus, Page  213, vol.6libro primo. Kyng Ine betook his kyngdom of West Saxons to his cosyn Ethelardus, and went to Rome. Me seiþ þat he was þe firste of kynges þat grauntede to seynt Peter of everiche hous of his kyngdom a peny, þat longe tyme of Englisshe men was i-cleped Rome scot, but in*. [in] a, β. and γ.] Latyn it is i-cleped Peter his peny. Þe kyng his wyf Ethelburga ȝaf hym occasioun to take þat pilgrimage, and þat in þis manere: she*. [heo, β.] hadde ofte i-counsailled her*. [hure, γ.] housbonde to forsake þe riches of þe*. [þe] þis, β.] world,*. [worl, γ.] and specialliche in þe laste ȝeres of his lyf, but sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] spedde nouȝt. Þerfore at þe laste sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] fondede to overcome hym wiþ gile, and in a tyme whanne þey hadde i-leide to gidres*. [togadders, γ.] in þe real*. [rial, β.] citee, and were agoo,*. [and departed thens, Cx.] þanne after þre dayes þe governour of þe citee defouled þe paleys wiþ al þe filþe*. [vylþe, γ. (bis).] þat he myȝte, wiþ tunge*. [dunge, α., β., and Cx.; duynge, γ (bis).] and dritt*. [drit, β.; dryt, γ.; fylth, Cx.] of bestes, wiþ gaderynge of dunge and of filþe of mukhilles;*. [mokhulles, γ.] and þere þe kyng had i-leye and i-slepe, he leide a sowe wiþ here*. [hir, β.] pigges þat hadde late i-favored.*. [i-farwed, α. and β.; yvarwed, γ.; farwed, Cx.] Al þis he dede by assent and heste of þe queene. Þanne þe queene byȝede*. [byȝude, γ; prayed, Cx.] here housbonde wiþ benygne*. [wyvene, α. and γ.; wyven, β.; om. Cx.] flaterynge, and prayed hym for*. [for] om. β.] to come to þat place þere he hadde i-be; þe kyng graunted and come þider, and sigh Page  215, vol.6 þat place þat was somtyme poore*. [peer, α.; pere, β. and γ.; lyke to Sardanapalus plesure and lust, Cx.] to Sardanapallus his likynge þo*. [þanne, β.] so desrayed*. [desarayed, α.; disarayed, β. and Cx.; dysarayed, γ.] and defouled; whan sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] hadde þis occasioun sche spak to þe kyng and seide: "I pray ȝow, my lord, where beeþ now þe cortyns*. [corteyns, γ.; curteyns, Cx.] and al þe riche array of halles and chambres? Where is now þe pleysynge*. [plesing, β.; plesaunt, Cx.] service of hem þat were i-woned to flatere*. [flatrie, β.; flatre you, Cx.] wiþ ȝou? Where is þe likynge and plesynge of glotonye*. [gloteny, β.] and of leccherie, beeþ þey not al apassed?*. [passyd, Cx.] So, my lord, schal my*. [oure, α., β., and Cx.] flesche*. [oure vleysch, γ.] passe and fal*. [valle, γ.] awey, þat is now i-norsched in gold and in riche array." Herwith here housbonde was overcome, and after his noble batailles and victories and grete prayes þat he hadde i-take, he bytook*. [bytouk, γ.] þe kyngdom to his nevew, and wente to Rome. Þere he come nouȝt openliche in siȝte,*. [in syghte as a kyng, Cx.] but he schare his heed, and cloþed hym as a pore man, and wax*. [wex, β.] olde among beggers; bote þe queene Ethelburga wente to þe abbay of Berkynge; þere here suster*. [soster, γ.] hadde i-be abbas. And sche*. [heo, β.] was afterward i-made abbas of þe same maydens, and made a blessed ende, and passed to reste. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 29o. Osricus kyng of Norþhumberlond deide after þe nynþe ȝere [of his kyngdom. After hym Colwulfus regnede nyne ȝere];*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] to Page  217, vol.6 hym Beda wroot þe storie Historiarum Angliæ.*. [Historia Anglorum, α.; Histo|riam Anglorum, β. and γ.; Historia Anglicana, Cx.]Beda, ubi supra. Þat ȝere were i-seie twey griselich*. [grislich, β.] sterres wiþ blasynge crestes aboute þe sonne, þat durede*. [duyrede, γ.] tweye wokes. Þat oon of hem passede erliche tofore the sonne, and þe oþer com after þe sonne at eve; and þese sterres blasede and caste as it were brennynge brondes toward þe norþside, and bodede greet deth and manslauȝter; ffor þanne com a grevous mescheef of Sarsyns,*. [meschyef of Sarasyns, Cx.] and bete*. [but, γ.] doun Gallia, þat is Fraunce. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 25o. Þat ȝere deyde Briȝtwoldus arche|bisshop of Dorobernya, þat is Canturbury. After hym Tad|wynus was archebisshop, and was i-sacred of þe bisshoppes of Londoun, of Wynchestre, and of Rouchestre. Also*. [Also] om. β.] þat ȝere þe souþ provinces anon to þe marche of þe ryver Humber were suget*. [soget, β.] to Ethelbaldus king of Mercia; þe Pictes and þe Scottes hadde*. [hadden, β.] pees*. [pes, γ.] wiþ þe Angles; som Bretons were at here*. [her, β.] owne lawe, and som servede þe Angles. After þe secounde Gregorye [þe þridde Gregory]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] was pope enlevene ȝere; he confermed þe worschippynge of holy ymages in a Page  219, vol.6 counsaile þat was i-made at Rome of aboute a þowsand*. [Some later hand has here in|serted the word lewed; a reforming comment.] bisshoppes, and cursed*. [corsed, β.] dredfulliche al þat doþ*. [alle them that done, Cx.] aȝenst þat statute of worschippynge of holy ymages. Also þat ȝere oon Petronax Brixianus wente to þe hille mont Casin,*. [Cassyn, β.] and re|stored þe place covenableliche*. [covenabellyche, γ.; covenably, Cx.] of goodes and catel and of monkes by heste and comfort of pope Gregorie. Tadwynus archebisshop of Caunterbury deide, and Nothelmus*. [Nothelinus, γ. and Cx.] bisshop of Londoun was archebisshop after hym. Also þat ȝere deyde Alwynus þat was*. [þat was] wor, α., β., and Cx.] bisshop of Lichfeld; and Wicta*. [Wytta, Cx.] was bisshop of Lichefeld whan he was dede. And Coita*. [Totta, α., β., and Cx.; Tocca, γ.] was bisshop of Legecestria, þat is Chestre, and Eada*. [Eata α., β., γ., and Cx.] durede ȝit at*. [at] a, Cx.] Dorchestre. Þat ȝere deide þat worthy man Beda þe preost.*. [prust, γ., et infra.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 5o. Þe sevenþe ȝere of his age he was i-take to norschynge*. [norischinge, β.] and to lore to Benet Bisshop, abbot of*. [abbot of] om. Cx.] Girwy, and after his deþ to Colfridus, abbot of þe same place. In his nynþe*. [nyntenþe, β.; nynteþe, γ.] ȝere he was i-made decon*. [dekene, β.; deken, Cx.] of Iohn bisshop of ȝork, and preost in his þrittenþe*. [þrittiþe, α.; xxxti, β.] ȝere. Þat ȝere Page  221, vol.6 he bygan to write, and so he spende al his lyftyme in þe same abbay, and made hym besy*. [busy, β.] to studie and expowne holy writt, and among þe besynesse þat he ne*. [ne] om. α., β., and Cx.] hadde [everiche day in þe service of religioun and in syngynge in chirche, he hadde]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] greet swetnesse and likynge to lerne, to teche, and to write. He wroot þrescore bookes and eyȝtene; þe bookes he rekeneþ in his storie Anglicana.*. [historia Anglicana, Cx.] Here lakkeþ and failleþ wit and speche to wondre*. [wondrye, γ.] at þe fulle þat a man þat was so wiþ oute use of scole made so many noble volumes in so sober wordes in so litel space of his lyftyme. Of al þis I conclude þat he com nevere at Rome; þey som men wil*. [wole, β.] mene þat he went to Rome to be þere present, and to schewe þat his bookes were accordynge to þe loore of holy chirche, and þat if þey were nouȝt accordynge for to amende hym at þe pope his heste. But þat he wente blynd aboute for to preche, þat he was i-ladde by fraude of his man for to preche to stones as it were to men, þat he herde*. [hurde, γ.] þe voys of stones*. [as it . . . stones] om. β.] þat answerede and seide Amen, þat he wente þreis to Rome, þat he fonde þre R and þre F i-write,*. [writen, β.; wryten, Cx.] and expowned what it was to mene, I fynde*. [Y vynde, γ.] it nouȝt i-write*. [writen, β.; wreton, Cx.] in bookes of auctorite. Som men telleþ Page  223, vol.6 þat suche [a wrytynge*. [writing, β.; writynge, γ.] was founden,*. [yvounde, γ.] R. R. R. F. F. F., and *. [sich, β.; soche, γ.]such]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] an exposicioun: regna ruent Romæ ferro flammaque fameque; þat is to menynge, kyngdoms of Rome schal falle*. [valle, γ.] by fuyre and iren,*. [yre, β. and γ.] also by honger. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. But by pope Sergius his pistel þat was i-sent to abbot Colfridus it is i-knowe þat Beda was i-sent after and i-prayed for to come to Rome for to assoyle*. [asoyl, γ.] questiouns þat were þere i-mevede.*. [meoved, β., et infra.] Here take hede how worþy þe court of Rome [hylde*. [huld, γ.] hym, þat þe court of Rome]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] hadde nede*. [neode, β. and γ.] to have hym to declare and to assoille þe questiouns þat þere were i-meved. And also how worþy we schal holde hym by manere of his leuynge and of his techynge. He myȝte not be vicious þat spende so his witte and þouȝt in expouninge of holy writte. But his clennesse was moche i-sene*. [seen myche, β.] at his laste ende, for sevene wookes*. [wekes, Cx.] contynualliche his stomak hadde indignacioun of mete and drynke, so þat unneþe he myȝte eny mete holde,*. [reteyne ony mete, Cx.] and was streiȝt*. [strait, β.; streyt, γ.; strayt, Cx.] and schort breþed. But for al þat he sparede not þe travayle of lettrure*. [letture, γ.] and of bookes, bote everiche day, among þe Page  225, vol.6 detty*. [dytty, γ.] travaylle of service and of psalmes, he tauȝte his disciples in lessouns and in questiouns, and he tornede Seynt Iohn his gospel into Englisshe, and seide, "Lerneþ, my*. [myn, α.] smale children, while I*. [Ich, β.; ych, γ.] am wiþ ȝou,*. [alive and with you, Cx.] I*. [Y, β. tris and γ. bis.] wot nouȝt how longe I*. [Y, β. tris and γ. bis.] schal wiþ ȝow abyde;" and evere among he seide þat sawe of Am|brose, "I have nouȝt so i-leved among ȝow þat me schameþ to lyve; noþer me dredeþ to deye, for me*. [me] we, β.] haveþ*. [we habbeþ, γ.] a good Lord." By nyȝte, whanne he hadde no man to teche, he travailled besiliche in bedes-byddynge, and þonked*. [þonkynge, α. and β.] God of alle. Þe Tewesday*. [Tuseday, β.; Tywesday, γ.] tofore þe Ascencioun his deeþ neighede,*. [neyhed, Cx.] and his feet gonne*. [bygunne, β.; bygonne, Cx.] to swelle; he was i-led*. [I ded, α.; aneled, β.; yeeled, γ.; om. Cx.] and anoynt*. [anoyt, γ.] and i-housled,*. [yhosled, γ.] and kessed*. [kisside, β.; kyssede, γ.] his breþeren, and prayed hem alle to have*. [habbe, γ.] of hym mynde,*. [munde, γ.] and he ȝaf to meny of his servauntes þinges þat he hadde i-kept in privete.*. [privyte, β.] In þe Ascencioun day þe cloþe of here*. [heer, Cx.] was i-sprad, and he leyde hym doun and prayed þe grace of þe Holy Goost, and seide: "Oo*. [O, γ.] Kyng of bliss, Lord of vertues, þat hast þe pris, and art Page  227, vol.6 þis day i-steie*. [steyed, β.; ystowe, γ.] up above alle hevenes, leve þou us not faderles, but sende þou into us þat byheste of þe Fader þe Goost for*. [of, α. and β.] soþnesse." Whanne þat was i-ended he ȝalde*. [ȝeelde, β.; yelded, Cx.] up þe laste breeþ wiþ a wel greet swetnesse of smyl,*. [smel, β.] and so*. [so] þanne, β.] he was i-buried þere; but þe comyn fame telleþ þat he is*. [now, add. β. and γ.] at Durham nowþe,*. [nowþe] om. α., β., and γ.; now, Cx.] wiþ Seynt Cuthbert; and wiþ hym was i-buryed wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β., bis.] al þe knowleche anon to þe conquest of dedes of Engelond, and nygh*. [neiȝ, β., bis.] al þe connynge of lettres; for after his*. [þat, β.] tyme after lewed*. [lewide, β., bis.] come more lewed,*. [lewide, β., bis.] as þe shameliche vers*. [versus, β. tris; verses, Cx.] þat were i-wrete on his tombe bereþ greet witnesse of unkonnynge; þat vers*. [tho verses, Cx.] were unworþy to be i|wrete on so worþy a manis tombe; þese beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] þe vers: "Beda þe preost*. [prust, γ.] resteþ here i-buried in þe flesch;*. [vleysch, γ.] Crist graunte his soule to be glad in hevene for evere; Graunt hym to drinke þe wel of wisdom þat he haþ nowþe*. [þat he mouþe, γ.; now, Cx.] Desired besiliche*. [desyreth bysylych, γ.] alwey riȝt wiþ love gret." Aboute þat tyme Ricoldus duke of Frisons was i-tornede by the prechynge of Seynt Wilfranus*. [Wulfranus, β.] þe bisshop, and wolde i-cristned be;*. [be i-cristened, α.; y-folled, β.; be yvolled, γ.] and putte his owne*. [oon, β.; one, Cx.]Page  229, vol.6 foot*. [hys o vote, γ.] into*. [into] in, β.] þe fontstoon,*. [vantstone, γ.] and wiþdrouȝ þat oþer, and axede of hem þat stood aboute wheþer þere were mo of his predeces|sours in paradys oþer in helle, and he was answerd þat þere were mo in helle; he herd*. [hurd, γ.] þat and drough his foot*. [voot, γ.] out of þe water, and seide: "It is esiere*. [esyur, γ.] þat I folwe*. [Y folowe, β.] þe more þan þe lasse."*. [leese, β.] And so he was bygiled of þe fende,*. [vend, γ.] and deide after*. [afterward, β.] þe þridde day. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Aboute þat tyme deyde Seint Fredeswyde*. [Frydeswyd, γ.; Frydeswyde, Cx.] þe mayde, i-bore at Oxen|forde, þe douȝter of duke Didianus.*. [Didanius, α.; Didamus, β. and γ.; duc Dydamus, Cx.] Kyng Algarus, a lecherous man, folowede*. [folewide, β.; volwede, γ.] here anon to þe citee of Oxenford, and whanne þe mayde was i-entred into þe citee þe ȝates closede*. [closiden, β.] and were i-schette*. [tynde, β.; ytund, γ.; closeden and shytt, Cx.] al by hymself, and the kyng werþ blynde þat pursewede*. [pursued, β.] here. But by prayeng of þe mayde he hadde his siȝht aȝe. Seþþe after þat tyme kynges of Engelonde dredeþ for to come wiþ ynne þat citee for drede of mishappes þat myȝte hym befalle. Colwulfus, kyng of Norþhomberlond, Page  231, vol.6 after eiȝte ȝere of his kyngdom, lefte his kyngdom to his cosyn Egbertus, þe sone of his fader broþer, and bycam a monk at Beda his abbay; and Egbertus [regnede]*. [From Cx.] nyntene ȝere. ℞. Bote William*. [Wiliam, γ.] de Regibus seiþ þat he was i-schore at Lyndefare*. [Lyndisfare, β.; Lyndyfare, γ.] cherche, and at þe laste i-buryed byside Seynt Cuthbert. Notelmus*. [Nothelinus, β., γ., and Cx.] archebisshop of Caunterbury deide, and Cuthberd, bisshop of Herford, was archebisshop after hym.