Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum decimum nonum. Theodorus.

THEODORUS, kyng of Fraunce, regnede after his fader Clo|tarius eyȝtene ȝere. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 10o.*. [18o, Cx.] Þat ȝere Etheldredus, kyng of Mercia, destroyed*. [destruyde, β.; destruyede, γ.] Kent; and Pucta, bisshop of Rouchestre, wente from Rochestre to Sex|wulfus, Page  133, vol.6 and feng*. [vyng, γ.] of hym þe cherche of Hereforde.*. [Herforde, Cx.] Þere he took*. [touk, γ.] more hede to þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] melodye of holy chirche þan to amende his owne bisshopriche. Also þat ȝere Benet bisshop*. [byschop, γ.; Benett the bisshop, Cx.] took*. [touk, γ.] wiþ hym Colfridus [þe]*. [From α. and Cx.] monke, and wente to*. [þe, α. and Cx.] forþe*. [þe vurde, γ.; fourth, Cx.] tyme to Rome, and brouȝte wiþ hym Iohn þe archechaunter. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 18o. Also þat ȝere was i-doo*. [don, Cx.] a greet bataille bytwene Egfridus kyng of Norþhomberlond and Ethel|dredus kyng of Mercia, bysides þe ryver Trent;*. [of Trente, Cx.] and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] kyng Egfridus his broþer was i-slawe þat heet Elswynus, and was leef*. [luef, γ.] to boþe kyngdom:*. [kyngdoms, β. and Cx.] for his deth was moche*. [myche, β.] money i-ȝeve*. [gyven, Cx.] at þe instaunce*. [instauns, γ.] of Theodorus þe archebisshop, and so was i-made acorde. In þat fitynge*. [fiȝtinge, β.; vyȝttyng, γ.] oon of kyng*. [kyng] om. Cx.] Ethel|fridus his knyȝtes was grevously*. [grevoslyche, γ.] i-wounded, and Etheldredus his men toke hym while he wolde aryse.*. [as he wold have rysen, Cx.] And as ofte as he was in bondes wiþ his enemyes, oþer wiþ oon Fryson þat hadde Page  135, vol.6 bouȝt*. [bouȝt, from α. and β.; ybouȝte, γ.; boughte, Cx.; i-brouȝt, MS.] hym, his bondes breke as ofte, in þe same houre*. [in the same houre] om. Cx., supplying the words after man.] as his broþer, a preost,*. [prust, γ.] song a masse for hym as for a deed man, [and þat alway forto his raunsom]*. [From α., β., and γ.; And that dured alwey till his raunson were payd, and that he cam to his broder ageyne, Cx.] was y-payde þe*. [Na mira|culum.] money,*. [þe money] om. α. and γ.] and [he]*. [From α. and β.] come to his broþer aȝe. Also þat ȝere was i-seie*. [seye, β.] a sterre þat hatte stella comata þre monþes in þe hervest*. [harvost, γ.] tyme. Þat tyme kyng Egfridus, at þe excitynge of his wyf, putte Wilfridus out of þe bisshopriche of Norþhum|berlond. Trevisa. Stella comata*. [cometa, β., but not above.] is a sterre wiþ a liȝt blasynge crest*. [creest, Cx.] above, and evere bodeþ*. [it betokeneth, Cx.] pestilence, deþ, and werre, oþer some harde happes.*. [aventures, Cx.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Theodorus þe archebisshop halp to putte*. [potte out, γ.] Wil|fridus out of his bisshopriche; and for to folowe*. [vorto volwe, γ.] þe kynges wille, whanne Wilfridus was i-put out, he ordeyned Bosa bisshop at ȝork in his stede,*. [stude, γ.] and Eada*. [Eata, α., β., and Cx.] at Lyndefare cherche, and Tunbertus at Hagustald chirche, and Trunwynus at Candida Casa,*. [Cassa, Cx.] þat is þe White hous in þe lond of Pictes. Marianus, libro 2o. And putte Eadhedus in þe chirche of Ripoun.*. [Rypon, β. and Cx.] Eadhedus was i-come*. [comen, β.] out of Lyndeseye, for Ethel|dredus Page  137, vol.6 kyng of Mercia hadde i-recovered*. [rekevered, β.; recuvered, γ.] þe*. [þe] that, Cx.] province aȝenst*. [aȝenes, γ.] Egfridus. Willelmus. Þere it myȝte be i-seie and sorwfully*. [sorfolliche bymened, γ.] [be]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] mened þat þe wrecchednesse of mankynde,*. [mankuynde, γ.] þeigh it have greet holynesse, ȝit it putteþ not attefulle*. [at þe fulle, α.; ȝut hyt potteþ noȝt atte volle, γ.] maneres of rebelnes.*. [reblenes, Cx.] For as ferforþ as we conne*. [kunne, β.; kun, γ.; can, Cx.] caste, Theodorus putte out Wilfridus wrongfulliche. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 19o. Þanne Wilfridus was so i-put out, and wente to Rome for his cause; but seyllynge in þe see he was wynd dryven*. [wyndedryve, β. and Cx.] into Affrica;*. [Frisia, Cx.] þere he, firste*. [vurst, γ.] of alle men,*. [men] om. Cx.] con|vertede meny men, and Willebrordes*. [Willebrordus, β.; Willebrordus folfullede, γ.; Wyllibrordus, Cx.] fulfilled it afterward. At þe laste he come to Rome, and come tofore*. [tofore, from α., β., and Cx.; to offre, MS.] pope Agatho, and was i-herd and allowed. And þere [in]*. [From Cx.] a synod of an hondred bisshoppes and fyve and twenty he desputede aȝenst þe errour of hem þat wolde teche þat in Crist is but oon wille and oon kynde. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. And he folwede*. [volwede, γ.; fowede, MS.; fo|lowed, Cx.] his owne cause soberliche, þat he greved not Theodorus, þat was i-sent by þe court of Rome, and putte Page  139, vol.6 none grevous accusaciouns uppon*. [oppon, γ.] hym, but meyntened*. [maintened, Cx.] his owne riȝtwisnesse*. [ryȝtwesnes, γ.] and suffred [hyt]*. [From γ.] nouȝt to flecche.*. [to flecche, from α.; suffride hit nouȝt to flecche, β.; soffrede hyt nouȝt to fleyche, γ.; suffrid it not bowe, Cx.; suffred nouȝt þe flesche, MS.] He spak to þe pope and seide, "Why is it, sire,*. [sere, γ.] þat Theodorus, while I*. [ich, β.; ych, γ.] am onlyve, haþ i-ordeyned in my see þre bisshoppes by his owne auctorite, wiþ oute myn assente. For he was i-sent by þe court of Rome, I accuse hym nouȝt."*. [y accuse hym nouȝt, β.; y acuse hym noȝt, γ.; and I accuse hym not, Cx.; cause, MS.] Bote þey*. [þouȝ, β.] Wilfridus were alowed þere he hadde [nouȝt]*. [From α. and β.] indede,*. [he had not in dede, Cx.] and þat made þe kynges frowardnesse and Theodorus his assent. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 12o. Þerfore Wilfridus torned hym to þe Souþ Saxons, and bulde an abbay in Selyseye,*. [Silyseye, β.; bylded an abbay in Sylyseye, Cx.] and preched fiftene ȝere anon to þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] Egfridus his deþ, and convertede þe peple.*. [pupel, γ.] Also for þre ȝere to fore*. [fore] om. γ.] his comynge was þere no reyne; þe first*. [vurste, γ.] day of his cristnynge*. [follyng, β.; volloȝt, γ.] hit bygan to reigne,*. [ryne, γ.] þe erþe was*. [wex, β. and γ.; wexe, Cx.] grene, and herbes gan*. [gonne, α.; bygunne, β.; gunne, γ.] to springe; he gadrede eel*. [ele, γ. and Cx.] nettes, and tauȝte men of þe contray to fische.*. [vysch, γ.]Page  141, vol.6 Oswynus kyng of West Saxon deyde, and Kentwynus regnede after hym nyne ȝere. Þat ȝere deide Leutherius, bisshop of þat province, and Theodorus ordeyned Hedda bisshop, þat was bisshop at Wynchestre þritty ȝere. Seynt Audoenus, bisshop of Rothomager,*. [Rotomager is ded and chyld, γ.; Roan deyde this yere, and the childe Beda was borne, Cx.] is [ded and chyld]*. [From γ.; a child, MS.] Beda is i-bore.*. [Rotomager is ded and chyld, γ.; Roan deyde this yere, and the childe Beda was borne, Cx.] After Agatho þe secounde Leo was pope as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] þre ȝere, and þe pope|riche*. [papacye, Cx.] cesede*. [ceesed, β.; cessede, γ.] oon ȝere. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 20o. Seynt Etheldreda, abbas of Hely,*. [Ely, Cx.] deyde. Marianus, libro 2o. Aftir here hir suster*. [soster, γ.] Sexburga was abbesse, þat hadde i-be somtyme þe wyf of Ercombertus kyng of Caunterbury. Beda, ubi supra. Þat ȝere deide Hilda, abbesse of Whitby, þat hadde i-be seek*. [syk, γ.; be seke, Cx.] sixe ȝere, fourtene*. [vourtene, γ.] dayes to fore Decembre, þe ȝere of here age þre score and sixe. Sche*. [Heo, β.] was kyng Edwyn his nese;*. [neece, β.; nece, Cx.] an holy womman, wys and redy, and well i-lettred.*. [ylettert, γ.] Out of here abbay come fyve*. [vyf, γ.] bisshopes, Bosa, Eata, Offor, lohn, and Wilfridus. In here abbay was a broþer þat heet Cedmon, þat was i-tauȝt by inspiracioun of God to make songes Page  143, vol.6 and ditee in þe contre longage þat schulde moeve*. [meove, β.; muve, γ.] men to devocioun.*. [devocioun, from β.; devocyon, γ.; devocion, Cx.; langage, MS.] In þat manere doynge no man myȝte be his peere. And he hym self couthe noþing doo in oþer matir, but onliche in matir of devocioun. He com þerto in þis manere: he wente in a tyme from a feste ful*. [fol, γ.] sore aschamed, for he was i-prayed for to synge to þe harpe, and kouþe nouȝt synge. Þanne he was sory, and fel*. [fil, β.; vul aslepe, γ.; fylle a slepe, Cx.] on slepe, and oon com to hym in his slepe and chargede hym þat he schulde synge. "I*. [Y, β.] can nouȝt," quoþ he, "and þerfore I*. [ich, β.; ich vly, γ.] flee." "After þis," quoþ þat oþir, "synge boldeliche of hym þat haþ i-made alle þinges." Þis man awook, and after þat tyme he made wonder poysies*. [poesyes, β.] as it were of alle þe stories of holy writte. Henricus, libro 3o. Þat ȝere Theodorus made a counsail of bisshoppes and oþir doctours at Hatfelde, for he wolde wite*. [wete, β. and Cx.] and knowe of what byleve alle men were, as pope Agatho hadde i-hote*. [boden, Cx.] [hym]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.; bede hym, β.] by his archechauntur Iohn, þat was present in þat synod. Þat Page  145, vol.6 tyme þe provynce of Mercia, þat Sexwulfus ruled*. [reulede, γ.; rewled, Cx.] allone, was departed in fyve bisshopriches, oon at*. [hatte, γ. (tris).] Chestre, anoþer at Worcestre,*. [Wircetre, β.; Wyrceter, γ.; Worcetre, Cx.] þe þridde at*. [hatte, γ. (tris).] Lichefeld, þe fourþe at*. [hatte, γ. (tris).] Sedema*. [Sedenia, Cx.] in Lendeseye,*. [Lyndeseye, β.; Lyndisey, γ.] þe fifte at Dorchestre. But Pucta lefte at Hertford, þere Sexwulfus hadde i-putte hym somtyme. Paulus, libro 7o. Cunebertus, kyng of Longobardes, stood under his chamber wyndowe, and counsailled wiþ oon of his secretaries how he myȝte slee his knyȝt Aldo. Þanne þere was a greet flye, and þe kyng*. [þe kyng] he, Cx.] fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to slee þis flye, and kutte*. [kitt, β.; kytte, γ.] of þe fliȝe foot*. [vlye voot, γ.] wiþ a*. [α] þe, γ.] knyf. In þe mene tyme Aldo was nouȝt war of þe kynges cast,*. [Aldo not knowynge of the kynges entent, Cx.] and com toward þe kynges court, and mette wiþ an halt man, þat ȝede*. [ȝude, γ.] by*. [went with, Cx.] a staf, and spak to Aldo in þis manere, "War þe, Aldo, for ȝif*. [ȝif] ef, γ.] þou comest to the kynges court þou schalt be i-slawe wiþ þe kynges [hond]."*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Whanne Aldo herde*. [hurde, γ.] þat, he flyȝ*. [vlyȝ, γ.; fledde, Cx.] to Seynt Romayn his chirche, and þe kyng axede hym why he dede*. [dide, β; a dude, γ.]Page  147, vol.6 soo; and he answerede and seide for*. [for] by cause, Cx.] an halt*. [holt, γ.] man hadde i-warned hym of his deþ. Anoon þe kyng understood þat he þat halted*. [holtede, γ.] so was a wicked*. [wykkede, γ.] spirit, þat he hadde kutte*. [kitt, β.; ykut, γ.] of his foot in liknesse of a flye, and hadde so i-wreyed*. [wryed, β.] his counseil and his privete, and on caas*. [on caas] om. Cx.] hadde excited hym [to]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Aldo his deth, and so the kyng feng*. [vyng, γ.] Aldo to his pees.*. [grace, α.] [After Leo þe secounde Benet*. [Bened, γ.] was pope]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] fyve ȝere. Osricus, under þe*. [þe] om. α., γ., and Cx.] kyng of Mercia, bulde*. [bilde, β., et infra.] an abbay at Gloucetre, and [made]*. [From γ.] his suster Keneburgh abbesse þere. Þat ȝere kyng Kentwynus chasede þe west Bretouns anon to þe see; and Benet bisshop*. [byschop, γ., et infra.] bulde an abbey of Seynt Poul at Girvum, on þe brynke of þe ryver Wyre; and hadde to forehonde i-bulde anoþer abbay of Seint Petir in þe*. [þe] that, Cx.] oþir brynke of þe same ryver by helpe of kyng Egfridus, and made Colfridus abbot þere. [Þat ȝere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Beda, a child of sevene ȝere olde, was i-take to Benet bisshop his lore,*. [loore, Cx.] and he Page  149, vol.6 wente þe fifte*. [fyveþe, β.] tyme to Rome, and bytook*. [bytouk, γ.] Beda to Colfridus. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 12o. Þat ȝere is gadered a synod under kyng Egfridus bysides þe ryver Alne,*. [Alve, Cx.] in a place þat hatte Twyford,*. [Twyfort, γ.] there was Theodorus: þere Tundbertus was putte*. [pot, γ.] doun of thee*. [Sic in MS.; his, Cx.] bisshopriche of Hagustald,*. [Hagastald, γ., et infra.] and Cuthberd*. [Cuthbertus, γ.] was i-made bisshop in his stede; bote for he lovede more þe chirche of Lyndefarn,*. [Lyndesfarn, Cx.] þider*. [þuder, γ.] he wente, and Eata was i-made bisshop at Hangustald in his stede. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 23o. Þis Cuthberd was firste*. [vurst, γ.] i-made monk in þe abbay of Maylros, and þanne preost,*. [pruest, γ.; preest, Cx.] and at þe laste he lyvede anker*. [an ankers lif, β.; an lif, ankers lyf, Cx.] his lyf in þe ilond Farn. Also þat ȝere kyng Egfridus destroyed wrecchedly*. [distruyed wrecchidlich, β.; de|struyede wrechedelich, γ.] þe men of Scotland, þat were alwey most freendes*. [vrendes, γ.] to Englische men; and þey prayed help of God, and feyned hem for to flee,*. [vor to vle, γ.] and gylede*. [begyled, Cx.] Egfridus nouȝt wiþstondynge þe prayers of his frendes,*. [vrendes, γ.] for he wolde nouȝt doo after hem,*. [ham, γ.] and tollede*. [þei tolled hym, β.; tollede, γ.; tolled and drough him, Cx.] hem, and drouȝ hem*. [hym, α. and γ.] into Page  151, vol.6 streyte*. [strait, β.; streyt plas, γ.] places bytwene hilles*. [hulles, γ.] and mounteynes, and slow hym þere, and a greet*. [gred, γ.] deel of his oost. From þat tyme forþward*. [vorward, γ.] þe strengþe*. [stryngþe, γ.] of þe Angles bygan to falle*. [valle, γ.] awey|ward, and Pictes and Scottes and meny of þe Bretouns feng*. [vynge, γ.; receyved, Cx.] her londes wiþ fredom*. [vredom, γ.] aȝen. Cedwalla, a stalworþe*. [stronge, Cx.] ȝongelyng*. [ȝunglyng, γ.] of kyngene*. [kynges, β.] kynde*. [kunde, γ.] of þe Gewesses, þat beeþ West Saxons, [he regnede over*. [he over regnede, γ.] þe West Saxons]*. [From α., β., and γ.] after Kentwynus his deþ. Willelmus de Regibus. He was*. [From β. and γ.] Kent|brihtis*. [Kenbrihtus his, α.; Kenbrigh|tus, β. and Cx.; Kenbryhtus, γ.] sone, Kentbritus was Ceadda his sone, Ceadda was Cuta*. [Cutha, γ.] his sone, Cutha*. [Cuth, γ.] was Ceaulinus his broþer, Ceaulynus was Kynricus his sone, Kynricus was Cerdicus his sone, anon he slouȝ Athelwold*. [Ethelwold, γ.] kyng of Souþsex, and made his province þral, and destroyed Kent, and took þe ile*. [touk þe yl, γ.] of Wight, and ȝaf þe fourþe*. [vurþe, γ.] deel þerof to Seynt Wilfridus for þe love of God. In þat partie of þe ile were acounted þre hondred meynyes and housholdes. Þat ȝere [in]*. [From β.] Northumberlond Egfridus was i-slawe, and his broþer Alfridus Notus,*. [Nothus, β., γ., and Cx.] bastard, regned after Page  153, vol.6 hym two hondred*. [Sic in MS.; eyȝtetene, γ.; eyghten yere, Cx.] ȝere. Þat ȝere Sarȝyns*. [Sarasyns, Cx.] com out of Egipt into Affrica, and took*. [touk, γ.] Cartage and destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] it; and Constantyn deyde*. [deyde] om. Cx.] at Constantynnoble.