Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum octodecimum. Constantinus.

THE fourþe*. [vurde, γ.] Constantyn, þe forsaide*. [vorseyde, γ.] Constantyn his sone, was emperour seventene ȝere. Grymwaldus*. [Grimiwaldus, Cx.] kyng of Longo|bardes, þe nynþe day after his blodles, scheet to*. [blodeles schotte at, β.; bled|yng on the arme shotte at a douve, Cx.] a colver, and his veyne to brak; and leches leyde þerto venymous þinges,*. [þingis, β.] and so he was dede. [Beda, libro quarto, capitulo secundo.]*. [From Cx.] Þat yere Theodorus þe archebisshop com into Kent fyve*. [vyf, γ.] dayes to fore Iuyn,*. [Jun, γ.] in þe secounde ȝere of his consecracioun, and he was bisshop þere oon and twenty ȝere Page  117, vol.6 and foure monþes.*. [monethis, Cx.] Þis man was a monk, i-bore in Tars in Sicilia,*. [Thars in Scicilia, Cx.] and was connynge*. [kunnyng, β.; kunnynge, γ.] boþe in holy lettrure*. [letterure, γ.; hooly letture, Cx.] and in seculer lettrure,*. [letterure, γ.; letture, Cx.] in Gru*. [Gruw, γ.] and*. [in] add. γ.] Latyn. Whanne he was þre score ȝere olde and sixe, Vitalianus þe pope sente hym bisshop into Engelond, and sente Adrian þe abbot wiþ hym forto helpe hym, for he schulde bringe no þing þat is aȝenst þe fey*. [feiþ, β.] into holy chirche in Engelond, as þe Grees dooþ.*. [Grekes dyde, Cx.] Anon as*. [as] om. Cx.] he was i-come*. [comen, β.] he wente aboute into al þe ylond, and tauȝte þe ordre*. [ordre of riȝt bileve and of, β.] of riȝt levynge,*. [levynge] byleve and of right lyvyng, Cx.] and þe laweful manere of þe*. [manere of þe] om. Cx.] holdynge of þe Ester day, and tauȝte his disciples þe crafte of singinge, of calculinge, of astronomy, boþe in Latyn and in Gru,*. [Gruw, γ.] by help of Adrian, and ordeyned bisshoppes in certeyne places. And*. [the, add. Cx.] bisshoppes þat were nouȝt lawfully *. [lawefollyche, γ., et infra.] y-ordeyned, he putte hem awey, oþer ordeyned hem eft in a laweful manere.*. [ordeyned hem to be bisshops in other places, Cx.] Among þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] Cedda, þat was nouȝt lawefulliche i-ordeyned bisshop of Page  119, vol.6 ȝork, knoweleched mekeliche*. [knowlechide mekely, β.; knew|leched mekleche, γ.] his owne defaute, and Theo|dorus put*. [pot, γ.] hym awey from þe see of ȝork, and restored þere Wilfridus; and ordeyned Cedda, þat was confermed at þe laste bisshop of Mercia at þe prayenge*. [at prayyng, β.; prayer, Cx.] of kyng Wulferus,*. [Wulerus, α.; Wuferus, γ.] and heet hym ride on an hors [his]*. [From α and γ.] bak.*. [on horsbak, Cx.]Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 26o. Þat tyme doctours were ful*. [fol, γ.] besy to serve God and nouȝt þe world, þe herte and nouȝt þe wombe; þerfore þe abite*. [abyt, α. and β.; habite, Cx.] of religioun was þoo in greet worschippe, so þat a*. [From β.] monk oþer*. [þat among oþer, γ.] a clerk schulde be*. [From β.] gladliche underfonge; and men þat wente by þe wey prayde*. [prayd to have, Cx.] his blessynge; and þey wente for non oþer cause aboute*. [aboute] by, Cx.] weyes and stretes bote for to preche and teche, for cristenynge*. [follyng, β.; vollynge, γ.] and for savacioun of manis soule.*. [saule, γ.] And þey wolde fonge*. [vonge, γ., et infra.] non possessiouns for to bulde abbayes, but it were i-profred hem, and [þey were]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] i-dryve to fonge it by strengþe of lordes. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 5o. Also þat ȝere deyde Oswy kyng of Norþhumberlond; his sone Egfridus was kyng after hym fiftene ȝere. Item, capitulo 18o. Þis hadde i-wedded*. [i-wedded] om. Cx.] Etheldrida,*. [Ethelfreda, Cx.] þat hadde i-be Cutbertus*. [Tondbertus, α. and γ.; Ton|bertus, Cx.] his Page  121, vol.6 wif, prince of þe souþ Girewies.*. [Girwies, β.; Girwyes, Cx.] Whan Egfridus hadde i-had hir*. [hure, γ.] to wife twelve ȝere, and myȝte have no leve of here to ligge by*. [dele with, Cx.] here for prayers noþer for ȝiftes; þanne sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] hadde leve of þe kyng, and was i-made mynchoun*. [monchone, β.; menchone, Cx.; menchen, γ.] oon ȝere at Colud under Aebba, kyng Egfridus his aunte; and after þat sche*. [hue, γ.] was made abesse*. [abbes, β.; abbas, γ.] at Hely,*. [abbesse of Ely, Cx.] þere sche*. [heo, β., et infra; hue, γ., et infra.] ete but ones a day, and used nevere lynnen cloþes. After þe nyȝt*. [nyghtis, Cx.] collacioun sche*. [heo, β., et infra; hue, γ., et infra.] wook anon to*. [awoke unto, Cx.] þe day; sche*. [heo, β., et infra; hue, γ., et infra.] deide after þat sche hadde i-be abesse*. [abbesse, Cx.] sevene ȝere, and lay hool and sound sixtene ȝere. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 5o. Þat ȝere was i-made a cinod*. [syned, β.; synod, γ.; synode, Cx.] of bisshoppes under Theodorus, at Tet|ford.*. [Tedford, β.] In þat synod was ordeyned a statute of þe riȝt holdynge of þe Estertyde; the secounde þat no bisshop schulde assayle*. [assoyle in, Cx.] anoþer manis bisshopriche; þe þridde þe*. [þt, α., β., and γ.; that, Cx.] bisshoppes schulde nouȝt destourbe abbayes; þe fourþe þat clerkes and monkes schulde nouȝt chaunge*. [chaynge, γ.] benefice*. [benefyces, Cx.] wiþoute Page  123, vol.6 leve of here soveraynes; þe fifte*. [vyfþe, γ.] þat in a province þe synod schulde be gadred, namliche*. [namliche] om. Cx.] ones a ȝere. Egebertus*. [Egbertus, Cx.] kyng of Kent deide, and his broþer Lotharius regned after hym enlevene ȝere. Marcianus, libro 2o. Also Agelbertus þat ȝere,*. [Transposed in α. and γ.] bisshop of West Saxones, wente awey wroþeliche,*. [wrothly, Cx.] for Kenwalkus þe*. [þe] his, Cx.] kyng departed þe bisshopriche in tweyne, and Leutherius was i-made bisshop in his stede, and con|fermed of Theodorus [by]*. [From Cx.] þe kynges wille, and he was bisshop sevene ȝere. Þat ȝere was greet slauȝter*. [slauȝt, γ.] of foules*. [fowles, Cx.] þat fouȝte to gidres.*. [vouȝte togedders, γ.] Kenwakus*. [Kenwalcus, β.; Kenwalc, γ.; Kenwalchus, Cx.] kyng of West Saxons deide þe ȝere of his kyngdom þritty. ℞. His wif Sexburga regnede after hym oon*. [oon] o, γ.] ȝere, but Beda seiþ þat under kynges þey*. [þey] om. α., β., γ., and Cx., which latter adds or smal kynges.] delede*. [delide, β.] þe kyngdom bytwene hem ten ȝere. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 6o. Þat ȝere Seint Chedde*. [Chedda, Cx.] deide at Lichefilde,*. [Lichfeld, β.] þe þridde ȝere of his bisshopriche. Theodorus made Wynefrede,*. [Wynfryde, Cx.] Chedde his decon,*. [Wynfride Cheddes dekene, β.] bisshop in his stede, and putte*. [pot, γ.] hym doun nouȝt longe after, for he was unobedient, and made Sex|wulfus, abbot of Medehamstede,*. [Medamstede, β.; Medampstede, Cx. bis.] bisshop in his stede. [℞.]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Medehamstede hatte now Seint Peterisborw,*. [Peter his Burgh, α.; Petres burgh, β.; Peterburg, Cx.] and was somtym Page  125, vol.6 in þe kyndom of Girwies. Wulfridus*. [Wynfridus Cx.] was so*. [so] om. Cx.] i-putte*. [ypot, γ.] doun þe fourþe ȝere of his consecracioun, and wente to Barowe.*. [Barwe, γ.] After Adeodatus pope Bonus was pope a ȝere and sixe monthes. Beda ut supra. After þe deth of Wyna, Erkene|wold*. [Erkenwolde, Cx.] þe þridde bisshop of Londoun made tweie abbaies, oon to hym self in Southereye,*. [Souþrey, β.; Suthery, Cx.] in þe ilond Cereot,*. [Ceorot, γ.] þat now hatte Certeseie,*. [Chirchecye, Cx.] fiftene myle out of Londoun westward; and anoþer to his suster*. [soster, γ.] Ethelberga, by Est Londoun, in the province of Essex, þe abbay hatte*. [hete now, Cx.] Berkyng; þere sche*. [hue, γ., a very frequent ortho|graphy in this part of the MS.] was abbesse in greet holynesse; to here*. [hure, γ.] Seint Aldelme brouȝte a book*. [bok, γ.] of maydenhood.*. [maydonhode, β.; maidenhede, Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Me troweþ þat*. [It is supposed that, Cx.] by þe prayers of þis*. [þes, γ.] holy mayde it is þat þat*. [þat] this, Cx.] place*. [plas, γ.] was nevere ȝit destroyed.*. [ȝitt distruyed, β.; destruyed, γ. et infra.] But þe oþer abbay of Certeseie*. [Chercheseye, Cx.] was destroyed by the Danes, and kyng Edgar bulde it aȝen. Þat ȝere Oswynus*. [Oskwynus, γ.] bygan to regne over þe West Saxons, and regnede þre ȝere, and fauȝt*. [voȝt, γ.] aȝenst Wul|ferus Page  127, vol.6 kyng of Mercia [at Wydanheaf.*. [Wydaneaf, γ.] Also þat ȝere deide Wulferus kyng of Mercia],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and his broþer Etheldredus regnede after hym þritty*. [thyrten, Cx.] ȝere. For Wulferus his sone Kyn|redus myȝte nouȝt regne, for he was so ȝong.*. [so ȝung, γ.] Wulferus his wif Ermenilda, whanne here housbonde was dede, was i-made mynchoun*. [menchen, γ., et infra.] at Hely,*. [mynchon at Ely, Cx.] and her douȝter Werburga, under Etheldreda.*. [Etheldrida, γ.]Marcianus. Here eem*. [em, γ.; eme, Cx.] Etheldredus made þis Werburga mynchoun*. [monchon, β.; menchon, Cx.] in some abbayes of maydens at Try|kenham,*. [Trikyngham, α. and β.; Tir|kyngham, γ.] at Wedunam, at Hamburgam. Sche*. [heo, β.] deide in þe firste*. [verste, γ.] abbay, and was i-buried in þe þridde, as sche*. [heo, β.] hadde i-hote*. [promysed, Cx.] while sche*. [heo, β.] was on lyve: þere sche*. [heo, β.] lay hool and sownde aboute a*. [α] an, β.] þre hondred ȝere, anon to þe comynge of þe Danes. [℞.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] At þe laste, whanne þe Danes lay at Rependoun,*. [Rypyndon, Cx.] and hadde i-drive awey þe kyng of Mercia, þe citizeyns of Hamburga dradde, and took*. [touk, γ.] þe bere þat con|teyned þe body of þat mayde, þat was þo firste i-torned*. [vurste yturnd, γ.] into poudre, and fliȝ*. [fled, Cx.] þerwiþ into Legecestria, þat is Chestre, as*. [to, add. Cx.]Page  129, vol.6 þe most siker place aȝenst peril and meschif of aliens and of straunge naciouns.*. [enemyes, α. and Cx.] In þat cite Chestre were seculer cha|nouns from kyng Athelston*. [Adelston, α.; Adelstanes, β.; Adelstan, γ.; Ethelstones, Cx.] his tyme to þe comynge of Normandes, and ofte possessiouns were i-ȝove*. [ȝeve, β.; yeven, Cx.] þerto, and þanne monkes of religiouns*. [religiouse, β.; religious, γ.; re|lygyouse dwellyd there, Cx.] wonede þere in worschippe of þe mayde. Marcianus, libro 2o. Þanne kyng Wulferus hadde þre breþeren,*. [bryþern, γ.] as it is forsaide,*. [vorseyd, γ.] Weda, Etheldredus, and Mer|waldus, þat was kyng of Westmercia; his quene Ermenberga bar hym þre holy douȝtres,*. [In the margin is "Here ys an holy kynred of maydennys."] Milburga, Mildred,*. [Myldryd, γ.] and Mil|ginda,*. [Mylgvida, γ.; Myldreda and Mylguyda, Cx.] and oon sone Meresyn, a man of greet holynesse. Queene Ermenberga was Ermenredus douȝter, kyng of Kent.*. [This sentence is inserted in the body of the previous one in Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Also Wilferus*. [Wulferus, Cx.] hadde tweie holy sustres, Kynedda*. [Kynedida, γ.] and Kyneswida, mynchouns,*. [monchons, β.; menchens, γ.; menchons, Cx.] and were boþe i-buryed at Medehamstede,*. [Medehamstude, γ.] þat now hatte Burgh;*. [Petres burgh, β.; Peterburgh, Cx.] þere Seint Ethelwoldus bulde an abbay afterward. Kyneswyda convertede so þe kyng*. [Offa, add. Cx.] þat after þat sche*. [heo, β.] hadde forsake*. [vorsake, γ.] hym to housbonde, he wente to Rome wiþ Kynredus Page  131, vol.6 and Egwynus, bisshop of þe Wicties,*. [Wiccies, β. and γ.; Wiccyes, Cx.] and bycom a monk. Agatho was pope þre ȝere; in his secounde ȝere was i-made þe sixte synod at Constantynnoble,*. [Constantinople, Cx.] of two hondred bisshoppes and foure score.*. [voureschore, γ.] In þat synod it is i-seide þat in Crist beeþ tweie willes and tweie kyndes, [willes and kyndes]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] of þe*. [þe] om. α., β., and Cx.] Godhede and*. [of, add. γ. and Cx.] manhede.