Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum sextumdecimum.

AFFTER Eugenius Vitalianus was pope fourtene*. [vourtene, γ.] ȝere: he sente to þe cherches of Engelonde and þe*. [and to þe, β.] archebisshop Theodorus, monk of Tarsens.*. [Tarseus, Cx.]Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 9o. Page  77, vol.6 Þat ȝere þe Merces, þat beeþ men*. [be now of, Cx.] of myddel Engelond, fenge*. [vyng, γ.] Cristendom under her prince Weda, Penda his sone; for þis Weda, willynge his fader,*. [by consente of his fader, Cx.] hadde i-wedded Effleda, kyng Oswy his douȝter, uppon a condicioun þat he schulde be a Cristen man; and he dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.; dyde, Cx.] it wiþ þe bettre wille, ffor Alfridus,*. [Elfridus, Cx.] Oswy his sone, hadde i-spoused*. [wedded, Cx.] Oswy his suster*. [soster, γ.] Kyneburga; þerfore Weda hadde i-broȝt wiþ hym foure*. [voure, γ.] preostes out of Northumberlond*. [Norþhumburlond, β.] for to preche his peple*. [pupel, γ.] and his men. Þe prestes were Cedde, Adda, Becti, and Duina; and kyng Penda forbede*. [vorbud, γ.; forbad not, Cx.] nouȝt to converte to Cristene fey al þat evere he*. [he] om. α., β., and γ.; evere he, om. Cx.] wolde. Also þat ȝere deide Honorius, arche|bisshop of Caunterbury; and after oon ȝere aftirward oon Deusdedit was bisshop nyne ȝere; hym confermede Ithamar,*. [Thamar, γ.] bisshop of Rochestre.*. [Rouchestre, β.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Þat ȝere Benet bisshop,*. [bischop, β.; Cx. inserts and.] þe abbot þat norschede*. [norischide, β.] Beda þe preoste, and was kyng Oswy his servaunt, forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] his*. [his] om. α., β., and Cx.] hous and home, his cosyns, and al his kyn for Cristes love, and took*. [touk, γ.]Page  79, vol.6 þe wey to Rome, [and com ef*. [ef] eft, Cx.] aȝe:*. [efte aȝen, β.] fyve*. [vyf, γ.] siþes he wente to Rome,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and brouȝte bookes and holy seintes relikes*. [holy relekes of holy seyntes, α. and β.; relyquyes, Cx.] hoom to his abbayes þat were in þe brynke of þe river Wyre. He was þe firste þat brouȝte glasier his crafte*. [glasieres craft, β.] into his contray. He bulde tweie abbayes of Petir and of*. [of] om. α.] Poule uppon þe brinke of þe ryver*. [rever, γ.] Wyre; were*. [were] om. α., β., and Cx.] oon in þe on side, and þat*. [þe, α.] oþer in þe oþir*. [oþer] om. α.] side in Girvum,*. [in Girvum] forn aȝenst, β.] and was abbot*. [that other syde, forn aȝenst, and was abbot, Cx.] of boþe; he took his noble norrey*. [nory, α. and β.] Beda, a childe of sevene ȝere olde, and tauȝte hym whiles he was onlyve. Willelmus de Re|gibus, libro primo. Beda wondreþ*. [wonderþ, γ.] of his pacience and of his witt. Of his wit, for he brouȝte so many bookes and craftes men into Engelond, and was pilgrim wel nygh al his lyf tyme. In hym love of þe contray and likynge of fairnesse*. [veyrnes, γ.] overcome þe strong travailles. He wondreþ*. [wondryd, Cx.] of his pacience, for he was i-made abbot by þe kyng of Kent, and in pos|sessioun of þe abbay of Seynt Austyn at Canturbury, and at comynge of Adrian he lefte it wiþ good wille, and leet Adrian be abbot þere. Also þe abbayes of Wyre made hem anoþer abbot while he was absent, and he suffred it wiþ good wille,*. [a was, γ.]Page  81, vol.6 and dede*. [dide, β.] þe newe abbot whan he come home worschippe*. [obedyence, Cx.] as oþere men dede; also he was at þe laste i-smyte wiþ a palsye, and made þe þridde abbot þerto. Also þat ȝere Penda, kyng of Mercia, slouȝ Anna, kyng of [Est]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Angles, in a bataille, for he hadde i-favored kyng Kenwalcus aȝenst*. [aȝenus, β.] hym. Also þat ȝere Bothulphus bulde*. [bilde, β.; Botulphus bylded, Cx.] an abbay byside*. [by Est, α., β., and Cx.] Lyn|colne in a place þat hatte Icanno. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 24o. Þat ȝere deide Penda kyng of Mercia, and was i-slawe, he and þritty cheventeynes*. [cheveteynes, β.; capytayns, Cx.] þat come into þe contray of Norþ|humberlond for to slee kyng Oswy, [as]*. [From α. and Cx.] he hadde i-slawe his broþer Oswald somtyme, and spared nouȝt for alye and affinite þat was bytwene here sones and hir douȝtres. Noþeles kyng Oswy profred hym meny grete ȝiftes for to wende out of his lond, but he wolde nouȝt therof; þanne Oswy seide, "Yf þis pay|nym can nouȝt fonge*. [vonge, γ.; resseyve, Cx.] oure ȝiftes, þanne [we]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.; he, MS.] schal profre and offre to hym þat can." Þan kyng Oswy made a vow*. [made his avowe, Cx.] þat ȝif he hadde þe victorie in þat bataille he wolde offre his douȝter Elfleda to God of hevene, and also possessiouns*. [possession, Cx.] for Page  83, vol.6 to bulde twelve abbayes. Þanne þe bataille was i-doo in þe contray Leedes,*. [Leedys, γ.] not fer from*. [ver vram, γ.] ȝork, faste by þe ryver Wynwed, þat was þo*. [thenne, Cx.] hugelich*. [hogelich, γ.] aryse and over flowed*. [flowide, β.; vlowede, γ.] a greet*. [greed, MS.] deel of þe contray; in þat batayle Penda was i-slawe, and þritty dukes and leders of his; and ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] he hadde suche þre so hardy*. [menye, α.; soche þrytty men, γ.; thryes soo many, Cx.] men*. [had sich þre so many, β.] in his oost as þe oþer hadde in his;*. [in his] in his tricies, γ.; evi|dently not knowing what to do with the Latin word.] ffor þey þat askapede*. [escaped, Cx.] þe swerd were adreynt*. [drowned, Cx.] in þe ryver. Þo Alfridus hadde i-be with his fader, bote Egfridus was i-holde in hostage with Penda his wif. Þo Odilwald*. [Odilwald Oswaldes sone, β.; Odilwald Oswald hys, γ.; Odyle|wald Oswaldes sone, Cx.] his sone hadde i-be wiþ Penda, but he stood aside for to see what ende þe bataille schulde have. Whanne þis victorie was i-doo,*. [doon, β.] þe kyng Oswy bytook his douȝter of þre ȝere olde to þe lore*. [loore, Cx.] of Hilda, þe abbas afterward*. [afterward] om. α.] in þe abbay of*. [afterward . . . of] om. Cx.] Hertiseie, þat is Hertes Ilond. But aftirward sche*. [heo, β.] was abbas of Streni|schalt,*. [Stremshalt, β., γ., and Cx.] þat is, þe bosom*. [bosme, γ.] oþer þe lappe of corn, þat now hatte Whiteby, and is þritty myle from ȝork; þere Elflede was abbas*. [abbes, β.] aftirward. Þanne Oswy ȝaf possessiouns for to bulde abbayes, as he hadde byhote, sixe in province of [Deira, and Page  85, vol.6 sixe in þe province of]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Brenisia. Trevisa.*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β.] Loke more of Deyra and Brenisia in þe firste book, capitulo 51o. Þan it foloweþ in the storie:*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β.] and he ȝaf to Weda, þat hadde i-wedded his douȝter, þe kyngdom of Souþ Mercia, þat con|teyneþ, as me seiþ, fyve þowsand housholdes and meynees,*. [meynyes, α. and γ.] and is departed from Norþ Mercia by þe water of Trent. But Weda after þre ȝere of his kyngdom was sone i-spyld*. [lost, Cx.] by tresoun*. [trayson, γ.] of his owne wif. Whanne Weda was dede þe Merces wax*. [Mercyes wex, β.; wexe, Cx.] rebel aȝenst þe kyng Oswy,*. [aȝens tkyng Oswy, β.] and took*. [touk, γ.] Wlferus,*. [Wulferus, β.; Wolferus, Cx.] Penda his sone, þat þey had priveliche i-kept, and made hem*. [Sic MS.; hym, β.] here kyng. He was þe firste Cristen man of alle þe kynges of Mercia, and wedded Ermenilda, Ercomber his douȝter,*. [Ercombes doughter, Cx.] kyng of Canturbury, and gat on here Kenredus and Wereburga, and overcome nobilliche*. [nobly, Cx.] Kenwalcus, kyng of West Saxons; and wan þe yle*. [yl, γ.] of Wyght, and ȝaf it aftirward to þe kyng of Est Angles for to be a Cristen man, and was his godfader whan he was i-cristened.*. [yvolled, γ.] At þe laste, after seventene*. [the sevententh, Cx.] ȝere of his kyngdom, he was i-buried at Lichefeld. Clodoneus, after his fader Dogobertus, regnede in Fraunce seventene*. [sixten, Cx.] ȝere of Page  87, vol.6 his kingdom;*. [of his kingdom] om. Cx.] by entysynge of þe devel he made kutte*. [kitt, β.] of seint Denys his arme. Also þat ȝere deide seynt Wandregisi|lius*. [Wandrigesilus, β. and γ.; Wandregesilus, Cx.] þe abbot. Aboute þat tyme Girmaldus,*. [Grimaldus, β. and Cx.] kyng of Longo|bardes, aspied*. [aspied . . . Longobardes] bis in MS.] þat his knyȝt Bertaricus was i-flowe*. [aflowe, β.; vlowe, γ.] to Cacanus, kyng of Avares, and sente to kyng Cacanus worde, and seide þat he schulde leve Bertaricus oþer he schulde have no pees wiþ þe Longobardes. Bertaricus herde*. [hurde, γ.] hereof,*. [therof, Cx.] and wente into Italy aȝe, and by help of his frend Hunnul|phus he was reconsiled, and i-made at oon wiþ þe kyng. Som wikked men sight*. [siȝ, β.; syȝe, γ.; sawe, Cx.] þat Berthericus*. [Bertaricus, β. passim; Berta|ricus, Cx. et infra.] hadde good semblant of meny men, and made sugestioun to þe kyng, and seide but þat Berthericus were þe sonner i-slawe*. [but yf soo were that Bertaricus were slain, Cx.] þe kyng schulde lese*. [leose, γ.] his kyngdom. Þe kyng herde þat, and sente*. [sette, Cx.] knyȝtes and oþere men to bysette Berthericus his hous, for he schulde nouȝt ascape, and Hunulphus aspied þat, and dede a burþen*. [dide a birþen, β.] of bedcloþes on Berthericus his nekke, and bete*. [butte, γ.] hym with Page  89, vol.6 his feest,*. [vest, γ.] and schuft*. [schufte, β.; schyf, γ.] hym, and putte*. [pult, γ.] hym forþ þoruȝ þe myddel of þe citee anon to þe walles,*. [wallus, γ.] and lefte hym þere, and Berthericus fliȝ*. [vlyȝ, γ.] into Fraunce. Whanne me axede of Hunnul|phus why he dede soo, he answerde and seide: "For þis þat is my wicked servaunt*. [Bycause my servaunt, Cx.] wolde have i-bedded me in þe dronken*. [drunkene, β.] Bertaricus his beddechamber, but for þat was unlikynge to me,*. [8-8 but . . . me] whiche plesyd me not, Cx.] I*. [Ich, β. and γ.] make hym bere þe cloþes aȝen home*. [home] om. Cx.] to myne owne hous;" and so þe knyȝtes were begiled, and fonde*. [vonde, γ.] not*. [nothynge, Cx.] in Bertaricus his chambre; and þey took Bertari|cus his servaunt, þat wist of þis scapynge, and was assentynge þerto, and drouȝ hym out by þe heer, and brouȝt hym out*. [out] om. β. and Cx.] to þe kyng. Þe servaunt was i-dampned to þe deth, but ȝit þe kyng preysed hym and Hunnulphus wonderliche wel,*. [wonderliche wel] gretely, Cx.] for þey were so stedefast*. [stidefast, β.] and so trusty,*. [tristy, β.] and ȝaf hym*. [hem, Cx.] choys wheþer hem were levere abyde wiþ hym in his court for evermo oþer wende to here leve*. [lef, β.; lyef, Cx.] frende Bertaricus. Þanne þey wente into Fraunce to here leve*. [lef, β.; lyef, Cx.] frend*. [to . . . frend] with, Cx.] Bertaricus wiþ Page  91, vol.6 alle þat þey hadde. Also þat [ȝere]*. [From Cx.] Egfridus, kyng Oswy his sone, spousede seint Etheldreda, þat was to forehonde*. [vorhond, γ.] i-wedded to erle Todber. [Þey heo were twyes yspoused and bysylych ywowed to]*. [From γ.; to, α., β., and Cx.] cosses and clippynge*. [to kyssyng, clyppynge, Cx.] and fleschely lokynge;*. [likynge, α. and β.; vleyschlych lykyng, γ.] ȝit sche*. [heo, β.] lefte*. [lefte] preserved her, Cx.] clene mayde, and was departed from Egfridus, and wente into þe abbay of Elyg,*. [Some one has erased the last letter of Elyg in β.; Ely, Cx.] and was i-made abbas þere, and dede many faire*. [veyr, γ.] myracles and grete. Aboute þat tyme Hunarus, prince of Saracenes*. [Sarasyns, Cx., et infra.] in Siria bulde a newe temple þat is now in Ierusalem, þere þe Saracenes worschippeþ God and biddeþ here bedes.*. [make theyr prayers, Cx.]Beda, libro 4o, capitulo primo. Ercombertus, kyng of Caunterbury, deide, and his sone Egebertus was kyng after hym nyne ȝere. Also þat ȝere deide þe archebisshop þat heet Deusdedit; þan þe kyng of Kent and þe kyng of Northumberlond, by oon assent, sente Wyghardus*. [Wychardus, Cx.] to pope Vitalianus for to be archebisshop of Caunterbury. But he and wel*. [wel nygh] almooste, Cx.] nygh*. [ny, γ.] al his companye deyde in [þe]*. [From β.] greet pestilence þat was þo*. [þo] soo, Cx.] strong in*. [in] into, β.] al Engelond; Page  93, vol.6 and þe pope ordeyned oon Theodoricus,*. [Theodorus, α. and Cx.] a monk, [governour of þe cherches of Engelond].*. [From α., β., and Cx.]Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 21o. Also þat ȝere fel*. [fil, β.; vul, γ.] greet pestilence in al Bretayne, and bygan in þe south contrayes. In þat pestilence byfel*. [byfil, β.; byvul, γ.; byfll, Cx.] þat þat is i-rad of Egbertus þe monk þat werþe*. [worþ, γ.; were, Cx.] seek þat tyme. Þis man felede*. [velede, γ.] þat he was sike, and wente privelich out of his bed at matyn tyme, and was verray contrite and sorwful in his herte, and prayed God besiliche*. [besyly, Cx.] þat he schulde nouȝt deie at þat tyme, or*. [or] er, β.; ar, γ.] [he had ful clensed him of his synnes that]*. [From Cx.; he ful clensed hym of his trespas þat, β.; he hadde vol clensed hym of his trespases þat, γ.] he hadde i-doo to forehonde, and he made his avow*. [avou, γ.] þat ȝif he myȝte scape þat pestilence he wolde deie in pilgrymage; and þat wiþ oute*. [wiþ oute] above, Cx.] þe ful*. [ful] vol, γ.] service he wolde every day seie*. [saye, Cx.] þe sawter, but ȝif sikenesse of body hym lette;*. [letted hym, Cx.] and þat everiche woke*. [every weeke, Cx.] he wolde faste*. [vaste, γ.] oon day, and þe nyght þerto. Whanne þis was i-doo he wente priveliche to his bed aȝen. Bote wiþ som manere rouschelynge*. [rouslynng, α.; roustlyge, β.; rosslynge, γ. rustlynge, Cx.] þat he made in lig|y nge adoun*. [lyyng doune, Cx.] his felowe awook, and spak to hym and seide: Page  95, vol.6 "Egbert, what hast þou i-doo?*. [doon, β.] y*. [Ich, β. and γ.] hopede þat we tweyne schulde wende in fere*. [yfere, β.; yvere, γ.; sholde have gone togyder, Cx.] to reste, but what þou hast i-prayed it is [y]*. [From α.]-graunted to þe." Þanne þat felawe deide, and þis*. [þis] thus, Cx.] Egebertus lengþede*. [lengþide, β.] his owne lif to þe ȝere of his age foure score and ten: but he dede more þan þe raþer avow,*. [dyde more than his fyrste avowe, Cx.] and faste þries in þe ȝere fourty*. [vourty, γ.] dayes contynuallyche to breed and to þynne mylk;*. [melk, α.] fourty*. [vourty, γ.] dayes continualliche*. [continualliche] om., α., β., γ., and Cx., and the Lent and Advent transposed.] in þe Lente, fourty*. [vourty, γ.] dayes in þe Advent, and fourty*. [vourty, γ.] dayes to fore Witsonday;*. [Wytsontyde, Cx.] but al þe creem*. [craym, β.] and fatnesse*. [fastnesse, α.; vatnes, γ.] of þat mylke þat he hadde to his breed schulde be overblowe and i-take awey. Beda, libro 6o, capitulo 25o.