Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quintumdecimum. Heraclonas.

HERACLONAS, Heraclius his sone, regned two ȝere. Þe senatoures*. [senatour, Cx.] of Rome putte*. [potte, γ.] hym and his wif*. [Sic in MS.] Martina out of his kyngdom, and his moder nose and here tonge were i-kutte*. [ykut, γ.] of al boþe. After þe fourþe*. [vurþe, γ.] Iohn, Theodorus was pope sixe ȝere; þat tyme was Isedre bisshop Hispalensis*. [Ispalencis, γ.; Ysodre bisshop Yspalencis, Cx.] in his floures, he was somtyme þe greet Gregorie his disciple.*. [dyscypel, γ.] Isedre*. [Isidor, γ., et supra.] lefte after hym meny goode bookes þat he hadde i-made:*. [ymad, γ.] þe bookes Ethimologiarum, De Summo Bono, De Ordine Creature,*. [Creaturarum, γ.; Creaturarum Simonia, Cx.] Sino|nima, and meny oþer good*. [good] om. Cx.] bookes. Edbaldus*. [Edwaldus, Cx.] kyng of Kent deide, and lefte after hym his sone and his heire*. [eyr, γ.] Ercon|bertus,*. [Ercombertus, Cx. bis.]Page  53, vol.6 [þat he hadde y-gete*. [bygoten, Cx.] on Emma, a womman of Fraunce.*. [Frauns, γ.] Econbertus]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] regnede foure*. [voure, γ.] and twenty ȝere in Kent; he destroyede*. [destruyde, γ.] þe temples of mawmetrie,*. [mametrie, γ.] and ordeynede þat þe*. [þe] om. γ.] Lent fastynge*. [Leynte vastyng, γ.] schulde be i-holde in his kyngdom.*. [his kyngdom] Englond, Cx.] Of*. [On, α. and Cx.] his wif Sexburga þe douȝter of Anna, kyng of Est Angles, he gat a douȝter Enkengoda,*. [Eukengoda, Cx.] þat was i-made mynchoun*. [monchone, β.; mynchyn, γ.; menchone, Cx.] in þe abbey Bryggense in Gallia, þat*. [þat . . . . Fraunce] om. γ. and Cx.] is in Fraunce; þere here aunte Ethelburga servede God in þat abbey. Ethelburga*. [Ethilburga, γ., bis.] hadde i-be Edwynus his wif; also þere afterward eiþer of hem was abbas.*. [abbesse, Cx.] Þat tyme, þeyȝ þere were many abbayes in Engelond, ȝit Englische men used for to goo into abbayes of Fraunce by cause of conversacioun and of þe manere of levynge, and specialliche at Brugges,*. [Brydges, Cx.] at Caleys, and*. [and] om. Cx.] at Andilegium. Þat tyme Audomarus*. [Andomarus, Cx.] þe bisshop, and Bertinus*. [þe . . . . Bertinus] om. γ. and Cx.] þe bisshop, and Bertinus þe abbot, were in here floures in þe contray of Tarvernens*. [Toreuence, Cx.] in Gallia, þat is Fraunce. Paulus, libro 5o. Þe þridde Constantinus was Heraclius his Page  55, vol.6 sone, and Heraclioun*. [Heraclon, α.; Heraclius, Cx.] his broþer, and regnede eyȝte and twenty ȝere. He was begiled of Paulis,*. [Paulus, Cx.] grauntsire of Ser|gius,*. [of Paul as his grauntsire of Sergius, γ.] þerfore he exciled pope Martyn and spoylede Rome. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 4o. He unheled*. [onhelede, α.] chirches roves*. [chirche rooves, β.; cherche roves, γ.] and coppes þat were i-heled*. [He uncoverd chirche rooves and steples that were coveryd, Cx.] wiþ slattes*. [sclattes, β., γ., bis.] of bras, and took awey þe slattes, but he loste hem at Siracusa in Sicilia, and was i-slawe by Saracenes in a bath, and þey ladde awey þat pray*. [partye, β. and Cx.] into Alexandria. Beda, libro 3o, capi|tulo 6o. Þat ȝere Kyngulsus, kyng of West Saxons, was dede, and his sone Kenwalkus*. [Kynwalcus, Cx.] regnede after hym oon and þritty*. [thyrity, Cx.] ȝere; for his eldere*. [eþere, α.] broþer Quichelinus hadde raþer i-regned wiþ his fader, [and deide þe same ȝere þat he was y-cristened*. [folled, β., bis.] wiþ his fader,*. [yvolled with hys vader, γ] and lefte after hym]*. [From α., γ., not Cx.] his sone Cuthredus, þat was i-cristned also*. [yvolled also of, γ.] Birinus. [℞]*. [From Cx.] Here take hede þat Beda and William varieþ,*. [varyen, Cx.] for Beda seiþ þat Quychelinus was Kyngilsus his sone, and William seiþ þat he was Kyngilsus his broþer. Beda ut supra. Þis Ken|walcus in þe bygynnynge of his kyngdom wolde nouȝt fonge*. [vonge, γ.]Page  57, vol.6 þe fey of Cristendom, and þerfore riȝtfulliche he loste his kyngdom; for he dede awey his wif þat was kyng Penda his suster,*. [soster, γ.] [and wedded anoþer, and þerfore Penda,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in þe fifte*. [vyfþe, γ.] ȝere of his kyngdom, chasede hym and droof*. [drof, γ.] hym awey. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. And he hydde*. [hudde, γ.] hymself þre ȝere with Anna, kyng of Estangles; þerfore after|ward Penda slouȝ hym.*. [Anna, α., β., γ., and Cx.] But in þe*. [mene] add. Cx.] tyme of his excilynge Kenwalcus was i-cristned*. [folled, β.; yvolled, γ.; baptised, Cx.] of Felix, þe bisshop of his pro|vince,*. [of his province] om. Cx.] while he was wiþ Anna, and rekevered*. [recoveryd, Cx.] his kyngdom by help of Anna, and made bisshop of his province oon Agel|bertus, a Frenscheman,*. [Freynsman, γ.] þat com out of Irlond, and he was bisshop of Wynchestre in West Saxon fiftene*. [vyftene, γ.] ȝere; and þe kyng of strange tonge was greved*. [agreved, β.] and noyful, oþer for*. [vor, γ.] som oþer cause I noot, he was*. [I not a was, γ.] wrooþ, and brouȝte yn anoþer*. [bishop] add. Cx.] of his owne longage and tonge, and*. [þat, α., β., and Cx.] was i-cleped Wyne*. [Wyn, β. and Cx.] by his name; he was ordeyned in Fraunce, and þo kyng*. [þo kyng] they, Cx.] bytook hym tweye*. [tweye] the, Cx.] provinces*. [þe province,] i-deled in tweye Page  59, vol.6 parisches,*. [paryschus, γ.] and sette þe cheef bisshoppes see at Wynchestre; þerfore Agibertus*. [Agilbertus, Cx., et infra.] was wrooþ, and wente into Fraunce, and was afterward bisshop of Parys; and nouȝt longe after þis Wyn, after [þe]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] two ȝere of his prelacie, was i-putt [oute]*. [From Cx.; ypot by, γ.] by þe kyng, and boute*. [boȝte, γ.; boughte, Cx.] þe see of Londoun of þe kyng of Mercya Wolferus, and hilde*. [hulde, γ.] it while he was onlyve;*. [alyve, γ.] and so þe province of West Saxons was foure ȝere bisshoples. At þe laste kyng Kenwalcus was ofte hard bysette wiþ his enemyes, and sente for Agibertus, þat was i-putte*. [ypotte, γ.] out, but he wolde nouȝt oþere he myȝte not come, and sente his nevew Leu|therius in his stede,*. [stude, α.] þat was confermed of þe archebisshop Theodorus, and was bisshop þere sevene ȝere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Þis Kenwalcus overcom þe Britouns tweis, first*. [vurste, γ.] at White*. [Wight, β.; Wiht Gosnesbrugh, γ.; Wyght Gosneburgh, Cx.] Gosnesburgh and eft at þe hil of Pentya,*. [Pencia, γ.; Pente, Cx.] and for wreche of his fader*. [vader, γ.] persecucion he bynam Wilferus,*. [Wulferus, β.] Penda his sone, a greet deel of his kyngdom. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 8o.*. [secundo, Cx.] Þat ȝere Oswald kyng of Norþhum|berlond was i-slawe by a paynym kyng Penda,*. [kyng Penda paganus, γ.] in a place þat Page  61, vol.6 hatte Mezerfeld;*. [Meserfeld, Cx.] þere ofte God dooþ*. [sheweth, Cx.] myracles and wondres: Penda heet honge his armes and his heed in þe stokkes. Wil|lelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. After oon ȝere his broþer Oswy, þat was kyng after hym, come þider,*. [þuder, γ.] and buried þe heed in þe chirchehawe*. [chirch hey, β.; cherche hey, γ.] of Lyndefare;*. [chircheyerd of Lyndesfar, Cx.] but me seiþ þe hede is now at Durham bytwene Seint Cuthbert his armes; but he dede*. [a dude, γ.] Oswold his armes in þe citee Bebbanburgh.*. [Bebbanbrugh, γ.] But Ostrida*. [Ostria, γ.] queene of Mercia, þat was Oswy his douȝter and Etheldredus his wif, brouȝte þe body and þe*. [þe] om. γ.] oþer deel of bones wiþ here to þe abbey of Bardeneye:*. [Bardeny, Cx.] þere sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] myȝte nouȝt be i-fonge or*. [yvonge ar, γ.] a piler of liȝt were i-seie*. [were i-seie] had, Cx.] schyne uppon þilke relikes*. [oppon þulke relykes, γ.] al an nyȝt. Meny ȝere after men of straunge nacioun þe Danes werred in þat lond, and Elfleda, lady of Mercia, brouȝte þilke*. [þulke, γ.] boones at*. [at] to, Cx.] Gloucetre in a chirche of chanouns. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. [But]*. [From α. and Cx.] Seynt Oswald his arm is in þe abbay at Peterisborgh*. [Petur his burgh, γ.; of Petre|burgh, Cx.] hool Page  63, vol.6 and som,*. [sound, α., β., and γ.; sounde, Cx.] wiþ flesche*. [vlesch, γ.] and wiþ senewes;*. [synwes, γ.] as me seiþ it was þe flesche*. [þeefliche, α.; þeevelich, β.; þuef|liche, γ.; theefly, Cx.] i-stole out of þe olde restynge place, and þider i-brouȝt, and þere is i-seie*. [i-seie] om. Cx.] in*. [in] om. α.] a shryne þat is precious and riche. But þe fey*. [fey] bileve, Cx.] hereof is somdel unstedefast,*. [doubtable, Cx.] for þere me hireþ*. [huyreþ, γ.] and aspieþ and seeþ nouȝt*. [men here and aspye and see not, Cx.] þerof; I seie*. [I sugge, γ.] nouȝt þus for doute þat I*. [Ich, β.] have of þe holynesse of þis seynt, but for I*. [y, β.] kepe nouȝt to hastiliche afferme wheþer it be in þat place oþer no. Paulus, libro 5o. Aboute þat tyme Cesarea,*. [Cesara, γ., and Cx. et infra.] þe kyng his wif of Pers, come wiþ fewe*. [vew, γ.] Cristen men to Con|stantynnoble [for to be y-cristened:*. [folled, β.; vor to be yvolled, γ.] here housbonde herde*. [hurde, γ., et infra.] þerof, and sente messagers to Constantynnoble]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] for to axe his wif of þe emperour. But Cesarea answerde and seide: "Telleþ*. [Telle ye, Cx.] my lord ȝoure kyng þat but ȝif he wil fonge*. [wol vonge, γ.] my fey and trowe in my God he schal nevere have me to his*. [his] om. α. and Cx.] wif." Þe kynge*. [kynge] om. γ.] herde þis,*. [therof, Cx.] and com wiþ sixty þowsand men in pes*. [pees, Cx.] to þe emperour, and was i-cristened,*. [folled, β.; yvolled, γ.] he and Page  65, vol.6 alle hise, and hadde greet worschippe, he and al his,*. [he . . . . his] om. γ.] and took*. [took] om. α. and Cx.] meny grete ȝiftes, and took his wif and wente home aȝe. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 13o. Whan Oswald was i-slawe, after hym his broþer Oswy was kyng of Northumberlond, and regnede nobilleche*. [nobelyche, γ.] in Deyra. Oswynus, Osricus his sone, of Edwynus his blood, was a stedefast man, and holy*. [meke] add. Cx.] and mylde, and faire*. [veyr, γ.] of speche. But kyng Oswy made hym i-slawe in erle Hunbaldus his hous; Oswynus was i-flowe*. [aflowe, β.; avlowe, γ.; fledde, Cx.] to erle Hun|baldus for helpe and socour; and after hym Oswy hadde a felowe*. [a felowe, from α., β., and Cx.; a felouz, γ.; iflowe, MS., a mistake caused by the occurrence of this word just above.] in þe kyndom of Deyra Oswaldus Oswoldis*. [Odilwaldus Oswald his, α., γ., and Cx.; Odilwaldus Oswaldes, β.] sone. After Theodorus þe firste*. [vurste, γ.] Martyn was pope sixe ȝere; a swerdman of Olympus fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to slee hym at his*. [þe, α.; om. Cx.; atte, γ.] auȝter while he song*. [a sang, γ.] his masse; but whyle he gan to smyte anon he worþ*. [worde, Cx.] blynde. Þe emperour of Constantynnoble excilede þis pope, for he hadde*. [vor a hadde, γ.] i-dampned Paulus, patriark of Con|stantynnoble, and hadde falsliche þat name. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 13o. Þe pope*. [þe pope] þat ȝere, α., β., γ., and Cx.] deide Paulynus þat was [þo]*. [From α.; þanne, β.; thenne, Cx.]Page  67, vol.6 bisshop of Rouchestre, and hadde i-be somtyme erchebisshop of ȝork; and after hym Thamar was bisshop. Also Felix deide, þe first bisshop of Est Angles, and Thomas was bisshop after hym. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 21o.*. [12o, Cx.] Aboute þat tyme þe Est Saxons fenge*. [vynge, γ.] þe fey þat þey*. [hy, γ.] hadde to forehonde i-caste awey and forsake: Oswynus, kyng of Northumberlond, made hem now receyve*. [resseyve, β.] and fonge þe fey; for here kyng Sigebertus was i-cristned*. [yfolled, β.; yvolled, γ.] of Fynanus bisshop of Northum|berland, faste*. [vaste, γ.] by þe longe wal þat departede somtyme betwene Britouns and Scottes. Þanne he took*. [touk, γ.] wiþ hym oon Cedde,*. [Ced, γ.] a preost, þe broþer of Chedda,*. [Cedda, γ.; Chad, Cx.] out of þe province of Mercia, for to preche to his men of þe Est; and whan he hadde i-doo þat dede he tornede aȝen to þe forsaide*. [vorsede, γ.] Fynanus, and was i-made bisshop of hym, and wente ofte for to preche to þe Est Angles in a place þat hatte Stanchestre,*. [Schancester, γ.; Straunchestre, Cx.] þat is by þe brynke of þe water Ponte,*. [Pent, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and also in þe toun of Tillebury,*. [Tylleburgh, α. and Cx.; Tille|burgh, β.] þat is faste*. [vaste, γ.] by Tempse.*. [Temse, β. and Cx.] But*. [hit, α.; It, β. and Cx.] byfel*. [hyt byful, γ.] in a tyme in þat contray þat the for|saide*. [þat vorsede, γ.]Page  69, vol.6 bisshop Ced corsede an erle and alle þat communed*. [comynede, β.] wiþ hym,*. [cursed an erle and excomyned him, Cx.] for he held*. [heelde, β.] a womman in unlaweful*. [alaweful, α.; unlauful, Cx.] wedlok. And [kyng]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Sigebertus despisede þe bisshop his heste, and com at þat erle his prayer, and eet wiþ þat erl in his hous.*. [hows, Cx.] And whanne þe kyng wente from*. [vram, γ., passim.] þe mete þe bisshop Cedde*. [Ced, Cx.] mette þe kyng, and touched hym wiþ a ȝerde*. [rodde, Cx.] þat he bare in his honde, and seide to þe kyng in þis manere: "For*. [vor, γ., passim.] þou woldest not at myn heste wiþdrawe þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] and holde þe out of þat*. [From β.] lost and corsede*. [cursed, β.] manis hous, in þe same hous þou schalt deie." And so it byfel*. [bifil, β.] þat*. [þat] For, Cx.] þe same erl and his broþer slouȝ þe kyng in þat same hous; and afterward, whan he*. [me, β.; men, Cx.] axed hym wy*. [ham why hy, γ.; hem why, Cx.] þei hadde i-doo þat cursede dede, þey answerde nouȝt elles,*. [not ellys, Cx.] but seide þat þe kyng was to esy*. [esye, β.] to his enemyes, wolde liȝtliche forȝeve*. [vorȝeve, γ.] wronges and trespas.*. [trespaces, β.]Trevisa. It is sooþ þat corsed men hateþ god,*. [gode men, β. and γ.; good men, Cx.] and here good dedes, and so þe corsed erle slouȝ þe kyng, for he was gracious and good.*. [gode, β.] Þanne it foloweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] in þe story: also þat Page  71, vol.6 ȝere kyng Oswy leet slee*. [heet slee, α.; bade slee, Cx.] kyng Oswynus in*. [þe, add. β.] erl Hunbald*. [Hunbaldas, α.; In the erle Hunbaldus, Cx.] his hous. Oswynus hadde i-left his oost, and was i-flowe*. [avlowe, γ.; fledde, Cx.] for greet trust to erle Hunbaldus, as it were for to abide betre tyme for to fiȝte.*. [vor to vyȝte, γ.] It is i-seide of þis Oswynus þat he hadde somtyme i-ȝeve*. [yeven, Cx.] his beste hors to Aidanus þe bisshop, þat used more to goo oon foot*. [a vote, γ.] þan on hors for to ride.*. [than to ryde on horsbak, Cx.] But sone afterward a pore*. [poure, γ. and Cx.] man prayed*. [prayde, β.] þe bischop of his almesse,*. [almus, γ., et infra.] for*. [for . . . almesse] and þe bis|shop ȝaf hym þat hors, α., β., and γ.; and the bysshop gave him that hors for he hadde nought ellys at honde, Cx.] þis bisshop hadde but oon hors, and þat he ȝaf to þe poore man for almesse,*. [for . . . almesse] and þe bis|shop ȝaf hym þat hors, α., β., and γ.; and the bysshop gave him that hors for he hadde nought ellys at honde, Cx.] for he hadde nouȝt elles at honde. Whanne þat was i-tolde þe kyng, þe kynge was swiþe*. [swiþe] anone, Cx.] wrooth, and seide to Aidanus as he satte by hym at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] meete: "What hast y-doo,*. [hastow ydo, β.; hast thou don, sere, Cx.] sire bisshop, hadde we nouȝt þinges*. [þynȝus, γ.] of lasse prise þat myȝte suffice for almesse dede." "What spekest þou, lord sire*. [sere, Cx.] kyng?" quoþ*. [quaþ, α.] þe bisshop, "schal a mare sone be*. [be] om. α.] levere*. [lever be, Cx.] to us þan Mary*. [Marie, β.] sone?" Anon þe kyng fil*. [vul, γ.]Page  73, vol.6 doun to þe bischopps feet,*. [veet, γ.] and prayed mercye and forȝif|nesse,*. [vorȝevenes, γ.] and byhet truliche*. [byhyȝte treweliche, γ.] þat he wolde nevere after þat tyme speke evel of þat dede. Þanne þe kyng and the bisshop boþe were wel apaide and seete*. [plesed and sate, Cx.] in fere*. [yfere, β.; yvere, γ.] at þe mete, and þe bisshop gan [sodenliche]*. [From α.; sodeynlich, β.; su|deynlich, γ.; sodenly, Cx.] to wepe, and*. [and wepte] om. β.] wepte*. [weep, α.; wep, γ.] meny sore teres.*. [to wepe many teres, Cx.] Þanne me axede hym the cause of his wepynge, and he answerde and seide, "Þis kyng schal nouȝt longe wiþ us be here onlyve. Unneþe*. [Ich, γ.] I have i-seie kyng meke afore*. [to fore, α.; to vore, γ.] þis tyme, and þis evel peple*. [pupel, γ.] is nouȝt worþy to have suche a kyng longe tyme." Þanne it happede sone aftir þat þe kyng was i-slawe as it is i-seide, and þe bisshop Aydanus lyvede after but twelve dayes,*. [dawes, γ.] and seint Cuthbert sigh*. [syȝ, β. and γ.; sawe angeles, Cx.] angels bere his soule into hevene. ℞. Also deide þis ȝere Byrinus þe firste*. [vurste, γ.] bisshop of Dorchestre, after þe fourtenþe*. [vourtene, γ.] ȝere of his comynge and of his bisshopriche. Beda seiþ þat Hedda bisshop of Wynchestre translated Birinus his body out of Dorchestre [to Wynchestre];*. [From α., β., and Cx.] look more hereof in þe firste book de Pontificibus Westsaxonum. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 23o. After Martyn Eugenius was pope as it were þre ȝere. [Þis ȝer]*. [From α. and Cx.] þe kyng of Deira Odilwaldus,*. [Odylewaldus, Cx.] Oswald Page  75, vol.6 his sone, ȝaf to Ced, bisshop of þe Est, þat com ofte into þe norþe, a place in hy*. [heiȝ, β.; high, Cx.] hilles*. [hulles, γ.] þat hatte Loftyngay,*. [Lestyngay, a., γ., and Cx.; Les|tingai, β.] for to bulde*. [buylde, γ.] þere an abbay. But þis Ced or*. [or] er, β.; and Cx.] he wolde founde þe abbay faste*. [vaste, γ.] al a Lente*. [Leynte, β. and γ.] everiche day save*. [saf, β. and γ.; sauf, Cx.] þe Soneday al day for to*. [for to] til, Cx.] it were eve, and þanne he wolde ete a litel what of mylk*. [breed, α.; brede, β. and Cx.] and oon hen ey*. [eye, β.; egge, Cx.] and a litel what*. [what] om. Cx.] of mylk i-melled*. [ymedled, β. and Cx.] wiþ water, as Aidanus his disciples usede; of hem he hadde i-lerned and was i-touȝt.*. [As Adaynus his disciples usid him he had lerned and taught, Cx.] After hym his broþer Chunbillus*. [Chimbillus, γ.] governed þat place, and was i-buried þere in a pestilence tyme. And after hym Chedda*. [Cedda, Cx.] rulede*. [reulede, γ.] þat place.*. [plas, γ., passim.]