Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum septimumdecimum.

ABOUTE þis tyme*. [þese tymes, α. and β.] deyde Aydanus and Fynanus, bisshops of Northumberlond; and Colmannus, a Scot, com after hem to be bisshop þre ȝere. In his tyme come Agelbertus*. [Agilbertus, β. and Cx.] bisshop Page  97, vol.6 of West Saxons into þe contrayes of Northumberlond, and ordeyned þere*. [þare, γ.] Wilfridus þat was tho abbot of Rypoun,*. [Rypon, Cx.] and made hym preost at þe prayour*. [prayer, α.; prayers, Cx.] of kyng Oswynus. Þat tyme was a grete questioun i-made and i-meoved*. [meved, β.; mevyd of the Eester|daye that was, Cx.] of þe holdynge of þe Ester terme,*. [In the margin is "Loo here dis|putasion ys whenne Ester day schal falle, and on what day yt schal be holde."] þat was nouȝt þat tyme lawe|fulliche*. [lawfollyche, γ.] i-holde of Scottes and of Britouns, but it was y-suffred*. [y-suffred, from α.; suffred, β.; suffryd, Cx.; i-offred, MS.] for*. [for] at, Cx.] reverence of Columba, of Aydanus, of Fy|nanus, and of oþere holy noble fadres.*. [vaders, γ.] Þere*. [Þere] Þerfor, Cx.] was a counsail i-made in the abbay of Hilda þe*. [þe abbesse . . . foure] om. Cx.] abbesse at Streni|schalt,*. [Streemshalt, β.; Stremshalt, γ.] þe ȝere of oure Lorde sixe hondred sixty and foure. Þere in þe*. [þe] þat, β.] oon side come Colmannus þe bisshop and Hilda þe abbas, and aleyde*. [axede, γ.; alleggyd, Cx.] for hem þat here predecessours were holy men and worthy,*. [Transposed in α. and β.] and hilde*. [helde, β.; hulde, γ.] þe Estertyde from þe fourtenþe*. [vourteþe, γ.] day of þe mone to þe xxti*. [twentiþe, α.] day of þe monþe, and specialliche seint Iohn þe Evaungeliste hilde*. [huld, γ.] so the Estertyde in Asia. In þe*. [þe] þat, β.] oþer side aȝenst hem com Egelbertus*. [Egylbertus, Cx.]Page  99, vol.6 bisshop of West Saxons, Iames þat was somtyme Paulinus þe archebisshop of ȝork his preost, and Wilfridus abbot of Ripoun, and Alfridus þe kynges sone. And Wilfridus desputede for hem, and þey*. [þey] om. Cx.] alleyde*. [aledged, Cx.] for hem þat þe manere and þe usage of al holy chirche of Grees,*. [Grekes, β. and Cx.; Gres, γ.] of Italy, of Rome, of Gallia, and of Fraunce, schulde be i-sette to fore*. [tovore, γ.] þe manere and custom*. [costom, γ.] and usage of a corner of þe worlde,*. [worl, γ.] and*. [and] that, Cx.] knewe nouȝt þe decrees of synodus,*. [synodes, Cx.] as it is no wonder, namliche while Iohn þe Evangelist in þe bygynnynge of holy chirche, þat was tho ȝong and tendre, heeld þe ordinaunce of Moyses lawe, in meny þinges*. [and added in Cx.] folwede*. [volwede, γ.] þoo the Iewes;*. [Juwes, γ.] and Iohan*. [Joon, β., et infra.] muȝte nouȝt ȝit schave al awey at þe*. [atte volle, γ.] fulle;*. [and . . . fulle] om. Cx.] as it is i-wrete of Poule þat he circumcided Thimotheus,*. [Thimothe, β.; Thymothe, Cx.] and þey*. [þey] om. Cx.] offred oystes*. [oostes, Cx.] in þe temple, and schare*. [schar, γ.] his heed with Aquila and Priscilla at Corinthi; and þat was profitable to noþing but for to putte*. [potte, γ.] of þe sclaundre of the Iewes. And also Seint Iohn, by þe usage of þat lawe, bygan to holde þe Ester*. [Eester, Cx.] tyde the fourtenþe day of þe firste monþe, and rouȝt*. [roȝte, γ.] nouȝt wheþer hit fel*. [fil, β. and Cx.; vull, γ.] in a Satirday oþer in a noþer day of þe woke. And Peter þe Apostel, þat was primat of holy chirche, and hadde power to Page  101, vol.6 bynde and unbynde, he abode*. [abod, γ.] þe fourtenþe day of þe mone [whanne þe moone were at þe folle,*. [volle, γ., et infra.] as Seint Iohn dede, and bygan to holde þe Ester tyde at eve þe next Sonday after]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe fulle of þe moone, and þe evenes of þe day and þe nyȝt, and hilde þat tyde to þe oon and twenty day of þe moone; and ȝif þe fourtenþe day of þe moone fil*. [vul, γ.] in a Sonday, he hilde nouȝt þere þe Ester day, for þat Sonday was of þe raþer ȝere, and nouȝt of þe newe ȝere þat schulde þo bygynne. Kyng Oswy herde*. [hurde, γ.] þis, and seide; "Siþþe*. [Seþþe, γ.] þat ȝe telleþ*. [telle, Cx.] þat so meny and so*. [so] om. Cx.] greet privyleges and powere were i-graunted*. [ygrauntet, γ.] to Peter, I dar nouȝt wiþ seie*. [wiþsigge, β.; wiþsygge, γ.] so grete and suche a fissher*. [vischer, α.; uscher, β.; an oys|chere, γ.] and porter,*. [soo grete an ussher & porter, Cx.] leste he close hevene ȝate aȝenst*. [aȝenus, β.] me*. [men, α.] whan þat*. [þat] om. β. and Cx.] I schulde come in to hevene." Whan þis was i-seide þe multitude assented; bote Eede*. [Ced, Cx.] bisshop of þe Est was þere present, and hilde*. [heelde, β.] hym corrected from þat tyme forþward.*. [vorþward, γ.; forward, Cx.] But Colmannus, þat was the*. [the] þo, β.; tho, Cx.] bisshop of Norþum|berlond, was*. [tho, add. Cx.] wrooþ, and wente þennes into þe contray of Scottes. [℞.]*. [From α.] Þan*. [Þan] om. Cx.] for to fynde*. [vynde, γ.] þe Ester terme wiþ oute Page  103, vol.6 any*. [any] om. Cx.] faile, by*. [In Cx. the passage "by Beda . . . schal be iholde" is omitted, and his text runs thus: "To fynde the Eester tyme without fayle ther ben rewles ynowe in the ordynal of the kalendre, and it is nedeful to sette it here. But the errour, &c."] Beda his lore,*. [Bedaes loore, β.] libro 5o, de Gestis Anglorum, me mote take hede of þre and abide þe þre: þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt in springing tyme, þat now hatte Lente,*. [leynte, α., β., and γ.] and þe Sonday; for*. [For as . . . . and nyȝt] bis in MS.] as be*. [be] Sic in MS.; in þe, β. and γ.] bygynnynge of þe world*. [worl, γ.] þe sonne passede out of þe myddel of þe Est [and markede þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt in sprinynge tyme with hys arysyng, and þanne whanne þe sonne ȝude adoun, þe voll mone com after out of the myddel of þe Est].*. [From γ.; and marked þe evennes of þe day and nyȝt in springinge tyme wiþ his arisinge. And þanne whanne þe sunne ȝede doun, þe ful mone com after out of the myddel of þe Est, β.] And so all þe ȝeres after me mote take hede*. [hyde, γ.] to þe same firste monþe of þe moone, for nouȝt to fore þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt,*. [For as . . . . and nyȝt] bis in MS.] [but in þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt,]*. [From α., β., and γ.] as it was i-doo in þe bygynnynge of þe world; oþer after þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt, [as hit was y-doo in þe byggynnyng*. [as . . . byggynnyng] from α.; the addition is made and crased in β.] of the worlde; oþer after þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt,]*. [From γ.] me mote take hede whanne the mone is at þe fulle.*. [volle, γ.] Þanne whan*. [whan] om. α, and β.] þe mone [þat]*. [From α. and β.] is at þe fulle*. [volle, γ.] to*. [to] tovore, γ.] þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt, as it was i-doo in þe bygynnynge of þe world,*. [as it was . . . world] om. γ.] wheþer it be of fourtene days olde, Page  105, vol.6 of fiftene,*. [fiftene, β.; vyftene, γ.] oþer of sixtene, and so forþ, it longeþ to þe laste monþe of þe ȝere þat is a passed, and þerfore it is nouȝt con|venable to holde þerby þe Esterday. But what mone is at þe fulle in þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt,*. [oþer after þe evenes of the day and nyȝt, add. γ.] durynge þat mone in þe þridde woke of þe firste*. [first, β.; vurste, γ.] monþe of þe mone from þe four|tenþe*. [vourteþe, γ., et supra.] day to þe eve of þe oon and twentiþe day, þere þe firste Sonday falleþ,*. [valleþ, γ.] þere Esterne*. [Ester, γ.] schal be i-holde. But þe errour þat holy chirche*. [ȝut] add. γ.] suffreþ*. [suffriþ, β.] in oure*. [oure] the, Cx.] kalender þat we useþ*. [use, Cx.] is so incresed, þat þe styntinge of þe sonne, and þe evenes of þe day and nyght, and þe entringe of þe sonne and þe evenes*. [and þe evenes] om. Cx.] into þe signes, beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] a*. [α] om. Cx.] passed bakward*. [bacward, β.] by twelve dayes in oure kalender now, aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand þre hondred and twenty.*. [In the margin is written "Owre kalender nedyth correcioun of yere."] And þerfore, but oure kalender þat we useþ*. [use, Cx.] be amended by wiþdrawynge of þe dayes þat beeþ*. [ben put, Cx.] i-putte*. [ypot, γ.] to in þe lepe*. [lupe, α. and γ.] ȝere*. [lupȝere, β.] in*. [in] to, β. and Cx.] a certeyne tyme, oþer in som oþer manere wise, ȝif þe tyme of grace dureþ*. [dure, Cx.] to eiȝtene þowsand ȝere, Ester day schal falle*. [valle, γ., et infra.]Page  107, vol.6 aboute þe schorteste day of al þe ȝere by oure kalender; and ȝif þe sixte age of þe world*. [worl, γ.] dureþ*. [dure, Cx.] suche*. [sich, β.; om. Cx.] two so longe, þe feste of þe burþe*. [birþe, β., et infra.] of Seint Iohn the*. [the] om. Cx.] Baptiste schal falle in þe schorteste day of þe ȝere, and þe feste of þe burþe of oure Lord in þe lengeste day of þe ȝere: þe cause of þis errour is declared in Tholomeus his book, in Almagestes*. [Almagestis, Cx.] Tholomey. Trevisa. Here have in mynde*. [Here take heede, Cx.] þat twyes in a*. [α] þe, β.] ȝere falleþ*. [valleþ, γ.] þe styntynge of þe sonne, and so dooþ þe evenes of þe day and of þe nyȝt;*. [that is callyd in Latin equi|noxium, add. Cx.] þe stintynge of þe sonne is in wynter whan þe day is schortest, and eft*. [eft] eke, Cx.] in somer whan þe day is lengest. Þe evenes of þe day and of þe nyȝt is ones in þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Lente,*. [Leynte, β.] and efte*. [efte] ageyne, Cx.] in hervest,*. [hervest tyme, β.; harvost-tyme, γ.] whan þe day and þe nyȝt beeþ i-liche*. [ylyge, γ.; ben lyche, Cx.] longe: and for we speke of þe sonne his entrynge into signes, þerfore have in mynde*. [þerfore . . . mynde] ye shal un|derstande, Cx.] þat everiche monþe ones þe sonne passeþ out of oo*. [o, γ.] signe and entreþ*. [intreþ, γ.; and entreþ, om. Cx.] into a noþer. And for we speke of þe monþe of mone, have mynd*. [muynde, γ.] þat þe monþe of þe mone is from chaunge to chaunge oþer from prime to prime. Also þe firste monþe of þe mone is here i-cleped þe tyme of þe mone þat is*. [þat is] whan it is, Cx.] ful whan þe day and þe nyȝt beeþ i-liche longe,*. [in Marche, add. Cx.] oþer next after; for in suche*. [sich, β.] a tyme þe world*. [worl, γ.] was first i-made in þe monþe of Marche.*. [in . . . Marche] om. Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Þanne Colmannus, bisshop of Norþ|humberlond, Page  109, vol.6 was convict*. [convict, from α.; convicte, β., γ., and Cx.; comuned, MS.] by Wilfridus of mysholdynge of þe Ester day, and was wrooþ, and wente aȝen*. [aȝen] om. Cx.] to þe Scottes as it is forsaide;*. [vorseyd, γ.] and þe same Wilfridus was i-chose arche|bisshop of ȝork, by procurynge of Alfridus, þat was þe kynges sone, and he was i-sent into Fraunce for to be sacred. For Deusdedit þe archebisshop of Caunterbury was dede, þat schulde hym sacre*. [sholde have sacred hym, Cx.] here in Engelonde. Þat tyme Kenwalkus kyng of West Saxons delede his province in tweie bisshopriches. Þerfore Egilbertus was wrooþ, and wente aȝen*. [aȝe, γ., passim.] into Fraunce, þere he was i-bore, and oþer þinges, as it is i-seide in þe same book, capitulo 15o. Paulus, libro 6o. Aboute þat tyme Con|stantyn þe emperour wolde delivere Italy of þe hondes of Longobardes, and come to Tarent in Italy, and axede þere of an holy man þat was solitaire,*. [solitarye wheþer, β.] where*. [whether, Cx.] he myȝte overcome þe Longobardus oþer no. He answerde þat it*. [it] hyȝt, γ.] myȝte nouȝt ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] be i-doo, for bycause of an abbay þat is founded in Italy in worschippe of Seint Iohan*. [Joon, β., passim.] Baptiste, Seint Iohan prayeþ alwey for þe Longobardes; bote tyme schal come whanne Page  111, vol.6 þe*. [þat, α., β., γ., and Cx.] oratorye schal be despised, and unworþy personnes schal wonye*. [dwelle, Cx.] þerynne, and þanne þe Longobardus schal first be ipersed.*. [perisched, β.; ypersched, γ.; perisshed, Cx.] Þe emperour rouȝt*. [roȝt, γ.] nouȝt here of, and wente forþ aȝenst þe Longobardus, but it*. [he, α., β., γ., and Cx.] sped nouȝt. But he spoylede Rome nouȝtwiþstondynge þat Vitalianus þe pope prayede hym for to leve. And þe*. [this, Cx.] emperour dede meny grete tyrandis*. [tirauntries, β.; lyraundys, γ.; tyrantryes, Cx.] in Sicilia, and hadde at þe laste his penaunce in a bath.*. [baþe, β.] Wilfridus, as it is i-seide, was i-chose archebisshop of ȝork, and was byȝonde see wiþ Agelbertus abidynge his confirma|cioun: þanne by*. [by] the, Cx. (an error).] counsaile of þe quartadecimannes, þat beeþ þey þat heeld*. [þat beþ hy þat hulde, γ.] þe Ester day in þe fourtenþe day of þe mone, *. [In the margin is "Cedda þat hyhte Chadde was archebysshop of York, but for he was not rythfully yordeyned Tehodorus archebisshop of Cawnterbyre put hym down."]kyng Oswynus*. [Oswy, Cx.] took Cedda abbot of Lastyngay,*. [Lestyngay, β., γ., and Cx.] and made him archebisshop of ȝork aȝenst þe ordynaunce of holy lawes, Willelmus, libro 3o, capitulo 27o, and sente hym into Kent for to be sacred bisshop. But for þe archebisshop Deusdedit was dede, Cedde tornede to Wyna bisshop of West Saxons, for to be i-ordeyned of hym, and took*. [touk, γ.] wiþ hym tweie bisshoppes Page  113, vol.6 of Britouns in his companye to be wiþ hym at his sacrynge. Þanne Wilfridus come out of Fraunce, and sigh*. [syȝ, β. and γ.; sawe, Cx.] Cedda i-made bisshop in his stede; þanne Wilfridus abood in Kent þre ȝere, anon to þe comynge of Theodorus, and made þere ordres, and halowede*. [halewide, β.; halwede, γ.] chirches, and made oon Pucta,*. [Putta, Cx.] a connynge*. [kunnyng, β.] man of song, bisshop of Rouchestre. Also þat ȝere Benet bisshop*. [bischop, β.; byschop, γ.] wente efte*. [efte, from γ.; agayn, Cx.; ofte, MS.] to Rome, and in his comynge homward*. [hamward, β. and γ.] he was i-schore*. [shorne, Cx.] in þe abbey Lirnesse,*. [Lirnense, α. and β.; Bruense, γ.; Lirnence, Cx.] and was þere two ȝere, and þennes he wente to Rome ȝit*. [ȝit] om. Cx.] þe þridde tyme, and com aȝen into Engelond, wiþ Theodorus þe bisshop, and Adrianus þe abbot, at þe heste*. [atte commaundement, Cx.] of Vitulianus þe pope. Cissa þe kyng, [kyng Ine]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] his fader,*. [vader, γ.] made an abbay at Abyndoun.*. [Abendoun, β.; Abendon, Cx.] Þat ȝere Seint Leodegarius suffred*. [suffride, β.] deth*. [in Fraunce, add. Cx.] under oon Ebroymus,*. [Ebroynus, β.; Ebroinus, γ.] þe grettest man of þe kynges hous. Constantynus þe emperour is i-slawe*. [was slayne, Cx.] of his owne men in a bath in Sicilia. After Vitalianus þe holy pope Adeodatus was pope foure ȝere;*. [In margin is "Scolastica was Seynt Benet ys suster."] in his tyme Seynt Benet his body was translated, wiþ the body of Page  115, vol.6 his suster*. [soster, γ.] Scolastica; Augustinus,*. [Augustus, β. and Cx.; Aigus|tus, γ.] a monk of Floria, trans|lated hem in to þe abbay of Floria, þat is besides Aurelia,*. [Over Aurelia is written in β. in an early hand Orliaunce; Or|leaunce, Cx.] [out]*. [From α. and β.; fro the mount, Cx.] of þe hil mont Cassyn, þat is in þe province Bene|ventana.*. [Bonevent, β. and Cx.]