Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

[Capitulum primum.]

MARCIANUS wedded Theodocius his suster, and regnede*. [regnede] was, β.] emperour as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] sevene ȝere. In his firste*. [furste, γ.] tyme was the counsaille Calcidonence i-made aȝenst Entices*. [Eutices, γ.] and Dioscorus, as it is i-seide to forehonde; at þe laste þis Marcianus was i|slawe at Constantynnoble by conspiracie of his owne men, and þe Hunnes and Wandales destroyed*. [distrieden, β.; destroieden, Cx.] þe citees of Gallia þat stood uppon þe Ryne.*. [Ryn, Cx.] Þat tyme Vortigernus regnede in Bre|tayne, Page  259, vol.5 and þo fel*. [ful, γ.] so grete plente of corne and of*. [of] om. Cx.] fruyt þat non suche plente was i-seie in none tyme þere aforhonde; and with þat plente leccherie and pestilence of al evel doynge gan*. [bigan to, Cx.] encrese.*. [encreesse, γ.] Cruelnesse and wreþþe, nouȝt onliche in seculer men but also in þe folk*. [flok, α.; flock, Cx.] of oure Lorde, [and in þe hyrdes*. [heordes, β.; hurdes, γ.; and governours, added in Cx.] of þe flok of oure Lord,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] were boþe stronge and grete. So þat everiche man turnede his spere aȝenst þe trewe man, as it were aȝenst þe traytour of Bretayne, and þey ȝaf hem al*. [al] om. Cx.] to dronkenesse,*. [drongnes, γ.] kokkynge,*. [cokkynge, α.; cokking, β.; fyghtyng, Cx.] strif, and envie. Þanne sodenliche so grete pesti|lence of deth*. [of deth] om. Cx.] fil*. [ful, γ.] on þe men of evel lyvynge, so*. [so] om. Cx.] þat þey þat were lefte on lyve myȝte unneþe awelde forto*. [awelde forto] om. Cx.] burye hem þat were dede, but þey þat lefte [onlyve]*. [From α.; alyve, β., γ., and Cx.] were nouȝt sone amended þerby. Þerfore an hardere wreche*. [a gretter vengeaunce, Cx.] come afterward, for Vortigernus and his counseil*. [counseil] om. α. and β.] took hem to rede to goo*. [to goo] and sente, α., β., γ., and Cx.] over see*. [over see] om. Cx.] after paynyms of Saxon, and prayed hem to come from byȝonde þe*. [þe] om. γ.] see to doo hem help and socour:*. [sokour, γ.] it is i-knowe*. [unknowen, Cx.] þat Page  261, vol.5 it was God his owne dede, for harme schulde falle upon Cristen*. [wicked, β.; wykked, γ.; wycked, Cx.] men. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Vortigernus dradde þe Pictes þat [he]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] hadde i-greved to forhonde, and in þe oþer side he dradde þe comynge of Aurelius Ambrosius, for he hadde i-herde*. [y-hurd, γ.] þat he hadde made redy his schippes for to passe þe see; þerfore he took hym to reede*. [took hym to reede] concluded, Cx.] to sende for þe Saxons, þat were noble werriours and strong in batayle. Beda, libro primo. Þanne þe Saxons,*. [Saxon, α.] strong men of armes, and placelees*. [placeles, β.] to wone*. [wonye, β. and γ.] ynne,*. [havyng no place to dwelle in, Cx.] were i-prayed of þe Britouns forto come in to Bretayne,*. [into Bretayne] om. α., β., and Cx.] and come*. [and come] om. Cx.] in þre longe schippes, þat þey clepeþ oblias,*. [obilas, α., β., and γ.; obylas, Cx.] in to Bre|tayne, and fenge*. [resseyve, Cx.] a place to wonye in*. [wonye ynne, γ.] þe est side þerof, in þe ilond Thanet bysides Kent, as it were for to fiȝte for þe contray, but it was more forto werrey and fiȝte aȝenst the contray. Willelmus de Regibus. Wel nygh al þe lond þat lyeth*. [liþ, β.] norþ|ward over þe see occean of Bretayne is i-cleped Germania, for it bryngeþ forþ so moche*. [mych, β.; muche, γ.] folk. Germania [comeþ]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] of Germinare Page  263, vol.5 þat is, for to burge*. [borge, β., γ., and Cx.] and bringe forþ. Þerfore as water bowes beeþ i-kutte*. [buþ y-kut, γ.] and i-hewe*. [hewen, Cx.] of treen,*. [tren, β. and γ.] for þe fastnesse*. [fatnesse, α.; fattnesse, β.; fat|nes, γ. and Cx.] of þe erþe*. [eorþe, γ.] schulde suffice to þe lyf of þe oþer deel of þe tree; so men of Germania revyleþ*. [releveþ, α., β., and γ.; releve, Cx.] þat lond þat is here moder by puttinge out of þe eldere*. [þe eldere] om. Cx. elþer, γ.] men þat beeþ stronge for to fiȝte, lest þey schulde be overcome wiþ to meny children ȝif þey abide al at home. But for to hele*. [covere, Cx.] þe envie of doynge þey telleþ*. [saye, Cx.] þat þey beeþ*. [þat a buþ, γ.] i-send out by lot; þerfore it is þat men of þat lond maketh hem strengþe of nede*. [neode, γ.] for to chalange strounge*. [straunge, α. and Cx.] londes to wonye*. [dwelle, Cx.] ynne, whanne þey beeþ i-put out of here owne lond. As þe Wandales somtyme wan Affrica, and þe Longebardes Italy, and þe Normans Gallia, so first come tweye breþeren*. [breþeron, γ.] out of Germania, Engistus and Horsus, wiþ a litel strengþe, and were Woden his nevewes; and as þey come of Woden, so wel nygh al þe kyngyn*. [kyngen, β.; kyngene, γ.; kyn|ges, Cx.] lynage of straunge naciouns come of þis Woden; and for*. [for] for as moche as, Cx.] þe Saxons þo hilde hym a god, þei cleped*. [clepide, β.] þe fourþe day of þe woke Wodenysday,*. [Woden his day, α.] in worschepe of þis Woden; and þe sixte day Friday, in worschippe of his wif Page  265, vol.5 Frea; þus þey dede be sacrelegie*. [hy dude by sacrylegy, γ.] þat lasteþ*. [the lestel, Cx.] evermore.*. [evermore] om. γ.]Beda, libro primo. Þere come of þre*. [of þre] thre of, Cx.] þe strengest peple of Germania into Bretayne, Saxons, Angles, and Pictes,*. [Jutes, α., β., and Cx.] of þe Iutes com þe Kentiche*. [Kentisch, β.; Kentysch, γ.; Kentysshe, Cx.] men, and þe men of þe yle of Wight, and þe men þat woneþ aȝenst þe ile of Wight.*. [Weyght, Cx.] Of þe Saxons come þe Est Saxons, þe Souþ Saxons, and þe West Saxons. Of þe Angles come þe Est Angles and Myddel Angels, þat is þe Mercies, and hadde myddel Engelond, þat strecceþ westward to þe ryver Dea*. [Dee, β. and Cx.] besides Chestre, and to Sevarne besides Shroesbury,*. [Shrovesbury, α. and β.; Schroys|bury, γ.; Shrowesbury, Cx.] and so forþ to Bristowe, and estward to*. [to] toward, Cx.] þe Est*. [Est] om. Cx.] see, and souþward to Tempse,*. [Temse, β. and γ.] and so [forþ]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] to London, and northward to Hum|ber, and torneþ downward and westward to þe ryver Mersea,*. [Mercea, γ.] and so forth to þe West see. Also of þe Angles come þe men of Norþhumberlond, and Horsus and Engistus were lederes of hem alle. Trevisa. Forto know rediliche þe meres and þe*. [þe] om. α., γ., and Cx.] merkes of þe contrayes where þese*. [whar þeos, γ.] men were to set, loke in þe firste book, capitulo 51o. Henricus, libro 2o. Þese*. [þeose, γ.] men seillede*. [seilide, β.] into Bretayne, and bete*. [bente, α.; bent, γ.; bete doune, Cx.] þe enemyes of Bretouns;*. [Brytayne, Cx.] þe enemyes were i-come anon to Staunford,*. [Stanford, Cx.] þat is fourty myle out of Page  267, vol.5 Lincolne*. [Lyncolum, Cx.] souþward. Whanne þe Pictes and þe Scottes usede longe schaftes*. [scheftes, γ.] and speres, þe Saxons foughte wiþ longe swerdes*. [sweordes, γ.] and axes. Gaufridus. And so Vortigernus hadde þe victorie by help of þe Saxons, and ȝaf to Engistus lond in Lindeseye, þere he bulde*. [buylded, Cx.] a castel [þat hatte Þwongcastre,*. [þongcastre, γ.; Thongcastre, Cx.] for hym was i-graunted as moche londe to bulde on a castel]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] as a þwonge myȝte bycleppe.*. [biclippe, β.] Þerefore Engistus kutte*. [ki tte, β.] a bole hyde*. [huyde, α., β., γ., and Cx.] alto oon þong,*. [þwong, γ.] and byclipped þerwiþ al þat place. Beda, libro primo. Þanne tyþinges come home of þe goodnesse of þe londe of Bretayne, and of þe feblenesse of men þat wonede þerynne; þanne was i-sende a gretter navey forto make more nombre of Saxons, and þey feng and undertook þe werre*. [they to toke on them the warre, Cx.] uppon [þat].*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] covenaunt þat þey schulde fiȝte for þe contray, and þe Bretouns schulde fynde hem mete and wages. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Þanne at þe secounde tyme þe Saxons come wiþ sixtene schippes, and brouȝte wiþ hem Hengistus Page  269, vol.5 his douȝter, a wonder faire mayde, merveillous*. [merveyl, α.; merveyl of kuynde and wonder syȝt, γ.; mervayle, Cx.] of kynde, and wonder siȝty*. [of siȝt, β.; of sighte, Cx.] for men to byholde. Þe kyng Vortigernus byhelde*. [byhuld, γ.] hir ofte, and heet þat sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] schulde serve hym in|stede of his boteler, and þe kyng axeþ here to wif, and eggeþ*. [egged, Cx.] hir fader þerto, as þey it were aȝenst his wille, and ȝaf Kent in stede of a ȝifte, and ȝaf Engistus leve to sende*. [consented that Engistus shold sende, Cx.] for his sone.*. [On the margin of MS. Addit. there is written in red chalk "John Wynter."]Gaufridus et Alfridus. Þis weddynge was i-made, and þe kyng putte away his laweful wif, on þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] he hadde i-gete þre noble ȝongelynges, Vortimerus, Categirnus, and Pascencius. Beda, libro primo. Þanne þe Saxons con|spirede wiþ þe Pictes þat þey hadde i-putte out to forhond, and tornede to*. [to] for to, Cx.] fiȝte aȝenst here felawes þe Britouns; and firste þey axede*. [axiden, β.] more corne, and for it was noȝt i-ȝeve hem þey destroyede*. [distruyde, β.] þe contray, and slouȝ*. [slowe, Cx.] þe bisshoppes and þe peple. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Þanne þe Bretouns sigh þat þey were overset wiþ multitude of Saxons, and [counsailede*. [counceyleden, Cx.] þe kyng to forsake þe Saxons; and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] forsake*. [forsake] for, γ.; bycause, Cx.] he wolde nouȝt assente, Page  271, vol.5 þey took his sone Vortimerus and made hym kyng.*. [kyng] om. γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. After þe sevenþe ȝere of þe confeþe|racye he fauȝt aȝenst þe Angles ofte in smal bataylles, but fyve*. [fyf, γ.] siþes scharpliche wiþ al the companye. Henricus et Gaufridus. Þe firste of þese*. [þeos, γ.] batailles was uppon þe ryver Derwent,*. [Derwont, Cx.] and þe secounde uppon þe forde*. [apon vord, γ.] Epiforde, þere Horsus and Catagirnus wounded*. [wondide, β.] eiþer*. [eche, Cx.] oþer. Þe þridde was i-do by help of Seint Germayn þe*. [tho, Cx.] bisshop; at þat bataille me cryde þreis Alleluya, and þe Saxons fliȝ.*. [fledde, Cx.] Þe fourþe bataille was uppon þe see brynke,*. [bryngke, γ.] þere þe Saxons fleiȝ in to þe ylond Thanet. Whanne Page  273, vol.5 þe*. [þese, α. and Cx.; þeose, γ.] batailles were i-doo Vortymerus deide, þoruȝ venym of his stedame*. [stepdame, β. and γ.; stepdam, Cx.] Rowen, [℞]*. [From Cx.] but William seiþ þat whanne Fortimerus*. [Vortimerus, β., γ., and Cx.] hadde i-fouȝte twenty ȝere stalworthliche*. [manly, Cx.] aȝenst þe Angles, he was i-take awey by lotte of destenye. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Whan Vortimerus hadde i-fouȝte and*. [hadde i-fouȝte and] om. α. and Cx.] was deed, Vortigernus was efte restored in*. [in] to, Cx.] þe kyndom. Þanne, in hope of pees, boþe Bretouns and Angles come to gidres besides þe abbay Ambrius,*. [Above the line, in a later hand, is written, "now called Anmesbere."] þe firste day of May,*. [Maii, γ.] for to trete of pees bytwene hem þere. Þere Hengistus usede a newe manere of tresoun, and seide to [his]*. [From Cx.] knyȝtes, þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] whan he cride an Englisch*. [Anglysch, γ.] "Nemeþ*. [Nymeþ, α., γ., and Cx.; Ny|meth, β.] ȝoure sexes,"*. [sexses, γ.] þanne anon þey schulde slee here felawes þe Bretouns with knyfes þat þey hadde i-hydde in her hosen;*. [hoson, γ.] and so it was i-doo. But Edol,*. [Eldol, β., γ., and Cx.] duke of Gloucestre, cauȝte a stable,*. [stake, α., γ., and Cx.] and de|fended [hym]*. [From Cx.] manliche, and slouȝ seventy*. [seventen, Cx.] Saxons; but þe Sax|ons Page  275, vol.5 wolde nouȝte slee Vortigernus, but þey feng for*. [feng for] resseyved, Cx.] his raun|soun noble citees of Bretayne, and he wente into þe west contray of Wales, and abood at Gevoren*. [Genoren, β. and Cx.] uppon þe ryver Gwania, in þe hille Gloarvus;*. [Cloarcius, β. and Cx.; Cloar|vus, γ.] þo Aurelius Ambrosius come aftirward uppon hym, and brende hym in his [owne]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] toure. But Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo, meneþ oþerwise, and seiþ þat Engistus, by tresoun and fraude, prayde his douȝter housbonde Vorti|gernus, to a feste with þre hondred of his men, and whanne the gestes*. [gistes, γ.; ghestys, Cx.] hadde wel i-dronke, þanne by sleiþe þey were i-made *. [to] added in Cx.]stryve and chyde, and after strif þey took hem to here wepoun.*. [wepne, γ.; and after toke theyr wepens and foughte, Cx.] Þanne þe Britouns were i-slawe, and þe kyng was i-take and i-raunsond for þre provinces of þe Est. Also Willelmus, libro primo, et Henricus, libro 2o, telleþ þat Vortigernus lay by his owne douȝter, in hope þat kynges schulde come of hym, and gat on here a sone; þerfore he was acursed of Seint Ger|mayn and of al þe companye*. [compeny, β.] of preostes, and fliȝ into þe west|side Page  277, vol.5 of Wales; also it is i-wrete þat Seint German fliȝ, and he pursewed*. [poursiewed, Cx.] after hym, and*. [after, added in Cx.] was i-brent in his toure wiþ fuyre þat cam doun from hevene. Þanne þe Bretouns gadrede an oost, and Aurelius Ambrosius was duke, and hadde þat oost aȝenst Horsus and Hengistus in Kent; but Gaufre,*. [Gaufridus, α.; Gaufr., Cx.] in his Brittish book, wil mene þat after þat Aurelius Ambrosius was i-come*. [comen, β.] from byȝonde see, he brende Vortigernus in his [owne]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] tour. And þanne he passed Homber, and made Hengistus be byheded at Conyngesburgh, and spared his sone Occe,*. [Otte, γ.; Octe, Cx.] þat was byseged at ȝork, and [i]*. [From α.] brouȝte lowe;*. [louȝ, γ.] after þis he overcome Pascen|cius, Vortigernus his sone,*. [his sone] om. Cx.] and his helpere Collomaurus*. [Gillomaurus, α., γ., and Cx.] kyng of Irlond; at þe laste he werþe*. [worþe, β.; a werþ, γ.; waxe, Cx.] sike at Wynchestre, and a Saxon þat heet Eopa ȝaf hym venym to drynke*. [dryngke, γ.] instede of medicyne, and so Aurelius deide; oon Pascencius hadde i-hired*. [y-huyred, γ.] Eopa, as it were a leche, for to doo þat dede. It is i-write*. [wreton, Cx.] in Seint German his legende, þat Vortigernus werned*. [weornede, γ.] Seint Ger|man harburgh,*. [herber, β.; lodgynge, Cx.] and a herde*. [heorde, β.; an heurde, γ.] þat kepte þe kynges bestes sigh þat Goddes holy*. [holy] om. Cx.] servauntes were i-greved, and herborwed*. [herberowed, β.; harburwede, γ.; lodged, Cx.] Seint Page  279, vol.5 German, and slowȝ a calf to þe*. [to þe] for his, Cx.] soper; but after þe soper Seint German arered the*. [reysed that calf, Cx.] calf fro deþ to lyve. Amorwe by heste of God German putte doun Vortigernus of his kyngdom, and took þe forseide herde*. [heurde, β.; heurde, γ.] and made hym kyng; þo alle men were astonyed*. [astoned, Cx.] for þat doynge;*. [þat doynge] wonder, α., γ., and Cx.] and from þat tyme forþward*. [forthon, Cx.] þe kynges of Bretouns come of þe herdes*. [heordes, β.; hurde, γ.] kynde; but Gildas, in his storie, seith þat þis byfel*. [bifil, β.] of þe kyng of Poysie*. [Powysye, β., γ., and Cx.] þat heet Bully,*. [Buly, γ. and Cx.] and nouȝte of Vortigernus, and seith þat Buly his suc|cessoures come of þis herde*. [hurdes, β.; heurde, γ.] his kynde, þat were kynges in þat side of Wales; þanne what is i-seide her of Vortigernus his ende is i-seide as it were in a manere for spekynge,*. [is i-seide . . . spekynge] it is in a manere doubte as, Cx.] forto kepe þe storie hool. Furþermore, what is i-seide of þe ponde of þe tweie dragouns, white and rede, of Vortigernus his buldynge, of Merlyn his fantastik getynge,*. [getynk, γ.] and of his prophecie þat is so derk, is conteyned in the Brittishe book, and I*. [ich, β.] wolde putte it to þis*. [þes, γ.] storie ȝif I trowed þat it be*. [hyt ys, γ.] i-holpe by soþenesse.*. [yf I supposed that it were trewe, Cx.]