Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  423, vol.5

Capitulum undecimum. Heraclius.

HERACLIUS was emperour sevene and twenty ȝere. In his þridde ȝere, Cosdras kyng of Pers*. [Perce, Cx.] sette Ierusalem on fuyre,*. [afuyre, β.; a vuyre, γ.; afyre, Cx.] and oþere holy places, and took Zakarie þe patriark prisoner, wiþ moche*. [myche, β.] oþere peple,*. [pupel, γ.] and þe partie of þe crosse þat Eleyne*. [Helene, Cx.] hadde i-lefte þere he hadde wiþ hym into Pers,*. [Perse, Cx.] but in his twelfþe ȝere Heraclitus*. [Heraclius, Cx.] slouȝ*. [slouȝt, α.] Cosdras, and so þe prisoners were delivered, and þe cros was i-brouȝt into*. [aȝen to, α.] Ierusalem aȝen.*. [aȝen] om. α.] While kyng Heraclius wolde entre in to þe citee of Ierusalem*. [aȝen . . . Ierusalem] om. Cx.] wiþ pruyde and with boost, þe ȝeate*. [ȝate, β.; ȝat, γ.; yate closed, Cx.] was i-closed by doynge of God all myȝti, but þe kyng meked hym, and ȝeede*. [ȝude, γ.] barfoot, and þanne þe ȝate opened aȝen; and siþþe þat tyme holy chirche haþ i-ordeyned þe feste of cros, exaltatio sanctæ crucis. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Colwul|fus, kyng of West Saxon, deide, and after hym tweie sones of Page  425, vol.5 his broþer Colricus regnede to gidres; oon heet Kynegilsus,*. [on hyȝte Kynegilsus, γ., et infra; Kyngilsus, Cx., et infra.] and þe oþer Quychelinus, þat dede*. [diden, β.; dude, γ.; dyden, Cx.] meny grete dedes aȝenst þe Britouns, and specialliche at Bamptoun, bysides Oxenforde, and also aȝenst Penda, kyng of Mercia, þat wolde have i-take from hym*. [vram ham, γ.] of hire kyngdom þe citee of Surcestre.*. [Surcetre, Cx.] At þe laste Kyngilsus was i-cristened*. [folled, β.; yvolled, γ., et infra.] of Seint Birinus, but*. [bote, α.] Quychelinus voidede and wolde nouȝt fonge þe sacrament of cristenynge, or*. [follought er, β.; volloȝt ar a was, γ.; crystendome til, Cx.] he was afterward*. [afterward] om. Cx.] i-warned by febilnesse of his body, and þo he was*. [was] om. Cx.] i-cristenede,*. [folled, β.] but he deyde in þe same ȝere, and so Kyngilsus regned in al, wiþ his broþer [and after his broþer],*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] two and þritty ȝere. Here take heed*. [Her is to be noted, Cx.] þat auctors varieþ, ffor William seiþ þat Quychelinus was Kyngilsus his broþer, but Marianus and Beda telleþ*. [sayen, Cx.] þat he was Kyngilsus his sone. After Bonifacius oon Deusdedit, þat heet Theodorus also, was pope foure ȝere.*. [ȝere] om. α.] Þat tyme, at þe excitynge*. [excityns, γ.] of kyng Ethelbertus, a citiȝeyn*. [cytysyn, γ.] of Londoun bulde a chirche of Page  427, vol.5 Seint Peter in þe west side of Londoun, in a place þat [þoo]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] heet Þorney, [þat is to menynge þe ylond of þornes,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and now it hatte Westmonastre. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 5o. Þat ȝere Ethelbertus, kyng of Kent, deide and wente to hevene, after þat he hadde i-regned in þis world*. [wordle, γ.] sixe and fifty ȝere, þe ȝere after þat he hadde i-fonge þe fey of riȝt byleve*. [of riȝt byleve] om. Cx.] oon and twenty ȝere. [After him his sone Edbaldus regnede fyve and twenty ȝere];*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] he was apostata, and lay by his stepdame, and þerfore he was ofte wood.*. [þarvore a was ofte wod, γ.; wode, Cx.] Þat tyme, whan Sabertus,*. [Sebertus, Cx.] kyng of Est*. [West, Cx.] Saxons, was dede, his þre sones and his heires*. [eyres, β.] tornede to ydolatrie, and prayede Mellitus þe bisshop of þe place to ȝeve hem white brede as he hadde somtyme i-ȝeve to here fader; but he wolde nouȝt, but ȝif þey wolde fonge cristenynge,*. [fullought, β.; vonge volloȝt, γ.; receyve crystendome, Cx.] þerfore þey putte hym out of his bisshopriche, and he went anon*. [anon] om. Cx.] to þe bisshoppis of Kent. Þanne Mellitus, and Iustus by oon assent went out of Engelonde into Fraunce, for hem was*. [were, Cx.] levere*. [vor ham was lever, γ.] serve God in pees*. [pes, γ.] þan be bisshoppes among straunge naciouns wiþ oute fruyt; but sone aftirward Page  429, vol.5 þe mysbyleved kynges were i-slawe of þe kyng of Giwesies.*. [Giwisees, β. and γ.; Gywesses, Cx.]Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 9o. Also after þe oþer bisshoppes Laurence þe archebisshop caste to*. [purposed for to, Cx.] forsake þe contray. And in a nyȝt after his prayers,*. [after his prayers] om. γ.] Peter appered*. [appiered, Cx.] to hym, and blamed hym, for he wolde forsake his peple, and nouȝt onliche blamede, but he beet*. [bute, γ.] hym [also]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ful sore. And amorwe þe bisshop schewed his woundes to kyng Edbaldus. Þan þe kyng forsook his ydolatrie and his mysbyleve and his unlaw|ful wif, and tornede aȝen to þe*. [þe] his, Cx.] riȝt fey, and sente for þe bisshoppes þat were i-flowe,*. [aflowe, β. and γ.; fledde, Cx.] and brouȝte hem aȝen to hir bisshoppriches. Bote þe Londoners wolde nouȝt fonge aȝen hire bisshop Mellitus, for hem was levere*. [they had lever to, Cx.] serve ydolatrie, for þis kyng was noȝt so strong as his fader for to chaste*. [chastye, β.; chastise, Cx.] hem. Þanne Laurence*. [Laurons, γ.] deide, and Mellitus was erchebisshop after hym; and þey he were potagre*. [podagre, Cx.] on his body, he was glad of herte, and helede sike men by his prayers, and savede his citee from brennynge. Paulus, libro 5o. Aboute þat tyme Cacanus, kyng of þe Aves,*. [Anes, γ. and Cx.] þat beeþ þe Hunes, come into Italy, and Page  431, vol.5 beet doun þe Longobardes, and slowȝ hir ledere Gisulphus,*. [duk Gysulfus, Cx.] and biseged þe citee Aquila.*. [Aquilia, α., β., γ. and Cx.] Romilda,*. [Ronulda, γ.] þe wif of þe duk þat was i-slawe, sigh hym walke aboute in þe sege, and sigh þat he was faire*. [feyr, γ.] and loveliche, and lovede hym hugeliche,*. [hogeliche, γ.] and sente hym word anon þat ȝif he wolde take her to wif sche wolde deliver hym þe citee and*. [of, α.] al þat was þerynne. Þe kyng grauntede, and þe citee was i-take and i-brend, and þe men*. [meyne, γ.] i-take prisoners and i-lad away; and þe kyng took Romilda as he hadde byhoote,*. [promysed, Cx.] but it was in*. [hys, added in γ.] scorn, and lay by her oon nyȝt, and in anoþer nyȝt he made twelve of þe*. [þe] hys, γ.] Hunes ligge by here in despite everich*. [eche, Cx.] aftir oþer. After|ward he piȝt a scharpe pole in þe myddel of a feeld,*. [veld, γ.] [and]*. [From Cx.] piȝt here*. [hir, β.] þoruȝ out*. [þoromout, γ., as one word.] [her body]*. [From Cx.] wiþ þe over ende of þe pole, and lete here [be þere],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and seide so cruel an hore*. [harlatt, Cx.] such an housebonde semeþ to have.*. [habbe, γ.] Þe douȝtres of Romilda were chaast, and drowȝ nouȝt to horedom*. [hoerdome, Cx.] after her moder; and for þe maydenes wolde nouȝt þat þe Hunes schulde ligge by hem and defoule hem, þey*. [þey] a, γ.; wolde nouȝt . . . þey, om. Cx.] took raw flesche Page  433, vol.5 of chekons*. [chikyns, β.; chykyns, γ.] oþer of*. [oþer of] or, Cx.] coltes, and dede*. [dude, γ.; leyde, Cx.] it bytwene here brestes, ffor þe flesche schulde stynke whanne þe Hunes come, þat þe Hunes*. [that the Hunes] and they, Cx.] schulde wene þat þe maydons stonke, and for þat cause þe Hunes lefte hem and com nouȝt nygh hem. But aftirward þe maydons were i-solde and i-wedded to gentilmen. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 9o. While Edwynus fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] þe perse|cucioun of Ethelfridus, and hyd*. [hudde, γ.] hym [with]*. [From γ., inserted above the line.] Redwaldus, kyng of Estangles, þanne Redwaldus*. [þanne Redwaldus] om. β. and Cx.] was assentynge to Edwynus his deeþ, and þat for manas oþer for ȝiftes of Ethel|fridus; oon of Edwynus his frendes was waar*. [war, Cx.] þerof, and warnede Edwynus of þat peril, and byhet*. [byhyȝt, γ.] hym þat he wolde brynge hym in a siker place ȝif he wolde wiþ hym wende; he wiþseide it as þey he wolde nouȝt be þe firste þat schulde breke þe trues*. [truwes, γ.; trewes, Cx.] and acord þat was i-made bytwene hem*. [him, Cx.] and þe kyng. Þanne he satte allone in a greet þouȝt,*. [þoȝt, γ.] and oon com to hym þat he knewe nouȝt, and axede hym why he satte allone*. [al oon, β., et supra.] and*. [and] om. Cx.] soruful*. [sorowful, Cx.] on*. [in, α.] a stoon in such*. [sourful in a stone in soche, γ.] a tyme, [and]*. [From γ.] putte more to*. [on a . . . more to] om. Cx.] and seide, "I woot*. [ych wot, γ.] who þou art, and why Page  435, vol.5 þou art sory, and what is þy drede. Þanne ȝif eny man slouȝ þyn enemyes, and brouȝte þe to thy kyngdom; also ȝif he schewed þe þe beste counsaille of savacioun, and bettre þan eny of þyn fornfadres*. [vorevaders, γ.] evere herde, woldest*. [wost, α. and γ.] þou nouȝt assente and doo by his rede."*. [and his counseyl, added in Cx.] "ȝis,*. [ȝys, α.; ȝus, γ.; yes, Cx.] trewly," quoþ he, "and þat I be-hote."*. [byhote, α.; promise the, Cx.] But þe oþere leide his hond on Edwynus heed, and seide, "Whanne his tokene comeþ to þe, have mynde of þis tyme and of oure speche, and doo as þou hast by-hote." Whanne þis was i-seide he vanysshed*. [vansede, γ.] awey. After þis his forseide*. [vorsede, γ.] frend come to hym, and warnede hym þat þe kynges wille was i-torned to hym. Þan he*. [þan he] þat, α., β., γ., and Cx.] gadrede his oost at þe laste, and mette with Ethelfridus in þe contrayes of Mercia, by est*. [Eest, Cx.] þe water Idele,*. [Idle, Cx.] and slouȝ hym riȝt þere; and he made Edwynus kyng of boþe kyngdoms, of Norþhumberlond, of Deira, and of Brenicia;*. [Brenicia, β.] and Edwinus regnede after þat sevene*. [seventene, α., and Cx.; xvii., β.] ȝere. Trevisa. ȝif þou wilt knowe what and where Mercia is, look in þe firste book, capitulo 51o. [Þanne hit folweþ in þe story:*. [Trevisa . . . story] om. β. and Cx.] whan þis was y-doo,]*. [From α. and γ.] Ethel|fridus his sones, Oswold of twelve ȝere old, and Oswynus*. [Oswius, α.; Oswyns, β. and Cx.] of Page  437, vol.5 foure*. [voure, γ.] ȝere olde, by sleiþe of her wardeynes, were i-lad into Scotland. After þe pope þat heet*. [hyȝte, γ.] Deusdedit, þe fifte*. [fifþe, β.] Bonefas was pope fyve ȝere. Seint Anastacius, monk and martir, was i-bore in Pers:*. [Perce, Cx., et infra.] in his childhode he lerned of his fadir wicche|crafte, and nygromancye;*. [his vader wychcraft and niger|mancy, γ.] þere he feng*. [þare he venge, γ.] þe fey of Crist, of Cristene men þat were prisoners, and forsook Pers anon,*. [anon] om. Cx.] and passed by Calcidonia and Ierapolys,*. [Iherapolis, β.; Herapolis, γ.] and come to Ierusalem, and þere he was i-cristened,*. [folled, β.; yvolled, γ.] [and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] foure myle out of þe citee, in an abbay þat now hatte Anastacius his abbay, he levede by rule*. [reule, γ.] sevene ȝere. He com in to Cesarea in Pales|tina ffor to bid*. [bydde, γ.] his bedis, and was i-take prisoner and i-lad into Pers, and þere he was longe i-bounde and i-bete, and sent to Cosdra, kyng of Pers, and i-doo*. [putte, Cx.] to deþe. In his kirtel*. [curtel, α.; cortol, γ.] oon þat hadde a fende*. [vend, γ., et infra.] on hym was i-cloþed, and so he was delyvered of þe fend.*. [One that was vexed with a fende was delivered by vertue of his kyrtel whan he was clothed with alle, Cx.] Heraclius Cesar overcom þe Peerses,*. [Perses, Cx.] and brouȝte Anastasius his body to Rome, and leede*. [leyde, β.] it in Page  439, vol.5 Seint Paule his mynstre*. [mynystre, Cx.] ad aquas. Laurence,*. [Laurans, α.] archebisshop of Caunterbury, deide; after hym Mellitus, bisshop of Londoun, was archebisshop fyve ȝere, and þanne after hym Ced, Seynt Chedda*. [Chaddes, β.; Chaddes broder, Cx.] his broþer was bisshop of Londoun, was archebisshop fyve ȝere.*. [was . . . ȝere] om. α. and Cx.] After Bonefacius Honorius was pope twelve ȝere; þat ȝere Heraclius overcome þe Pers,*. [Perces, Cx.] and slouȝ Cosdras, and brouȝte aȝen þe croys. Þis was a kunnynge*. [comyn, γ.] astronomer, and knewe by þe sterres þat circumcided men schulde destroye his kyngdom,*. [royamme, Cx., et infra.] and sente to þe kyng of Fraunce þat he schulde dryve alle þe Iewes out of his kyngdom, oþer make hem so*. [be, α.] i-cristened,*. [be fulled, β.; be yvolled, γ. or make hem to resseyve baptemm Cx.] and so it was i-doo. Afterward was bygonne*. [bycome, γ.] greet werre and bataille bytwene þe Romayns and þe Saracens, and Heraclius brouȝte þe holy croys out of Ierusalem into Con|stantynnoble. A greet deel of þat cros was i-sent to Lowys, kyng of Fraunce, in þe ȝere of oure Lorde a þowsand two hondred sevene and fourty.*. [vourty, γ.] Dagobertus, þe nynþe kyng of Fraunce, regnede after his fader Lotharius,*. [Lotarius, β.] þre and þritty Page  441, vol.5 ȝere. Whanne Mellitus þe archebisshop of Caunterbury was dede, þanne Iustus, bisshop of Rouchestre,*. [Rouchester, γ.] was archebisshop after hym, and made oon Romanus bisshop of Rouchestre in his stede;*. [stude, α.] for Iustus hadde i-sente Paulinus, þat hadde i-be þe þridde bisshop of Rochestre, to þe men of Northumberlond for to be bisshop of ȝork, and for to wed Ethelburga,*. [wedde Edilberga, β.; Edel|berga, Cx.] Edbaldus his suster, to kyng Edwynus, and to converte his peple.*. [pepul, γ.]Henricus, libro 2o.*. [et Willelmus de Rey., lib. primo, added in β. and Cx.]