Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum vicesimum secundum. Iustinianus.

THE secounde Iustinianus regned eft*. [efte, β.; agein, Cx.] wiþ his sone Tyberius sixe ȝere; þis is he þat was prived of þe empere*. [empire, β.] [by Leo, but Page  177, vol.6 for he rekeverede*. [recuverede, γ.] þe emper]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þis ȝere, þerfore þe storie makeþ eft of hym mynde. Þan Iustinianus was restored, and hilde þe riȝt fey,*. [feiþ, β.] and worschipped Constantyn the pope, and destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] Cresona,*. [Cersona, Cx.] þe place of his excilynge, and slouȝ al þat wonede þere, [out take children;*. [childern, γ.] and eft whanne he wolde sle þe chil|dren, men of þe province made hem a cheventeyn*. [cheveteyn, β.] on Philipicus þat was exciled and wonede þere];*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and anon he wente to Con|stantynnoble, and slouȝ Iustinianus. Þat ȝere deie*. [deide, α.; deyde, β. and Cx.; dyede, γ.] Alfridus, kyng of*. [at, Cx.] Dryfeld.*. [at Driffeld, β.; Dryffeld, γ.] After hym his sone Osredus, a child of viii. ȝere, reynede enlevene*. [elleven, β.] ȝere; Sysinnus*. [Sisinnus, β.] was pope twenty dayes.*. [dawes, γ.] After hym þe firste Constantyn was pope sevene ȝere; [he]*. [From α., β., and γ.] denunced Philipicus an heretyk, for he hadde [y-doo]*. [From α. and γ.; put, Cx.] ymages of holy seyntes out of chirches. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 9o. Þat ȝere Kenredus, kyng of Mercia, lefte his kyngdom to Colredus, the soone of his eem*. [eame, Cx.] Ethelredus, and wente to Rome wiþ Offa, þe kyng his sone of Est Saxons, and wiþ Egwynus bisshop of Wicties.*. [Wike, β.]Trevisa. Þe see of Wyke*. [Kikcies, α.; Wiccies, β.]Page  179, vol.6 was i-torned to Wircestre,*. [Wircetre, β.; Worcetre, Cx.] and is þere ȝit. Þanne it foloweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] in þe storie: Colredus, kyng of Mercia, translated first þe body of seynt Werburgh,*. [Wesburgh, Cx.] þe mayde, out of þe erþe at þe abbay of Hamburgh, þat hadde i-lay þere ynne*. [ynne] om. α., β., and γ.] nyne ȝere hool and sounde, and durede so hool and sounde anon to þe comynge of þe Danes at Repentoun.*. [Repindoun, β.; Rypendon, Cx.] Aldelm bisshop of Shireborne*. [Schirburn, β.] deide, hym buried Egwynus; þis Aldelm*. [Aldelyn, MS.] was kyng Ine his broþer sone Kenten, and was i-cleped Aldelm as it were an olde Elyn*. [Elme, β.; an ald elm, γ.; Elme or an olde Helme, Cx.] oþer on olde Helyn,*. [helm, α. and β.; elm, γ.] and was most konnynge in lettres of Grew and of Latyn. He hadde and used instrumentis of musik, pipes and strenges, and oþere manere of*. [of] om. α., β., and γ.] glee.*. [gleo, β.; maner gleo, Cx.] First he was a monk, and þanne he was i-made preost and abbot at Malmesbury. He took uppon [him]*. [From Cx.] þat*. [þat] this, Cx.] martirdom þat whanne he were i-tempted of his flesche, he wolde holde wiþ hym a faire*. [veyr, γ.] mayde in his bed while he seide*. [as he was saing, Cx.] þe sawter from þe bygynnynge to þe ende. Trevisa. Save reverence*. [reverens, γ.] of seynt Aldelyn,*. [Aldelm, β.] þis semeþ non holynesse noþer.*. [noþer] ner, Cx.] wisdom, but pure verray*. [verrey, γ.] folye, boþe for hym self and for peril and drede of temptacioun of þe womman, as it may be i-preved boþe by auctorite and by resoun. Þanne it foloweþ*. [volweth, γ.] in þe storie: Page  181, vol.6 in*. [in] om. β.] þe sevenþe day of þe woke, whanne chapmen*. [chepmen, β. and γ.] com, he preched hem besily Goddes word. At þe laste his grete fame excited*. [exyted, Cx.] Sergius þe holy man, pope, to sende after hym by lettres and by pistles;*. [pistels, β.; pestels, γ.] þan he come to Rome, and hadde desired longe tyme to see þat citee, and hadde wiþ hym vestimentes*. [vestementes for to synge alwey messe, Cx.] þat he hadde*. [ladde, α. and γ.; had, β.] alwey with hym aboute, and song his masse to fore þe pope in Seynt Iohn his chirche þe Lateran.*. [Latran, Cx.] Þere in a day after his masse he trowede*. [he trowide, β.] have i-take his chesible*. [chesibel, γ.] bakward to his servauntes; boþe*. [but, β.] þe servauntes were awey, and þe chesible fil*. [vul, γ.] on þe sonne beme, and þe sonne beem*. [sunne beeme, β.] bare it longe tyme, þere oþere servauntes faillede;*. [failiden, β.] þat chesible is ȝit in þe abbay of Malmesbury. Also þat tyme þe holy pope was deffamed þat he hadde bygete a bastard childe. Whanne þe childe was nyne dayes olde it was i-brouȝt to cristenynge*. [follyng, β.; vollyng, γ.] to seynt Aldelyn,*. [Aldelm, β. (bis).] and seint Aldelyn*. [Aldelm, β. (bis).] coniureþ þe childe of nyne dayes olde it was i-brouȝt to cristenynge*. [it . . . cristenynge] om. α. and β.] þat he schulde telle ȝif Sergius þe pope hadde i-gete*. [bygote, Cx.] hym; þe childe answerde hym and seide þat þe pope was gilteles*. [gultles, γ.] of þat dede. At þe Page  183, vol.6 laste Aldelme wiþ many priveleges wente hoom aȝe to his abbay, and wroot noble bookes, de virginitate, de termino Paschali, de veteris ac novi testamenti floribus, de caritate, de sensibilium rerum natura, de regulis pedum metricorum, de mathaplasmo,*. [methaplasmo, γ. and Cx.] de metrico dialogo. He was abbot of Malmesbury fourty ȝere, and was bisshop foure ȝere, and þat tyme his breþeren made hem a noþer abbot; but þey buried hym whanne he was dede, and Egwynus þe bisshop come to his burienge, as me troweþ, by warnynge of God Almyȝti. Afterward þe holy bisshop Dunston*. [Dunstan, β.] worschipped hugeliche*. [hougeliche, γ.] and hiȝte*. [gretely his place and highted, Cx.] his place and his schryne, and ȝaf þerto organs and belles, holy relikes and ornamentes; and for me schulde nouȝt take hem awey unskilfulliche he corsede þerfore, and wroot in þis manere, "Bisshop Dunstan ȝeveþ seint Aldelyn*. [Aldelm, β., et infra.] organs. Who þat takeþ hem away, leese*. [leose, β.] [he]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe kyng|dom of hevene." Also in a waterstene it is i-write in þis manere, "Archebisshop Dunstan het ȝit*. [ȝute, β.; hyȝt ȝute, γ.; heete ȝute, Cx.] þis stene for it schulde in þe holy temple serve seint Aldelyn." Also in the belle of þe fraytour*. [freytour, γ.] hit is i-write*. [writen, β.] in þis manere, "In hiȝe Page  185, vol.6 halle of hevene com he nevere þat steliþ þis belle out of seynt Aldelyn his seete." Trevisa.*. [Trevisa . . . place] om. Cx.] Þis writynge myȝte be trans|lated somdel in metre in þis manere: "Organs of holy Dunstan bisshop holy Aldelyn;*. [Aldelme, β.] he schal lese*. [luse, γ.] hevene þat wil*. [wole, β.] hem take*. [taken, α. and β.] awey." In þe pycher*. [picher, β.] þus, "Þis picher het ȝit*. [ȝute, β.; hit ȝute, γ.] Dunstan riȝt þe archebisshop,*. [arch þe bisshop, α. and β.] ffor it schulde serve seynt Aldelyn*. [Aldelm, β., et infra.] in þe*. [þe] om. α. and β.] temple." In þe belle þus, "Hiȝ*. [Heiȝ, β.] in þat halle schal he com nevere of hevene þat stele wole þat belle of seynt Alde|lyn from þis place."*. [þe place, β. See note 1 above.] Aboute þis ȝere deyde seynt Wil|fredus; in his tombe beeþ suche vers i-write:*. [versus writen, β.; ben wreton suche versus, Cx.] "Wilfridus holy by mynde, worþy be þy*. [be þy] by, β., γ., and Cx.] name. Greved wiþ perilles here wel many longe*. [longene, β. and γ.] tyme; þre tyme*. [siþe, α., β., and Cx.] fiftene*. [þre sithe vyftene, γ.] ȝere bisshop he was here on lyve, and passeþ wiþ ioye to þe blisse þat is in hevene." Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 19o. Þis child was of scharp wit, and wente in þe fourteþe*. [fourtenthe, Cx.] ȝere of his age to þe abbay of Lyndefare,*. [Lyndisfare, β.] and lernede þere meny þinges of þe lore of religioun, and knewe þanne þat som þinges*. [þingis, β., et infra.] were nouȝt riȝtfulliche i-holde of þe Scottes, and wente to Rome for to lerne*. [lerny, γ.] more perfite*. [perfite, β.] lore.*. [parfyght loore, Cx.] Þere he lernede [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] foure Page  187, vol.6 Gospell*. [gospelles, α.; gospels, β.] of Bonefas*. [Boneface, β.] þe archedecon, and þe compot of Es|terne,*. [Ester, β.; the Eester, Cx.] and oþer nedeful*. [nedfol, γ.] þinges to þe use of holy chirche. In his comynge aȝe he dwellede wiþ Alfynus, bisshop of Lug|dunens, þre ȝere, for*. [for] til, β. and Cx.] he was i-slawe by þe queene Batilde.*. [Batyld, β.] Þanne Wilfridus wente aȝen into Bretayne, and feng*. [vyng, γ.] lond of kyng Oswynus*. [Oswyus, α., β., and Cx.; Os|wyne, γ.] for to make an abbay at Rypoun;*. [Rypun, β.; Ripun, γ.] þere he was i-made preost*. [prust, γ.] of Agelbertus; after þat, whan þe stryf was i-ended of þe Ester terme, he was i-chose bisshop of ȝork, as it is i-seide to forehonde. Whan he was dede his preost Acca*. [Acta, β. and Cx.] was bisshop after hym at Hagustald cherche. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 20o.*. [cap. secundo, Cx.] Þat ȝere deide Adrianus, abbot of Seynt Peter, and helper of Theodorus þe archebisshop; his disciple and successour was Albynus, of hym it is i-wrete innere*. [ynnere, α. and β.; inner, γ.] more.*. [innermore, Cx.]Item, capitulo 21o.*. [cap. duodecimo, Cx.] Þat tyme Nactanus, kyng of Pictes, sente messangers to Colfridus, abbot of Beda his abbay, þat is in*. [in] om. β. and Cx.] þe abbay Girwie,*. [Girwic, β.; Gerwyk, Cx.] to be enformed of þe verray holdynge of þe Ester tyde, and of þe manere of tonsure of holy cherche. Page  189, vol.6 Among oþer þinges he wroot*. [a wrot, γ.] to hym þat for to holde ariȝt þe Ester tyme*. [terme, Cx.] þre rules beeþ nedeful to knowe; tweyne þerof beþ conteyned in Moyses lawe, and þe þridde*. [þrid, β.] in þe gospel by ordenaunce of þe apostles: so*. [so þat . . . Esterday] om. Cx., and puts in the place of this long passage the words: "And so he sente to hym the very true maner and reulis to holde the Eesterday like as we now holde."] þat in þe firste monþe, in þe þridde woke of þe same monþe, from þe fifteþe day of þe mone to þe oon and twentiþe day of [the mone],*. [From β. and γ.] þe Estertyde schal be i-holde; in þe same þridde woke me schal abyde þe Soneday. So for to acounte þat nouȝt þe fourteþe day, but þe eve þerof, þat is þe fourteþe day of þe mone, þat is þe by|gynnynge of þe þridde woke and þe nyȝt of þe fifteþe day of þe mone me mote nedes abyde. By [þat]*. [From α., β., and γ.] auctorite of þe book Numerorum, þanne þey wente out of Ramesse,*. [Rames, β.] þe fifteþe day of þe firste monþe fil*. [vul, γ.] on a Sonday,*. [fil on a Sonday] expuncted in α., which adds the words in brackets, also expuncted; they are neither of them in β.] [þanne we myȝte alwey holde þe Ester tyde,]*. [From α. and γ.] and þe oþer day þey made pasch*. [phase, α. and γ.; phase, β.] to oure Lord, þat is to meninge þey hilde þe Ester day, and so it schal dure to þe eve of þe oon and twentiþe day. And ȝif it myȝte be þat alwey the fifteþe day of þe firste monþe fil in a Sonday, þan we myȝte alwey holde þe Estertyde in oon and Page  191, vol.6 þe same tyme þat oure fadres hilde*. [helde, β.] it in Moyses his law, þey we have*. [habbe, γ.] oþer manere sacrament þan þey*. [hy, γ.] hadde. By þe evenes*. [evennesse, β.] of þe day and nyȝt in springynge tyme it may be i-founde*. [yvounde, γ.] which is þe firste oþer þe laste monþe of þe ȝere; by men of [þe]*. [From α., β., and γ.] Est londes, [and]*. [From α., β., and γ.] by þe Egipcians, þe evenesse of [þe]*. [From β.] day and nyȝt in springynge tyme is i-woned*. [wont, β.] for to come ele|vene dayes to fore Averel, þat we haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] i-sayed*. [assayed, α. and β.] and i-pre|ved by an orlege.*. [horlage, β.] Þanne what mone is fourtene dayes olde oþer fiftene to fore þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt, þat mone parteyneþ to þe laste moneþ of þe ȝere þat is agoo; þerfore it is nouȝt able*. [habel, γ.] for to holde þe Ester day. Whanne þe*. [Whanne þe] What, β.] mone is at the fulle*. [volle, γ.] in þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt, oþer after, riȝt as it was in þe bygynnynge of þe worlde,*. [worl, γ.] in þat ful*. [volle, γ.] mone þe firste Sonday is Ester day.*. [See note 4, page 189.] Þe secounde Iustinianus sente his oost*. [hoost, Cx.] for to take Philippicus, þat he hadde i-left at Pontus in Cersona. Bote þe oost tornede [to Philippicus his side, and slouȝ Iustinianus. Þe secounde]*. [From α., β., and γ.] Philippicus, þat heet Dardanicus also, was emperour oon ȝere and sixe monþes. He fliȝ*. [vlyȝ, γ.; fled, Cx.] into Sicilia for þe oost of Rome, and for he was an heretik he heet scrape of al þe peynture of cherches; þerfore Page  193, vol.6 þe Romayns þrewe away al manere money þat his ymage was i-grave ynne. Þe secounde Anastacius*. [Anastasius, β.] was emperour þre ȝere after þat he hadde i-slawe Philipicus. In his tyme Dagobertus was kyng of*. [of] in, β.] Fraunce after his fader Childebertus, and regnede enlevene ȝere by suffraunce*. [suffrans, γ.] of Pipinus Vetulus, þat ȝit*. [ȝet, α.; ȝitt, β.] rulede*. [ȝut reulede, γ.] þe kynges hous. After Constantinus þe secounde Gre|gory was pope sixtene [ȝere].*. [From β.] Þat ȝere seint Guthlacus, þe anker, deide in Crowlond; and Ine, kyng of West Saxons, and Colredus, kyng of Mercia, fauȝte*. [foughten, Cx.] at Wodenesburgh so sharp|liche, [and eiþer of hem hadde*. [bare, Cx.] hymself so ungraciousliche,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat me woste*. [wist, β.] nevere wheþer of hem hadde worse spede.*. [spedde, β. and Cx.; spyde, γ.] Þe þridde Theodocius was emperour oon ȝere, and was goodliche and benigne, and overcome his predecessour Anastacius, and made hym a preost.*. [prust, γ.] But after oon ȝere Theodocius was i-putte doun and i-made a clerk by his sucessour, þe þridde Leo þe stronge. In his tyme come many Saraȝyns*. [Sarsyns, β.] and by|segede*. [bisegide, β.]Page  195, vol.6 Constantynnoble þre ȝere; hit semeþ þat Iohn Dama|scenus was þat tyme in his floures, and was i-broȝt in to Pers.*. [Perce, Cx.] Þere were lettres i-wrete of his enemyes, and i-þrowe forþ and i-founde*. [vorþ and yvounde, γ.] and openliche i-rad. In þe whiche lettres was con|ceyved*. [conteyned, β.] his conspiracie aȝenst the prince, þat*. [þanne, β.] þe*. [þat þe] Thenne his, Cx.] riȝt hond was i-smyte of, for he schulde nevere afterward write. But he prayed faste*. [vaste, γ.] to oure lady þat he servede besiliche, and his hond was restored to hym aȝen. It is nouȝt to trowynge*. [to suppose, Cx.] þat þis Iohn is Iohn the Ermyte*. [Hermyte, β.] þat is i-sette in þe book of fadres, sone afterward*. [after, α., β., and Cx.] Hyllarioun, and warnede Theodocius þe emperour of oþer victories. He*. [hit, α.; It,.; Hyt, γ.] is anoþer Iohn þat was in þis þridde Theodocius his tyme in Gres, and afterward in Pers, and made many noble bookes in boþe of*. [of] om. α., β., and Cx.] philosofie. Þat Iohn þe Ermyte was longe tyme to fore þe grete Gregorie, [and this Iohan Damascenus was long tyme after the grete Gre|gorye,]*. [From Cx.; and þis Joon Da|mascenus was longe tyme after þe grete Gregory, β.; and þes John Damascenus was longe tyme after þe grete Gregory, γ.] þat is i-knowe [by that, that*. [that] and, MS.]]*. [From Cx.] þis Iohn Damascenus Page  197, vol.6 in his bookes of divinite alleyeþ*. [allegeþ, β.] þe grete Gregorye his noble and grete myracle of þe delyverance of Traianus, þat may not be understonde of Gregory Nazazenus,*. [Naȝauȝenus, Cx.] for he was aboute Constantynnoble and aboute Pontus, and unneþe com nevere*. [nevere] ever, β. and Cx.; evere, γ.] at Rome; bote*. [but, β.] mynde*. [munde, γ.] of þat myracle of þe deliveraunce of Traianus at þe sepulcre of þe apostles in þe citee of Rome, by þe grete Gregorie pope, is i-holde, as everich ȝere holy chirche makeþ*. [makiþ, β.] mynde.*. [munde, γ.] In tretynge of dedes þat helpeþ hem þat beeþ dede, Iohn Damascenus alleyeþ*. [allegeþ, β.; alledgeth, Cx.] þat myracle.